Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Purinergic P2X Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y2: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.Receptors, Purinergic P2X4: A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Purinergic P2Y Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors whose signaling is coupled through a G-PROTEIN signaling mechanism.Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P2X2: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X2 subunits. The P2X2 subunits also have been found associated with P2X3 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Purinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Purinergic Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.Receptors, Purinergic P2X5: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at high levels in the BRAIN and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Receptors, Purinergic P2X1: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at sympathetically innervated SMOOTH MUSCLE. It may play a functional role regulating the juxtoglomerular apparatus of the KIDNEY.Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Purinergic Agents: Compounds that act on PURINERGIC RECEPTORS or influence the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of purinergic transmitters.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Uridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Carbenoxolone: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenine NucleotidesNeurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.

Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release. (1/2286)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

A2B adenosine and P2Y2 receptors stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. cross-talk between cyclic AMP and protein kinase c pathways. (2/2286)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades underlie long-term mitogenic, morphogenic, and secretory activities of purinergic receptors. In HEK-293 cells, N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) activates endogenous A2BARs that signal through Gs and Gq/11. UTP activates P2Y2 receptors and signals only through Gq/11. The MAPK isoforms, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK), are activated by NECA and UTP. H-89 blocks ERK activation by forskolin, but weakly affects the response to NECA or UTP. ERK activation by NECA or UTP is unaffected by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein), attenuated by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122), and is abolished by a MEK inhibitor (PD098059) or dominant negative Ras. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X failed to block ERK activation by NECA or UTP, however, another PKC inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, which unlike GF 109203X, can block the zeta-isoform, and prevents UTP- but not NECA-induced ERK activation. In the presence of forskolin, Ro 31-8220 loses its ability to block UTP-stimulated ERK activation. PKA has opposing effects on B-Raf and c-Raf-1, both of which are found in HEK-293 cells. The data are explained by a model in which ERK activity is modulated by differential effects of PKC zeta and PKA on Raf isoforms.  (+info)

Selective expression of purinoceptor cP2Y1 suggests a role for nucleotide signalling in development of the chick embryo. (3/2286)

Responses to extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, etc.) have been demonstrated in a number of embryonic cell types suggesting they may be important signalling molecules during embryonic development. Here the authors describe for the first time the expression of a G-protein-coupled receptor for extracellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1), during embryonic development of the chick. During the first 10 days of embryonic development, cP2Y1 is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in the limb buds, mesonephros, brain, somites, and facial primordia, suggesting that this receptor may have a role in the development of each of these systems.  (+info)

Hetero-oligomeric assembly of P2X receptor subunits. Specificities exist with regard to possible partners. (4/2286)

P2X receptors are a distinct family of ligand-gated ion channels activated by extracellular ATP. Each of the seven identified subunit proteins (P2X1 through P2X7) has been reported to form functional homo-oligomeric channels when expressed in heterologous systems. Functional studies of native receptors, together with patterns of subunit gene expression, suggest that hetero-oligomeric assembly among members of this family may also occur. This prediction is supported by reports describing hetero-oligomeric assembly for three different recombinant subunit combinations. In this report, we systematically examined the ability of all members of the P2X receptor family to interact using a co-immunoprecipitation assay. The seven P2X receptor subunits were differentially epitope-tagged and expressed in various combinations in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. It was found that six of the seven subunits formed homo-oligomeric complexes, the exception being P2X6. When co-assembly between pairs of subunits was examined, all were able to form hetero-oligomeric assemblies with the exception of P2X7. Whereas P2X1, P2X2, P2X5, and P2X6 were able to assemble with most subunits, P2X3 and P2X4 presented a more restricted pattern of co-association. These results suggest that hetero-oligomeric assembly might underlie functional discrepancies observed between P2X responses seen in the native and recombinant settings, while providing for an increased diversity of signaling by ATP.  (+info)

Confocal calcium imaging reveals an ionotropic P2 nucleotide receptor in the paranodal membrane of rat Schwann cells. (5/2286)

1. The paranodal Schwann cell region is of major importance for the function of a myelinated axon. In the present study we searched for a possible ionotropic effect of extracellular ATP in this Schwann cell compartment. 2. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cultured rat Schwann cells revealed that ATP and 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) induced a non-specific cation current. The effect of ATP was much enhanced in a Ca2+- and Mg2+-free solution. ADP, UTP and alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-meATP) had no effect. 3. Confocal Ca2+ imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in isolated rat spinal roots showed a BzATP-induced rise in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration in the paranodal Schwann cell cytoplasm whereas alpha,beta-meATP and 2-(methylthio)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate were without effect. In contrast to the known metabotropic effect of UTP on these Schwann cell regions, the BzATP-induced Ca2+ signal was not transient, was unaffected by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. 4. These results suggest that an ionotropic ATP receptor with electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the P2X7 subtype of nucleotide receptors is functionally active in myelinating Schwann cells of peripheral nerves. Such a receptor might contribute to Schwann cell reactions in nerve injury or neuropathy.  (+info)

P2 purinoceptor saturation by adenosine triphosphate impairs renal autoregulation in dogs. (6/2286)

Recent studies have suggested a role for P2 purinoceptors on vascular smooth muscle cells in the mechanism of renal autoregulation. Experiments were performed in anesthetized dogs (n = 9) to examine renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulatory efficiency before and after saturation of P2 purinoceptors with acute intra-arterial administration of ATP (1 mg/kg per min). Dogs were pretreated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine (NLA) (50 microg/kg per min), to avoid endothelial P2 receptor-mediated effects on nitric oxide release caused by the intra-arterial ATP infusions. NLA treatment decreased RBF (5.3+/-0.3 to 3.6+/-0.2 ml/min per g) and sodium excretion (3.6+/-0.4 to 0.9+/-0.2 ml/min per g) without producing significant changes in GFR (0.92+/-0.04 to 0.90+/-0.06 ml/min per g) or RBF autoregulatory efficiency. ATP administration to NLA-treated dogs resulted in further decreases in RBF (2.8+/-0.2 ml/min per g), GFR (0.58+/-0.05 ml/min per g), and sodium excretion (0.6+/-0.2 micromol/min per g). In addition, there was marked impairment of RBF autoregulatory efficiency during ATP infusion. The slopes of the arterial pressure-blood flow relationships at renal arterial pressures of >75 mmHg were significantly altered, from 0.003+/-0.001 to 0.2+/-0.002 ml/min per g per mmHg. Discontinuation of ATP infusion restored RBF autoregulatory efficiency. Norepinephrine (5 microg/kg per min) administration in these NLA-treated dogs decreased RBF (2.5+/-0.3 ml/min per g; n = 4) to a similar extent, compared with ATP, but did not impair RBF autoregulation. These results support the hypothesis that P2 purinoceptors may be involved in mediating autoregulatory adjustments in renal vascular resistance.  (+info)

Ecto-ATPase activity of alpha-sarcoglycan (adhalin). (7/2286)

alpha-Sarcoglycan is a component of the sarcoglycan complex of dystrophin-associated proteins. Mutations of any of the sarcoglycan genes cause specific forms of muscular dystrophies, collectively termed sarcoglycanopathies. Importantly, a deficiency of any specific sarcoglycan affects the expression of the others. Thus, it appears that the lack of sarcoglycans deprives the muscle cell of an essential, yet unknown function. In the present study, we provide evidence for an ecto-ATPase activity of alpha-sarcoglycan. alpha-Sarcoglycan binds ATP in a Mg2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent manner. The binding is inhibited by 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP and ADP. Sequence analysis reveals the existence of a consensus site for nucleotide binding in the extracellular domain of the protein. An antibody against this sequence inhibits the binding of ATP. A dystrophin.dystrophin-associated protein preparation demonstrates a Mg-ATPase activity that is inhibited by the antibody but not by inhibitors of endo-ATPases. In addition, we demonstrate the presence in the sarcolemmal membrane of a P2X-type purinergic receptor. These data suggest that alpha-sarcoglycan may modulate the activity of P2X receptors by buffering the extracellular ATP concentration. The absence of alpha-sarcoglycan in sarcoglycanopathies leaves elevated the concentration of extracellular ATP and the persistent activation of P2X receptors, leading to intracellular Ca2+ overload and muscle fiber death.  (+info)

