Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/3846)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

A soluble form of the avian hepatitis B virus receptor. Biochemical characterization and functional analysis of the receptor ligand complex. (2/3846)

Avian hepatitis B virus infection is initiated by the specific interaction of the extracellular preS part of the large viral envelope protein with carboxypeptidase D (gp180), the primary cellular receptor. To functionally and biochemically characterize this interaction, we purified a soluble form of duck carboxypeptidase D from a baculovirus expression system, confirmed its receptor function, and investigated the contribution of different preS sequence elements to receptor binding by surface plasmon resonance analysis. We found that preS binds duck carboxypeptidase D with a 1:1 stoichiometry, thereby inducing conformational changes but not oligomerization. The association constant of the complex was determined to be 2.2 x 10(7) M-1 at 37 degreesC, pH 7.4, with an association rate of 4.0 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 and a dissociation rate of 1.9 x 10(-3) s-1, substantiating high affinity interaction of avihepadnaviruses with their receptor carboxypeptidase D. The separately expressed receptor-binding domain, comprising about 50% of preS as defined by mutational analysis, exhibits similar constants. The domain consists of an essential element, probably responsible for the initial receptor contact and a part that contributes to complex stabilization in a conformation sensitive manner. Together with previous results from cell biological studies these data provide new insights into the initial step of hepadnaviral infection.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional evidence for the expression of CXCR4 receptor during megakaryocytopoiesis. (3/3846)

The identification of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha as a chemoattractant for human progenitor cells suggests that this chemokine and its receptor might represent critical determinants for the homing, retention, and exit of precursor cells from hematopoietic organs. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of CXCR4 receptor and the biological activity of SDF-1alpha during megakaryocytopoiesis. CD34(+) cells from bone marrow and cord blood were purified and induced to differentiate toward the megakaryocyte lineage by a combination of stem-cell factor (SCF) and recombinant human pegylated megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rhuMGDF). After 6 days of culture, a time where mature and immature megakaryocytes were present, CD41(+) cells were immunopurified and CXCR4mRNA expression was studied. High transcript levels were detected by a RNase protection assay in cultured megakaryocytes derived from cord blood CD34(+) cells as well as in peripheral blood platelets. The transcript levels were about equivalent to that found in activated T cells. By flow cytometry, a large fraction (ranging from 30% to 100%) of CD41(+) cells showed high levels of CXCR4 antigen on their surface, its expression increasing in parallel with the CD41 antigen during megakaryocytic differentiation. CXCR4 protein was also detected on peripheral blood platelets. SDF-1alpha acts on megakaryocytes by inducing intracellular calcium mobilization and actin polymerization. In addition, in in vitro transmigration experiments, a significant proportion of megakaryocytes was observed to respond to this chemokine. This cell migration was inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating coupling of this signal to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Although a close correlation between CD41a and CXCR4 expession was observed, cell surface markers as well as morphological criteria indicate a preferential attraction of immature megakaryocytes (low level of CD41a and CD42a), suggesting that SDF-1alpha is a potent attractant for immature megakaryocytic cells but is less active on fully mature megakaryocytes. This hypothesis was further supported by the observation that SDF-1alpha induced the migration of colony forming unit-megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-MK) and the expression of activation-dependent P-selectin (CD62P) surface antigen on early megakaryocytes, although no effect was observed on mature megakaryocytes and platelets. These results indicate that CXCR4 is expressed by human megakaryocytes and platelets. Furthermore, based on the lower responses of mature megakaryocytes and platelets to SDF-1alpha as compared with early precursors, these data suggest a role for this chemokine in the maintenance and homing during early stages of megakaryocyte development. Moreover, because megakaryocytes are also reported to express CD4, it becomes important to reevaluate the role of direct infection of these cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in HIV-1-related thrombocytopenia.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/3846)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acid transporter. (5/3846)

The RD114/simian type D retroviruses, which include the feline endogenous retrovirus RD114, all strains of simian immunosuppressive type D retroviruses, the avian reticuloendotheliosis group including spleen necrosis virus, and baboon endogenous virus, use a common cell-surface receptor for cell entry. We have used a retroviral cDNA library approach, involving transfer and expression of cDNAs from highly infectable HeLa cells to nonpermissive NIH 3T3 mouse cells, to clone and identify this receptor. The cloned cDNA, denoted RDR, is an allele of the previously cloned neutral amino acid transporter ATB0 (SLC1A5). Both RDR and ATB0 serve as retrovirus receptors and both show specific transport of neutral amino acids. We have localized the receptor by radiation hybrid mapping to a region of about 500-kb pairs on the long arm of human chromosome 19 at q13.3. Infection of cells with RD114/type D retroviruses results in impaired amino acid transport, suggesting a mechanism for virus toxicity and immunosuppression. The identification and functional characterization of this retrovirus receptor provide insight into the retrovirus life cycle and pathogenesis and will be an important tool for optimization of gene therapy using vectors derived from RD114/type D retroviruses.  (+info)

Up-regulation of the Pit-2 phosphate transporter/retrovirus receptor by protein kinase C epsilon. (6/3846)

