Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/3846)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

A soluble form of the avian hepatitis B virus receptor. Biochemical characterization and functional analysis of the receptor ligand complex. (2/3846)

Avian hepatitis B virus infection is initiated by the specific interaction of the extracellular preS part of the large viral envelope protein with carboxypeptidase D (gp180), the primary cellular receptor. To functionally and biochemically characterize this interaction, we purified a soluble form of duck carboxypeptidase D from a baculovirus expression system, confirmed its receptor function, and investigated the contribution of different preS sequence elements to receptor binding by surface plasmon resonance analysis. We found that preS binds duck carboxypeptidase D with a 1:1 stoichiometry, thereby inducing conformational changes but not oligomerization. The association constant of the complex was determined to be 2.2 x 10(7) M-1 at 37 degreesC, pH 7.4, with an association rate of 4.0 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 and a dissociation rate of 1.9 x 10(-3) s-1, substantiating high affinity interaction of avihepadnaviruses with their receptor carboxypeptidase D. The separately expressed receptor-binding domain, comprising about 50% of preS as defined by mutational analysis, exhibits similar constants. The domain consists of an essential element, probably responsible for the initial receptor contact and a part that contributes to complex stabilization in a conformation sensitive manner. Together with previous results from cell biological studies these data provide new insights into the initial step of hepadnaviral infection.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional evidence for the expression of CXCR4 receptor during megakaryocytopoiesis. (3/3846)

The identification of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha as a chemoattractant for human progenitor cells suggests that this chemokine and its receptor might represent critical determinants for the homing, retention, and exit of precursor cells from hematopoietic organs. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of CXCR4 receptor and the biological activity of SDF-1alpha during megakaryocytopoiesis. CD34(+) cells from bone marrow and cord blood were purified and induced to differentiate toward the megakaryocyte lineage by a combination of stem-cell factor (SCF) and recombinant human pegylated megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rhuMGDF). After 6 days of culture, a time where mature and immature megakaryocytes were present, CD41(+) cells were immunopurified and CXCR4mRNA expression was studied. High transcript levels were detected by a RNase protection assay in cultured megakaryocytes derived from cord blood CD34(+) cells as well as in peripheral blood platelets. The transcript levels were about equivalent to that found in activated T cells. By flow cytometry, a large fraction (ranging from 30% to 100%) of CD41(+) cells showed high levels of CXCR4 antigen on their surface, its expression increasing in parallel with the CD41 antigen during megakaryocytic differentiation. CXCR4 protein was also detected on peripheral blood platelets. SDF-1alpha acts on megakaryocytes by inducing intracellular calcium mobilization and actin polymerization. In addition, in in vitro transmigration experiments, a significant proportion of megakaryocytes was observed to respond to this chemokine. This cell migration was inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating coupling of this signal to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Although a close correlation between CD41a and CXCR4 expession was observed, cell surface markers as well as morphological criteria indicate a preferential attraction of immature megakaryocytes (low level of CD41a and CD42a), suggesting that SDF-1alpha is a potent attractant for immature megakaryocytic cells but is less active on fully mature megakaryocytes. This hypothesis was further supported by the observation that SDF-1alpha induced the migration of colony forming unit-megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-MK) and the expression of activation-dependent P-selectin (CD62P) surface antigen on early megakaryocytes, although no effect was observed on mature megakaryocytes and platelets. These results indicate that CXCR4 is expressed by human megakaryocytes and platelets. Furthermore, based on the lower responses of mature megakaryocytes and platelets to SDF-1alpha as compared with early precursors, these data suggest a role for this chemokine in the maintenance and homing during early stages of megakaryocyte development. Moreover, because megakaryocytes are also reported to express CD4, it becomes important to reevaluate the role of direct infection of these cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in HIV-1-related thrombocytopenia.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/3846)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acid transporter. (5/3846)

The RD114/simian type D retroviruses, which include the feline endogenous retrovirus RD114, all strains of simian immunosuppressive type D retroviruses, the avian reticuloendotheliosis group including spleen necrosis virus, and baboon endogenous virus, use a common cell-surface receptor for cell entry. We have used a retroviral cDNA library approach, involving transfer and expression of cDNAs from highly infectable HeLa cells to nonpermissive NIH 3T3 mouse cells, to clone and identify this receptor. The cloned cDNA, denoted RDR, is an allele of the previously cloned neutral amino acid transporter ATB0 (SLC1A5). Both RDR and ATB0 serve as retrovirus receptors and both show specific transport of neutral amino acids. We have localized the receptor by radiation hybrid mapping to a region of about 500-kb pairs on the long arm of human chromosome 19 at q13.3. Infection of cells with RD114/type D retroviruses results in impaired amino acid transport, suggesting a mechanism for virus toxicity and immunosuppression. The identification and functional characterization of this retrovirus receptor provide insight into the retrovirus life cycle and pathogenesis and will be an important tool for optimization of gene therapy using vectors derived from RD114/type D retroviruses.  (+info)

Up-regulation of the Pit-2 phosphate transporter/retrovirus receptor by protein kinase C epsilon. (6/3846)

The membrane receptors for the gibbon ape leukemia retrovirus and the amphotropic murine retrovirus serve normal cellular functions as sodium-dependent phosphate transporters (Pit-1 and Pit-2, respectively). Our earlier studies established that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by treatment of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) uptake. Studies now have been carried out to determine which type of Na/Pi transporter (Pit-1 or Pit-2) is regulated by PKC and which PKC isotypes are involved in the up-regulation of Na/Pi uptake by the Na/Pi transporter/viral receptor. It was found that the activation of short term (2-min) Na/Pi uptake by PMA is abolished when cells are infected with amphotropic murine retrovirus (binds Pit-2 receptor) but not with gibbon ape leukemia retrovirus (binds Pit-1 receptor), indicating that Pit-2 is the form of Na/Pi transporter/viral receptor regulated by PKC. The PKC-mediated activation of Pit-2 was blocked by pretreating cells with the pan-PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide but not with the conventional PKC isotype inhibitor Go 6976, suggesting that a novel PKC isotype is required to regulate Pit-2. Overexpression of PKCepsilon, but not of PKCalpha, -delta, or -zeta, was found to mimic the activation of Na/Pi uptake. To further establish that PKCepsilon is involved in the regulation of Pit-2, cells were treated with PKCepsilon-selective antisense oligonucleotides. Treatment with PKCepsilon antisense oligonucleotides decreased the PMA-induced activation of Na/Pi uptake. These results indicate that PMA-induced stimulation of Na/Pi uptake by Pit-2 is specifically mediated through activation of PKCepsilon.  (+info)

Poliomyelitis in intraspinally inoculated poliovirus receptor transgenic mice. (7/3846)

Mice transgenic with the human poliovirus receptor gene develop clinical signs and neuropathology similar to those of human poliomyelitis when neurovirulent polioviruses are inoculated into the central nervous system (CNS). Factors contributing to disease severity and the frequencies of paralysis and mortality include the poliovirus strain, dose, and gender of the mouse inoculated. The more neurovirulent the virus, as defined by monkey challenge results, the higher the rate of paralysis, mortality, and severity of disease. Also, the time to disease onset is shorter for more neurovirulent viruses. Male mice are more susceptible to polioviruses than females. TGM-PRG-3 mice have a 10-fold higher transgene copy number and produce 3-fold more receptor RNA and protein levels in the CNS than TGM-PRG-1 mice. CNS inoculations with type III polioviruses differing in relative neurovirulence show that these mouse lines are similar in disease frequency and severity, demonstrating that differences in receptor gene dosage and concomitant receptor abundance do not affect susceptibility to infection. However, there is a difference in the rate of accumulation of clinical signs. The time to onset of disease is shorter for TGM-PRG-3 than TGM-PRG-1 mice. Thus, receptor dosage affects the rate of appearance of poliomyelitis in these mice.  (+info)

Serum albumin inhibits echovirus 7 uncoating. (8/3846)

Echoviruses induce a wide spectrum of diseases in man, the most severe being meningitis. In neonates, however, a severe systemic infection can be observed, leading to death. Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and most interstitial fluids, and its functions include osmoregulation and transport and delivery of hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids and steroids. The results of cold-synchronized one-step growth analysis of echovirus 7 infection and sucrose-gradient analysis of A-particles suggest that physiological concentrations of albumin block echovirus 7 infection by inhibiting uncoating. The blockage was reversible and was still effective when albumin was added 30 min after virus adsorption. Inhibition of uncoating was confirmed by using rhodanine, a known specific inhibitor of echovirus uncoating. After removal of the albumin blockage, addition of rhodanine perpetuated the inhibition. Serum and interstitial albumin concentrations may limit echovirus infection in vivo and thereby act as an extracellular determinant for echovirus tropism.  (+info)

Murine type C ecotropic retrovirus infection is initiated by virus envelope binding to a membrane receptor expressed on mouse cells. We have identified a cDNA clone that may encode for this receptor through a strategy combining gene transfer of mouse NIH 3T3 DNA into nonpermissive human EJ cells, se …
2001; Eigen and Biebricher, 1988). , 1976; Drake and Holland, 1999), values that imply the continuous generation of dynamic mutant distributions in a replicating RNA virus population. These high mutation rates in RNA genomes would be incompatible with maintenance of the genetic information contained in large viral or cellular DNA genomes (Eigen and Biebricher, 1988). This evolutionary adaptation of mutation rates is mirrored in the biochemical activities of the relevant DNA and RNA polymerases. 2003). EVOLUTION OF CELL RECOGNITION BY VIRUSES 45 C. Virus-Receptor Interactions Revealed by Structural Studies The specific interactions between a viral protein or glycoprotein and receptor molecules are amenable to structural studies, and such studies are providing essential new information for the understanding of virus-receptor interactions. Enveloped viruses, such as HIV, attach to host cells by means of spike-like membrane glycoproteins, whereas most nonenveloped viruses, such as picornaviruses, ...
Clone TG1 is the first monoclonal antibody detecting TIGIT in routine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. TG1 has been validated for the detection of TIGIT positive T-cells with a focus on tumor infiltrating T cells (TILs). Anti-TIGIT clone TG1 allows the identification of TIGIT in the tumor microenvironment under pathological conditions.. TIGIT (T-cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) is a member of the poliovirus receptor (PVR) family. TIGIT is expressed on subsets of T lymphocytes and controls an immune checkpoint. The expression of TIGIT has been reported on NK cells, regulatory T cells, follicular T helper cells, memory CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells, but TIGIT is not expressed on B cells or naive CD4+ T cells. Naive CD4+ T cells may upregulate TIGIT expression upon activation. In many different cancer models, TIGIT has been shown to be upregulated on T cells. The ligands CD155 and CD112 are also highly expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages in different cancer ...
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites: they must enter a cell to reproduce. To gain access to the cell interior, a virus must first bind to one or more specific receptor molecules on the cell surface. Cell receptors for viruses do not exist only to serve viruses: they also have cellular functions. An example is the transferrin receptor, which regulates iron uptake and assists in the entry of viruses from three different families. It might appear that such dual-use proteins cannot evolve to block virus entry because their cellular function would then be compromised. A study of two viruses that bind to the same cell surface receptor protein reveals how a cellular protein can change to prevent infection without affecting its role in the cell.. The virus-cell receptor interaction is one of the many arenas where the evolution of host-virus conflict can be studied. Because the virus-receptor interaction is essential for viral replication, host cells with a mutation in the receptor gene that ...
gi,74761016,sp,Q96NY8.1,PVRL4_HUMAN RecName: Full=Poliovirus receptor-related protein 4; AltName: Full=Ig superfamily receptor LNIR; AltName: Full=Nectin-4; Contains: RecName: Full=Processed poliovirus receptor-related protein 4; Flags: ...
The emerging role of T cell Ig mucin 1 in alloimmune responses in an experimental mouse transplant model. Ueno, Takuya; Habicht, Antje; Clarkson, Michael R.; Albin, Monica J.; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Boenisch, Olaf; Popoola, Joyce; Ying Wang; Yagita, Hideo; Akiba, Hisaya; Ansari, M. Javeed; Jaeseok Yang; Turka, Laurence A.; Rothstein, David M.; Padera, Robert F.; Najafian, Nader; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Wang, Ying; Yang, Jaeseok // Journal of Clinical Investigation;Feb2008, Vol. 118 Issue 2, p742 T cell Ig mucin 1 (TIM-1) plays an important role in regulating immune responses in autoimmune and asthma models, and it is expressed on both Th1 and Th2 cells. Using an antagonistic TIM-1-specific antibody, we studied the role of TIM-1 in alloimmunity. A short course of TIM-1-specific antibody... ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from nectin3 poliovirus receptor-related 3 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
It is hardly necessary to define the concept of receptors to readers of this series, but it should be borne in mind that in several instances receptors are undefined entities, whose molecular details
The PD-1+TIGIT Combination Bioassay reflects the mechanism of action (MOA) of biologics designed to block the PD-1/PD-L1 and TIGIT/CD155 interactions.
Viruses use fake proteins to hide in our cells Date: July 7, 2014 Source: Monash University Some viruses can hide in our bodies for decades and...
just picked up three bottles of receptor and i was just wondering what was the best way to use it. during a cycle or right before a cycle? any
Endolytics offers receptor-binding assays for a number of ligands, as well as custom radioligand receptor-binding assay services.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and characterization of murine ecotropic recombinant virus in myeloma and hybridoma cells. AU - Deo, Y.. AU - Ghebremariam, H.. AU - Cloyd, M.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Ecotropic recombinant virus (ERV), a relatively new class of murine retrovirus endogenous to mice, is expressed at significant levels by most murine myeloma and hybridoma cells examined. The routine XC, S+L-, mink cell focus-inducing (MCF), and reverse transcriptase (RT) tests are not suitable to detect and quantify the levels of ERV. A serological focus assay, based on specific anti-murine leukemia virus (MuLV) viral envelope (env) antibodies, is required to detect ERV. A more sensitive format of this serological focus assay includes co-cultivation of test article cells with the indicator (Mus dunni) cells. ERV isolated from murine hybridoma cells show a unique pattern of cross-reactivity with anti-MuLV env antibodies and this pattern is clearly distinct from that of ectropic and xenotropic ...
T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, Tregs, and NK cells. Here, we determined that TIGIT is upregulated on tumor antigen-specific (TA-specific) CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with melanoma, and these TIGIT-expressing CD8+ T cells often coexpress the inhibitory receptor PD-1. Moreover, CD8+ TILs from patients exhibited downregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD226, which competes with TIGIT for the same ligand, supporting a TIGIT/CD226 imbalance in metastatic melanoma. TIGIT marked early T cell activation and was further upregulated by T cells upon PD-1 blockade and in dysfunctional PD-1+TIM-3+ TA-specific CD8+ T cells. PD-1+TIGIT+, PD-1-TIGIT+, and PD-1+TIGIT- CD8+ TILs had similar functional capacities ex vivo, suggesting that TIGIT alone, or together with PD-1, is not indicative of T cell dysfunction. However, in the presence of TIGIT ligand-expressing cells, TIGIT and PD-1 blockade ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, June 17, 2017 ) Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 (T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain Containing Protein 3 or T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Receptor 3 or T Cell Membrane Protein 3 or CD366 or HAVCR2) Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) is a protein encoded by...