Cell type-specific ATP-activated responses in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. (8/2286)

1. The aim of our study is to clarify the relationship between expression pattern of P2X receptors and the cell type of male adult rat (Wistar) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We identified the nociceptive cells of acutely dissociated DRG neurons from adult rats type using capsaicin sensitivity. 2. Two types of ATP-activated currents, one with fast, the other with slow desensitization, were found under voltage-clamp conditions. In addition, cells with fast but not slow desensitization responded to capsaicin, indicating that there was a relationship between current kinetics and capsaicin-sensitivity. 3. Both types of neurons were responsive to ATP and alpha, beta methylene-ATP (alpha,betameATP). The concentration of alpha,(beta)meATP producing half-maximal activation (EC50) of neurons with fast desensitization was less (11 microM) than that of neurons with slow desensitization (63 microM), while the Hill coefficients were similar. Suramin and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid tetrasodium (PPADS) antagonized alpha,betameATP-induced currents in both types of neurons. 4. In situ hybridization revealed that small cells of the DRG predominantly expressed mRNAs of P2X3 and medium-sized cells expressed mRNAs of P2X2 and P2X3. In contrast, both of mRNAs were not detected in large cells of the DRG. 5. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive, small-sized DRG neurons expressed mainly the homomeric P2X3 subunit and that capsaicin-insensitive, medium-sized DRG neurons expressed the heteromultimeric receptor with P2X2 and P2X3.  (+info)

*Regrelor

... is classified as an purinergic P2 receptor (P2Y12) antagonist. Other compounds in the same mechanistic class include ... It is characterized as a reversible, competitive receptor antagonist. The IC50 for antagonism of ADP-induced (P2Y12-mediated) ... ADP-receptor antagonist, INS50589". Platelets. 18 (5): 346-56. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) "Regrelor Disodium". en. ... Modifications to Dinucleoside Polyphosphates and Nucleotides that Confer Antagonist Properties at the Platelet P2Y12 Receptor ...

*P2Y receptor

IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Purinergic P2 receptors ... P2Y receptors are a family of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors, stimulated by nucleotides such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP and ... Human P2Y receptors have the following G protein coupling: The gaps in P2Y receptor numbering is due to that several receptors ... HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, Gene Family: Purinergic receptors P2Y (P2RY), retrieved 2017-01-26. Pasternack SM, von ...

*P2 receptor

... may refer to: P2Y receptors P2X receptors P is for purinergic, P2 refers to ATP receptors, as opposed to P1 ... P2X receptors are ATP activated channels that allows the passage of ions across cell membranes. P2Y receptors are ATP activated ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that initiate an intracellular chain of reactions.. ...

*Multiple electrode aggregometry

Hechler, B; Gachet, C (1988). "P2 receptors and platelet function". Purinergic signalling. 27 (2011 September; 7(3)): 293-303. ... Thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6) activates platelets through the thrombin receptor protease activated receptor-1 ... Activation of the P2Y1 receptor initiates platelet aggregation in response to ADP. The P2Y1 receptor is required for ADP- ... When it is added to saline-diluted whole blood in the test cuvette, it stimulates the ADP receptors on platelets, activating ...

*Purinergic signalling

... was shown to block P2X3 receptor signaling Burnstock, Geoffrey (June 2006). "Purinergic P2 receptors as targets for novel ... The purinergic signalling complex of a cell is sometimes referred to as the "purinome". Purinergic receptors, represented by ... Purinergic receptors are specific classes of membrane receptors that mediate various physiological functions such as the ... There are three known distinct classes of purinergic receptors, known as P1, P2X, and P2Y receptors. Cell signalling events ...

*ENTPD1

"Comparative hydrolysis of P2 receptor agonists by NTPDases 1, 2, 3 and 8". Purinergic Signalling. 1 (2): 193-204. doi:10.1007/ ... NTPDase1 hydrolyzes P2 receptor ligands, namely ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP with similar efficacy. NTPDase1 can therefore affect P2 ... Kukulski F, Lévesque SA, Sévigny J (2011-01-01). "Impact of ectoenzymes on p2 and p1 receptor signaling". Advances in ... Yegutkin GG (May 2008). "Nucleotide- and nucleoside-converting ectoenzymes: Important modulators of purinergic signalling ...

*Geoffrey Burnstock

Indeed, we owe our present understanding of purinergic signaling and the current classification of P2 receptors to Geoff ... Much of our understanding of purinergic signalling and the current classification of purinergic receptors is attributed to the ... Di Virgilio, F. (22 October 2012). "Purines, Purinergic Receptors, and Cancer". Cancer Research. 72 (21): 5441-5447. doi: ... He coined the term "purinergic signalling" in 1972 in a key paper that has since been cited more than 2,000 times by other key ...

*Biochemical cascade

There are two main types of purinergic receptors, P1 binding to adenosine, and P2 binding to ATP or ADP, presenting different ... Therefore, there are four main transmembrane receptor types: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), tyrosine kinase receptors ( ... PAR1 and PAR4 receptors), platelet-derived thromboxane A2 (TxA2) (TP receptor) and ADP (P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors) that is ... Adenosine acts by binding to purinergic receptors and influencing adenilyl cyclase activity and the formation of cAMP and PKA ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... receptor, adenosine a3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.700.720 -- receptors, purinergic p2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.725.500 -- receptor, ... receptors, purinergic p2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.800.100 -- receptors, serotonin, 5-ht1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.800.100.100 ... receptor, adenosine a3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.810.720 -- receptors, purinergic p2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.850.249 -- bacterial ... receptor, par-1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.810.150 -- receptors, cyclic amp MeSH D12.776.543.750.810.700 -- receptors, purinergic p1 ...

*Ectonucleotidase

... s modulate P2 purinergic signaling. In addition, ectonucleotidases generate extracellular adenosine, which ... "Attenuating myocardial ischemia by targeting A2B adenosine receptors". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 19 (6): 345-354. doi: ... Beldi, G; Enjyoji, K; Wu, Y; Miller, L; Banz, Y; Sun, X; Robson, SC (Jan 1, 2008). "The role of purinergic signaling in the ... The contribution of ectonucleotidases in the modulation of purinergic signaling depends on the availability and preference of ...

*Rhodopsin-like receptors

P2 purinoceptor InterPro: IPR002286 Purinergic receptor P2Y1 (P2RY1) Purinergic receptor P2Y2 (P2RY2) Purinergic receptor P2Y4 ... Succinate receptor 1 (SUCNR1, GPR91) P2 purinoceptor InterPro: IPR002286 Purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2RY12) Purinergic receptor ... P2RY4) Purinergic receptor P2Y6 (P2RY6) Purinergic receptor P2Y8 (P2RY8) Purinergic receptor P2Y11 (P2RY11) Hydroxycarboxylic ... IPR002188 P2 purinoceptor InterPro: IPR002286 Purinergic receptor P2Y10 (P2RY10, P2Y10) Protease-activated receptor InterPro: ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... purinergic P1 receptor - purinergic P2 receptor - purinergic receptor - pyridine - pyrimidine - pyruvate - pyruvate oxidation ... interleukin receptor - interleukin-1 receptor - interleukin-2 receptor - interleukin-3 - interleukin-3 receptor - intermediate ... G protein-coupled receptor - G3P - GABA - GABA receptor - GABA-A receptor - gag-onc fusion protein - galanin - gamete - gamma- ... IgE receptor - IGF type 1 receptor - IGF type 2 receptor - IgG - IgM - immediate-early protein - immune cell - immune system - ...

*Purinergic receptor

P2 receptors) or adenosine (P1 receptors). P2 receptors have further been divided into five subclasses: P2X, P2Y, P2Z, P2U, and ... There are three known distinct classes of purinergic receptors, known as P1, P2X, and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are ligand- ... IUPHAR GPCR Database - Adenosine receptors IUPHAR GPCR Database - P2Y receptors Purinergic Receptors at the US National Library ... The term purinergic receptor was originally introduced to illustrate specific classes of membrane receptors that mediate ...