The membrane receptors for the gibbon ape leukemia retrovirus and the amphotropic murine retrovirus serve normal cellular functions as sodium-dependent phosphate transporters (Pit-1 and Pit-2, respectively). Our earlier studies established that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by treatment of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) uptake. Studies now have been carried out to determine which type of Na/Pi transporter (Pit-1 or Pit-2) is regulated by PKC and which PKC isotypes are involved in the up-regulation of Na/Pi uptake by the Na/Pi transporter/viral receptor. It was found that the activation of short term (2-min) Na/Pi uptake by PMA is abolished when cells are infected with amphotropic murine retrovirus (binds Pit-2 receptor) but not with gibbon ape leukemia retrovirus (binds Pit-1 receptor), indicating that Pit-2 is the form of Na/Pi transporter/viral receptor regulated by PKC. The PKC-mediated activation of Pit-2 was blocked by pretreating cells with the pan-PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide but not with the conventional PKC isotype inhibitor Go 6976, suggesting that a novel PKC isotype is required to regulate Pit-2. Overexpression of PKCepsilon, but not of PKCalpha, -delta, or -zeta, was found to mimic the activation of Na/Pi uptake. To further establish that PKCepsilon is involved in the regulation of Pit-2, cells were treated with PKCepsilon-selective antisense oligonucleotides. Treatment with PKCepsilon antisense oligonucleotides decreased the PMA-induced activation of Na/Pi uptake. These results indicate that PMA-induced stimulation of Na/Pi uptake by Pit-2 is specifically mediated through activation of PKCepsilon.  (+info)

Poliomyelitis in intraspinally inoculated poliovirus receptor transgenic mice. (7/3846)

Mice transgenic with the human poliovirus receptor gene develop clinical signs and neuropathology similar to those of human poliomyelitis when neurovirulent polioviruses are inoculated into the central nervous system (CNS). Factors contributing to disease severity and the frequencies of paralysis and mortality include the poliovirus strain, dose, and gender of the mouse inoculated. The more neurovirulent the virus, as defined by monkey challenge results, the higher the rate of paralysis, mortality, and severity of disease. Also, the time to disease onset is shorter for more neurovirulent viruses. Male mice are more susceptible to polioviruses than females. TGM-PRG-3 mice have a 10-fold higher transgene copy number and produce 3-fold more receptor RNA and protein levels in the CNS than TGM-PRG-1 mice. CNS inoculations with type III polioviruses differing in relative neurovirulence show that these mouse lines are similar in disease frequency and severity, demonstrating that differences in receptor gene dosage and concomitant receptor abundance do not affect susceptibility to infection. However, there is a difference in the rate of accumulation of clinical signs. The time to onset of disease is shorter for TGM-PRG-3 than TGM-PRG-1 mice. Thus, receptor dosage affects the rate of appearance of poliomyelitis in these mice.  (+info)

Serum albumin inhibits echovirus 7 uncoating. (8/3846)

Echoviruses induce a wide spectrum of diseases in man, the most severe being meningitis. In neonates, however, a severe systemic infection can be observed, leading to death. Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and most interstitial fluids, and its functions include osmoregulation and transport and delivery of hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids and steroids. The results of cold-synchronized one-step growth analysis of echovirus 7 infection and sucrose-gradient analysis of A-particles suggest that physiological concentrations of albumin block echovirus 7 infection by inhibiting uncoating. The blockage was reversible and was still effective when albumin was added 30 min after virus adsorption. Inhibition of uncoating was confirmed by using rhodanine, a known specific inhibitor of echovirus uncoating. After removal of the albumin blockage, addition of rhodanine perpetuated the inhibition. Serum and interstitial albumin concentrations may limit echovirus infection in vivo and thereby act as an extracellular determinant for echovirus tropism.  (+info)

Murine type C ecotropic retrovirus infection is initiated by virus envelope binding to a membrane receptor expressed on mouse cells. We have identified a cDNA clone that may encode for this receptor through a strategy combining gene transfer of mouse NIH 3T3 DNA into nonpermissive human EJ cells, se …
2001; Eigen and Biebricher, 1988). , 1976; Drake and Holland, 1999), values that imply the continuous generation of dynamic mutant distributions in a replicating RNA virus population. These high mutation rates in RNA genomes would be incompatible with maintenance of the genetic information contained in large viral or cellular DNA genomes (Eigen and Biebricher, 1988). This evolutionary adaptation of mutation rates is mirrored in the biochemical activities of the relevant DNA and RNA polymerases. 2003). EVOLUTION OF CELL RECOGNITION BY VIRUSES 45 C. Virus-Receptor Interactions Revealed by Structural Studies The specific interactions between a viral protein or glycoprotein and receptor molecules are amenable to structural studies, and such studies are providing essential new information for the understanding of virus-receptor interactions. Enveloped viruses, such as HIV, attach to host cells by means of spike-like membrane glycoproteins, whereas most nonenveloped viruses, such as picornaviruses, ...
Clone TG1 is the first monoclonal antibody detecting TIGIT in routine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. TG1 has been validated for the detection of TIGIT positive T-cells with a focus on tumor infiltrating T cells (TILs). Anti-TIGIT clone TG1 allows the identification of TIGIT in the tumor microenvironment under pathological conditions.. TIGIT (T-cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) is a member of the poliovirus receptor (PVR) family. TIGIT is expressed on subsets of T lymphocytes and controls an immune checkpoint. The expression of TIGIT has been reported on NK cells, regulatory T cells, follicular T helper cells, memory CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells, but TIGIT is not expressed on B cells or naive CD4+ T cells. Naive CD4+ T cells may upregulate TIGIT expression upon activation. In many different cancer models, TIGIT has been shown to be upregulated on T cells. The ligands CD155 and CD112 are also highly expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages in different cancer ...
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites: they must enter a cell to reproduce. To gain access to the cell interior, a virus must first bind to one or more specific receptor molecules on the cell surface. Cell receptors for viruses do not exist only to serve viruses: they also have cellular functions. An example is the transferrin receptor, which regulates iron uptake and assists in the entry of viruses from three different families. It might appear that such dual-use proteins cannot evolve to block virus entry because their cellular function would then be compromised. A study of two viruses that bind to the same cell surface receptor protein reveals how a cellular protein can change to prevent infection without affecting its role in the cell.. The virus-cell receptor interaction is one of the many arenas where the evolution of host-virus conflict can be studied. Because the virus-receptor interaction is essential for viral replication, host cells with a mutation in the receptor gene that ...
gi,74761016,sp,Q96NY8.1,PVRL4_HUMAN RecName: Full=Poliovirus receptor-related protein 4; AltName: Full=Ig superfamily receptor LNIR; AltName: Full=Nectin-4; Contains: RecName: Full=Processed poliovirus receptor-related protein 4; Flags: ...