SEA785Hu, ELISA Kit for Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (Kim1), 肾损伤分子1(Kim1)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法), HAVCR1; TIM1; TIMD1; HAVCR; Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1; T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain-Containing Protein 1; T-cell immunoglobulin mucin receptor 1 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
NanoViricides has now developed novel nanoviricide drug candidates against Ebola that it believes could lead to a successful therapeutic. These drug candidates are designed to mimic the host cell receptor onto which the Ebola virus binds to cause an infection. The site at which the virus binds does not change, in spite of all the mutations a virus undergoes. Thus the Company believes that its drug candidates would continue to work in spite of field mutations in the virus. This is unlike vaccines, antibodies, siRNA, antisense, and several other therapeutic modes which a virus can readily overcome due to mutations it acquires in the field. ...
The entry of animal viruses into their host cells follows a step-wise process. After virus attachment to cell surface receptors, it typically involves induction of signals, endocytosis, penetration into the cytosol, and intra-cellular transport to the site of replication followed by uncoating of the genome. Each step is complex, and dependent on multiple cellular factors. Using enveloped and non enveloped viruses from different families, we have defined five main pathways, and determined some of the key processes in molecular detail. The use of automated high through-put siRNA silencing screens have been critical for the identification of the cellular factors involved. In the lecture, vaccinia, respiratory syncytial, and influenza virus will be discussed in most detail.. ...
This study demonstrated the cytotoxic and cell growth inhibitory effect of a bioactive extract of |i|Funalia trogii|/i| (Berk.) Bond. et Singer, which was grown...
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Nectins, which were origilly identified as virus receptors, are members of the cell-cell adhesion molecule (CAM) family. They are Ca2+-independent…
BEMS Reports - [ISSN: 2454 - 6895] are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivs 4.0 License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available with [email protected] Copyright 2018-19 Phcog.Net , Publishing Platform: EManuscript Tech.. ...
Buy our Bonzo 293T transfected lysate (positive control). ab94068 has been validated in western blot. Abcam now offers a 12-month guarantee.
AC0206: Western Blot (1:1000) of over-expressed TMX with positive and negative controls on HeLa Cells. TMX is the 34kDa band. The upper band (~38 kDa) is myc-tagged TMX. The lower band at~28 kDa (*) is a non-specific band.. ...
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Sodium-phosphate symporter which seems to play a fundamental housekeeping role in phosphate transport by absorbing phosphate from interstitial fluid for normal cellular functions such as cellular metabolism, signal transduction, and nucleic acid and lipid synthesis. In vitro, sodium-dependent phosphate uptake is not siginificantly affected by acidic and alkaline conditions, however sodium-independent phosphate uptake occurs at acidic conditions. May play a role in extracellular matrix, cartilage and vascular calcification. Functions as a retroviral receptor and confers human cells susceptibility to infection to amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV), 10A1 murine leukemia virus (10A1 MLV) and some feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) variants. This gene encodes a member of the inorganic phosphate transporter family. The encoded protein is a type 3 sodium-dependent phosphate symporter that plays an important role in phosphate homeostasis by mediating cellular phosphate uptake. The encoded protein
The host and tissue specificity of retrovirus infection is largely determined by specific cellular receptors that mediate virus entry. Genes encoding these receptors are widely distributed in the genome, and the receptors identified to date show no sequence similarity. We have identified the cellular receptor for amphotropic murine retroviruses, Ram-1, by screening a rat cDNA expression library introduced into amphotropic virus-resistant hamster cells. The 656-amino acid receptor is homologous to the gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor at both hydrophobic termini but is highly divergent in the central hydrophilic region. Both receptors appear to be integral membrane proteins having multiple membrane-spanning regions. Identification of this family of receptors will help define the evolutionary relationship between retroviruses and their cellular receptors.
Recent clinical studies have reinforced the importance of sex-related differences in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, with an increased incidence and mortality in men. Similar to humans, male BALB/c mice infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) develop more severe inflammation in the heart even though viral replication is no greater than in females. We show that TLR4 and IFN-gamma levels are significantly elevated and regulatory T cell (Treg) populations significantly reduced in the heart of males following CVB3 infection, whereas females have significantly increased T cell Ig mucin (Tim)-3, IL-4 and Treg. Blocking Tim-3 in males significantly increases inflammation and TLR4 expression while reducing Treg. In contrast, defective TLR4 signaling significantly reduces inflammation while increasing Tim-3 expression. Cross-regulation of TLR4 and Tim-3 occurs during the innate and adaptive immune response. This novel mechanism may help explain why inflammatory heart disease is more severe in males.
Purpose: : Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising vehicles for retinal gene transfer. AAV efficiently transduces dividing and non-dividing cells, exhibits low immunogenicity, and mediates long-term transduction in several retinal cell types. AAV serotypes (AAV 1-9) exhibit varying abilities to infect specific cell types (tropism) in the retina. The interaction of AAV with cellular receptors enables entry of the virus into the cell. Manipulation of the virus-receptor interaction offers potential for engineering targeted delivery to specific classes of retinal neurons and glia. Our initial goal is to understand the tropism profiles of the nine known AAV serotypes by studying their localization and distribution in the retina following intravitreal injection. This localization can then be correlated with the serotype specific expression patterns to understand the mechanisms of, and trafficking barriers to, vector transduction in Muller glia. Methods: : AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9 were ...
Curlewis J.D., Clarke I.J. and McNeilly A.S. (1993) Dopamine D1 receptor analogues act centrally to stimulate prolactin secretion in ewes. Journal of Endocrinology, 137 3: 457-464. ...
Subgroup C adenoviruses, including serotypes 2 and 5, from which most therapeutic adenoviruses are derived, rely on CAR as the primary binding site on the host cell. This receptor has been shown to be crucial for sufficient virus uptake (22) . In cancer cells, however, CAR expression is frequently lost, especially in highly malignant cancer cell lines, leading to a significant decrease in adenovirus uptake (5 , 6) . Our own observations are in agreement with these reports: we frequently found reduced CAR expression at the cell surface in high-grade primary liver cancer and metastases of colorectal cancer. 4 This study investigates the molecular mechanisms involved in reducing CAR expression in cancer cells and explores the possibility of pharmacologically manipulating CAR expression levels.. Increasing evidence exists for a potential physiological role of CAR as a cell adhesion molecule. CAR forms homodimers, was found to physically interact with the tight-junction protein ZO-1, and participates ...
To investigate innate immune mechanisms that lead to increased myocarditis after a single anti-Tim-3 treatment (Fig. 1⇑), we examined the level of CD80 and CD86 on APC from the heart or spleen, and CTLA-4 (intracellular) and CD28 (surface) levels on CD4+ T cells from the spleen at 6 h p.i. There is no inflammatory infiltrate in the heart at 6 h p.i., and so T cells are not present in the heart to analyze by FACS. We found that anti-Tim-3 administered during the innate immune response partially blocked Tim-3 expression and reduced CD80 levels on MC and macrophages isolated from the heart or spleen at 6 h p.i. compared with isotype controls (Fig. 3⇓A). CD80 levels were most profoundly reduced by anti-Tim-3 treatment on APC in the heart, compared with the spleen (Fig. 3⇓A). In contrast, anti-Tim-3 had little effect on MHC class II or CD86 levels on MC or macrophages (Fig. 3⇓A), which were expressed at levels similar to those induced by CVB3 infection alone (Fig. 2⇑C). Reducing Tim-3 ...
Lenz, J; Crowther, R; Klimenko, S; and Haseltine, W, Molecular cloning of a highly leukemogenic, ecotropic retrovirus from an akr mouse. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4247 ...
It is important to understand that there are two very different substances today which are sometimes called phyto-estrogen.. One of these substances is more accurately called xeno-estrogen, or psuedo-estrogen. Xeno-estrogens are chemical compounds, usually caused by toxic environmental pollution. Xeno-estrogens have been linked to various birth defects and other physical ailments, because of their ability to mimic many of the functions of the human estrogen hormone, and thereby interfere with cellular functioning.. Xeno-Estrogens, aka psuedo-estrogens, are the molecules that do the weak-bonding, estrogen receptor interference thing.. For many hundreds and even thousands of years, humans have known of the healing properties of various plants, flowers, and fruits, for various ailments.. Over the past century, science and technology have enabled herbal processing companies to extract the specific bio-molecules of these plants, flowers, and fruits which are beneficial to human health and ...
Abstract Background Viruses bind to specific cellular receptors in order to infect their hosts. The specific receptors a virus uses are important factors in determining host range, cellular tropism, and pathogenesis. For adenovirus, the existing model of entry requires two receptor interactions. First, the viral fiber protein binds Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR), its primary cellular receptor, which docks the virus to the cell surface. Next, viral penton base engages cellular integrins, coreceptors thought to be required exclusively for internalization and not contributing to binding. However, a number of studies reporting data which conflicts with this simple model have been published. These observations have led us to question the proposed two-step model for adenovirus infection. Results In this study we report that cells which express little to no CAR can be efficiently transduced by adenovirus. Using competition experiments between whole virus and soluble viral fiber protein or ...
Clone REA692 recognizes the mouse T cell immunoglobulin mucin receptor 1 (TIM-1) antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein, also known as hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr-1) or kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1). The TIM gene family is involved in a variety of immunity related processes including T cell proliferation and survival, tissue inflammation, and atopy. In mice, eight TIM genes encode the proteins TIM-1 to TIM-8, whereas only three TIM genes are found in humans encoding TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4. Several lines of evidence suggest that TIM-1 regulates T cell activity in vivo through responses mediated by Tʜ1, Tʜ2, Tʜ17, and regulatory T cells. TIM-1 is recruited to the T cell receptor signaling complex and has a costimulatory role. TIM-1 expression has been demonstrated in epithelial cells, especially those of kidney origin, and is greatly increased in both mouse and human kidneys after injury. While absent on naive CD4 T cells, TIM-1 expression increases following TCR
Molecular model of the fibre knob protein from an Adenovirus complexed with its human cellular receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). The binding of the fibre knob protein to CAR allows the virus entry to the cell. - Stock Image C025/1656
FLVCR antibody [C3], C-term (feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1) for WB. Anti-FLVCR pAb (GTX106462) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CBL - CBL Mutant (G397V), Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens Cas-Br-M (murine) ecotropic retroviral transforming sequence (CBL) as transfection-ready DNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The homology models for d1, d2, and d3 were fitted into the reconstruction (Fig. 3b). Because the density map exhibits constrictions between the domains, determining the placement of the domains was mainly a matter of fixing their orientations about their long axes. The d1 model could be fitted into the density map in either of two orientations, 180o apart. One orientation was entirely consistent with mutational data implicating the C′C and DE loops of Pvr, and the EF (166-169) and GH (213-236) loops of VP1, the EF loop of VP2 (140-144), and the GH loop of VP3 (182-186) as important interaction sites; the other was inconsistent with these data. The orientations of d2 and d3 were unambiguous. β-Strand and loop assignments in the final model (Fig. 3b Inset) are given in Fig. 3c.. The d1 model (residues 29-142) fits the reconstructed density well and exhibits notable complementarity with the virus surface. Adaptation of the initial homology model to fit the density map required major changes in ...
Human CellExp HAVCR1 / KIM1 / TIM1, human recombinant protein, HAVCR1, HAVCR, HAVCR-1, KIM-1, KIM1, TIM, TIM-1, TIM1, TIMD-1, TIMD1, Hepatitis A virus cellular rec validated in (PBV11115r-10), Abgent
two. a pc code that may be inserted right into a application to damage data or bring about glitches. virus فيروس في الكومبيوتر комп. вирус vírus virus der Virus virus ιός Η/Υ virus arvutiviirus ویروس virus virusוירוס वाइरस, विषाणु virus (računalni) számítógépes vírus virus komputer virus コンピューターウイルス 컴퓨터 바이러스 (kompiuterio) virusas datorvīruss virus virusvirus wirus komputerowy زهر вирус počítačový vírus virus virus datavirus ไวรัสคอมพิวเตอร์ virüs 電腦病毒 вірус وائرس، کمپيوٹر نظام کو تباہ کرنے والا کوڈ vi rút máy tính 计算机病 ...
Virus infection is a multistep process that has significant effects on the structure and function of both the virus and the host cell. The first steps of virus replication include cell binding, entry and release of the viral genome. Single-virus force spectroscopy (SVFS) has become a promising tool to understand the molecular details of those steps. SVFS data complemented by biochemical and biophysical, including theoretical modeling approaches provide valuable insights into molecular events that accompany virus infection. Properties of virus-cell interaction as well as structural alterations of the virus essential for infection can be investigated on a quantitative level. Here we review applications of SVFS to virus binding, structure and mechanics. We demonstrate that SVFS offers unexpected new insights not accessible by other methods. ...
This is in response to David Coates question about whether animal viruses can transcytose. There is a new model for how enteric viruses (Poliovirus and reovirus, so far) cross the gut barrier. A (relatively) newly identified cell type, called M cells may nonspecifically transcytose the contents of the gut lumen into the underlying lymph tissue. The evidence that this occurs in a natural infection is, so far, indirect. For technical reasons, it still is not known whether the poliovirus receptor is expressed at the lumenal face of the intestinal mucosa. The reovirus receptor has not been identified. The M cells (from biopsies) This is in response to David Coatesquestion about whether animalcan transcytose poliovirus in culture ...
abstract = {The activation of an immune response requires recognition of microorganisms by host receptors. In drosophila, detection of Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by cooperation between the peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SA (PGRP-SA) and Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) proteins. Here we show that some Gram-positive bacterial species activate an immune response in a PGRP-SA- and GNBP1-independent manner, indicating that alternative receptors exist. Consistent with this, we noted that PGRP-SD mutants were susceptible to some Gram-positive bacteria and that a loss-of-function mutation in PGRP-SD severely exacerbated the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 mutant phenotypes. These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex ...
usr/bin/perl -w use strict; my $gCurRec; foreach(qw(name to file action virus)) { $gCurRec-,{$_}=; } while(,DATA,) { $gCurRec-,{name}=$1 if (/^From:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); $gCurRec-,{to}=$1 if (/^To:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); $gCurRec-,{file}=$1 if (/^File:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); $gCurRec-,{action}=$1 if (/^Action:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); $gCurRec-,{virus}=$1 if (/^Virus:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); if (/^-----/) { print $gCurRec-,{name},\t, $gCurRec-,{to},\t, $gCurRec-,{file},\t, $gCurRec-,{action},\t, $gCurRec-,{virus},\n; foreach(qw(name to file action virus)) { $gCurRec-,{$_}=; } } } __DATA__ From: [email protected] To: [email protected] File: value.scr Action: The uncleanable file is deleted. Virus: WORM_KLEZ.H ---------------------------------- Date: 06/30/2002 00:01:21 From: [email protected] To: [email protected] File: Nr.pif Action: The uncleanable file is deleted. Virus: WORM_KLEZ.H ...