*P2RY14

This receptor is a P2Y purinergic receptor for UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugars coupled to G-proteins. It has been implicated ... Müller CE (2003). "P2-pyrimidinergic receptors and their ligands". Curr. Pharm. Des. 8 (26): 2353-69. doi:10.2174/ ... 2003). "Characterization of the UDP-glucose receptor (re-named here the P2Y14 receptor) adds diversity to the P2Y receptor ... Brunschweiger A, Müller CE (2006). "P2 receptors activated by uracil nucleotides--an update". Curr. Med. Chem. 13 (3): 289-312 ...

*PPADS

It appears to be relatively selective for P2X receptors, having no appreciable activity at α1 adrenergic, muscarinic M2 and M3 ... PPADS (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid) is a selective purinergic P2X antagonist. It is able to block ... Lambrecht, G. (1992). "PPADS, a novel functionally selective antagonist of P2 purinoreceptor mediated responses". European ... histamine H1, and adenosine A1 receptors. PPADS tetrasodium salt, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Ziganshin, AU (December 1993). " ...

*Rostral ventromedial medulla

Histological staining by another research group examined the distribution of purinergic receptor subtypes throughout the RVM. ... All on-cells showed a response to the non-specific P2 agonist uridine triphosphate (UTP). Activation of on cells by ATP was ... Close, L.N. (January 2009). "Purinergic Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla". Neuroscience. 158 (2): ... NK1 agonism induced hypersensitivity is dependent on 5-HT3 receptors, and modulated by GABAA and NMDA receptors as well. ...

*Adenosine receptor

The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ... "Towards a revised nomenclature for P1 and P2 receptors". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 18 (3): 79-82. doi:10.1016/S0165-6147(96)01038- ... The adenosine A1 receptor has been found to be ubiquitous throughout the entire body. This receptor has an inhibitory function ... Adenosine receptors play a key role in the homeostasis of bone. The A1 receptor has been shown to stimulate osteoclast ...

*P2RX7

One study in mice showed that blockade of P2X7 receptors attenuates onset of liver fibrosis. Purinergic receptor P2X receptor ... Gartland A, Buckley KA, Hipskind RA, Bowler WB, Gallagher JA (2003). "P2 receptors in bone--modulation of osteoclast formation ... The P2X7 subunits can form homomeric receptors only with a typical P2X receptor structure. The P2X7 receptor is a ligand-gated ... Receptors Channels. 5 (6): 347-54. PMID 9826911. "Entrez Gene: P2RX7 purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7". ...

*P2RX1

... purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 1". North RA (2002). "Molecular physiology of P2X receptors". Physiol ... 2004). "Increased mitogenic and decreased contractile P2 receptors in smooth muscle cells by shear stress in human vessels with ... "A study of P2X1 receptor function in murine megakaryocytes and human platelets reveals synergy with P2Y receptors". Br. J. ... receptor form disulfide bonds and are involved in receptor trafficking to the cell surface". Mol. Pharmacol. 61 (2): 303-11. ...

*Area postrema

Stimulation of the dopamine receptors in the area postrema activates these vomiting centers of the brain; this is why nausea is ... The results showed that most responses to ATP are excitatory and that they are mediated by particular P2 purinoceptors found in ... Kodama, N.; Funahashi, M.; Mitoh, Y.; Minagi, S.; Matsuo, R. (2007). "Purinergic modulation of area postrema neuronal ... The high density of dopamine receptors in the area postrema makes it very sensitive to the dopamine-enhancing drugs. ...