The emerging role of T cell Ig mucin 1 in alloimmune responses in an experimental mouse transplant model. Ueno, Takuya; Habicht, Antje; Clarkson, Michael R.; Albin, Monica J.; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Boenisch, Olaf; Popoola, Joyce; Ying Wang; Yagita, Hideo; Akiba, Hisaya; Ansari, M. Javeed; Jaeseok Yang; Turka, Laurence A.; Rothstein, David M.; Padera, Robert F.; Najafian, Nader; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Wang, Ying; Yang, Jaeseok // Journal of Clinical Investigation;Feb2008, Vol. 118 Issue 2, p742 T cell Ig mucin 1 (TIM-1) plays an important role in regulating immune responses in autoimmune and asthma models, and it is expressed on both Th1 and Th2 cells. Using an antagonistic TIM-1-specific antibody, we studied the role of TIM-1 in alloimmunity. A short course of TIM-1-specific antibody... ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from nectin3 poliovirus receptor-related 3 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
It is hardly necessary to define the concept of receptors to readers of this series, but it should be borne in mind that in several instances receptors are undefined entities, whose molecular details
The PD-1+TIGIT Combination Bioassay reflects the mechanism of action (MOA) of biologics designed to block the PD-1/PD-L1 and TIGIT/CD155 interactions.
Viruses use fake proteins to hide in our cells Date: July 7, 2014 Source: Monash University Some viruses can hide in our bodies for decades and...
just picked up three bottles of receptor and i was just wondering what was the best way to use it. during a cycle or right before a cycle? any
Endolytics offers receptor-binding assays for a number of ligands, as well as custom radioligand receptor-binding assay services.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and characterization of murine ecotropic recombinant virus in myeloma and hybridoma cells. AU - Deo, Y.. AU - Ghebremariam, H.. AU - Cloyd, M.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Ecotropic recombinant virus (ERV), a relatively new class of murine retrovirus endogenous to mice, is expressed at significant levels by most murine myeloma and hybridoma cells examined. The routine XC, S+L-, mink cell focus-inducing (MCF), and reverse transcriptase (RT) tests are not suitable to detect and quantify the levels of ERV. A serological focus assay, based on specific anti-murine leukemia virus (MuLV) viral envelope (env) antibodies, is required to detect ERV. A more sensitive format of this serological focus assay includes co-cultivation of test article cells with the indicator (Mus dunni) cells. ERV isolated from murine hybridoma cells show a unique pattern of cross-reactivity with anti-MuLV env antibodies and this pattern is clearly distinct from that of ectropic and xenotropic ...
T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, Tregs, and NK cells. Here, we determined that TIGIT is upregulated on tumor antigen-specific (TA-specific) CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with melanoma, and these TIGIT-expressing CD8+ T cells often coexpress the inhibitory receptor PD-1. Moreover, CD8+ TILs from patients exhibited downregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD226, which competes with TIGIT for the same ligand, supporting a TIGIT/CD226 imbalance in metastatic melanoma. TIGIT marked early T cell activation and was further upregulated by T cells upon PD-1 blockade and in dysfunctional PD-1+TIM-3+ TA-specific CD8+ T cells. PD-1+TIGIT+, PD-1-TIGIT+, and PD-1+TIGIT- CD8+ TILs had similar functional capacities ex vivo, suggesting that TIGIT alone, or together with PD-1, is not indicative of T cell dysfunction. However, in the presence of TIGIT ligand-expressing cells, TIGIT and PD-1 blockade ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, June 17, 2017 ) Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 (T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain Containing Protein 3 or T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Receptor 3 or T Cell Membrane Protein 3 or CD366 or HAVCR2) Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2) is a protein encoded by...
SEA785Hu, ELISA Kit for Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (Kim1), 肾损伤分子1(Kim1)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法), HAVCR1; TIM1; TIMD1; HAVCR; Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1; T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain-Containing Protein 1; T-cell immunoglobulin mucin receptor 1 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
NanoViricides has now developed novel nanoviricide drug candidates against Ebola that it believes could lead to a successful therapeutic. These drug candidates are designed to mimic the host cell receptor onto which the Ebola virus binds to cause an infection. The site at which the virus binds does not change, in spite of all the mutations a virus undergoes. Thus the Company believes that its drug candidates would continue to work in spite of field mutations in the virus. This is unlike vaccines, antibodies, siRNA, antisense, and several other therapeutic modes which a virus can readily overcome due to mutations it acquires in the field. ...
The entry of animal viruses into their host cells follows a step-wise process. After virus attachment to cell surface receptors, it typically involves induction of signals, endocytosis, penetration into the cytosol, and intra-cellular transport to the site of replication followed by uncoating of the genome. Each step is complex, and dependent on multiple cellular factors. Using enveloped and non enveloped viruses from different families, we have defined five main pathways, and determined some of the key processes in molecular detail. The use of automated high through-put siRNA silencing screens have been critical for the identification of the cellular factors involved. In the lecture, vaccinia, respiratory syncytial, and influenza virus will be discussed in most detail.. ...
This study demonstrated the cytotoxic and cell growth inhibitory effect of a bioactive extract of |i|Funalia trogii|/i| (Berk.) Bond. et Singer, which was grown...
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Nectins, which were origilly identified as virus receptors, are members of the cell-cell adhesion molecule (CAM) family. They are Ca2+-independent…
BEMS Reports - [ISSN: 2454 - 6895] are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivs 4.0 License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available with [email protected] Copyright 2018-19 Phcog.Net , Publishing Platform: EManuscript Tech.. ...
Buy our Bonzo 293T transfected lysate (positive control). ab94068 has been validated in western blot. Abcam now offers a 12-month guarantee.
AC0206: Western Blot (1:1000) of over-expressed TMX with positive and negative controls on HeLa Cells. TMX is the 34kDa band. The upper band (~38 kDa) is myc-tagged TMX. The lower band at~28 kDa (*) is a non-specific band.. ...