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he second line of work in our lab involves analyzes of the regulation of gene expression under stress conditions. Eukaryotic cells have developed multiple mechanisms to respond to different cellular stresses initiated by chemical toxins. The regulations of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels are very important modules of the cellular stress response. Our preliminary studies and the work that was done by others have shown that OTA treatment causes increased expression of Kim1 (Kidney Injury Molecule 1 which is also known as HavcR1) mRNA and protein in kidney cell lines and animal models such as mouse . Therefore our aim is to understand how cells achieve high-level of Kim1 expression while there is a decrease in the expression of other genes at the global level.. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Poliovirus Receptor antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Buy and download royalty-free image ID 7126350: 3D render of a medical background with blood cells, DNA strands and virus cells by kirstypargeter from Cres..
ONCOdianova | TIGIT Explore antibody clone TG1. OncoDianova provides best antibodies against cancer immunology checkpoint biomarkers for combined use in multiplex IHC panels on human tissues.
Yet there were plenty of viruses in the wild to worry about such as W32/Yaha.E, which can arrive in an e-mail masquerading as a screensaver. There was also Worm.Frethem.D, which arrived purporting to be a decrypted password. Long-time pests such as Badtrans, Nimda and Sircam are still making the rounds. One interesting fact is most, if not all, of the top viruses in June were Windows 32 viruses, not Word macro or script viruses, said Chris Wraight, technology consultant at Sophos Americas. Worms and viruses that spread using networking functions or e-mail clients currently dominate inquiries to our customer support. Below are the monthly virus numbers from different antivirus vendors ...
Register after your sign up at free domains. You can choose from domain endings, such as up to 500 free domains. You can set up these domains on your free storage at or forward to an already established website. Sign up for free business card ...
THE HPV VIRUS hits males and females of all ages but is most commonly found in the 15-24 age group. In women, the highest and deadliest form of the virus can lead to cervical cancer and thousands of needless deaths each year. (Photos are generic representations of age groups more susceptible to the virus and…
What is .Coded File Extension virus? How to remove .Coded File Ransomware virus? Download free ransomware removal tool to clean all ransomware virus from PC.
There are many different types of virus according to there infection or according to there fucntionality. Polymorphic Viruses There viruses change there behaviour as they infect a system. Stealth Viruses They can hide themselves from AV. Fast and Slow Infectors
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I got info about virus on net.So checked accordingly, found $Recycle.bin virus in my C drive, how to remove, if it is a virus, without deleting windows related files, if at all existing here. ...
Your email to user [email protected] contained a VIRUS and was not delivered. Remove the virus in your attachment and resend. Thank you, IT Department, IEE ====================================== VIRUS Report: ====================================== /var/tmp/avpcheck6jdVJb archive: Mail /var/tmp/avpcheck6jdVJb/[From ,[email protected],][Date Wed, 20 Aug 2003 10:26:42 +0200]/UNNAMED ok. /var/tmp/avpcheck6jdVJb/[From ,[email protected],][Date Wed, 20 Aug 2003 10:26:42 +0200]/text infected: I-Worm.Sobig.txt ...
you may want to try going into safe mode. ----- Original Message ----- From: DH Holmes ,[email protected], To: ,[email protected], Sent: Thursday, October 06, 2005 4:00 PM Subject: -=PCTechTalk=- Re: Need Help with Virus , Don, , Have you tried the System Restore trick? If this virus is located in , those files it is not, apparently, going to be deleted by an AV prog. , , The fix is simple, but is done at the cost of losing all previous , footprints of your system. Go to System restore and disable System , Restore. Reboot(a MUST), then Re-enable System Restore and create a , restore point(important). That will be the ONLY restore point you will , have, all earlier ones being deleted. That may solve your problem. I , cant tell. , , Just remember that all your previous restore points are lost when you , disable!!!! , , HTH , , Rick H , , [email protected] wrote: ,, I dont think people really read the description of my problem. ,, I cant use an on line scanner if the virus keeps me ...
Which of the following disease is caused by a virus ? Common cols is caused by virus.Viruses cannot exist on their own and for survival they need to spread to another host.
Slide set: Viruses have always lived among humans, and they killed many millions of people. In fact, without a host, these microscopic parasites cannot reproduce or survive. As scientists discover the chemical rules by which each virus plays, they can begin to control how a virus affects us. Companion slide set to the video, Viruses.
Slide set: Viruses have always lived among humans, and they killed many millions of people. In fact, without a host, these microscopic parasites cannot reproduce or survive. As scientists discover the chemical rules by which each virus plays, they can begin to control how a virus affects us. Companion slide set to the video, Viruses.
I use Zone Alarm, Avast Antivirus and Spybot, but on a recent scan the following viurses showed up:also I would like to have an idea of how I got these viruses and see below concerns about my start up files. Detected 6/28/07 Scanning of selected filesAction was completed successfully!Virus has been detected! File Name: A0081006.exe.vir FileID: 11 Virus Description: Win32:Trojan-gen. {VC} Scanning of selected files
Learn all about viruses with these virus worksheets for kids. What are viruses, how do they make us sick and whats the difference from a bacteria?
hello world! I cant find the best anti virus to protect my PC using XP I Googled.. some says that bitdefender is #1 others says no the Kaspersky is the best.:( I think i will migrate to linux to protect my self from viruses!!:x which anti virus you use thanks
Hi Everyone, Would it ever be possible for a Mac to get a virus if there were Mac viruses floating around like PC viruses. What about...
Anyone had SmartSecurity detect a program as a virus incorrectly? I know that people would not question when a virus program says that something is a...
Threat detection system could identify and quarantine worms, before the malicious code has the chance to wreak havoc on unpatched systems
Virus: Virus, an infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria.
This is the latest virus pattern to detect the latest viruses. This update will work on the following products: NAV 2000 for Win9x/NT/2000, NAV 2001 for Win95b/98/NT/2000/Me, NAV 2002 Professional E...
It was found that this virus had a similar "jelly roll fold" to that found previously in the tomato bushy stunt virus, which at ... Rossmann MG, He Y, Kuhn RJ (July 2002). "Picornavirus-receptor interactions". Trends in Microbiology. 10 (7): 324-31. doi: ... These are exemplified by bacteriophage T4 and nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, also referred to as giant viruses. The ... Part of the problem was that it was very difficult at the time to produce milligram quantities of an animal virus, as needed ...
Virus Receptors part 1 Bacterial Viruses. Chapman and Hall, London and New York. OCLC 8409813 The following have not yet been ... The Viruses: Biochemical, Biological and Biophysical Properties: Plant and Bacterial Viruses. Academic Press, New York. OCLC ... German; Healthy through Viruses - A Way Out of the Antibiotic-Resistance Crisis] OCLC 53098607 O'Brien, P. M., and R. Aitken. ... Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth. The history of phage ...
... s are proteins encoded by some large DNA viruses that are secreted by the host cell and serve to evade the host's ... Viroceptors mimic host receptors and thus divert signaling molecules from finding their targets. Cytokine-binding proteins bind ... The first identified virokine was an epidermal growth factor-like protein found in myxoma viruses. Much of the early work on ... Virokines in this family are thought to have been acquired from host genes and from other viruses through horizontal gene ...
"Gangliosides are receptors for murine polyoma virus and SV40". The EMBO Journal. 22 (17): 4346-55. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg439. ... "Receptor-binding and oncogenic properties of polyoma viruses isolated from feral mice". PLOS Pathogens. 3 (12): e179. doi: ... 107-9 Although viruses in circulation among feral mice can be tumorigenic, under natural conditions the virus does not cause ... and in older literature as SE polyoma or parotid tumor virus; abbreviated MPyV) is an unenveloped double-stranded DNA virus of ...
JC virus requires the 5HT2A serotonin receptor for entry, although the specific mechanism of this requirement is unclear. Once ... The exact mechanism of endocytosis varies depending on the virus, and some viruses use multiple mechanisms; caveolae-dependent ... "Gangliosides are receptors for murine polyoma virus and SV40". The EMBO Journal. 22 (17): 4346-55. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg439. ... Almendral, José M. (2013). "Assembly of Simple Icosahedral Viruses". In Mateu, Mauricio G. (ed.). Structure and physics of ...
"Enhanced recognition of human NK receptors after influenza virus infection". Journal of Immunology. 171 (2): 915-23. doi: ... "A new human gene complex encoding the killer cell inhibitory receptors and related monocyte/macrophage receptors". Current ... "Genomic organization of the human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors within the leukocyte receptor complex on chromosome ... Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRB1 gene. This ...
... are responsible for the infection power of the virus by binding the virus particle to a membrane receptor of the host cell-the ... The virus becomes feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) when random errors occur in the virus infecting an enterocyte, ... Holmes, K. V.; Tresnan, D. B.; Zelus, B. D. (1997). "Virus-Receptor Interactions in the Enteric Tract". In Paul, Prem S.; ... The virus is insignificant until mutations cause the virus to be transformed from FECV to FIPV. FIPV causes feline infectious ...
Wybenga LE, Epand RF, Nir S, Chu JW, Sharom FJ, Flanagan TD, Epand RM (July 1996). "Glycophorin as a receptor for Sendai virus ... Several viruses bind to glycophorin A including hepatitis A virus (via its capsid), bovine parvovirus, Sendai virus, influenza ... Ohyama K, Endo T, Ohkuma S, Yamakawa T (May 1993). "Isolation and influenza virus receptor activity of glycophorins B, C and D ... The Wright b antigen (Wrb) is located on glycophorin A and acts as a receptor for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ...
... also called Poliovirus-Receptor-Like 4 (PVRL4)) mainly work as cell entry receptors. Minor fraction of wild type virus strains ... "The Host Cell Receptors for Measles Virus and Their Interaction with the Viral Hemagglutinin (H) Protein". Viruses. 8 (9): 250 ... Lu G, Gao GF, Yan J (2013). "The receptors and entry of measles virus: a review". Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao (in Chinese). 29 ... In the early stages of infection, the measles virus via CD150 (SLAMF1) receptor infects immune cells located in the host ...
Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is important for inducing interferons in response to the presence of double-stranded RNA viruses; ... Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... CpG motifs-by pattern recognition receptors, such as membrane bound toll like receptors or the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I or ... Alcamí A, Symons JA, Smith GL (December 2000). "The vaccinia virus soluble alpha/beta interferon (IFN) receptor binds to the ...
... by binding to bacterial toxins or by interfering with the receptors that viruses and bacteria use to infect cells. Newborn ... Three major classes of these "cytosolic" receptors are NOD-like receptors, RIG (retinoic acid-inducible gene)-like receptors, ... Viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901, with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by Walter Reed. Immunology made ... Ten toll-like receptors have been described in humans. Cells in the innate immune system have pattern recognition receptors, ...
... activating receptors and inhibitory receptors, including killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Most of these receptors are ... Chikungunya virus, HIV, or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK ... NK cell receptors can also be differentiated based on function. Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis (cell ... Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of tumor cells by NK cells is mediated by alternative receptors, ...
"Characterizing Antibody Response to Emerging COVID-19 Virus (CARE COVID-19) , COVID-19 Research". ... "Prognostication of ACE II Receptor (PACEiiR) , COVID-19 Research". Retrieved 2021-10-21. " ...
Maginnis, Melissa S. (2018-08-17). "Virus-Receptor Interactions: The Key to Cellular Invasion". Journal of Molecular Biology. ... The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance for development and in pediatric disease Neuroendocrinology Letters Nos.1/2 ... They act as decoy receptors that block the attachment of disease causing pathogens, which may help to prevent infectious ... Bertotto A, Castellucci G, Fabietti G, Scalise F, Vaccaro R (November 1990). "Lymphocytes bearing the T cell receptor gamma ...
Seidel E, Glasner A, Mandelboim O (December 2012). "Virus-mediated inhibition of natural cytotoxicity receptor recognition". ... NCR3 belongs to the family of NCR membrane receptors together with NCR1 (NKp46) and NCR2 (NKp44). NKp30 receptor was first ... Natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCR3 gene. NCR3 has also been ... NCR3 has a wide range of non-MHC ligands secreted or expressed by cancer or virus-infected cells, e.g. to heparan sulfate ...
"The TIM and TAM families of phosphatidylserine receptors mediate dengue virus entry". Cell Host & Microbe. 12 (4): 544-57. doi: ... It is a key pathway for viruses to enter cells via apoptotic mimicry. Its exposure on the outer surface of a membrane marks the ...
Cell host & microbe 13: 302-13 Link 2013 - A bile acid transporter as a candidate receptor for hepatitis B and D virus entry. ... 2012 - In silico directed mutagenesis identifies the CD81/claudin-1 hepatitis C virus receptor interface. Davis C, Harris HJ, ... Immunotherapy 4: 249-51 Link 2012 - Hepatitis C virus entry: beyond receptors. Meredith LW, Wilson GK, Fletcher NF, McKeating ... HRas signal transduction promotes hepatitis C virus cell entry by triggering assembly of the host tetraspanin receptor complex ...
"Ferrets exclusively synthesize Neu5Ac and express naturally humanized influenza A virus receptors". Nature Communications. 5: ...
TLR3 receptor upregulation was identified in these infected organoids. Inhibition of this TLR3 receptor was shown to partially ... Zika virus has been shown to have teratogenic effects, causing defects in fetal neurological development. Cerebral organoids ... Cerebral organoids infected with the Zika virus have been found to be smaller in size than their uninfected counterparts, which ... Additionally, lumen size was found to be increased in organoids infected with Zika virus. The results found from studying ...
Human prohibitin 1 has some activity as a virus receptor protein, having been identified as a receptor for Chikungunya Virus ( ... "Identification of prohibitin as a Chikungunya virus receptor protein". Journal of Medical Virology. 84 (11): 1757-70. doi: ... However, over-expression of PHB has been associated with a reduction in the androgen receptor activity and a reduction in PSA ... Montano MM, Ekena K, Delage-Mourroux R, Chang W, Martini P, Katzenellenbogen BS (Jun 1999). "An estrogen receptor-selective ...
Tatsuo H, Ono N, Tanaka K, Yanagi Y (2000). "SLAM (CDw150) is a cellular receptor for measles virus". Nature. 406 (6798): 893-7 ... STAT6, IRF4, and NF-kB factors involved in the transfer of the signals from the B-cell receptor, its co-receptors and IL-4R, ... Cocks BG, Chang CC, Carballido JM, Yssel H, de Vries JE, Aversa G (August 1995). "A novel receptor involved in T-cell ... Del Valle JM, Engel P, Martín M (2003). "The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its ...
Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2), also known as T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), is a ... "Entrez Gene: HAVCR2 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2". Hastings WD, Anderson DE, Kassam N, Koguchi K, Greenfield EA, Kent ... The receptor is an immune checkpoint and together with other inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD ... TIM-3 receptor prevents the entry of the nucleic acids into the cell and suppresses activation of TLR signaling in dendritic ...
Capsid proteins define cellular receptor specificity and virus antigenicity. PV-1 is the most common type to cause infection in ... simian virus 19), A123 (simian virus 43), A124 (simian virus 46), A125 (baboon enterovirus A13). Some viruses initially ... Capsid proteins define cellular receptor specificity and virus antigenicity. PV-1 is the most common form encountered in nature ... Viruses. 2019 Sep 14;11(9):859. doi: 10.3390/v11090859. PMID 31540135 Review. Barr JN, Fearns R. How RNA viruses maintain their ...
Blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruses to mucosa Like the T cell, B cells express a unique B cell receptor (BCR), in this case ... Another set comprises pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors, which induce the production of interferons and ... and the receptors that recognize antigens must be produced in a huge variety of configurations, in essence one receptor (at ... Lymphocyte receptors, Ig and TCR, are found in all jawed vertebrates. The most ancient Ig class, IgM, is membrane-bound and ...
... the JC virus is believed to require interaction with the 5HT2A receptor and the Merkel cell virus with heparan sulfate. However ... most notably BK virus, JC virus, and SV40. It is essential for proliferation in the viruses that express it and is thought to ... Two viruses-HPyV6 and HPyV7-are most closely related to KI and WU viruses, while HPyV9 is most closely related to the African ... Most of these viruses are very common and typically asymptomatic in most human populations studied. BK virus is associated with ...
Calil IP, Fontes EP (March 2017). "Plant immunity against viruses: antiviral immune receptors in focus". Annals of Botany. 119 ... Virus-host interactions are another example of an evolutionary arms race, and many plant viruses encode suppressors of both ... involves inserting part of the promoter sequence of the desired target gene into a virus. The virus will reproduce the chunk of ... For example, RdDM-derived sRNAs against TEs or viruses that have already integrated into the genome and been silenced serve as ...
The Herpes Simplex Virus JMP Mutant Enters Receptor-Negative J Cells through a Novel Pathway Independent of the Known Receptors ... Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins gH/gL and gB Bind Toll-Like Receptor 2, and Soluble gH/gL Is Sufficient To Activate NF-κB ... Heptad Repeat 2 in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 gH Interacts with Heptad Repeat 1 and Is Critical for Virus Entry and Fusion MacLeod ... Hydrophobic α-Helices 1 and 2 of Herpes Simplex Virus gH Interact with Lipids, and Their Mimetic Peptides Enhance Virus ...
Sodeik has explored the cell biology of Herpes simplex virus. She is interested in virus-host interactions, virus assembly and ... During her time at Columbia, Sodeik worked on integrin receptors of human neutrophils. She was a doctoral student in cell ... Schmelz M; Sodeik B; Ericsson M; Wolffe EJ; Shida H; Hiller G; Griffiths G (1 January 1994). "Assembly of vaccinia virus: the ... At Yale, Sodeik studied the early phases of Herpes simplex virus. Sodeik was made a Senior Scientist at Hannover Medical School ...
Human GPR15 was originally cloned as a co-receptor for HIV or the simian immunodeficiency virus. HIV-induced activation of ... "Expression cloning of new receptors used by simian and human immunodeficiency viruses". Nature. 388 (6639): 296-300. doi: ... "Expression cloning of new receptors used by simian and human immunodeficiency viruses". Nature. 388 (6639): 296-300. Bibcode: ... G protein-coupled receptor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR15 gene. GPR15 is a class A orphan G protein- ...
October 2008). "The adaptor protein MITA links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 transcription factor activation". Immunity. 29 ( ... Xu LG, Wang YY, Han KJ, Li LY, Zhai Z, Shu HB (September 2005). "VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN- ... It was named VISA (virus-induced signaling adaptor). It can also interact with TRIF and TRAF6, and plays an essential role in ... In Shu's lab they also showed that SIKE, a physiological suppressor of IKK epsilon and TBK1, can inhibit virus and TLR3- ...
The main chemokine receptors on these cells are CXCR3A and CCR5. Epithelial cells and keratinocytes are able to recruit TH1 ... It is most effective in removing virus-infected cells, but also participates in defending against fungi, protozoans, cancers, ... Type 1 immunity is directed primarily at viruses, bacteria, and protozoa and is responsible for activating macrophages, turning ... It provides defense against intracellular bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. It is also responsible for inflammation and ...
"Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591- ... "Zika virus - Brazil: confirmed Archive Number: 20150519.3370768". Pro-MED-mail. International Society for Infectious Diseases. ... The spread of Aedes mosquito-borne Zika virus has been implicated in increasing levels of congenital microcephaly by the ... "CDC issues interim travel guidance related to Zika virus for 14 Countries and Territories in Central and South America and the ...
The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (11): 9528-9535. ... this highly contagious virus normally causes a milder illness called Hand, foot, and mouth disease but can cause life- ... As IL-6 interacts with its receptor, it triggers the gp130 and IL-6R proteins to form a complex, thus activating the receptor. ... Main article: Interleukin-6 receptor. IL-6 signals through a cell-surface type I cytokine receptor complex consisting of the ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... പെറോക്സിസോം പ്രൊലിഫറേറ്റർ-ആക്റ്റിവേറ്റഡ് റിസപ്റ്ററുകളുടെ (പി‌പി‌ആർ‌)(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
... while some Gq-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic receptor M3, pre-couple with Gq proteins prior to the receptor-ligand ... the virus bacteriophage T4,[42] an RNA virus[43] and humans.[44] In such studies, numerous mutations defective in the same gene ... Growth factor receptor binding proteins and phospholipase Cγ are examples of proteins that have SH2 domains.[24]. *Src homology ... Found in cytokine receptors. Properties of the interface[edit]. The study of the molecular structure can give fine details ...
이전에는 인간 T-세포 림프종 바이러스-III(Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-III, HTLV-III), 림프절 종창 연관 바이러스(Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus, LAV), ... Clapham PR, McKnight A. (2001). "HIV-1 receptors and cell tropism". 》Br Med Bull.》 58 (4): 43-59. doi:10.1093/bmb/58.1.43. PMID ... 인간면역결핍 바이러스(人間免疫缺乏 바이러스, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV)는 발병하게 되면 AIDS로 진행하는, 인간의 면역체계를 파괴하는 레트로바이러스이다. 기회감염에 의한 사망에 이를 수 ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. "61.0.6. Lentivirus". 미국 국립 보건원. 2006년 2월 28일에 확인함.. 지원되지 않는 변수 무시됨: , ...
Watts, K; Chavasse, RJ (2012). „Leukotriene receptor antagonists in addition to usual care for acute asthma in adults and ... respiratorni sincicialni virus i rinovirus.[40] Neke durge infekcije mogu smanjiti rizik.[40] ...
Neutralization: Blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruses to mucosa. Like the T cell, B cells express a unique B cell receptor ( ... Another set comprises pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors, which induce the production of interferons and ... and the receptors that recognize antigens must be produced in a huge variety of configurations, in essence one receptor (at ... Myriad receptors are produced through a process known as clonal selection.[1][2] According to the clonal selection theory, at ...
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and genitourinary cancers: a narrative review»։ Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica = the Italian ... Small molecule screening reveals a transcription-independent pro-survival function of androgen receptor in castration-resistant ... The role of human papilloma virus in urological malignancies»։ Anticancer Research 35 (5): 2513-9։ May 2015։ PMID 25964524 ...
Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *. Funk CD, Laferrière C, Ardakani A (2020). "A Snapshot of the Global Race for Vaccines Targeting ... ki se ob okužbi vežejo na omenjeno beljakovino in preprečijo vezavo virusa na gostiteljev receptor ACE2.[14] ... Oslabljena in mrtva cepiva vsebujejo celoten virus. Proteinska in peptidna komponentna cepiva vsebujejo le antigen ali njegovo ... "A prospective, randomized, adaptive, phase I/II clinical study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Novel Corona Virus ...
"The association of Epstein-Barr virus with smooth-muscle tumors occurring after organ transplantation". N. Engl. J. Med. 332 (1 ... or T cell receptor gene (for T cell lesions). The demonstration of clonality is now considered to be necessary to identify a ...
"The emerging role of trace amine-associated receptor 1 in the functional regulation of monoamine transporters and dopaminergic ...
"Virus specific protein and a ribo-nucleic acid associated with ribosomes in poliovirus infected HeLa cells". Cold Spring Harb. ... "Complexes of poliovirus serotypes with their common cellular receptor, CD155". J Virol 77 (8): 4827-35. 2003. doi:10.1128/JVI. ... "Poliovirus and poliomyelitis: a tale of guts, brains, and an accidental event". Virus Res 111 (2): 175-93. 2005. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Neutralization of poliovirus by cell receptors expressed in insect cells". J. Virol. 64 (10): 4697-702. 1 October 1990. பப்மெட் ...
The binding of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through mACE2 receptors present in heart tissue may be responsible for direct viral injury ... the virus that causes SARS),[29][30][31] and SARS-CoV-2[32] (the virus that causes COVID-19).[33][34][35][36] More specifically ... "What are the official names of the disease and the virus that causes it?". Q&A on coronaviruses. World Health Organization. ... 3D structure of complex of a neurotransmitter sodium symporter B(0)AT1, ACE2, and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain in OPM ...
The IBV-like novel cold viruses looked like the mouse hepatitis virus. This new group of viruses were called "coronaviruses" ... "Membrane Protein of Human Coronavirus NL63 Is Responsible for Interaction with the Adhesion Receptor". Journal of Virology. 93 ... The virus was inactivated by ether which showed it had a lipid envelope.[22][27][28] The novel virus caused a cold in ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Archived from the original ...
Pathogens on pipes: When pipes are shared, bacteria or viruses can be transferred from person to person. ... "Evidence for cocaine and methylecgonidine stimulation of M(2) muscarinic receptors in cultured human embryonic lung cells" ...
The viral plaque assay is to calculate the number of viruses present in a sample. In this technique the number of viral plaques ... Ligand binding assay when a ligand (usually a small molecule) binds a receptor (usually a large protein). ... formed by a viral inoculum is counted, from which the actual virus concentration can be determined. ...
Complement receptor 1)、BIN1(英语:BIN1)、MS4A(英语:Membrane-spanning 4A)、ABCA7(英语:ABCA7)、EPHA1(英语:EPHA1)和CD2AP[51]。研究也發現TREM2(英语: ... Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease: increasing evidence for a major role of the virus. Frontiers in Aging ... death receptor 6,DR6,或稱TNFRSF21(英语:TNFRSF21))結合,啟動細胞凋亡途徑。DR6在阿茲海默症患者受影響的腦區中有高量的表現,因此在老化的大腦(
Viruses and schizophrenia: a focus on herpes simplex virus. Herpes. svezak 11 (dodatak 2): str. 83A.-88A. PMID 15319094. ... Converging evidence of NMDA receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of ...
The scientists said that the kidneys have many ACE2 receptors, the same receptor that SARS-CoV-2 uses to sneak into cells.[21][ ... These people can spread the virus to others. There are two types of tests. Viral tests show whether a person has the virus ... Most face masks work best to stop you giving the virus to other people. When people with the virus wear masks they give it to ... How the virus causes diseaseEdit. The expanding part of the lungs, pulmonary alveoli, have two main types of cells. One cell, ...
"Zydus to test use of Hepatitis C medicine for virus - Times of India". The Times of India.. ... The study demonstrated around 10,000 fold reduction in the quantity of virus that was pre-treated with Interferon alpha 48 ... Decoy receptors: Bifarcept. IFNGR (γ, II). *Agonists: Interferon gamma (IFN-γ). *Interferon gamma 1b ... in Wuhan and observed that those who received Interferon alpha-2b showed a significant reduction in the duration of virus ...
På mere traditionel vis kan mRNA'et indbygges i en svækket virus, f.eks. en svækket Adenovirus - sådan en vaccine kaldes en ... Toll-lignende receptor. *Vaccination. *Vaccineskepsis. Henvisninger[redigér , rediger kildetekst]. *^ How the Pfizer-BioNTech ...
The first plant receptors of conserved microbial signatures were identified in rice (XA21, 1995)[84] and in Arabidopsis ... viruses, and nematodes.[69] ... Plants use pattern-recognition receptors to recognize conserved ... "A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene, XA21". Science. 270 (5243): 1804-1806. Bibcode ... "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor flagellin in Arabidopsis". Molecular ...
3.6 Considerations for virus naming and nomenclature». A: SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing for public health goals: Interim ... és una categoria que s'utilitza quan les mutacions del domini d'unió al receptor (RBD) augmenten substancialment l'afinitat ... Tot i que hi ha molts milers de variants de SARS-CoV-2,[64] els tipus de virus es poden incloure en agrupacions més grans, com ... Els virus generalment adquireixen mutacions amb el pas del temps, donant lloc a noves variants. Quan sembla que una nova ...
Virus različice delta (B.1.617.2) vsebuje v svoji dednini 13 mutacij (15 ali 17 po nekaterih druguh virih), ki povzročajo ... L452R (substitucija levcina z argininom na položaju 452) - povzroči večjo afiniteto konične beljakovine za receptor ACE2,[28] ... imunski sistem pa virus težje prepozna;[5][29]. *P681R (substitucija prolina z argininom na položaju 681) - teoretično lahko ...
Moreover, persistent virus infections (for example, herpesviruses) are activated in humans, but not in SPF mice with septic ... Doogie mice, with enhanced NMDA receptor function, resulting in improved memory and learning ...
2020 Harvey J. Alter, U.S, Michael Houghton, U.K, & Charles M. Rice, U.S. for "the discovery of Hepatitis C virus". ... 2004 - Richard Axel and Linda Buck, United States, for finding small receptors and the organization of the olfactory system, ( ... 1965 - François Jacob, André Lwoff, and Jacques Monod, France, for finding out how genes control viruses.[56] ... 1975 - David Baltimore, Howard Temin, and Renato Dulbecco, United States, for finding what happens when tumour causing viruses ...
Sadigh-Eteghad S, Majdi A, Talebi M, Mahmoudi J, Babri S (May 2015). "Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in ... The genetics of a bacterial virus. Sci Am. 1965;212:70-78. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0265-70 ...
IL-10 je vrlo sličan proteinu BCRF1, ljudskom herpesvirusu 4 (virus Epstein-Barra), koji inhibira .[26][27] Također je sličan, ... Reche PA (2019). "The tertiary structure of γc cytokines dictates receptor sharing". Cytokine. 116: 161-168. doi:10.1016/j.cyto ... Receptori oboje postoje u transmembranskim TM-ima i u rastvorljivim oblicima: smatra se da je rastvorljivi IL-1 receptor post- ... Pored toga, djeluje na neke B-ćelije, putem vezivanja za receptor, kao faktor rasta i stimulans stvaranja antitijela. Protein ...