*Astrocyte

... and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), as well as activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors and release of BDNF. Persistent ... The resultant patterning along the neuraxis leads to segmentation of the neuroepithelium into progenitor domains (p0, p1 p2, p3 ... "Astrocytic purinergic signaling coordinates synaptic networks". Science. 310 (5745): 113-6. doi:10.1126/science.1116916. PMID ... and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors follows. It is the activation of these receptors that potentiates the ...
Novel agonists and potent antagonists at P2Y_1tn1_1tn1 purinergic receptors: synthesis and biological testing [Elektronische Ressource] = Neue Agonisten und potente Antagonisten an P2Y_1tn1_1tn1-Purinergic-Rezeptoren: Synthese und biologische Untersuchung / vorgelegt von Sophi Damayanti : Novel Agonists and Potent Antagonists at P2Y Purinergic Receptors: 11Synthesis and Biological Testing Neue Agonisten und potente Antagonisten an P2Y Purinergen Rezeptoren: 11 Synthese und Biologische Untersuchung Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf vorgelegt von Sophi
ATP produces significant cardiovascular effects by activation of P2 purinoceptors. In the present study, we examined the regional hemodynamic profiles produced by intravenous administration of a P2X and a P2Y purinergic receptor agonist. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with Inactin, catheters were placed in the femoral artery and vein and the rats were instrumented to measure renal, mesenteric, hindquarter, coronary and cerebral blood flow using Doppler flow probes. Administration of bolus doses (1-1000 nmol kg-1) of the P2X agonist beta, gama-methylene-ATP dose-dependently increased arterial pressure at doses greater than 100 nmol kg-1. This increase in mean arterial pressure was mediated by increases in coronary, mesenteric and renal vascular resistance after administration of 300 nmol kg-1. Cerebral and hindquarter vascular resistances were increased significantly only after 1000 nmol kg-1. This P2X agonist had the greatest efficacy in elevating resistance in the renal and mesenteric ...
The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) increases intracellular Ca2+ in a variety of cell types. By combining pharmacological and genetic manipulations, we reveal a novel mechanism through which the β2AR promotes Ca2+ mobilization (pEC50 = 7.32 ± 0.10) in nonexcitable human embryonic kidney (HEK)293S cells. Downregulation of Gs with sustained cholera toxin pretreatment and the use of Gs-null HEK293 (∆Gs-HEK293) cells generated using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system, combined with pharmacological modulation of cAMP formation, revealed a Gs-dependent but cAMP-independent increase in intracellular Ca2+ following β2AR stimulation. The increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ was inhibited by P2Y purinergic receptor antagonists as well as a dominant-negative mutant form of Gq, a Gq-selective inhibitor, and an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonist, suggesting a role for this Gq-coupled receptor family downstream of ...
Autori: Iacobas DA, Suadicani SO, Iacobas S, Chrisman C, Cohen M, Spray DC, Scemes E. Editorial: J Membr Biol, 217(1-3), p.83-91, 2007.. Rezumat:. Gap junctions and purinergic P2 receptors (P2Rs) can be regarded as belonging to a common functional unit, given that they are involved in the transmission of calcium signals between cells. We have previously shown that deletion of the Gja1 gene alters expression levels of numerous genes encoding proteins with diverse functions, including purinergic receptors (P2Rs), and have found that genes synergistically or antagonistically expressed in wild-type tissues are more prone to be similarly or oppositely regulated in Cx43-nulls. We have now explored the use of coordination analysis of gene expression as a strategy to identify interlinked genes encoding functionally related proteins and pull-downs to evaluate their interlinkage. Our findings indicate that, in brain and in cultured astrocytes, several of these coexpressed genes encode proteins that are ...
P2X purinoceptors are cell membrane ion channels, gated by adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides; they have been found to be widely expressed on mammalian cells, and, by means of their functional properties, can be differentiated into three sub-groups. The first group is almost equally well activated by ATP and its analogue alpha,betamethylene-ATP, whereas, the second group is not activated by the latter compound. A third type of receptor (also called P2Z) is distinguished by the fact that repeated or prolonged agonist application leads to the opening of much larger pores, allowing large molecules to traverse the cell membrane. This increased permeability rapidly leads to cell death, and lysis.. Molecular cloning studies have identified seven P2X receptor subtypes, designated P2X1-P2X7. These receptors are proteins that share 35-48% amino acid identity, and possess two putative transmembrane (TM) domains, separated by a long (~270 residues) intervening sequence, which is thought ...
Eight G protein-coupled P2Y receptor (P2YR) subtypes are important physiological mediators. The human P2YRs are fully activated by: ATP (P2Y2, P2Y11), ADP (P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2Y13), UTP (P2Y2, P2Y4), UDP (P2Y6, P2Y14), and UDP-glucose (P2Y14). Their structural elucidation is progressing rapidly; the X-ray structures of three ligand complexes of the Gi-coupled P2Y12R and two of the Gq-coupled P2Y1R were recently determined and will be especially useful in structure-based ligand design at two P2YR subfamilies. These high-resolution structures, which display unusual binding site features, complement mutagenesis studies for probing ligand recognition and activation. The structural requirements for nucleotide agonist recognition at P2YRs are relatively permissive with respect to the length of the phosphate moiety, but less so with respect to base recognition. Nucleotide-like antagonists and partial agonists are also known for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y12Rs. Each P2YR subtype has the ability to be ...
The generation of immune responses involves the coordinated communication between cells through direct cell-to-cell contact and the release of various soluble factors binding to their respective receptors. Of the many soluble factors and receptors known, there is growing evidence that the release of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its subsequent activation of cell-surface ligand-gated cation channels belonging to the family of P2X receptors (P2X1-7) play important roles in communication between immune cells [1]. Much of what is understood about the roles of extracellular ATP and the activation of P2X receptors during an immune response has been inferred from in vitro studies requiring the addition of exogenous ATP or from studies using rodent models of inflammation and immunity [2]. Nevertheless our understanding of the extracellular ATP-P2X receptor axes operating between immune cells, including CD4+ T cells, during immune responses is limited.
The activation of different P2Y receptor subtypes reduce T. gondii infection in peritoneal macrophages.Mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected with T. gondii
Purinergic homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are ligand-gated cation channels activated by ATP. Both receptors are predominantly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and an increase in extracellular ATP concentration under pathological conditions such as tissue damage or visceral distension induces channel opening, membrane depolarization and initiation of pain signaling. Hence these receptors are considered important therapeutic targets for pain management and development of selective antagonists is currently progressing. To advance the search for novel analgesics, we have generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against hP2X3. We have found that these antibodies produce distinct functional effects depending on the homomeric or heteromeric composition of the target, its kinetic state and the duration of antibody exposure. The most potent antibody, 12D4, showed an estimated IC50 of 16 nM on hP2X3 after short-term exposure (up to 18 minutes), binding to the ...
P2X purinoceptors, also known as the ATP-gated P2X receptor cation channel family, consist of cation-permeable ligand gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular ATP.
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: ATP P22 Horses to follow, Author: lee evans, Name: ATP P22 Horses to follow, Length: 1 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2012-12-01
Receptor for ATP that acts as a ligand-gated ion channel. This receptor is insensitive to the antagonists PPADS and suramin (By similarity).
In a report reviewing the 37 plenary talks and 80 poster sessions presented at a colloquium on Structure and Function of P2 Purinoceptors held by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics in 1995, a historical overview of the field, the molecular biology of P2 purinoceptors, signal transduction pathways of P2 purinoceptors, and a discussion of the physiological and pharma
This journal presents a forum for the publication of papers in the rapidly growing area of Purinergic Signalling (through purines and pyrimidines), with its exceptionally wide spectrum of signalling functions in health and disease. ...
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3642288623 Purinergic Signalling and the Nervous System Product Will Be Delivered Via Email Or Cloud Drive With
P2RY6 (P2Y purinoceptor 6) je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran P2RY6 genom.[1][2]. Protein kodiran ovim genom pripada familiji G-protein spregnutih receptora, koji su preferentno aktivirani nukleotidima adenozina i uridina. Ovaj receptor je responzivan na UDP, parcijalno responzivan na UTP i ADP, i ne aktivira ga ATP. Poznate su četiri transkriptne varijante koje kodiraju istu izoformu gena.[2]. ...
Adzic M, Stevanovic I, Josipovic N, Laketa D, Lavrnja I, Bjelobaba IM, Bozic I, Jovanovic M, Milosevic M, Nedeljkovic N. Extracellular ATP induces gra...
Extracellular ATP is a broad-spectrum cytotoxic agent that produces effects via cell surface P2 purinoceptors. The ligand-gated P2X purinoceptor subtype has very high sequence homology with theRP-2 gene, which encodes for apoptosis. The P2X RNA found in rat vas deferens is expressed preferentially by apoptotic thymocytes. P2X purinoceptor-mediated phasic (twitch) motor responses of the isolated rat vas deferens to neurogenic or exogenous ATP were rapidly, specifically and irreversibly potentiated by bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (HD 10-100 μM). Both untreated and HD-potentiated neurogenic responses were Ca++ dependent, blocked in the absence of Ca++ plus 0.1 mM EGTA, by the neuronal Ca++channel blocker ω-conotoxin-MVIIC (3 μM), by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist suramin (100 μM) and by tetrodotoxin (100 nM). HD also potentiated the effects of ATP on isolated guinea pig taenia caecum, where the nucleotide acts at G protein-coupled P2Y purinoceptor subtypes to cause relaxation. HD failed to inhibit ...
The present findings reveal that stimulation of P2XRs induced vasoconstrictor responses of RMCA, which are likely mediated by increases in [Ca2+]i which are evoked by activation of homomeric P2X1Rs and heteromeric P2X1/4Rs. We propose that P2X1Rs account for the rapidly declining vasoconstrictor responses and heteromeric P2X1/4Rs are responsible for sustained responses following purinergic stimulation. The involvement of heteromeric P2X1/4Rs is a novel finding and greatly increases our understanding of purinergic transmission in VSMCs.. Stimulation of RMCA VSMCs by ATP and by the selective P2XR agonist αβ-meATP at the same concentrations resulted in similar changes in [Ca2+]i and electric responses in isolated RMCA VSMCs cells, as well as in similar contractile responses in intact cerebral artery preparations. These data strongly suggest that functional P2XRs play a predominant role in stimulatory action of extracellular ATP in these vessels. Overexpression studies show that αβ-meATP acts on ...