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The host and tissue specificity of retrovirus infection is largely determined by specific cellular receptors that mediate virus entry. Genes encoding these receptors are widely distributed in the genome, and the receptors identified to date show no sequence similarity. We have identified the cellular receptor for amphotropic murine retroviruses, Ram-1, by screening a rat cDNA expression library introduced into amphotropic virus-resistant hamster cells. The 656-amino acid receptor is homologous to the gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor at both hydrophobic termini but is highly divergent in the central hydrophilic region. Both receptors appear to be integral membrane proteins having multiple membrane-spanning regions. Identification of this family of receptors will help define the evolutionary relationship between retroviruses and their cellular receptors.
Recent clinical studies have reinforced the importance of sex-related differences in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, with an increased incidence and mortality in men. Similar to humans, male BALB/c mice infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) develop more severe inflammation in the heart even though viral replication is no greater than in females. We show that TLR4 and IFN-gamma levels are significantly elevated and regulatory T cell (Treg) populations significantly reduced in the heart of males following CVB3 infection, whereas females have significantly increased T cell Ig mucin (Tim)-3, IL-4 and Treg. Blocking Tim-3 in males significantly increases inflammation and TLR4 expression while reducing Treg. In contrast, defective TLR4 signaling significantly reduces inflammation while increasing Tim-3 expression. Cross-regulation of TLR4 and Tim-3 occurs during the innate and adaptive immune response. This novel mechanism may help explain why inflammatory heart disease is more severe in males.
Purpose: : Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising vehicles for retinal gene transfer. AAV efficiently transduces dividing and non-dividing cells, exhibits low immunogenicity, and mediates long-term transduction in several retinal cell types. AAV serotypes (AAV 1-9) exhibit varying abilities to infect specific cell types (tropism) in the retina. The interaction of AAV with cellular receptors enables entry of the virus into the cell. Manipulation of the virus-receptor interaction offers potential for engineering targeted delivery to specific classes of retinal neurons and glia. Our initial goal is to understand the tropism profiles of the nine known AAV serotypes by studying their localization and distribution in the retina following intravitreal injection. This localization can then be correlated with the serotype specific expression patterns to understand the mechanisms of, and trafficking barriers to, vector transduction in Muller glia. Methods: : AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9 were ...
Curlewis J.D., Clarke I.J. and McNeilly A.S. (1993) Dopamine D1 receptor analogues act centrally to stimulate prolactin secretion in ewes. Journal of Endocrinology, 137 3: 457-464. ...
Subgroup C adenoviruses, including serotypes 2 and 5, from which most therapeutic adenoviruses are derived, rely on CAR as the primary binding site on the host cell. This receptor has been shown to be crucial for sufficient virus uptake (22) . In cancer cells, however, CAR expression is frequently lost, especially in highly malignant cancer cell lines, leading to a significant decrease in adenovirus uptake (5 , 6) . Our own observations are in agreement with these reports: we frequently found reduced CAR expression at the cell surface in high-grade primary liver cancer and metastases of colorectal cancer. 4 This study investigates the molecular mechanisms involved in reducing CAR expression in cancer cells and explores the possibility of pharmacologically manipulating CAR expression levels.. Increasing evidence exists for a potential physiological role of CAR as a cell adhesion molecule. CAR forms homodimers, was found to physically interact with the tight-junction protein ZO-1, and participates ...
To investigate innate immune mechanisms that lead to increased myocarditis after a single anti-Tim-3 treatment (Fig. 1⇑), we examined the level of CD80 and CD86 on APC from the heart or spleen, and CTLA-4 (intracellular) and CD28 (surface) levels on CD4+ T cells from the spleen at 6 h p.i. There is no inflammatory infiltrate in the heart at 6 h p.i., and so T cells are not present in the heart to analyze by FACS. We found that anti-Tim-3 administered during the innate immune response partially blocked Tim-3 expression and reduced CD80 levels on MC and macrophages isolated from the heart or spleen at 6 h p.i. compared with isotype controls (Fig. 3⇓A). CD80 levels were most profoundly reduced by anti-Tim-3 treatment on APC in the heart, compared with the spleen (Fig. 3⇓A). In contrast, anti-Tim-3 had little effect on MHC class II or CD86 levels on MC or macrophages (Fig. 3⇓A), which were expressed at levels similar to those induced by CVB3 infection alone (Fig. 2⇑C). Reducing Tim-3 ...
Lenz, J; Crowther, R; Klimenko, S; and Haseltine, W, Molecular cloning of a highly leukemogenic, ecotropic retrovirus from an akr mouse. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4247 ...
It is important to understand that there are two very different substances today which are sometimes called phyto-estrogen.. One of these substances is more accurately called xeno-estrogen, or psuedo-estrogen. Xeno-estrogens are chemical compounds, usually caused by toxic environmental pollution. Xeno-estrogens have been linked to various birth defects and other physical ailments, because of their ability to mimic many of the functions of the human estrogen hormone, and thereby interfere with cellular functioning.. Xeno-Estrogens, aka psuedo-estrogens, are the molecules that do the weak-bonding, estrogen receptor interference thing.. For many hundreds and even thousands of years, humans have known of the healing properties of various plants, flowers, and fruits, for various ailments.. Over the past century, science and technology have enabled herbal processing companies to extract the specific bio-molecules of these plants, flowers, and fruits which are beneficial to human health and ...
Abstract Background Viruses bind to specific cellular receptors in order to infect their hosts. The specific receptors a virus uses are important factors in determining host range, cellular tropism, and pathogenesis. For adenovirus, the existing model of entry requires two receptor interactions. First, the viral fiber protein binds Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR), its primary cellular receptor, which docks the virus to the cell surface. Next, viral penton base engages cellular integrins, coreceptors thought to be required exclusively for internalization and not contributing to binding. However, a number of studies reporting data which conflicts with this simple model have been published. These observations have led us to question the proposed two-step model for adenovirus infection. Results In this study we report that cells which express little to no CAR can be efficiently transduced by adenovirus. Using competition experiments between whole virus and soluble viral fiber protein or ...