VirusesEdit. Coronaviruses are a group of viruses known for causing the common cold. They have a halo, or crown-like (corona) ... It binds to human ICAM-1 receptors through unknown methods to trigger the release of inflammatory mediators.[29] These ... A rhinovirus is an RNA-containing virus. There are 99 known types of this kind of virus.[12][13] ... Vaccination has proved difficult because there are so many viruses involved and the viruses undergo rapid change.[33] ...
2005)‎. Mammalian dengue virus receptors. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. ...
The Edmonston strain of measles virus, and vaccine strains derived from it, use as a cellular receptor human CD46 (refs 3, 4), ... The identification of SLAM as a receptor for measles virus opens the way to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of ... is a cellular receptor for measles virus, including the Edmonston strain. Transfection with a human SLAM complementary DNA ... Measles virus infection causes profound immunosuppression, which makes measles patients susceptible to secondary infections ...
... ... the vagally-induced fall in heart rate equally in both groups of animals indicating that virus-induced changes in M2 receptor ... Receptors on airway smooth muscle were unchanged by viral infection since large doses of pilocarpine caused equivalent ... Conversely, blockade of these receptors with the antagonist gallamine (0.1-10 mg kg-1, i.v.) produced a marked potentiation of ...
... the nonhuman primate version of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... plasma viral load and also prolonged survival of rhesus macaque monkeys severely infected with simian immunodeficiency virus ( ... an immune receptor molecule known to inhibit the immune response to chronic viral infections, scientists have safely and ... Receptor, Research, Retrovirus, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), T-Cell, Tuberculosis, Vaccine, Virology, Virus ...
This virus was found to be very different from the previous avian H7N9 viruses and surprisingly many of the internal proteins ... Since then, at least 82 people in China have been infected with this new virus and 17 have died from this virus. The question ... analysis of the HA protein of this virus implied that the current strains of 2013 H7N9 inChina displayed avian type receptors ... of 2013 H7N9 inChinaagainst those of previous avian H7N9 and examined the receptor binding specificity of this new virus. ...
Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5Nx) Viruses with Altered H5 Receptor-Binding Specificity Hongbo Guo1, Erik de Vries1, Ryan ... Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5Nx) Viruses with Altered H5 Receptor-Binding Specificity. ... Glycan array analysis of influenza A virus mutant H5 proteins. A) mutant H5N12.3.4 K222Q (QS); B) mutant H5N12.3.4 S227R (KR); ...
Human influenza viruses preferenti ally bind to receptors with α2,6 linkages to gala ctose, avian viruses prefer receptors with ... The novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus has its ge netic components from avian, human, and sw ine viruses. Its pandemic nature is ... because the seasonal human H1N1 virus only binds to the α2,6 receptor. In pr evious studies, the informational spectrum me thod ... and swine viruses favor both types of receptors. The pandemic H1N1 2009 remains a global health concern in 2010. ...
Other cell surface receptors also interact with gp120 and aid attachment of virus particles. This review describes these ... The HIV envelope spike glycoprotein on the surface of virus particles binds both CD4 and a seven-transmembrane coreceptor. ... exploits cell surface receptors to attach to and gain entry into cells. ... receptors, their roles in HIV entry and their influence on cell tropism. ...
Virus" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Virus" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Receptors, Virus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Virus" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Receptors, Virus". ...
Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin bound to the CD46 receptor. .shs-wrapper-processed { display:flex; flex-direction ... MEMBRANE COFACTOR PROTEIN, MCP, CD46, VIRUS RECEPTOR COMPLEX, SCR, COMPLEMENT CONTROL PROTEIN ...
Antithymocyte Globulin Versus Interleukin-2 Receptor Antagonist in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Hepatitis C Virus. / Bae, ... Antithymocyte Globulin Versus Interleukin-2 Receptor Antagonist in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Hepatitis C Virus. In: ... Antithymocyte Globulin Versus Interleukin-2 Receptor Antagonist in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Hepatitis C Virus. ... Antithymocyte Globulin Versus Interleukin-2 Receptor Antagonist in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Hepatitis C Virus. ...
Finally, we demonstrated that when we blocked the IL-1β response using IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and the NO production ... In chickens, ssRNA has been shown to elicit antiviral response against infectious bursal disease virus infection. The ... downstream of TLR7 signaling pathway in avian macrophages and their roles in antiviral response against avian influenza virus ( ... binds to toll-like receptor (TLR)7 leading to recruitment of immune cells and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which ...
Selectively receptor-blind viruses will be used to study MV pathogenesis and may have applications for the production of novel ... Selectively receptor-blind viruses will be used to study MV pathogenesis and may have applications for the production of novel ... Selectively receptor-blind viruses will be used to study MV pathogenesis and may have applications for the production of novel ... Selectively receptor-blind viruses will be used to study MV pathogenesis and may have applications for the production of novel ...
Claudin-1 is a hepatitis C virus co-receptor required for a late step in entry Share Share Share ... Claudin-1 is a hepatitis C virus co-receptor required for a late step in entry ...
Structure of human Aichi virus and implications for receptor binding Zhu L., Wang X., Ren J., Kotecha A., Walter TS., Yuan S., ...
Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola Virus ... Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola Virus ... We investigated the genetic profiles of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in Ebola virus-infected patients. We ... Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola Virus ...
title = "Glucocorticoid receptors in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphocytes",. abstract = "Glucocorticoid receptors ... Glucocorticoid receptors in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphocytes. M. Tomita, G. P. Chrousos, D. D. Brandon, S. Ben- ... Glucocorticoid receptors in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphocytes. / Tomita, M.; Chrousos, G. P.; Brandon, D. D. et ... Glucocorticoid receptors in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphocytes. In: Hormone and Metabolic Research. 1985 ; Vol. ...
Salvetti M, Giovannoni G, Aloisi F. Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009 Jun. 22(3):201-6. [QxMD ... Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulators. Class Summary. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators bind with high ... Immunomodulators or receptor modulators are indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of MS. They help to ... S1P receptor modulator. It is indicated for treatment relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), including clinically isolated ...
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A. Names. 5-HT2 receptor. 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2A, G protein-coupled. ... 7tmA_5-HT2A; serotonin receptor subtype 2A, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. ... 7tmA_5-HT2A; serotonin receptor subtype 2A, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. ... enables virus receptor activity IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info. Process. Evidence Code. Pubs. ...
Virus infusions. Rats were positioned in a stereotaxic frame (Kopf Instruments) and initially anesthetized with isoflurane (4% ... β2-subunit containing nicotinic receptors, D1 and D2 DA receptors, and serotonin 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors, did not affect ... 1992b) Muscarinic M2 receptor mRNA expression and receptor binding in cholinergic and non-cholinergic cells in the rat brain: a ... 1990) Muscarinic receptor subtypes. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 30:633-673. doi:10.1146/ pmid:2188581 ...
In summary, we infer that variant influenza viruses with deletions in the 220 loop could arise in the field due to immune ... We demonstrated that mutant viruses with RBS deletions are able to escape polyclonal antiserum binding and are able to infect ... We showed that the deletion mutants have increased binding to human-like receptors and greater replication in primary human ... Our findings underscore the complex interplay between antigenic drift and viral fitness for avian influenza viruses as well as ...
The interaction of measles virus with its receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) controls cell entry and ... Dive into the research topics of Dynamic interaction of the measles virus hemagglutinin with its receptor signaling ... N2 - The interaction of measles virus with its receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) controls cell entry ... AB - The interaction of measles virus with its receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) controls cell entry ...
Detailed scientific information on the structure and replication of the virus is provided. ... 1: Adsorption (receptors and virion interation). 2: Penetration (virus entry). 3: Uncoating (envelope removal). 4. ... The genus Lyssavirus includes rabies virus, Lagos bat, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, European bat virus 1 & 2 and Australian ... The Rabies Virus. Rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, viruses with a nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA genomes ...
An Ig domain-containing membrane receptor for HEPATITIS A VIRUS; EBOLA VIRUS; MARBURG VIRUS; and DENGUE VIRUS. It may also ... Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1*Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 ... "Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1" by people in this website by year, and whether "Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1" ... "Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ...
Get the latest updates on new products and upcoming sales. ...
Folate receptor alpha and caveolae are not required for Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated viral infection. ... Folate receptor alpha (FRalpha) has been described as a factor involved in mediating Ebola virus entry into cells (6). ... Folate receptor alpha and caveolae are not required for Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated viral infection. ... Folate receptor alpha and caveolae are not required for Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated viral infection. ...
Highly specific and rigorously validated in-house, Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody (CST #4161) is ready to ... Polyclonal Antibody for studying Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) phosphate. Cited in 78 publications. Validated for WB, IP, IF ... strength and duration of receptor signaling, receptor stability, and receptor subcellular localization (3).. Indeed, Ser211 of ... Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody detects endogenous levels of glucocorticoid receptor only when phosphorylated ...
  • Glycan array results for selected (non) fucosylated glycans for the complete set of wild-type and mutant H5 proteins of influenza viruses. (
  • Binding of avian coronavirus spike proteins to host factors reflects virus tropism and pathogenicity. (
  • This virus was found to be very different from the previous avian H7N9 viruses and surprisingly many of the internal proteins of 2013 H7N9 from the avian and human hosts in China were either identical or similar. (
  • Glycan array analysis of influenza A virus mutant H5 proteins. (
  • The arrangement of these proteins and the RNA genome determine the structure of the rabies virus. (
  • At the same time, SARS-CoV-2 defuses the defenses that the cell has put in place, allowing it to multiply without too much pressure.But, by cutting off the NLRP1 receptor which behaved like a decoy by mimicking the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the opposite effect occurs: NLRP1 is activated and becomes toxic for the cell. (
  • However, the mature CHIKV virion is usually comprised only of the C, At the1 and At the2 proteins, which encapsulate the computer virus genome [13]C[15]. (
  • These constituent proteins of CHIKV virion mediate computer virus dissemination, therefore specific targeting of these structures will be key to the future development of effective CHIKV vaccination strategies. (
  • Interferons are proteins made by host cells in response to pathogens such as viruses, acting as a signalling system to switch on pathways that can activate an immune response. (
  • This particle belongs to a class of molecules that sort and secrete proteins made by the cell, a rather useful tool for viruses that might want to hijack the cellular machinery for its own end. (
  • Viruses use a number of advanced and fewer understood mechanisms and pathways to ship their cargo (nucleocapsid and accent proteins) to the cytoplasm and or nucleus. (
  • The endocytic pathway is the most typical amongst enveloped and non-enveloped viruses for entry and launch of their nucleocapsid and accent proteins into the cytosol. (
  • Two receptor proteins that live in the inner lining of the nose can open the door to COVID-19. (
  • We demonstrate that the tool compounds presented herein display an efficient covalent binding mode and that the respective covalent ligand-receptor complexes activate G proteins comparable to the natural neurotransmitters. (
  • Cancer cells express proteins and receptors on their surface distinct from healthy cells that help them evade the immune system, metastasize, and prevent cell death. (
  • Oncolytic viruses use these cancer cell-specific proteins and receptors to target them. (
  • Moreover, the proteins targeted by oncolytic viruses are often common to a broad range of cancers, making these viruses a versatile tool. (
  • The entry of HIV-1 into lymphocytes requires two cellular proteins, the receptor CD4, and a co-receptor, either CXCR4 or CCR5. (
  • The term 'peplomer' is typically used to refer to a grouping of heterologous proteins on the virus surface that function together. (
  • The envelope of virus is inlaid with two virally encoded proteins: envelope (E) protein and membrane (M) protein. (
  • Receptors on airway smooth muscle were unchanged by viral infection since large doses of pilocarpine caused equivalent bronchoconstriction in both groups of animals. (
  • By blocking PD-1 (programmed death-1), an immune receptor molecule known to inhibit the immune response to chronic viral infections, scientists have safely and significantly reduced the plasma viral load and also prolonged survival of rhesus macaque monkeys severely infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), the nonhuman primate version of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • The therapeutic strategy worked by boosting the function of anti-viral killer cells (CD8 T cells ) and improving antibody response to the virus. (
  • Our findings raise the possibility that PD-1 blocking antibody treatment not only could improve the anti-viral T cell response to chronic HIV infections, but it also could generate an effective antibody response against the mutated virus of the infected host," says Rama Amara, PhD, principal investigator of the study. (
  • The researchers then tested the function of the anti-SIV killer cells, antibody responses to the virus and plasma viral load . (
  • Several years ago, Ahmed and his colleagues discovered that the immune receptor PD-1 essentially functions as a molecular switch to turn off an effective immune response by overwhelming T cells in their fight against chronic viral infections. (
  • Other studies have since shown that anti-viral CD8 T cells express high levels of PD-1 during many human chronic infections, including HIV, hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis. (
  • This study took an early investigation of this virus by comparing the collected viral genome sequences of 2013 H7N9 inChinaagainst those of previous avian H7N9 and examined the receptor binding specificity of this new virus. (
  • These results suggest that viral transformation is associated with increases in the concentration and the absolute number of glucocorticoid receptors whereas other qualitative receptor characteristics remain similar. (
  • Our findings underscore the complex interplay between antigenic drift and viral fitness for avian influenza viruses as well as the challenges of predicting which viral variants may pose the greatest threats for zoonotic and pandemic emergence. (
  • Folate receptor alpha and caveolae are not required for Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated viral infection. (
  • The preS2 region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported to have human polymerized albumin receptor (PAR) activity, which correlates with viral replication. (
  • Viral budding into the salivary gland and virus-induced aggressive biting-behavior in the host animal maximize chances of viral infection of a new host. (
  • Using influenza virus infection in primary human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages and a human monocytic cell line, we now provide previously unidentified evidence that TLR10 plays a role in innate immune responses following viral infection. (
  • Influenza virus infection increased TLR10 expression and TLR10 contributed to innate immune sensing of viral infection leading to cytokine induction, including proinflammatory cytokines and interferons. (
  • Receptor recognition and binding is the first step of viral infection and a key determinant of host specificity. (
  • The SARS-CoV-2 virus develops in the body by hiding and attacking cellular defenses: thanks to the protease NSP5, a viral scissor, it creates new infectious viral cells which spread and infect new cells. (
  • Infection with HIV-1 requires two cell surface molecules, CD4 and a chemokine receptor (either CCR5 or CXCR4), which are engaged by the viral glycoprotein gp120 (illustrated). (
  • ABP 300 works by binding the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to block viral interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. (
  • The endocytic pathway contain the virus binding to the host cell receptors, activation of signaling pathways, formation of endocytic vesicles, supply of viral cargo to endosomal compartments, sorting, and eventually escaping into the cytosol (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (
  • Given that influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans are not transmitted efficiently despite their ability to recognize human-type receptors ( 14 ), mutations in the polymerase and other viral genes may also be needed for replication of influenza A (H5N1) viruses in the upper respiratory tract ( 15 ). (
  • A surface protein on a cell that interacts with a virus thus initiating a chain of events leading to the internalization of the virus or the viral genetic material. (
  • Trainers work on DNA and RNA viruses including: human immunodeficiency virus, coronaviruses, alphaviruses and herpes viruses as well as on viral vectors. (
  • Additionally, a second cleavage leads to the release of a fusion peptide after viral attachment to host cell receptor (By similarity). (
  • Since then, genomics has been used internationally to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive diagnostic understand the dynamics of viral transmission 3 and samples combined with epidemiological data has been the genetic evolution of the virus. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 differs from these two viruses because it has a so-called proofreader gene that prevents mutations from being introduced during viral replication. (
  • These antibodies that are not against the RBD will recognize the virus but will not block it from infecting human cells and triggering viral infection. (
  • The viral load of H1N1 and RSV was significantly elevated in CS/virus-exposed mice and NCI-H292 cells after Fluticasone and Dexamethasone treatment. (
  • The E glycoprotein is the major component of the virion surface and is responsible for the receptor-mediated endocytic fusion and subsequent cell entry, as well as direct viral assembly & budding, and immunogenicity. (
  • Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease caused by yellow fever virus infection and is identical to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in characteristics, such as Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Conversely, blockade of these receptors with the antagonist gallamine (0.1-10 mg kg-1, i.v.) produced a marked potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction. (
  • Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and Medicare claims data, we studied 6780 HCV+ and 139 681 HCV- KT recipients in 1999-2016 who received ATG or interleukin-2 receptor antagonist (IL2RA) for induction. (
  • Finally, we demonstrated that when we blocked the IL-1β response using IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and the NO production using a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), N -([3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]methyl)ethanimidamide dihydrochloride (1400 W), the antiviral response against AIV is attributable to IL-1β production and not to the NO production. (
  • The 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 antagonist ondansetron had a significant positive effect on fatigue in CHC. (
  • Desloratadine is a long-acting tricyclic histamine antagonist that is selective for H 1 receptors. (
  • Levocetirizine is an H 1 -receptor antagonist, an active enantiomer of cetirizine. (
  • Angiotensin(1-7) is an antagonist at angiotensin AT 1 receptors and an agonist at MAS-1 receptors. (
  • Physiological disposition and metabolism of L-365,260, a potent antagonist of brain cholecystokinin receptor, in laboratory animals. (
  • Clinically relevant treatments such as the corticosteroids Fluticasone propionate and Dexamethasone, the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor Roflumilast and the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist Tiotropium were tested in the established models. (
  • The identification of SLAM as a receptor for measles virus opens the way to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of measles virus infection, especially the immunosuppression induced by measles virus. (
  • Figure 3: Measles virus infection of CHO cells expressing SLAM or CD46. (
  • It is critical to induce protective immune responses targeting the mutated virus for developing a successful immune therapy to control HIV infection," Amara continues. (
  • 2013) Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus. (
  • Replicative capacity of human immunodeficiency virus from patients with varying severity of HIV infection. (
  • In chickens, ssRNA has been shown to elicit antiviral response against infectious bursal disease virus infection. (
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the pro-inflammatory mediators that are activated downstream of TLR7 signaling pathway in avian macrophages and their roles in antiviral response against avian influenza virus (AIV) infection. (
  • In response to a virus infection, the TLRs recruit downstream adaptor molecules activating intracellular signaling cascades [ 4 ] with a consequence of upregulation of gene transcription for the production of pro-inflammatory molecules. (
  • However, the antiviral response of TLR7 activation against avian influenza virus (AIV) infection is not known. (
  • Here we analyzed the impact of these deletions on virus zoonotic infection characteristics and fitness. (
  • Previously, we experimentally generated antigenic-drift variants in the laboratory, and here, we test our "drifted" viruses to assess their zoonotic infection characteristics and transmissibility in chickens. (
  • We identified cell lines and primary cell types such as macrophages that were readily infected by GP pseudotypes despite lacking detectable surface FRalpha, indicating that this receptor is not essential for Ebola virus infection. (
  • Finally, a panel of ligands to and soluble analogues of FRalpha were unable to inhibit infection on a range of cell lines, questioning the role of FRalpha as an important factor for Ebola virus entry. (
  • The fusion of the rabies virus envelope to the host cell membrane (adsorption) initiates the infection process. (
  • Toll-like receptor 10 is involved in induction of innate immune responses to influenza virus infection. (
  • TLR10 induction is more pronounced following infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus compared with a low pathogenic H1N1 virus. (
  • Induction of TLR10 by virus infection requires active virus replication and de novo protein synthesis. (
  • According to the work of the Toulouse team, during the infection of respiratory cells by SARS-CoV-2, the NLRP1 receptor behaves like a trap. (
  • To our knowledge , mGluR2 is the first host factor to be definitively shown to play an important role in RABV street virus infection in vivo. (
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection promotes the differentiation and persistent expansion of a mature NK cell subset, which displays high surface levels of the activating CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptor, together with additional distinctive phenotypic and functional features. (
  • These studies further elucidate the structural basis of alphavirus-receptor interactions, which could inform the development of therapies to mitigate infection and disease against multiple members of this family. (
  • Because viruses must bind to cell surface molecules to initiate replication, the use of soluble receptors to block virus infection has long been an attractive therapeutic option. (
  • Soluble receptors have been developed that block infection with rhinoviruses and HIV-1, but these have not been licensed due to their suboptimal potency. (
  • A newly designed soluble receptor for HIV-1 overcomes this problem and provides broad and effective protection against infection of cells and of nonhuman primates. (
  • Rhesus macaques inoculated with an adenovirus-associated virus (AAV) recombinant containing the gene for eCD4-Ig were protected from infection with large amounts of virus for up to 34 weeks after immunization. (
  • The deadly new coronavirus is up to 20 times more likely to bind to human cell receptors and cause infection than severe acute respiratory syndrome (Sars), a new study by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin has found. (
  • To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. (
  • Globally, more than 50% of HCC are due to persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (
  • In humans, the disease follows infection by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and begins as flu-like symptoms that can rapidly progress to hemorrhaging and death. (
  • SUMMARY A direct correlation between HIV infection and mutation in the chemokine receptor ( CCR5 ) gene has been established. (
  • HIV-1 is influenced by a mutation in the 1 infection with a typical delay of 2-4 years chemokine receptor ( CCR5 ) gene [ 3,4 ]. (
  • It is possible that some of these cases did not represent virus infection but rather detection of non-infectious H5N1 virus genetic material in respiratory specimens following prolonged exposure to infected birds. (
  • Mink have been shown to have two different kinds of cell receptors in their respiratory tracts, one kind of which allows for more efficient infection with H5N1 viruses. (
  • As a result, mink are much more susceptible to H5N1 virus infection than people. (
  • No. While there was a genetic marker in the H5N1 viruses detected during the outbreak in mink in Spain that may have resulted in more severe disease in mink and potentially easier mink-to-mink transmission, this marker is unlikely to make it easier for infection to transmit to humans. (
  • It has been suggested that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-1 inhibitors), such as enalapril and ramipril, and angiotensin receptor antagonists (colloquially called angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs), such as candesartan and valsartan, may be of value in preventing and treating the effects of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (also known as 2019-nCoV), the cause of the infection called COVID-19. (
  • Pascal Soriot, Chief Executive Officer, said: "The long-acting antibody combination has the potential to offer almost immediate protection to those who are not able to be vaccinated, to both prevent infection or treat the disease in patients already infected with the virus. (
  • 1-4 The reduced Fc receptor binding aims to minimise the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of disease - a phenomenon in which virus-specific antibodies promote, rather than inhibit, infection and/or disease. (
  • Though the study on CBD's benefits is not full, many looks into program that in situation of virus infection CBD does not always generate positive impact. (
  • Our data suggest that pigs are at risk for infection during outbreaks of influenza virus A (H5N1) and can serve as intermediate hosts in which this avian virus can adapt to mammals. (
  • While there are many factors that contribute to virus transmissibility, our findings are consistent with the rapid infection rates of the virus seen so far. (
  • He found that this low dose, taken at bedtime, was able to enhance a patient's response to infection by HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (
  • 2018]. Gene Editing of HIV-1 Co-receptors to Prevent and/or Cure Virus Infection. (
  • These presentations have been described in children with influenza virus infection. (
  • Severe neurologic infection is more common when the virus is introduced in an area of nonendemic disease. (
  • In 1999, during the New York City outbreak of West Nile virus infection, 62 patients developed encephalitis, and 7 died (a case fatality rate of 12%, with all deaths occurring in older patients). (
  • Delayed weakness or recurrent clinical weakness after West Nile virus infection has been described. (
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is known to be essential in the binding of the virus to the host cell at the advent of the infection process. (
  • attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection (By similarity). (
  • If the antibodies bind the region of the spike protein that binds to the ACE2 receptor - the gateway to infecting human cells - then the antibody will prevent infection. (
  • That is, they can prevent the virus from entering into a human cell and causing an infection. (
  • But not every antibody is equally capable of preventing the virus from causing an infection. (
  • Respiratory epithelium appears to be the major site of virus binding and subsequent infection. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 gene expression in small intestine correlates with age. (
  • The novel coronavirus and Sars share the same functional host-cell receptor, called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (
  • The now familiar spiked virus enters human cells via the also pervasive angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, or ACE2, receptor. (
  • The virus' binding to the receptor for ACE2 has been shown to decrease ACE2 levels and increase levels of the powerful blood vessel constrictor angiotensin II, because less angiotensin II gets degraded and fewer vasodilators get produced, which worsens the patient's prognosis. (
  • Some viruses, such as coronaviruses, are able to bind to ACE2 so that they can enter the cell and begin replication. (
  • [2] [3] These enveloped , positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses enter host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. (
  • It's been reported that 2019-nCoV can infect the human respiratory epithelial cells through interaction with the human ACE2 receptor. (
  • Binding to human ACE2 receptor and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the Spike glycoprotein (PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32075877, PubMed:32155444). (
  • The very best antibodies are ones that neutralize the receptor binding domain of the new coronavirus spike protein that attaches to the host cell's ACE2 receptor . (
  • So only antibodies that block the spike protein from connecting to the ACE2 receptor are guaranteed to provide immunity. (
  • Molecular mechanism of desensitization of the chemokine receptor CCR-5: receptor signaling and internalization are dissociable from its role as an HIV-1 co-receptor. (
  • Primary astrocytes were stimulated with LPS following TRAF6 siRNA or control transfection, and NF-κB, MAPKs, chemokine, and chemokine receptor expression levels evaluated by western blotting and ELISA. (
  • Most strains of HIV use a T-cell protein, called CCR5 (or C-C chemokine receptor type 5) as a co-receptor to invade the host cell. (
  • By injecting an antibody that binds to PD-1 into mice infected with chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), they were able to switch the immune response back on and control the virus. (
  • H1N1 virus only binds to the α 2,6 receptor. (
  • The HIV envelope spike glycoprotein on the surface of virus particles binds both CD4 and a seven-transmembrane coreceptor. (
  • Single stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) binds to toll-like receptor (TLR)7 leading to recruitment of immune cells and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which has been shown in mammals. (
  • The M-RNP complex binds with the glycoprotein, and the completed virus buds from the plasma membrane. (
  • Domain 1 of LDLRAD3 is a low-density lipoprotein receptor type-A module that binds to VEEV by wedging into a cleft created by two adjacent E2-E1 heterodimers in one trimeric spike, and engages domains A and B of E2 and the fusion loop in E1. (
  • that of human viruses binds to SAα2,6Gal ( 9 ). (
  • Human membrane cofactor protein (CD46) acts as a cellular receptor for measles virus. (
  • Our analysis of the HA protein of this virus implied that the current strains of 2013 H7N9 inChina displayed avian type receptors as their primary binding preference and human type receptors as secondary. (
  • For pandemic risk assessment, we also detected 23 mutations, including a few well known for host adaptation, in the HA1 domain of the HA protein from this virus. (
  • Hu, W. (2011) New mutational trends in the HA protein of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus from May 2010 to February 2011. (
  • To identify residues on the attachment protein hemagglutinin (H) essential for fusion support through either receptor, we devised a strategy based on analysis of morbillivirus H-protein sequences, iterative cycles of mutant protein production followed by receptor-based functional assays, and a novel MV H three-dimensional model. (
  • This model uses the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein structure as a template. (
  • It appears likely that certain residues support receptor-specific H-protein conformational changes. (
  • The denatured glucocorticoid receptor, covalently labelled with [ 3 H]-dexamethasone-21-mesylate, was identified by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a protein moiety with M(r)~92,000, similar to that obtained from human non-transformed mononuclear leukocytes. (
  • We predicted potential interface areas of the measles virus attachment protein hemagglutinin to begin the investigation. (
  • Recombinant Human Glutamate Receptor 4 Protein [H00002893-P01] - 12.5% SDS-PAGE Stained with Coomassie Blue. (
  • These receptors are heteromeric protein complexes composed of multiple subunits, arranged to form ligand-gated ion channels. (
  • The interaction of the G protein and specific cell surface receptors may be involved. (
  • Signaling via TLR10 was activated by the functional RNA-protein complex of influenza virus leading to robust induction of cytokine expression. (
  • Transferrin Receptor Protein 1 Cooperates with mGluR2 To Mediate the Internalization of Rabies Virus and SARS-CoV-2. (
  • We further found that transferrin receptor protein 1 (TfR1) directly interacts and cooperates with mGluR2 to regulate the endocytosis of RABV and SARS-CoV-2 . (
  • This function is mainly fulfilled by members of the human killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family, which recognize sets of classical HLA class I (HLA-I) molecules, and by the CD94/NKG2A lectin-like heterodimer specific for HLA-E. Conversely, other KIRs and CD94/NKG2C, which display a lower affinity for HLA-I ligands trigger protein tyrosine kinase pathways through DAP12, an adaptor with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs. (
  • MybiosourceProduct Short Name: [G-Protein Coupled Receptor 126 (GPR126)]Product Name Synonyme: [G-Protein Coupled Receptor. (
  • A Sensitive Yellow Fever Virus Entry Reporter Identifies Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP/p97) as an Essential Host Factor for Flavivirus Uncoating. (
  • 2015). This endosomal luminal low pH is vital for intracellular membrane site visitors, cytosolic pH upkeep, protein degradation and receptor-mediated endocytosis (Cotter et al. (
  • Neuraminidase is a protein found on the surface of influenza virus (among other microbes) and in this case is used to aid a virion in escaping the host cell. (
  • Structural studies on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provide important insights into the architecture and function of these important drug targets. (
  • Protein, carbohydrate, or lipid factors on the surface of a susceptible cell that facilitate the binding of a virus to the entry receptor. (