Macrophages express several P2X and P2Y nucleotide receptors and display the phenomenon of ATP-induced P2X7-dependent membrane permeabilization, which occurs through a poorly understood mechanism. Several P2 receptors are known to be coupled to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Ca2+ signaling. Here, we use macrophages to investigate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by nucleotides and the involvement of MAPKs and intracellular Ca2+ concentration in ATP-induced membrane permeabilization. Short-term (5 min) pre-exposure to oxidized ATP (oATP), a P2X7 antagonist that does not inhibit P2X7--associated inward currents or membrane permeabilization, inhibits the activation of ERK1/2 by ATP, ADP, the P2X7 agonist 2′-3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP), but not by UTP and UDP. We conclude that macrophages display several P2Y receptors coupled to the ERK1/2 pathway and that oATP antagonizes the action of purine nucleotides, possibly
Cells release adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space in response to various stimuli. This released ATP plays an important physiological role in cell-to-cell signal transduction. The bulk ATP concentration can be detected using a conventional luciferin-luciferase assay. However, the ATP concentration in the vicinity of the cell surface is often different from the bulk concentration because of its rapid degradation by ecto-ATPases and because of delayed diffusion due to unstirred layer effects. Here, we describe a simple biosensor method to measure the local ATP concentration on the cell surface in real time. The method is based on the ATP-dependent opening of ligand-gated cation channels of purinergic P2X receptors expressed in undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells or in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably transfected with recombinant P2X2 purinergic receptors. Under the whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp, a sensor PC12 cell or HEK293 is ...
Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Adenosines/P2 Nucleotide Receptors (Purinergics) to find products in Agonists, Antagonists, Other Adenosines/P2 Nucleotide Receptors (Purinergics)
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Adenosine triphosphate is involved in many metabolic reactions, but it has also a role as a cellular danger signal transmitted through purinergic receptors (PRs). Indeed, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) can bind to PRs which are found in the membrane of many cell types, although the relative proportions of the receptor subtypes differ. PRs are classified according to genetic and pharmacological criteria and especially their affinities for agonists and their transduction mechanism (i.e. as metabotropic P2YRs or ionotropic P2XRs). Extracellular ATP release by activated or necrotic cells may activate various PRs and especially P2X7R, the best-characterized PR, on immune cells. P2X7R is known to regulate the activation of the Nod-like receptor (NLR)-family protein, NLRP3 inflammasome, which permit the release of IL-1β, a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine. The P2X7R/NLRP3 pathway is involved in many inflammatory diseases, such as gout, and in fibrosis diseases associated with inflammatory process, liver or
We used transcript-specific oligonucleotides to examine the localization in the rat nervous system of the corresponding mRNAs for the two P2X purinoceptor genes cloned recently from the rat vas deferens and PC12 cells. PC12 P2X purinoceptor mRNA was labeled in the olfactory tubercle, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, amygdala, cortex, and cerebellum, whereas the vas deferens P2X purinoceptor-specific probes labeled the cerebellum and, at lower levels of expression, the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex. Both types of P2X purinoceptor transcript were found on cell bodies in the nodose and superior cervical ganglia. The presence of these two purinoceptor transcripts in the brain was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Two partial cDNAs, identical to sections of the PC12 or vas deferens P2X purinoceptor coding sequences, were amplified from neonatal brain and cerebellum poly(A)+ RNA, respectively. These findings are in broad agreement with earlier Northern blot studies on the ...
P2X receptors (P2XRs) are a family of cation-permeable, ligand-gated ion channels gated by synaptically released extracellular adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP). Of the seven P2XR subtypes (P2X1-P2X7), P2X4 is the most abundantly expressed subtype in the central nervous system and to date is the most ethanol sensitive when measured in recombinant expression systems. Previous work demonstrates that ethanol inhibits ATP-activated currents in rat and mouse neurons, suggesting a role for P2X4Rs in ethanol-related behaviors. A recent in vivo study identified p2rx4 as a candidate gene linked to ethanol intake and/or preference in rodents. Despite these reports, the lack of specific agonists and antagonists has hampered our ability to directly determine the role that P2X4Rs play in regulating ethanol-induced behaviors. The availability of p2rx4 null (i.e., knockout; KO) mice has partially overcome this limitation. However, transgenic animal models do not allow for brain-regional analysis of P2X4R ...
No campo da biologia molecular, P2RY11 é uma proteína que pertence ao grupo dos receptores P2Y e que, em seres humanos, é codificada pelo gene P2RY11. Communi D, Govaerts C, Parmentier M, Boeynaems JM (1998). «Cloning of a human purinergic P2Y receptor coupled to phospholipase C and adenylyl cyclase». J Biol Chem. 272 (51): 31969-73. PMID 9405388. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.51.31969 A referência emprega parâmetros obsoletos ,month= (ajuda) !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) «Entrez Gene: P2RY11 purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 11» van der Weyden L, Conigrave AD, Morris MB (2000). «Signal transduction and white cell maturation via extracellular ATP and the P2Y11 receptor.». Immunol. Cell Biol. 78 (4): 369-74. PMID 10947861. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1711.2000.00918.x !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) Adams MD, Kerlavage AR, Fleischmann RD; et al. (1995). «Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million ...
The AMPA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated cation channels that mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, and thus are critically involved...
AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Line: Human recombinant P2Y11 receptor in aequorin 1321N1 host cell. We provide two vials of cryopreserved cells (approximately 2.5 x 106 cells/vial), detailed product information including cell line properties, culture conditions and the pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in a functional assay. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma. Terms and conditions apply. Some of our receptors may be restricted for sale in specified countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
For many years, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was solely considered for its role as the main source of energy in living cells; however, we now know that ATP also plays a fundamental physiological role as a pleiotropic extracellular messenger of cell-to-cell communication acting at plasma membrane receptors named P2 purinergic receptors [1]. The purinergic receptor family is composed of adenosine (P1) and nucleotide (P2) selective receptors. P1 receptors are further subdivided into A1, A2a, A2b and A3, whereas P2 receptors are subdivided into the P2Y and P2X subfamilies [2-4].. The P2Y subfamily has eight members: P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, P2Y13 and P2Y14. The P2Y1 receptor is activated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), whereas, at P2Y2, ATP and uridine-5′-triphosphate (UTP) are equipotent. At P2Y4 and P2Y6, the uridine nucleotides UTP and uridine diphosphate (UDP) are preferred agonists, respectively. P2Y12 and P2Y13 are selectively activated by ADP, and P2Y14 is activated by ...
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have a staggering socio-economic impact, yet current therapeutic strategies are largely inadequate, due, in part, to a lack of info...
Work in this thesis was primarily involved with the characterisation of four receptors, the turkey and bovine P2Y1, and the human P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, transfected into the human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1. It also describes the preliminary characterisation of two vascular smooth muscle cell types, and the generation of P2Y1-GST fusion proteins for the production of antibodies.;1321N1 cells were found to release nucleotides in response to sheer stress, but this was overcome by adaptation of the stimulation method. 1321N1 cells expressing the four receptors were assayed for PLC activity, and the rank order of agonist potency for each receptor was generally consistent with reports in the literature. Nucleotide interconversion at the surface of 1321N1 cells was also examined indirectly using the ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL 67156 and hexokinase. Although there was no significant effect of nucleotide breakdown on the agonist concentration-responses, it was found that upstream conversion of ...
Microglia (MG) are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) and perform both supportive and immune functions. Although it was traditionally thought that MG exist in an inactive state until some form of tissue injury or pathology, recent imaging studies have provided abundant evidence that MG in the uninjured adult brain and spinal cord are not morphologically silent. However, the dynamic behavior and function of MG in the developing brain normally as well as during pathology has been less studied. Here, we investigated MG behavior in freshly prepared hippocampal slices from neonatal transgenic mice during the first week of birth. The results are presented in three data chapters including: (1) a description of early MG mobilization during the first postnatal week; (2) a description of the effects of simulated ischemia on MG mobilization and viability during the first postnatal week and (3) a presentation of evidence for the regulation of ischemia-induced MG cell death by the
Cells have developed a variety of mechanisms to keep free calcium ion concentrations at very low levels in the cytosol. These mechanisms allow transient increases in cell calcium concentrations to be used as signals to trigger a variety of cellular processes, gene expression being one of them. Skeletal muscle relies on nerve activity both for contraction and also for the expression of genes related to pathways that include survival and the plastic changes required for adaptation to exercise. A particular pathway that involves Cav1.1 as a voltage sensor for nerve activity, pannexin-1 channels to release ATP to the extracellular milieu, purinergic P2Y receptors to link the signal ...
No campo da biologia molecular, P2RY6 é uma proteína que pertence ao grupo dos receptores P2Y e que, em seres humanos, é codificada pelo gene P2RY6. Communi D, Parmentier M, Boeynaems JM (1996). «Cloning, functional expression and tissue distribution of the human P2Y6 receptor». Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 222 (2): 303-8. PMID 8670200. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0739 A referência emprega parâmetros obsoletos ,month= (ajuda) !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) «Entrez Gene: P2RY6 pyrimidinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 6» Maier R, Glatz A, Mosbacher J, Bilbe G (1997). «Cloning of P2Y6 cDNAs and identification of a pseudogene: comparison of P2Y receptor subtype expression in bone and brain tissues.». Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 237 (2): 297-302. PMID 9268704. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7135 !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) Somers GR, Hammet F, Woollatt E; et al. (1997). «Chromosomal localization of the human P2y6 purinoceptor gene and ...
Suramin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Suramin is available on the Drugs.com website.