Clone REA692 recognizes the mouse T cell immunoglobulin mucin receptor 1 (TIM-1) antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein, also known as hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr-1) or kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1). The TIM gene family is involved in a variety of immunity related processes including T cell proliferation and survival, tissue inflammation, and atopy. In mice, eight TIM genes encode the proteins TIM-1 to TIM-8, whereas only three TIM genes are found in humans encoding TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4. Several lines of evidence suggest that TIM-1 regulates T cell activity in vivo through responses mediated by Tʜ1, Tʜ2, Tʜ17, and regulatory T cells. TIM-1 is recruited to the T cell receptor signaling complex and has a costimulatory role. TIM-1 expression has been demonstrated in epithelial cells, especially those of kidney origin, and is greatly increased in both mouse and human kidneys after injury. While absent on naive CD4 T cells, TIM-1 expression increases following TCR
Molecular model of the fibre knob protein from an Adenovirus complexed with its human cellular receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). The binding of the fibre knob protein to CAR allows the virus entry to the cell. - Stock Image C025/1656
FLVCR antibody [C3], C-term (feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1) for WB. Anti-FLVCR pAb (GTX106462) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CBL - CBL Mutant (G397V), Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens Cas-Br-M (murine) ecotropic retroviral transforming sequence (CBL) as transfection-ready DNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The homology models for d1, d2, and d3 were fitted into the reconstruction (Fig. 3b). Because the density map exhibits constrictions between the domains, determining the placement of the domains was mainly a matter of fixing their orientations about their long axes. The d1 model could be fitted into the density map in either of two orientations, 180o apart. One orientation was entirely consistent with mutational data implicating the C′C and DE loops of Pvr, and the EF (166-169) and GH (213-236) loops of VP1, the EF loop of VP2 (140-144), and the GH loop of VP3 (182-186) as important interaction sites; the other was inconsistent with these data. The orientations of d2 and d3 were unambiguous. β-Strand and loop assignments in the final model (Fig. 3b Inset) are given in Fig. 3c.. The d1 model (residues 29-142) fits the reconstructed density well and exhibits notable complementarity with the virus surface. Adaptation of the initial homology model to fit the density map required major changes in ...
Human CellExp HAVCR1 / KIM1 / TIM1, human recombinant protein, HAVCR1, HAVCR, HAVCR-1, KIM-1, KIM1, TIM, TIM-1, TIM1, TIMD-1, TIMD1, Hepatitis A virus cellular rec validated in (PBV11115r-10), Abgent
two. a pc code that may be inserted right into a application to damage data or bring about glitches. virus فيروس في الكومبيوتر комп. вирус vírus virus der Virus virus ιός Η/Υ virus arvutiviirus ویروس virus virusוירוס वाइरस, विषाणु virus (računalni) számítógépes vírus virus komputer virus コンピューターウイルス 컴퓨터 바이러스 (kompiuterio) virusas datorvīruss virus virusvirus wirus komputerowy زهر вирус počítačový vírus virus virus datavirus ไวรัสคอมพิวเตอร์ virüs 電腦病毒 вірус وائرس، کمپيوٹر نظام کو تباہ کرنے والا کوڈ vi rút máy tính 计算机病 ...
Virus infection is a multistep process that has significant effects on the structure and function of both the virus and the host cell. The first steps of virus replication include cell binding, entry and release of the viral genome. Single-virus force spectroscopy (SVFS) has become a promising tool to understand the molecular details of those steps. SVFS data complemented by biochemical and biophysical, including theoretical modeling approaches provide valuable insights into molecular events that accompany virus infection. Properties of virus-cell interaction as well as structural alterations of the virus essential for infection can be investigated on a quantitative level. Here we review applications of SVFS to virus binding, structure and mechanics. We demonstrate that SVFS offers unexpected new insights not accessible by other methods. ...
This is in response to David Coates question about whether animal viruses can transcytose. There is a new model for how enteric viruses (Poliovirus and reovirus, so far) cross the gut barrier. A (relatively) newly identified cell type, called M cells may nonspecifically transcytose the contents of the gut lumen into the underlying lymph tissue. The evidence that this occurs in a natural infection is, so far, indirect. For technical reasons, it still is not known whether the poliovirus receptor is expressed at the lumenal face of the intestinal mucosa. The reovirus receptor has not been identified. The M cells (from biopsies) This is in response to David Coatesquestion about whether animalcan transcytose poliovirus in culture ...
abstract = {The activation of an immune response requires recognition of microorganisms by host receptors. In drosophila, detection of Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by cooperation between the peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SA (PGRP-SA) and Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) proteins. Here we show that some Gram-positive bacterial species activate an immune response in a PGRP-SA- and GNBP1-independent manner, indicating that alternative receptors exist. Consistent with this, we noted that PGRP-SD mutants were susceptible to some Gram-positive bacteria and that a loss-of-function mutation in PGRP-SD severely exacerbated the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 mutant phenotypes. These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex ...
usr/bin/perl -w use strict; my $gCurRec; foreach(qw(name to file action virus)) { $gCurRec-,{$_}=; } while(,DATA,) { $gCurRec-,{name}=$1 if (/^From:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); $gCurRec-,{to}=$1 if (/^To:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); $gCurRec-,{file}=$1 if (/^File:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); $gCurRec-,{action}=$1 if (/^Action:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); $gCurRec-,{virus}=$1 if (/^Virus:\s*(.+?)\s*$/); if (/^-----/) { print $gCurRec-,{name},\t, $gCurRec-,{to},\t, $gCurRec-,{file},\t, $gCurRec-,{action},\t, $gCurRec-,{virus},\n; foreach(qw(name to file action virus)) { $gCurRec-,{$_}=; } } } __DATA__ From: [email protected] To: [email protected] File: value.scr Action: The uncleanable file is deleted. Virus: WORM_KLEZ.H ---------------------------------- Date: 06/30/2002 00:01:21 From: [email protected] To: [email protected] File: Nr.pif Action: The uncleanable file is deleted. Virus: WORM_KLEZ.H ...