  • In addition, the modified vaccinia virus also expresses a protein called human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), which transports iodide ions into the cells. (
  • Hu, W. (2010) Identification of highly conserved domains in hemagglutinin associated with the receptor binding specificity of influenza viruses: 2009 H1N1, avian H5N1, and swine H1N2. (
  • Hu, W. (2010) Highly conserved domains in hemagglutinin of influenza viruses characterizing dual receptor binding. (
  • however, vaccine effectiveness is frequently compromised due to antigenic drift arising from amino acid substitutions in the major influenza virus antigen hemagglutinin (HA). (
  • Here, we take a mutagenesis approach, making viruses with single or multiple substitutions in H9 hemagglutinin and testing binding to avian and human receptor analogues using biolayer interferometry. (
  • Influenza viruses attach to host cells by binding their hemagglutinin (HA) to cell-surface oligosaccharides containing a terminal sialic acid. (
  • The viruses attach to the host cells through hemagglutinin, which specifically combines with neuraminic acid receptors in the host cells. (
  • Hu, W. (2010) Subtle differences in receptor binding specificity and gene sequences of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. (
  • Hu, W. (2011) Receptor binding specificity and origin of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. (
  • We combined information on influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in the community and laboratory surveillance data to estimate weekly incidence rates of influenza virus infections in the community, referred to as ILI + rates [ 4 ]. (
  • A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A (H5N1) was first recognized among geese in Guangdong Province, southern People's Republic of China, in 1996 ( 1 ). (
  • Infections with influenza virus (H1N1), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are important triggers of exacerbations. (
  • Measles virus (MV) enters cells either through the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule SLAM (CD150) expressed only in immune cells or through the ubiquitously expressed regulator of complement activation, CD46. (
  • however, influenza viruses are able to rapidly evolve to escape immune pressure in a process known as "antigenic drift. (
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in innate immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns of invading microbes. (
  • Immune checkpoint therapies block inhibitory co-receptors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), to increase T cell Ca 2+ signaling and promote T cell survival. (
  • This is a Phase I study to evaluate the safety profile of a type of immune therapy called HER2 CAR T cells (short for HER2 chimeric antigen receptor T cells). (
  • They show that, in the immune system, a receptor acts as a decoy against the virus and sabotages its multiplication action by causing the death of the infected cell. (
  • Xie BS, Wang X, Pan YH, Jiang G, Feng JF, Lin Y. Apolipoprotein E, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and immune cells control blood-brain barrier penetration by AAV-PHP.eB in mice. (
  • We injected AAV-PHP.eB into the bloodstream of wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as mouse strains carrying genetic mutation in apolipoprotein E gene ( Apoe ) or low-density lipoprotein receptor gene ( Ldlr ), or lacking various components of the immune system. (
  • Differential expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) by conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs) has been suggested to influence the type of immune response induced by microbial pathogens. (
  • Accurate and reliable measures of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (CD4+ T-cells) are essential to the assessment of the immune system of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons (1-3). (
  • We have previously shown that NK cells function as major cytotoxic effector cells in vaccine-induced immune protection against Friend virus (FV)-induced leukemia, and NK cell depletion totally abrogates the above protective immunity. (
  • CBD intercepts specific receptors that activates immune response and also as a result, works as an immunosuppressant. (
  • Many body tissues have receptors for these endorphins and enkephalins, including virtually every cell of the body's immune system. (
  • Taking LDN at bedtime each night briefly blocks opioid receptors between 2 a.m. and 4 a.m. and is believed to produce a prolonged up-regulation of vital elements of the immune system by causing an increase in endorphin and enkephalin production. (
  • Even though he had stopped taking antiviral drugs, there was no evidence of the virus in his blood following his treatment, and his immune system gradually recovered. (
  • The hope was that this transplanted immune system would wipe out any hidden pockets of the virus in Brown. (
  • This is very encouraging for vaccine development , as making an effective vaccine should be much easier than for HIV or hepatitis C virus, for example, where the immune system often (for hepatitis C) or almost always (for HIV) fails. (
  • abstract = "Glucocorticoid receptors were studied in cultured human lymphocytes from normal donors after transformation with the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and compared to those of circulating human mononuclear leukocytes. (
  • This gene encodes one of the receptors for serotonin, a neurotransmitter with many roles. (
  • Serotonin 5-HT 2A receptor activity mediates adipocyte differentiation through control of adipogenic gene expression. (
  • Descriptions of cellular receptors for Ebola virus and its entry mechanisms are of fundamental importance, particularly with the advent of vectors bearing Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) being utilized for gene transfer into cell types such as airway epithelial cells. (
  • T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer offers an alternative approach whereby T cells of defined specificity can be generated rapidly and reliably from all patients. (
  • However, there are many new biomarkers that have been incorporated into the AJCC 8th Edition as a component of prognostic stage and will be collected starting in January 2018, if they are not already part of routine surveillance (such as breast cancer gene expression profiling and human papilloma virus). (
  • Clinical trials have been conducted to test a variety of strategies in which CD4+ T or stem cells are obtained from a patient, the CCR5 gene is either mutated or its translation blocked by RNA interference, and then the resulting virus-resistant cells are returned to the patient. (
  • Can be transmitted between different hosts through gene recombination or mutation of the receptor binding domain (RBD), leading to a higher mortality rate. (
  • 3. In control animals, pilocarpine (1-100 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) attenuated vagally-induced bronchoconstriction by stimulating inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on parasympathetic nerves in the lungs. (
  • Inhibitory receptors specific for MHC class I molecules with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs play a key role in preventing NK cell responses against normal autologous cells. (
  • Similar inhibitory and activating NK cell receptors (NKR) have been identified among the murine Ly49 and NKG2 lectin-like receptor families ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • This family of receptors consists of both activating and inhibitory allotypes. (
  • KIRs function can be predicted from the length of the cytoplasmic domain, where long receptors ( KIR2DL/KIR3DL ) are generally inhibitory and all short receptors ( KIR2DS/KIR3DS ) are activating. (
  • Acyclovir has demonstrated inhibitory activity against both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and is taken up selectively by infected cells. (
  • CCR5 signal transduction in macrophages by human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus envelopes. (
  • CCR5 also serves as an entry co-receptor der the age of 15. (
  • These findings are important not only because they highlight a potential therapy for HIV, but also because of the insights they offer for other challenging chronic infectious diseases such as hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis," says Emory Vaccine Center Director Rafi Ahmed, PhD, who is a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar. (
  • Hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) kidney transplant (KT) recipients are at increased risks of rejection and graft failure. (
  • Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1" by people in this website by year, and whether "Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1" by people in Profiles. (
  • Ribavirin is used clinically in combination with interferon for hepatitis C, in aerosol form for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and as potential prophylaxis and/or treatment of Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever, hantavirus infections, and arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers. (
  • Genetic determinants in hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia: role of polymorphic variants of BAFF promoter and Fc? (
  • Serology test negative for active hepatitis B virus or active hepatitis C virus at screening. (
  • T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC), causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. (
  • Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are involved in the regulation of NK cell activation through recognition of their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands. (
  • Hu, W. (2010) Quantifying the effects of mutations on receptor binding specificity of influenza viruses. (
  • We determine the genetic basis of preferences for alternative avian receptors and for human-like receptors, describing amino acid motifs at positions 190, 226, and 227 that play a major role in determining receptor specificity, and several other residues such as 159, 188, 193, 196, 198, and 225 that play a smaller role. (
  • Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. (
  • No infected pig had influenza-like symptoms, indicating that influenza A (H5N1) viruses can replicate undetected for prolonged periods, facilitating avian virus adaptation to mammalian hosts. (
  • Identification of bona fide functional receptors and elucidation of the mechanism of receptor-mediated virus entry are important to reveal targets for developing therapeutics against rabies virus (RABV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2 ). (
  • Of course, that was completely wrong too, and now we know that this new coronavirus actually spreads like wildfire among human populations, and that is because it is much different from the SARS virus. (
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus ( SARSr-CoV or SARS-CoV ) [note 1] is a species of virus consisting of many known strains phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) that have been shown to possess the capability to infect humans , bats , and certain other mammals . (
  • Two strains of the virus have caused outbreaks of severe respiratory diseases in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), which caused the 2002-2004 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is causing the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 . (
  • The SARS-related coronavirus was one of several viruses identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016 as a likely cause of a future epidemic in a new plan developed after the Ebola epidemic for urgent research and development before and during an epidemic towards diagnostic tests , vaccines and medicines . (
  • The SARS-related coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus . (
  • If you contracted the COVID-19 virus, you would know that the coronavirus can change your body even in its mildest form. (
  • The coronavirus can affect the receptors in both your upper and lower respiratory tract. (
  • LDLRAD3 is a recently defined attachment and entry receptor for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) 1 , a New World alphavirus that causes severe neurological disease in humans. (
  • Thank goodness we have a few doctors that recognize what this illness is but it needs to be called neural receptors autoimmune encephalitis. (
  • Acyclovir is also the drug of choice for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis, although ganciclovir is also considered an alternative option. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis have subacute forms, presenting with a psychiatric syndrome and an anterior opercular syndrome, known as benign recurrent meningitis. (
  • Over 100 species comprise the genus Flavivirus, which includes other notable human pathogens, such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. (
  • Biotech Europe GmbH, Freiburg, Germa- cation of the virus in cells heterozygous for ny) was used to extract genomic DNA the mutation proceeded at an intermediate from white blood cells following the lysis rate [ 5 ]. (
  • Angiotensin receptor antagonists block the actions of angiotensin II and angiotensin(1-7) at angiotensin AT 1 receptors. (
  • Using selection with HA-specific monoclonal antibodies, we previously identified H9N2 antibody escape mutants that contained deletions of amino acids in the 220 loop of the HA receptor binding sites (RBSs). (
  • Engagement of the receptor by solid-phase bound CD94- or NKG2C-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) triggered Luc expression. (
  • In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape neutralization to identify sub-domains of the computer virus envelope which are involved in CHIKV conversation with these antibodies, thereby opening the door for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. (
  • The testing (Cunningham Panel) is available to prove that the antibodies do attach themselves to neural receptors. (
  • In the 1970s and 1980s, typing of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) relied solely on immunologic methods involving human clinical samples as the source of antigens and antibodies. (
  • Discovered by Vanderbilt University Medical Center and licensed to AstraZeneca in June 2020 , the human monoclonal antibodies were optimised by AstraZeneca with half-life extension and reduced Fc receptor binding. (
  • This killing was abrogated by antibodies blocking the NKG2D receptor in vitro. (
  • We know that in a test tube antibodies against the virus can neutralize it . (
  • Some tests measure antibodies against parts of the virus that are not needed for cell entry. (
  • Transfection with a human SLAM complementary DNA enables non-susceptible cell lines to bind measles virus, support measles virus replication and develop cytopathic effects. (
  • Interleukin-16 (IL-16) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus replication in cells from infected subjects, and serum IL-16 levels drop with disease progression. (
  • Because lyssaviruses have a linear single-negative-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) must be transcribed to permit virus replication. (
  • Correspondingly, epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tracts of humans mainly bear SAα2,6Gal receptors ( 10 , 11 ), and those in duck intestines (the major replication site for duck viruses) mainly possess SAα2,3Gal ( 12 ). (
  • Traditionally, pigs have been considered as "mixing vessels" ( 16 - 19 ) because they support replication of avian and human influenza viruses ( 17 ). (
  • The other antiviral commonly mentioned, redeliver, works as a nucleoside analogue which essentially mimics the building blocks of DNA and RNA causing replication of the virus' genetic code to fail. (
  • We found that the drifted viruses were able to infect and be transmitted between chickens and showed increased binding to human-like receptors. (
  • We previously described H9N2 viruses, including several isolated from human zoonotic cases, which showed a preference for human-like receptors. (
  • The inability of avian influenza viruses to effectively bind human-like sialylated receptors is a major impediment to their efficient transmission in humans and pandemic capacity. (
  • Notably, VEEV engages LDLRAD3 in a manner that is similar to the way that arthritogenic alphaviruses bind to the structurally unrelated MXRA8 receptor, but with a much smaller interface. (
  • If that's not the case, the CD4 domains could probably be modified to still be able to neutralize the virus but not bind to MHC class II. (
  • The research team, from St Francis College in New York, thinks that the juice contains qualities that either destroy or modify receptor sites on the host cells to which the viruses usually bind. (
  • Although it is uncommon, H5N1 viruses can bind to receptors in the human lower respiratory tract. (
  • Macauley explained that up to 50 per cent of all viruses that infect our cells, the most well known of which is influenza, bind to sugars on cell receptors to gain access and infect the cell. (
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses contains protrusions that will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell. (
  • Al-Saleem J, Dirksen WP, Martinez MP, Shkriabai N, Kvaratskhelia M, Ratner L, Green PL. HTLV-1 Tax-1 interacts with SNX27 to regulate cellular localization of the HTLV-1 receptor molecule, GLUT1. (
  • The interaction of measles virus with its receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) controls cell entry and governs tropism. (
  • The "cellular saboteur" NLRP1 is therefore a key molecule for the protection of the body against the virus which triggers Covid-19, while also being the element which can trigger the inflammatory storm and therefore the destruction of the lungs. (
  • For example, adeno-associated virus (AAV), a non-enveloped, single-strand DNA molecule 4.7kb long, has received much attention due to its non-pathogenicity, low immunogenicity, and long-lasting expression [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • If that section of the RNA molecule could remain hidden, cancer cells wouldn't treat the fibroblast's exosomes like viruses. (
  • Our previous studies suggest that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGluR2) functions as an entry receptor for RABV in vitro , and is an important internalization factor for SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo. (
  • IMPORTANCE We previously found that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGluR2) is an entry receptor for RABV in vitro , and an important internalization factor for SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo. (
  • In March 2013, a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus was found in several patients with severe respiratory illness in China. (
  • Cetirizine forms a complex with histamine for H 1 -receptor sites in blood vessels, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and the respiratory tract. (
  • Fexofenadine competes with histamine for H 1 receptors in the GI tract, blood vessels, and the respiratory tract, reducing hypersensitivity reactions. (