Extracellular adenosine triphosphate: A potential regulator of vasa vasorum neovascularization in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling ...
... , Authors: Jill Mackarel, David Betts, Owen Smith. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Microglial cells express both metabotropic (P2Y) and ionotropic (P2X) purinergic receptors. Accordingly and in agreement with previous studies (Boucsein et al., 2003; Wu et al., 2007), we found that ATP application evoked complex responses composed of inward and outward currents. By investigating separately P2X and P2Y receptor-mediated responses, we found that both ionotropic and metabotropic components of purinergic responses were enhanced in activated microglia after SE. This enhancement of purinergic responses probably involves an increased expression of the corresponding receptor, because P2X and P2Y mRNAs were upregulated in the epileptic hippocampus. Our study provides electrophysiological evidence that activation of microglia in situ involves an increase of all types of purinergic responses.. Pharmacological investigations point toward a major role of P2X7 receptors in the ATP response mediated by ionotropic receptors, which were increased in divalent cation-free solution and strongly ...
Phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) expression and activation by a purinergic agonist were investigated in adult rat cardiomyocytes. PLCγ is expressed in isolated cardiomyocytes. Stimulation of cells with extracellular ATP induces a rapid increase in membrane-associated PLCγ immunoreactivity most probably due to redistribution of the lipase from the cytosol to the membrane. The purine triggers a significant phosphorylation on tyrosine residues of a cytosolic pool of PLCγ with a time course that correlates with that of translocation. Extracellular ATP also increases intracellular Ins(1,4,5)P3 content. All these events (translocation and phosphorylation of PLCγ, InsP3 formation) are blocked by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The purinergic effect on both PLCγ translocation and phosphorylation are Ca-sensitive. We thus propose that the purinergic stimulation activates a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates PLCγ in the presence of an increased Ca level and induces PLCγ ...
Purinergic signalling (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP. It involves the activation of purinergic receptors in the cell and/or in nearby cells, thereby regulating cellular functions. The purinergic signalling complex of a cell is sometimes referred to as the "purinome". Purinergic receptors, represented by several families, are among the most abundant receptors in living organisms and appeared early in evolution. Among invertebrates, the purinergic signalling system has been found in bacteria, amoeba, ciliates, algae, fungi, anemones, ctenophores, platyhelminthes, nematodes, crustacea, molluscs, annelids, echinoderms, and insects. In green plants, extracellular ATP and other nucleotides induce an increase in the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions, in addition to other downstream changes that influence plant growth and modulate responses to stimuli. In ...
Modulation of immune responses involves a complex set of signaling molecules and pathways. Purine nucleotides such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have been demonstrated to regulate cells of the adaptive and immune system. Aside from basic demonstrations however, much of how purine nucleotides modulate T cells has remained unknown. This project set out to better understand how NAD and ATP modulate T cells in vitro and in vivo. In this report, purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) is identified as mediating the effects of NAD and ATP. Moreover, signaling through P2X7R can result in T cell death or activation depending on the particular condition. Differences in sensitivity to P2X7R signaling are demonstrated, and a correlation with cell surface P2X7R expression is shown. In support of the in vitro data presented, using a model of liver injury and contact hypersensitivity, the effects of purinergic receptor signaling on T cells in vivo is demonstrated. The ...
The P2X₇ receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel expressed by a number of cell types, including osteoblasts. Genetically modified mice with loss of P2X₇ function exhibit altered bone formation. Moreover, activation of P2X₇ in vitro stimulates osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because osteogenesis is associated with enhanced cellular metabolism, our goal was to characterize the effects of nucleotides on metabolic acid production (proton efflux) by osteoblasts. The P2X₇ agonist 2,3-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP (BzATP; 300 μM) induced dynamic membrane blebbing in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells (consistent with activation of P2X₇ receptors) but did not induce cell death. Using a Cytosensor microphysiometer, we found that 9-min exposure to BzATP (300 μM) caused a dramatic increase in proton efflux from MC3T3-E1 cells (∼2-fold), which was sustained for at least 1 h. In contrast, ATP or UTP (100 μM), which activate P2 receptors
Purinergic receptor P2Y10 antibody (purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 10) for IHC-P. Anti-Purinergic receptor P2Y10 pAb (GTX71697) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Baljit S. Khakh is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Measuring Near Plasma Membrane and Global Intracellular Calcium Dynamics in Astrocytes, Proteomics to Identify Proteins Interacting with P2X2 Ligand-Gated Cation Channels, Imaging Intracellular Ca2+ Signals in Striatal Astrocytes from Adult Mice Using Genetically-encoded Calcium Indicators
The significance of the strong P2Y2 expression observed in balloon-induced intimal lesions is not clear. Nevertheless, this strong expression could reflect an increased reactivity to extracellular nucleotides with consequent modulation of proliferation or vasoreactivity. Indeed, extracellular nucleotides, particularly ATP and UTP, have been shown to induce cell cycle progression and proliferation of cultured arterial SMCs3 4 5 6 7 and to induce a vasoconstriction in the absence of endothelial cells.11 12 13 Since both neointimal hyperplasia and vasoconstrictive remodeling have been found to be involved in postangioplasty restenosis,1 30 31 32 our data suggest that extracellular nucleotides might play a significant role in this process, at least as long as the functional endothelial cells, which control intimal thickening33 34 and nucleotide vasorelaxant effects,35 36 are not regenerated.. The increased P2Y2 receptor expression in the neointima may by itself be sufficient to enhance the local ...
Puri nergic P2X receptors associated with the parasympathetic nerves supplyi ng huma n bladder smooth muscle (detrusor) are implicated i n co ntrol of detrusor co ntractility. The relative abu nda nce
HIV-1 superinfection, where an infected specific acquires another HIV-1 infection from a different partner, is among the only settings where HIV acquisition occurs in the framework of the pre-existing immune system response to organic HIV infection. the biggest published band of superinfected people (n?=?21), in comparison to a couple of 3:1 matched up contaminated regulates through the same cohort singly. The immune system functions researched included plasma neutralization, plasma and cervical antibody-dependent mobile cytotoxicity, and plasma IgA and IgG binding to a -panel of 18 envelope antigens, including correlates of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG binding to V1V2 and IgA binding to gp140. Association between each defense HIV and function superinfection was evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Zero significant organizations were detected between the defense superinfection and features acquisition. This research constitutes probably the most extensive and ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 3-amino-3-deoxy-n,n-dimethyladenosine 5-(dihydrogen phosphate) (C12H19N6O6P) from the PQR.
Pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels are widely recognized for their role in ATP release, and as follows, their function is closely tied to that of ATP-activated P2X7 purinergic receptors (P2X7Rs). Our recent work has shown that ...
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Recombinant protein of human purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 12 (P2RY12), transcript variant 1, 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for P2RY12 gene (Protein Coding), Purinergic Receptor P2Y12, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
GPR86 antibody [N3C2], Internal (purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 13) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-GPR86 pAb (GTX100380) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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An overview chapter discussing extracellular nucleotides, in particular ATP, and its complex effects and regulation of immune responses & inflammatory reactions
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2RX7), transcript variant 1 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
Mast cells are responsible for the majority of allergic conditions. It was originally thought that almost all allergic events were mediated directly only via the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors. However, recent evidence showed that many other receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels, are also directly involved in mast cell degranulation, the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serine proteases, leukotrienes, heparin, and serotonin. These mediators are responsible for the symptoms in allergic conditions such as allergic asthma. In recent years, it has been realized that purinergic signaling, induced via the activation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors and P2Y nucleotide receptors, as well as by ATP-gated P2X receptors, plays a significant role in mast cell degranulation. Both adenosine and ATP can induce degranulation and bronchoconstriction on their own and synergistically with allergens. All three classes of receptors, adenosine, P2X
Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) mediates a variety of biological functions following nerve-evoked release, via activation of either G protein-coupled P2Y- or ligand-gated P2X-receptors. In smooth muscle, ATP, acting via P2Y receptors (P2YR), may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear, but have been proposed to involve the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) by phospholipase C (PLC), to evoke Ca2+ release from the internal store and stimulation of Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa) channels to cause membrane hyperpolarization. This mechanism requires Ca2+ release from the store. However, in the present study, ATP evoked transient Ca2+ increases in only ∼10% of voltage-clamped single smooth muscle cells. These results do not support activation of KCa as the major mechanism underlying inhibition of smooth muscle activity. Interestingly, ATP inhibited IP3-evoked Ca2+ release in cells that did not show a Ca2+ rise in response to purinergic ...
Purinergic receptors are present in most tissues and thought to be involved in various signalling pathways, including neural signalling, cell metabolism and local regulation of the microcirculation in
Toll-like receptors (TLR), found in cells of the innate immune system, recognize conserved microbial patterns to mediate proinflammatory responses and thereby eliminate pathogens. When out of control, however, these responses can be dangerous to the host; indeed, activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, found in Gram-negative bacterial membranes) can lead to life-threatening endotoxic shock. Tissue damage can lead to the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); thus, Kaufmann et al. investigated the possible role of extracellular ATP as a "damage signal" that modulates TLR signaling. The authors used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to show that human peripheral blood monocytes expressed various P2Y and P2X purinergic receptors. Exposure to ATP increased monocyte adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) content, elicited a biphasic intracellular calcium signal, stimulated pseudopodial retraction, and promoted nondirectional cell migration. LPS stimulated the ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Tetrasodium Hexametaphosphate (CAS 10124-56-8) Industry Market Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Tetrasodium Hexametaphosphate Industry, 2011-2021 Market...