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he second line of work in our lab involves analyzes of the regulation of gene expression under stress conditions. Eukaryotic cells have developed multiple mechanisms to respond to different cellular stresses initiated by chemical toxins. The regulations of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels are very important modules of the cellular stress response. Our preliminary studies and the work that was done by others have shown that OTA treatment causes increased expression of Kim1 (Kidney Injury Molecule 1 which is also known as HavcR1) mRNA and protein in kidney cell lines and animal models such as mouse . Therefore our aim is to understand how cells achieve high-level of Kim1 expression while there is a decrease in the expression of other genes at the global level.. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Poliovirus Receptor antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Buy and download royalty-free image ID 7126350: 3D render of a medical background with blood cells, DNA strands and virus cells by kirstypargeter from Cres..
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Yet there were plenty of viruses in the wild to worry about such as W32/Yaha.E, which can arrive in an e-mail masquerading as a screensaver. There was also Worm.Frethem.D, which arrived purporting to be a decrypted password. Long-time pests such as Badtrans, Nimda and Sircam are still making the rounds. One interesting fact is most, if not all, of the top viruses in June were Windows 32 viruses, not Word macro or script viruses, said Chris Wraight, technology consultant at Sophos Americas. Worms and viruses that spread using networking functions or e-mail clients currently dominate inquiries to our customer support. Below are the monthly virus numbers from different antivirus vendors ...
THE HPV VIRUS hits males and females of all ages but is most commonly found in the 15-24 age group. In women, the highest and deadliest form of the virus can lead to cervical cancer and thousands of needless deaths each year. (Photos are generic representations of age groups more susceptible to the virus and…
There are many different types of virus according to there infection or according to there fucntionality. Polymorphic Viruses There viruses change there behaviour as they infect a system. Stealth Viruses They can hide themselves from AV. Fast and Slow Infectors
I got info about virus on net.So checked accordingly, found $Recycle.bin virus in my C drive, how to remove, if it is a virus, without deleting windows related files, if at all existing here. ...
Your email to user [email protected] contained a VIRUS and was not delivered. Remove the virus in your attachment and resend. Thank you, IT Department, IEE ====================================== VIRUS Report: ====================================== /var/tmp/avpcheck6jdVJb archive: Mail /var/tmp/avpcheck6jdVJb/[From ,[email protected],][Date Wed, 20 Aug 2003 10:26:42 +0200]/UNNAMED ok. /var/tmp/avpcheck6jdVJb/[From ,[email protected],][Date Wed, 20 Aug 2003 10:26:42 +0200]/text infected: I-Worm.Sobig.txt ...
you may want to try going into safe mode. ----- Original Message ----- From: DH Holmes ,[email protected], To: ,[email protected], Sent: Thursday, October 06, 2005 4:00 PM Subject: -=PCTechTalk=- Re: Need Help with Virus , Don, , Have you tried the System Restore trick? If this virus is located in , those files it is not, apparently, going to be deleted by an AV prog. , , The fix is simple, but is done at the cost of losing all previous , footprints of your system. Go to System restore and disable System , Restore. Reboot(a MUST), then Re-enable System Restore and create a , restore point(important). That will be the ONLY restore point you will , have, all earlier ones being deleted. That may solve your problem. I , cant tell. , , Just remember that all your previous restore points are lost when you , disable!!!! , , HTH , , Rick H , , [email protected] wrote: ,, I dont think people really read the description of my problem. ,, I cant use an on line scanner if the virus keeps me ...
Which of the following disease is caused by a virus ? Common cols is caused by virus.Viruses cannot exist on their own and for survival they need to spread to another host.
Slide set: Viruses have always lived among humans, and they killed many millions of people. In fact, without a host, these microscopic parasites cannot reproduce or survive. As scientists discover the chemical rules by which each virus plays, they can begin to control how a virus affects us. Companion slide set to the video, Viruses.
Slide set: Viruses have always lived among humans, and they killed many millions of people. In fact, without a host, these microscopic parasites cannot reproduce or survive. As scientists discover the chemical rules by which each virus plays, they can begin to control how a virus affects us. Companion slide set to the video, Viruses.
I use Zone Alarm, Avast Antivirus and Spybot, but on a recent scan the following viurses showed up:also I would like to have an idea of how I got these viruses and see below concerns about my start up files. Detected 6/28/07 Scanning of selected filesAction was completed successfully!Virus has been detected! File Name: A0081006.exe.vir FileID: 11 Virus Description: Win32:Trojan-gen. {VC} Scanning of selected files
Learn all about viruses with these virus worksheets for kids. What are viruses, how do they make us sick and whats the difference from a bacteria?
hello world! I cant find the best anti virus to protect my PC using XP I Googled.. some says that bitdefender is #1 others says no the Kaspersky is the best.:( I think i will migrate to linux to protect my self from viruses!!:x which anti virus you use thanks
Hi Everyone, Would it ever be possible for a Mac to get a virus if there were Mac viruses floating around like PC viruses. What about...
Anyone had SmartSecurity detect a program as a virus incorrectly? I know that people would not question when a virus program says that something is a...
Threat detection system could identify and quarantine worms, before the malicious code has the chance to wreak havoc on unpatched systems
Virus: Virus, an infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria.
This is the latest virus pattern to detect the latest viruses. This update will work on the following products: NAV 2000 for Win9x/NT/2000, NAV 2001 for Win95b/98/NT/2000/Me, NAV 2002 Professional E...
Play Virus 2 a free Puzzle at OneMoreLevel.com. Thousands of free addictive Flash games like Virus 2 and many more. Updated daily.
Mac virus - I have a macbook air, and I think it might have a virus. The computer seemed to be working just fine, but all my desktop icons had disappeared. I foun
Hey, look at these ads that appeared on my sites ads, are they new or is it a possible virus? I hope its new..... Here is the picture to show.....