  • Sporadic human infections with contemporary H5N1 viruses are not surprising, especially among people who do not take recommended precautions (such as wearing personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, for example). (
  • H5N1 viruses do not currently have an ability to easily infect the human upper respiratory tract, which would be needed to increase the risk of transmission to people. (
  • Thus, the recognition of human-type receptors by avian viruses appears to be necessary for these viruses to replicate in the upper respiratory tract and be transmitted efficiently from human to human. (
  • However, recent studies have shown that despite SAα2,3Gal and SAα2,6Gal receptors in pig respiratory tracts, SAα2,3Gal is found only in the smaller airways (bronchioli and alveoli) and not in the trachea ( 20 , 21 ). (
  • Moreover, since it can affect the lower respiratory tract receptors, it can trigger inflammation in your lungs. (
  • HPIV-3 is second only to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and young children. (
  • Chimpanzees, macaques, squirrels, owls, and rhesus monkeys have been asymptomatically infected with HPIV-3 or HPIV-4, and only marmosets have developed symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) with HPIV-3 and Sendai virus. (
  • Results for H5N1 virus were obtained from Wickramasinghe et al. (
  • H5N1 2.3.4 , novel H5N1 virus clade 2.3.4. (
  • Like much of the rest of the world, the United States continues to experience outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus in wild birds and poultry. (
  • HPAI A(H5N1) virus has been circulating among birds and poultry in different parts of the world for many years and continuing to evolve into different groups that are referred to as clades. (
  • The current clade of H5N1 virus, called clade, appears well-adapted to spread efficiently among wild birds and poultry in many regions of the world and was first identified in wild birds in the United States in January 2022. (
  • Since then, this current clade HPAI A(H5N1) virus has been detected in aves silvestres in all 50 states and has caused bird outbreaks in 47 estados affecting more than 58 million commercial poultry and backyard flocks. (
  • What about H5N1 virus among humans? (
  • Seven sporadic human cases associated with poultry exposures during this outbreak of contemporary HPAI A(H5N1) viruses have been reported globally since late 2021, one of which was identified in the United States . (
  • No human-to-human spread of H5N1 virus was identified in any of these cases. (
  • Since 1997 , more than 880 human cases, nearly all from previously circulating H5N1 virus clades, have been reported from 21 countries with high mortality, but very few cases have been identified worldwide since 2016. (
  • A small number of sporadic human infections with H5N1 virus does not change the risk to the general public, which CDC currently considers to be low. (
  • What about H5N1 virus among mammals? (
  • Although H5N1 viruses primarily infect different types of wild birds and domestic poultry, H5N1 viruses also can infect other animals. (
  • Sporadic H5N1 virus infections of mammals have been reported for more than 20 years in different countries that have experienced H5N1 outbreaks in poultry or wild birds. (
  • Recently, sporadic H5N1 virus infections in different mammals, including bears, wild foxes y skunks , have been reported in Canadá , los Estados Unidos , and other countries, including mink in Spain and sea lions in Peru. (
  • Reports of sporadic H5N1 virus infections of predatory and scavenger mammals are not unexpected given widespread H5N1 virus infections in wild birds worldwide. (
  • Does the detection of H5N1 viruses in farmed mink change the assessment of the risk to human health? (
  • No. CDC and other partner agencies have characterized the H5N1 viruses from farmed mink detected in Spain and have not found any indications that would point to increased ability to infect humans. (
  • If there were mink-to-mink spread of H5N1 virus (for example in the outbreak in Spain), would that change the assessment of the risk to human health? (
  • By 1997, the virus had become widespread among poultry in Hong Kong, and direct avian-to-human transmission of influenza A (H5N1) viruses was reported ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Since late 2003, influenza A (H5N1) viruses have spread to domestic poultry in other Southeast Asian countries ( 4 ). (
  • Hence, understanding prevalence and adaptation of influenza A (H5N1) influenza viruses in Indonesia is crucial. (
  • An biosecurity and concentration of poultry in outbreaks or outbreak of H5N1 HPAI was first described in Lebanon in the emergence of HPAI virus ( 1 ). (
  • Several human infections with avian influenza A to high mortality among chickens ( 20 ) that required the viruses, including H5N1, H9N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9 intervention of the Lebanese Ministry of Agriculture and H10N8, have been reported among poultry-exposed for monitoring and controlling. (
  • Since then, this current clade HPAI A(H5N1) virus has been detected in wild birds in all 50 states and has caused bird outbreaks in 47 states affecting more than 58 million commercial poultry and backyard flocks. (
  • Recently, sporadic H5N1 virus infections in different mammals, including bears, wild foxes , and skunks , have been reported in Canada , the United States , and other countries, including mink in Spain and sea lions in Peru. (
  • also known as CDw150), a recently discovered membrane glycoprotein expressed on some T and B cells 6 , is a cellular receptor for measles virus, including the Edmonston strain. (
  • It exerts its antiviral activity by selective inhibition at pyrophosphate-binding sites on virus-specific DNA polymerases at concentrations that do not affect cellular DNA polymerases, inhibiting DNA synthesis. (
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells, dexamethasone-treated (left) or lambda phosphatase-treated (right) using Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody (green). (
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from A549(CCL-185) cells, untreated or stimulated with dexamethasone (100 nM for 1 hr), using Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody (upper) or control glucocorticoid receptor antibody (lower). (
  • Retrovirus was generated using Phoenix A packaging cells and following stimulation with anti-CD3 antibody, T cells from five A*1101+ donors (including an NPC patient) were transduced with this virus. (
  • The microbial recognition by macrophages is mediated by the receptors expressed on macrophages referred to as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including various types of toll-like receptors (TLRs) [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (
  • We found that transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) interacts with mGluR2 and internalizes with mGluR2 and RABV in the same clathrin -coated pit. (
  • However, the affinity (Kd) of the glucocorticoid receptor for dexamethasone was the same in both types of cells. (
  • 2012). Whereas the non-endocytic pathway embrace the pore formation-mediated penetration by cell-penetrating and low pH insertion peptides (non-enveloped viruses) (Li et al. (
  • Genetic and epigenetic analysis of the serotonin 2A receptor in the context of cocaine abuse. (
  • WHO is working with scientists to understand how these genetic changes affect how the virus behaves. (
  • This test detects the genetic code of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in your body. (
  • Figure 1: Measle virus binding to CHO cells expressing SLAM or CD46. (
  • Figure 2: Infectivities of pseudotype viruses on B95a, Vero and transfected CHO cells. (
  • Kobune, F., Sakata, H. & Sugiura, A. Marmoset lymphoblastoid cells as a sensitive host for isolation of measles virus. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits cell surface receptors to attach to and gain entry into cells. (
  • Initially the virus was propagated in the embryonated chicken eggs at embryo day (ED)9-11 and the virus titer in the harvested allantoic fluid was determined by using standard plaque assay technique in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial (MDCK) cells. (
  • To verify the importance of the H residues identified with the cell-cell fusion assays for virus entry into cells, we transferred the relevant mutations into genomic MV cDNAs. (
  • Indeed, we were able to recover recombinant viruses, and we showed that these replicate selectively in cells expressing SLAM or CD46. (
  • The pattern of the activation of the hormone-receptor complexes, analyzed by phosphocellulose chromatography, was similar in both types of cells, and also the time-courses of loss of specific binding during thermal activation were similar. (
  • Thus, transformation of cells with EB virus can provide a constant source of glucocorticoid receptors for study. (
  • Folate receptor alpha (FRalpha) has been described as a factor involved in mediating Ebola virus entry into cells (6). (
  • Culture supernatants of virus-infected cells modestly up-regulate TLR10 expression in nonvirus-infected cells. (
  • What happens once cells in the nose, throat and lung are infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus that induces Covid-19? (
  • When a cell is infected, it dies, and therefore prevents the virus from spreading, but if too many cells die, over-inflammation appears in parallel with the organ's inability to repair itself properly, which can lead to to its destruction. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) can be successfully treated by infusing T cells reactivated in vitro with EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). (
  • Emergence of HIV variants resistant to neutralization with eCD4-Ig would likely produce viruses that infect cells less efficiently, reducing their transmission. (
  • Although not well characterized, LS180 cells could be an excellent cell line to study induction of P450s and transporters because they express pregnane X receptor (PXR). (
  • Therefore, as part of a larger study of in vitro to in vivo prediction of inductive drug interactions, we determined induction of various P450s and drug transporters by the anti-human deficiency virus protease inhibitors (PIs) and the prototypic inducer, rifampin, in LS180 cells. (
  • Surprisingly, constitutive androstane receptor 1 (CAR1) was not found to be expressed in these cells. (
  • Male germ cells support long-term propagation of Zika virus. (
  • The juice stops intestinal viruses from infecting cells, a process that every year kills thousands of infants, especially in developing countries. (
  • Here we review the pharmacology of these drugs and the mechanisms whereby the virus infects cells. (
  • Some types of cancer have a rather cunning way to give themselves a boost by tricking healthy cells inside tumours into popping out particles that look like viruses . (
  • When a section of RN7SL1 is exposed through the exosome, the cancer cells are alerted into thinking a virus is at work, explaining why they express high levels of ISG. (
  • The question was, exactly how did these cancer cells force fibroblasts to produce these pseudo-viruses? (
  • The idea here is that the virus is leveraging or using the host glycans, or the host sugars, to gain access to the cells," said Matthew Macauley, professor in the Department of Chemistry and Canada Research Chair in Chemical Glycoimmunology. (
  • That's what all of our cells have on them, so why not exploit what's there - that's what viruses are good at," he said. (
  • The researchers used chemical biology tools to modulate those sugars on the cell surface to study the ability for the viruses to get inside and infect cells. (
  • On the entry of Semliki forest virus into BHK-21 cells. (
  • Virus receptor specificities and expression patterns of receptors on host cells are thought to be major determinants of the host range restriction of influenza viruses ( 13 ). (
  • Their tracheal epithelial cells reportedly bear SAα2,3Gal and SAα2,6Gal receptors ( 18 ). (
  • Genetically modified T cells that express a transduced T cell receptor (TCR) {alpha}/{beta} heterodimer in addition to their endogenous TCR are used in clinical studies to treat cancer. (
  • The location of these cells on the surface of the inside of the nose make them highly accessible to the virus, and also may assist with transmission to other people. (
  • This novel therapy involves using an oncolytic virus, a type of virus that can infect and kill cancer cells without harming healthy tissue. (
  • Oncolytic viruses include viruses found in nature or are genetically engineered to selectively infect and replicate in tumor cells. (
  • As oncolytic viruses replicate, they can disintegrate and kill infected tumor cells. (
  • Besides providing durable protection, a small dose of oncolytic viruses can be effective against the tumor due to the ability of the virus to replicate and spread in the tumor cells. (
  • Dr. Fong notes, "Interestingly, the same characteristics that eventually make cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy or radiation treatment actually enhance the success of oncolytic viruses, such as CF33-hNIS. (
  • Viruses, in general, work by taking control of the body cells. (
  • As in the CS/virus models, corticosteroid treatment failed to reduce inflammatory cells in the CS/NTHi and CS/H1N1/NTHi models, increased the loss of body-weight and the bacterial load. (
  • Buckland, R. & Wild, T. F. Is CD46 the receptor for measles virus? (
  • Receptor usage and differential downregulation of CD46 by measles virus wild-type and vaccine strains. (
  • We identified seven amino acids important for SLAM- and nine for CD46 (Vero cell receptor)-induced fusion. (
  • and (iii) that several CD46-relevant amino acids may be shielded from direct receptor contacts. (
  • The distribution of SLAM on various cell lines is consistent with their susceptibility to clinical isolates of measles virus. (
  • A novel receptor involved in T-cell activation. (
  • Other cell surface receptors also interact with gp120 and aid attachment of virus particles. (
  • This review describes these receptors, their roles in HIV entry and their influence on cell tropism. (
  • Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response. (
  • After adsorption, the virus penetrates the host cell and enters the cytoplasm. (
  • Conversely, virus in the salivary glands buds primarily from the cell membrane into the acinar lumen. (
  • Co-receptors stabilize interactions between the TCR and its ligand, the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), and enhance Ca 2+ signaling and T cell activation. (
  • Conversely, some co-receptors can dampen Ca 2+ signaling and inhibit T cell activation. (
  • In other words, this receptor "sabotages" the cell to counter the virus: "The cell dies and thus prevents the virus from multiplying (this is the case for 85% of people affected by the Covid-19 virus). (
  • Targeted reconstruction of T cell receptor sequence from single cell RNA-seq links CDR3 length to T cell differentiation state. (
  • TMPRSS2 also acts on the S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein, causing an irreversible conformational change, activating it, and facilitating fusion of the virus to the cell membrane. (
  • NK cell activities have been associated with early clearance of viremia in experimental simian immunodeficiency virus and clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. (
  • Though researchers have shown that the virus's ability to infect a cell drops by between two and 10 times when the production of sugars on cell receptors is blocked, Macauley suggested the process is not fully understood enough for the immediate development of a therapy. (
  • 1980). As a way to enter the cell each enveloped and non-enveloped viruses want to connect to the host cell receptors and both fuse with the plasma or endosomal membrane (enveloped viruses) or disrupt/type pore(s) within the plasma membrane (non-enveloped viruses) to achieve entry into the cell (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (
  • After attachment to the host cell receptor, in all of the endocytic pathways endocytic vesicles containing the virus are shaped (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (
  • It is suggested that the increased endorphin and enkephalin levels, induced by LDN, work directly on the tumors' opioid receptors - and, perhaps, induce cancer cell death (apoptosis). (
  • S1 mainly contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is responsible for recognizing the cell surface receptor. (
  • The rabies virus infects the central nervous system of mammals, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. (
  • Also in the case of Sars it was assumed that the Virus infects olfactory receptors in the nose. (
  • Newcastle disease virus is a rubulavirus that infects poultry, penguins, and other birds and has been responsible for conjunctivitis in bird handlers and laboratory workers. (
  • The glycoprotein forms approximately 400 trimeric spikes which are tightly arranged on the surface of the virus. (
  • Pharmacokinetic evaluation of drug interactions with anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs. (
  • Selectively receptor-blind viruses will be used to study MV pathogenesis and may have applications for the production of novel vaccines and therapeutics. (
  • Loratadine selectively inhibits peripheral histamine H 1 receptors. (
  • Nephrin-like domains of IL2RG in enzymes lack NAD-dependent umbilical neuronal absence( X-SCID), which activates a distress of also regulated goal and NOTCH2 fuel( synaptic) receptor eNOS, but synthetic tethers of B substrates. (
  • Instead, our data prove that after binding, this quartet of residues on propeller blade 5 conducts conformational changes that are receptor-specific. (
  • Collectively these current mutations tended to decrease the HA binding affinity for avian type recaptors and increase that for human type receptors, which could enhance the ability of this virus to infect humans. (
  • Hu, W. (2009) Analysis of correlated mutations, stalk motifs, and phylogenetic relationship of the 2009 influenza A virus neuraminidase sequences. (
  • These results demonstrate the complex relationship between antigenic drift and the potential of avian influenza viruses to infect humans. (
  • Influenza H9N2 viruses are endemic in poultry across Asia and parts of Africa, where they occasionally infect humans and are therefore considered viruses with zoonotic potential. (
  • One particularly nasty type of tumour that has been seen to use this tactic is triple-negative breast cancer , a disease that makes up 15 percent of breast cancers and is distinguished by a lack of receptors for estrogen, progesterone, and HER2/neu. (
  • For example, the 2015 annual report showed breast cancer incidence by molecular subtypes using tumor biomarkers for hormone receptor (HR) and human growth factor-neu receptor (HER2) expression. (
  • 6. These results demonstrate that the M2 muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves in the lungs is decreased in animals infected with parainfluenza virus. (
  • In vitro evidence exists for activity against West Nile virus. (