P2Y purinoceptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RY1 gene. The product of this gene, P2Y1 belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor functions as a receptor for extracellular ATP and ADP. In platelets binding to ADP leads to mobilization of intracellular calcium ions via activation of phospholipase C, a change in platelet shape, and probably to platelet aggregation. P2Y receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169860 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027765 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Ayyanathan K, Webbs TE, Sandhu AK, Athwal RS, Barnard EA, Kunapuli SP (January 1996). "Cloning and chromosomal localization of the human P2Y1 purinoceptor". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 218 (3): 783-8. ...
P2rx7 - P2rx7 (untagged) - Mouse purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2rx7), transcript variant 1, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
P2X4 antibody, C-term (purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 4) for WB. Anti-P2X4 pAb (GTX88599) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Homo sapiens purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 4 (P2RX4), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00005025-R02) - Products - Abnova
Gene target information for P2rx2 - purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 2 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Barnes, Sara J, Masin, Marianela, Marschall, Viola, Mooney, Elizabeth, Young, Christopher, Lim, KoiNi, Gorecki, Dariusz C and Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth (2010) Characterisation of C-terminal-truncated P2X7 receptor splice variants. Purinergic Signalling, 6 (1S). p. 57. ISSN 1573-9538 Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth, Boumechache, Miyyada and Qureshi, Omar (2010) Endolysosomal targeting and function of mammalian P2X4 receptors. Purinergic Signalling, 6 (1S). p. 24. ISSN 1573-9538 Xu, Xing Jian, Masin, Marianela, Marschall, Viola and Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth (2010) Novel properties of the mouse P2X7k splice variant. Purinergic Signalling, 6 (1S). pp. 55-56. ISSN 1573-9538 Boumechache, Miyyada, Ali, Saira, Shahid, Sumayya, Masin, Marianela and Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth (2010) Structural and functional interaction between P2X(4), P2X(7) and pannexin-1. Purinergic Signalling, 6 (1). p. 73. ISSN 1573-9538 Boumechache, Miyyada, Masin, Masin, Paramasivam, Anbalakan and Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth (2008) Regulation of expression and ...
We hypothesized that malfunctions of CD73-derived extracellular adenosine production would contribute to atherosclerosis and that this effect would be observed in our patients with PAD. Instead, throughout our patient cohort, we observed high CD73 activity, and to some extent CD39 activity as well. Elevated CD73 was especially associated with hypoxemic atherosclerotic disease, while elevated CD39 was associated with smoking and ATP/ADP-dependent entities. All markers of purinergic signaling were normal in the controls, and values of ATP, ADP, and CD73 were significantly higher in atherosclerotic patients. CD39 activity was not significantly increased in the patient cohort as a result of the high CD39 activity in the youngest control population (controls ,40 years, Figure 2B). The youngest control group with the highest CD39 activity also had the lowest ATP and ADP levels (Figure 2B).. Our findings are in line with previous studies of the role of CD39 and ATP/ADP interplay in thrombosis and ...
1053-73-2 - WHTCPDAXWFLDIH-KQYNXXCUSA-N - Adenosine 3-phosphate-5-phosphate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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The genome of an infant who lived in Alaska thousands of years ago represents a previously unknown group of humans called Ancient Beringians, who share a common lineage with other Native Americans. 0 Comments. ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. L-βγ-meATP ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Adenosine-5-triphosphate - adenozynotrifosforan (ATP), nukleotyd adenionowy (składa się z adenozyny i trzech grup fosforanowych. ATP jest wielofunkcyjnym nu...
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இவ்வகையான மரபணுப் பிறழ்வுகளும் X நிறமூர்த்தத்தில் இணைந்த பரம்பரையலகுகளிலேற்படும் விகாரங்களால் ஏற்படுகின்றன. இங்கும் ஆண்களே பெண்களைவிட அதிகளவில் பாதிப்புக்கு உள்ளாகின்றனர். X நிறமூர்த்தத்தில் இணைந்த பரம்பரையலகில் ஏற்படும் பாதிப்பு ஆகையால், தொடர்ந்த சந்ததிக்கு கடத்தப்படுவதும் ஆணுக்கும் பெண்ணுக்கும் வேறுபடுகின்றது. பிறக்கும் ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்குழந்தையும், தனக்கான X ...
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简历 & 研究组工作摘要 1955年 毕业于中山大学化学系。. 1960年 苏联科学院元素有机化合物研究所研究生毕业,获副博士学位。. 1965-1967 在英国皇家研究所及牛津大学访问学者。. 1980年选为中国科学院学部委员, 1985年选为第三世界科学院院士。. 现任中国科学院生物物理所研究员。博士生导师。曾任中国科学院生物物理所所长(1983-1986), 国家自然科学基金委员会副主任(1986-1995)。. 主要从事蛋白质晶体学和结构生物学。己发表自然科学论文140余篇,专著《X射线晶体学基础》等。研究成果分别获1982年国家自然科学二等奖、1989年国家自然科学二等奖、1987年中国科学院自然科学一等奖及1986年、1992年中国科学院自然科学二等奖。1992年获首届王丹萍科学奖金,1995年获何梁何利科学与技术进步奖。2004年获北京市科学技术奖一等奖。 ...
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The effects of extracellular ATP on ion fluxes and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were examined using a suspension of rat parotid acinar cells and were contrasted with the effects of the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Although ATP and carbachol both rapidly increased [Ca2+]i about threefold above the resting level (200-250 nM), the effect of ATP was due primarily to an influx of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, while the initial response to carbachol was due to a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Within 10 s, ATP (1 mM) and carbachol (20 microM) reduced the cellular Cl- content by 39-50% and cell volume by 15-25%. Both stimuli reduced the cytosolic K+ content by 57-65%, but there were marked differences in the rate and pattern of net K+ movement as well as the effects of K+ channel inhibitors on the effluxes initiated by the two stimuli. The maximum rate of the ATP-stimulated K+ efflux (approximately 2,200 nmol K+/mg protein per min) was about two-thirds that of the ...
Extracellular ATP acting through ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors, acts as a signalling molecule in the brain and periphery and has numerous physiological functions (Burnstock, 1999; North, 2002). When its role in regulation of body temperature (Tb) during infection is considered the ability to induce a release of cytokines seems to be potentially very significant. We have shown previously that ATP acting on P2 receptors in the CNS plays an important role in thermoregulation during fever (Gourine et al. 2002). In this study we investigated the effects of systemic P2 receptor blockade on regulation of Tb during fever.. Experiments were performed in adult male Wistar rats (280-350 g) and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (in Minsk). Rats were anaesthetised (ketamine [87.0 mg kg-1] + xylazine [13.0 mg kg-1]) and a telemetry transmitter was implanted into the abdomen for monitoring of Tb. After a 7-day recovery period, fever was induced by intraperitoneal ...
Emerging role of extracellular nucleotides and adenosine in multiple sclerosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
CO2/H+-dependent purinergic signaling by astrocytes provides specialized control of vascular tone in a brainstem respiratory center in a manner that contributes to respiratory behavior.
Keratinocytes reside in close proximity to sensory nerve endings and leukocytes in skin, and bidirectional communication between different cell types is mediated by a variety of paracrine signaling molecules including G protein-coupled receptor agonists ATP, serotonin, histamine, prostaglandin E2, and leukotriene B4, and cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF (Maurer et al., 1997; Corsini et al., 1998; Giustizieri et al., 2004; Koizumi et al., 2004; Lumpkin and Caterina, 2007; Huang et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2009). Temperature-sensitive TRPV3 channels are highly expressed in keratinocytes, and thermal or mechanical stimulation of keratinocytes causes ATP release, which might cause autocrine stimulation of purinergic P2Y receptors (Peier et al., 2002; Smith et al., 2002; Xu et al., 2002; Koizumi et al., 2004; Inoue et al., 2007). ATP, histamine, and serotonin are known to generate a transient rise in [Ca2+]i via receptor-mediated PLCβ activation and to stimulate ...
Cangrelor, a short-acting, potent and selective small molecule P2Y12 purinoceptor antagonist and platelet ADP receptor antagonist, is being developed by Chiesi
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Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells can mediate a diverse number of biological responses, such as cell secretion, inflammation, and immune reactions through signaling pathways. According to Wang et al. (2013), the extracellular ATP concentration has been measured to accumulate to a high level in the nucleus pulposus (NP) region in the intervertebral disc (IVD), approximately 165 ?M. Since extracellular ATP is involved in a variety of cellular activities, the role of ATP distribution and accumulation in the IVD should be investigated. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of mechanical compression on the distribution of extracellular ATP and its adenine derivatives in the IVD using triphasic mechano-electrochemical theory. This theory describes the mechanical behavior and transport phenomena of charged hydrated soft tissue such as the IVD. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was used to model ATP hydrolysis and incorporated into a finite element model. Experiments were
Experiments were undertaken using cultured equine sweat gland epithelial cells that express purine receptors belonging to the P2U subclass which allow the selective agonist uridine triphosphate (UTP) to increase the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Experiments using pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inactivates certain guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins), showed that this response consisted of Ptx-sensitive and Ptx-resistant components, and immunochemical analyses of the G-protein alpha subunits present in the cells showed that both Ptx-sensitive (alpha i1-3) and Ptx-resistant (alpha q/11) G-proteins were expressed. P2U receptors may, therefore, normally activate both of these G-protein families. Ptx-sensitive, alpha i2/3 subunits permit inhibitory control of adenylate cyclase, and UTP was shown to cause Ptx-sensitive inhibition of adrenaline-evoked cyclic AMP accumulation, suggesting that the receptors activate Gi2/3. Experiments using cells grown on permeable ...
Treatments to improve the neurological outcome of edema and cerebral ischemic stroke are severely limited. Here, we present the first in vivo single cell images of cortical mouse astrocytes documenting the impact of single vessel photothrombosis on cytotoxic edema and cerebral infarcts. The volume of astrocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) increased by over 600% within 3 hours of ischemia. The subsequent growth of cerebral infarcts was easily followed as the loss of GFP fluorescence as astrocytes lysed. Cytotoxic edema and the magnitude of ischemic lesions were significantly reduced by treatment with the purinergic ligand 2-methylthioladenosine 5′ diphosphate (2-MeSADP), an agonist with high specificity for the purinergic receptor type 1 isoform (P2Y1R). At 24 hours, cytotoxic edema in astrocytes was still apparent at the penumbra and preceded the cell lysis that defined the infarct. Delayed 2MeSADP treatment, 24 hours after the initial thrombosis, also significantly reduced cytotoxic