Hello everyone, Since last few days, I am getting lots of mails with attachments .pif from unknown users... I know this is a virus called [email protected] but now many ppl are getting the same from my id... These mails are really frustrating... and everyday my mailbox gets full due to these... What can I do to prevent all this?? Please help... Thank you.. Riya
sorry posting in wrong thread but figured more people will see it at the top. anyway, your ad has a virus, tries to load java and infect via one of th
In parallel, when toll-like receptors in the endocytic compartments recognize a virus the activation of the adaptor protein ... NOD-like receptor. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f Janeway C, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik M (2001). Immunobiology (Fifth ... Toll-like receptors are a major class of pattern recognition receptor, that exists in all coelomates (animals with a body- ... These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which ...
... s are proteins encoded by some large DNA viruses that are secreted by the host cell and serve to evade the host's ... Viroceptors mimic host receptors and thus divert signaling molecules from finding their targets. Cytokine-binding proteins bind ... The first identified virokine was an epidermal growth factor-like protein found in myxoma viruses. Much of the early work on ... Virokines in this family are thought to have been acquired from host genes and from other viruses through horizontal gene ...
virus receptor activity. • receptor activity. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • integrin binding. • protein ... response to virus. • response to ionizing radiation. • response to sulfur dioxide. • response to organic cyclic compound. • ... receptor-mediated virion attachment to host cell. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • regulation of ... T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell. • T cell antigen ...
... tracking of AMPA receptors on cell membranes,[48] viral entry and the infection of individual influenza viruses and lentiviral ... Macro-scale biological processes, such as the spread of virus infections, can be followed using GFP labeling.[58] In the past, ... Arun KH, Kaul CL, Ramarao P (2005). "Green fluorescent proteins in receptor research: an emerging tool for drug discovery". ... receptor dimerization, and other processes provide highly specific optical readouts of cell activity in real time. ...
It was found that this virus had a similar "jelly roll fold" to that found previously in the tomato bushy stunt virus, which at ... Rossmann MG, He Y, Kuhn RJ (July 2002). "Picornavirus-receptor interactions". Trends in Microbiology. 10 (7): 324-31. doi: ... These are exemplified by bacteriophage T4 and nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, also referred to as giant viruses. The ... Part of the problem was that it was very difficult at the time to produce milligram quantities of an animal virus, as needed ...
Virus particles can be shed by the latent host in shared water or through direct contact (horizontal transmission), ... Spear, Patricia G.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H. "Three Classes of Cell Surface Receptors for Alphaherpesvirus Entry ... The clinical signs of DVE "vary with virulence of virus strain, species, sex, and immune system status" of the host. Due to the ... DVH-1 replicates in the mucus membranes of bird's esophagus and cloaca, the two primary entrances of the virus. The means of ...
receptor activity. • antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity ... Tatsuo H, Ono N, Tanaka K, Yanagi Y (2000). "SLAM (CDw150) is a cellular receptor for measles virus". Nature. 406 (6798): 893-7 ... STAT6, IRF4, and NF-kB factors involved in the transfer of the signals from the B-cell receptor, its co-receptors and IL-4R, ... Cocks BG, Chang CC, Carballido JM, Yssel H, de Vries JE, Aversa G (August 1995). "A novel receptor involved in T-cell ...
Virus Receptors part 1 Bacterial Viruses. Chapman and Hall, London and New York. OCLC 8409813 The following have not yet been ... The Viruses: Biochemical, Biological and Biophysical Properties: Plant and Bacterial Viruses. Academic Press, New York. OCLC ... German; Healthy through Viruses - A Way Out of the Antibiotic-Resistance Crisis] OCLC 53098607 O'Brien, P. M., and R. Aitken. ... Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth. The history of phage ...
"Mouse transferrin receptor 1 is the cell entry receptor for mouse mammary tumor virus". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... They are classified as group II viruses in the Baltimore classification of viruses. Parvoviruses are among the smallest viruses ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ... Parvoviruses are specific viruses that are characterized by which receptors they attack.[11] Testing found that parvovirus ...
... to host integrin entry receptors mediates internalization into the host cell by clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virus and ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and lysis. Human, mammals, and vertebrates serve as ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fibers to the host CAR adhesion receptor. Subsequent binding of ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 1 July 2015. taxonomy. "Taxonomy browser (Mastadenovirus)". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ...
The virus integrates the receptor into the T cells' genome. The cells are expanded non-specifically and/or stimulated. The ... Li Y, Zhang T, Ho C, Orange JS, Douglas SD, Ho WZ (December 2004). "Natural killer cells inhibit hepatitis C virus expression ... The diagram above represents the process of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR), this is a method of immunotherapy, ... Then in a lab setting the gene that encodes for the specific antigen receptors are incorporated into the T-cells. ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus induces phosphorylation of its cell surface receptor". Nature. 333 (6170): 278-80. doi:10.1038/ ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... T cell receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of platelet aggregation. • execution phase of apoptosis. • regulation of ... Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway. • protein phosphorylation. • negative regulation of T cell apoptotic process. • negative ...
Blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruses to mucosa Like the T cell, B cells express a unique B cell receptor (BCR), in this case ... Another set comprises pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors, which induce the production of interferons and ... and the receptors that recognize antigens must be produced in a huge variety of configurations, in essence one receptor (at ... Lymphocyte receptors, Ig and TCR, are found in all jawed vertebrates. The most ancient Ig class, IgM, is membrane-bound and ...
These receptors are located on the surface of host immune cells whereby they provide a method of entry for the HIV-1 virus to ... and HIV co-receptor activity. HIV-1 most commonly uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 as co-receptors to enter ... Even without the availability of either co-receptor (even CCR5), the virus can still invade cells if gp41 were to go through an ... It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group. CCR5's cognate ligands ...
Receptor mutations. A low percentage of long-term nonprogressors have been shown to have inherited mutations of the CCR5 ... In a small number of people infected with HIV, the virus is naturally suppressed without medical treatment. These people may ... This process involves the virus transcribing its singe-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA that is incorporated into ... All individuals with HIV make antibodies against the virus. In most patients, broadly neutralizing antibodies do not emerge ...
Understanding how the interaction between virus and cell alters the viral particle and how virus entry is facilitated by the ... "Kinetic Analysis of the Effect of Poliovirus Receptor on Viral Uncoating: the Receptor as a Catalyst". Journal of Virology. 75 ... An element present within the virus RNA was hypothesized to govern viral tropism which tissues the virus infected. Newborn mice ... a liver specific virus, or coxsackievirus B3, a virus that infects the heart or meninges. Mice infected with any of these ...
"Gangliosides are receptors for murine polyoma virus and SV40". The EMBO Journal. 22 (17): 4346-55. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg439. ... Although viruses in circulation among feral mice can be tumorigenic, under natural conditions the virus does not cause tumors; ... "Receptor-binding and oncogenic properties of polyoma viruses isolated from feral mice". PLOS Pathogens. 3 (12): e179. doi: ... and in older literature as SE polyoma or parotid tumor virus; abbreviated MPyV) is an unenveloped double-stranded DNA virus of ...
JC virus requires the 5HT2A serotonin receptor for entry, although the specific mechanism of this requirement is unclear. Once ... The exact mechanism of endocytosis varies depending on the virus, and some viruses use multiple mechanisms; caveolae-dependent ... "Gangliosides are receptors for murine polyoma virus and SV40". The EMBO Journal. 22 (17): 4346-55. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg439. ... VP1 is capable of self-assembly into virus-like particles even in the absence of other viral components. This process requires ...
... also called Poliovirus-Receptor-Like 4 (PVRL4)) mainly work as cell entry receptors. Minor fraction of wild type virus strains ... "The Host Cell Receptors for Measles Virus and Their Interaction with the Viral Hemagglutinin (H) Protein". Viruses. 8 (9): 250 ... Lu G, Gao GF, Yan J (2013). "The receptors and entry of measles virus: a review". Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao (in Chinese). 29 ... In the early stages of infection, the measles virus via CD150 (SLAMF1) receptor infects immune cells located in the host ...
Calil IP, Fontes EP (March 2017). "Plant immunity against viruses: antiviral immune receptors in focus". Annals of Botany. 119 ... Virus-host interactions are another example of an evolutionary arms race, and many plant viruses encode suppressors of both ... involves inserting part of the promoter sequence of the desired target gene into a virus. The virus will reproduce the chunk of ... For example, RdDM-derived sRNAs against TEs or viruses that have already integrated into the genome and been silenced serve as ...
"Entrez Gene: toll-like receptor 3". Norval M (2012). "Virus-Cell Interactions". In Greenwood D, Slack RC, Barer MR, et al. (eds ... TLR3 is a member of the toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. TLR3 is a ... Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) also known as CD283 (cluster of differentiation 283) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta and pancreas, and is restricted to the dendritic subpopulation of the ...
"Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly and receptor binding". Proceedings of ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... Virus lifecycle[edit]. The lifecycle of hepatitis E virus is unknown; the capsid protein obtains viral entry by binding to a ...
The E1 and E2 proteins mediate contact between the virus and the host cell. Several receptors have been identified. These ... virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon ... Cabassou virus Everglades virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Paramana virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Trocara virus ... encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus ...
HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. CD4+: Sel T pembantu CCR5: Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5. CDC: Centers for Disease ... Hal ini karena infeksi oleh virus DNA penyebab mutasi genetik; yaitu terutama virus Epstein-Barr (EBV), virus herpes Sarkoma ... Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh virus dari subfamili gammaherpesvirinae, yaitu virus herpes manusia-8 yang juga disebut virus ... yang timbul karena rusaknya sistem kekebalan tubuh manusia akibat infeksi virus HIV;[1] atau infeksi virus-virus lain yang ...
... activating receptors and inhibitory receptors, including killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Most of these receptors are ... Chikungunya virus, HIV, or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK ... NK cell receptors can also be differentiated based on function. Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis (cell ... Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of tumor cells by NK cells is mediated by alternative receptors, ...
"Enhanced recognition of human NK receptors after influenza virus infection". Journal of Immunology. 171 (2): 915-23. doi: ... "A new human gene complex encoding the killer cell inhibitory receptors and related monocyte/macrophage receptors". Current ... "Genomic organization of the human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors within the leukocyte receptor complex on chromosome ... Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRB1 gene. This ...
... are responsible for the infection power of the virus by binding the virus particle to a membrane receptor of the host cell-the ... The virus becomes feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) when random errors occur in the virus infecting an enterocyte, ... Holmes, K. V.; Tresnan, D. B.; Zelus, B. D. (1997). "Virus-Receptor Interactions in the Enteric Tract". In Paul, Prem S.; ... The virus is insignificant until mutations cause the virus to be transformed from FECV to FIPV. FIPV causes feline infectious ...
Wybenga LE, Epand RF, Nir S, Chu JW, Sharom FJ, Flanagan TD, Epand RM (July 1996). "Glycophorin as a receptor for Sendai virus ... Several viruses bind to glycophorin A including hepatitis A virus (via its capsid), bovine parvovirus, Sendai virus, influenza ... Ohyama K, Endo T, Ohkuma S, Yamakawa T (May 1993). "Isolation and influenza virus receptor activity of glycophorins B, C and D ... The Wright b antigen (Wrb) is located on glycophorin A and acts as a receptor for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... E2 binds to cellular receptors in order to enter the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. E1 contains a fusion ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ...
9, 35 In active infection, HIV pro virus is active and HIV virus particles are actively replicated; and the infected cells ... A cellular receptor, generally CCR5 or CXCR4 is required in order for HIV entry into CD4 cells. Cells of individuals homozygous ... while the virus is in a person's body but before the virus has established itself. In both cases, the drugs would be the same ... Virus characteristics[edit]. See also: Structure and genome of HIV and Subtypes of HIV ...

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