Gentaur Molecular :Bioassays \ PiBlue™ Phosphate Assay Kit, High-throµghput phosphate assay using malachite green method at...Gentaur Molecular :Bioassays \ PiBlue™ Phosphate Assay Kit, High-throµghput phosphate assay using malachite green method at...

Abstract: ATP released during hypoxia from the ventrolateral medulla activates purinergic receptors (P2Rs) to attenuate the ... time it becomes active and that ATP actions are determined by a dynamic interaction between the actions of ATP at P2 receptors ... Abstract: While androgen receptor (AR)-deficient mice developed osteopenia in endochondral bones due to the high bone turnover ... References: Huxtable AG et al (2009). Tripartite purinergic modulation of central respiratory networks during perinatal ...
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Signal transduction via P2-purinergic receptors for extracellular ATP and other nucleotides.  - PubMed - NCBISignal transduction via P2-purinergic receptors for extracellular ATP and other nucleotides. - PubMed - NCBI

The functionally identified nucleotide or P2-purinergic receptors include 1) ATP receptors that stimulate G protein-coupled ... Signal transduction via P2-purinergic receptors for extracellular ATP and other nucleotides.. Dubyak GR1, el-Moatassim C. ... The diverse biological responses to ATP are mediated by a variety of cell surface receptors that are activated when ATP or ... Current research in this area is directed toward the identification and structural characterization of these receptors by ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8214015?dopt=Abstract

Age-related changes in P2-purinergic receptors on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. | HypertensionAge-related changes in P2-purinergic receptors on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. | Hypertension

Age-related changes in P2-purinergic receptors on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium.. T Koga, Y Takata, K Kobayashi, K ... In contrast, a P2-purinergic receptor leading to the generation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor may be activated in ... This suggests that the vascular smooth muscle of young rats has a P2-purinergic receptor leading to relaxation and that this ... The alterations with age of P2-purinergic receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell are not affected by ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/19/3/286

Cardiomyocyte death induced by ischaemic/hypoxic stress is differentially affected by distinct purinergic P2 receptorsCardiomyocyte death induced by ischaemic/hypoxic stress is differentially affected by distinct purinergic P2 receptors

... ... subtype-selective P2 antagonists, were added to cardiomyocytes before ischaemic/hypoxic stress; (ii) selected P2 receptors ... cardiomyocytes; P2 receptors; ischaemic/hypoxic stress; apoptosis. Abstract. Blood levels of extracellular nucleotides (e.g. ... In this study, we aimed at investigating the role of ATP and specific P2 receptors in the appearance of cell injury in a ...
more infohttp://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-203654.html

Gap junction and purinergic P2 receptor proteins as a functional unit: insights from transcriptomicsGap junction and purinergic P2 receptor proteins as a functional unit: insights from transcriptomics

Gap junctions and purinergic P2 receptors (P2Rs) can be regarded as belonging to a common functional unit, given that they are ... Gap junction and purinergic P2 receptor proteins as a functional unit: insights from transcriptomics. Domenii publicaţii > ... including purinergic receptors (P2Rs), and have found that genes synergistically or antagonistically expressed in wild-type ... genes encode proteins that are components of P2R signal-transduction pathways and/or directly interact with these receptors, ...
more infohttp://ad-astra.ro/2008/07/27/gap-junction-and-purinergic-p2-receptor-proteins-as-a-functional-unit-insights-from-transcriptomics/

Enkephalin activates the phospholipase C/Ca2+ system through cross-talk between opioid receptors and P2-purinergic or...Enkephalin activates the phospholipase C/Ca2+ system through cross-talk between opioid receptors and P2-purinergic or...

In an NG 108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell suspension, extracellular ATP (via P2-purinergic receptors) and bradykinin ... Enkephalin activates the phospholipase C/Ca2+ system through cross-talk between opioid receptors and P2-purinergic or ... Enkephalin activates the phospholipase C/Ca2+ system through cross-talk between opioid receptors and P2-purinergic or ... Enkephalin activates the phospholipase C/Ca2+ system through cross-talk between opioid receptors and P2-purinergic or ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/290/1/241?ijkey=d35e49735fff05ea5e01814bb56341bcc6afacb2&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

P2 purinergic receptor modulation of cytokine production - pdf descargarP2 purinergic receptor modulation of cytokine production - pdf descargar

P2 purinergic receptor modulation of cytokine production. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, ... P2 purinergic receptor modulation of cytokine production - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar ... and these cells also express numerous members of the purinergic P2 receptor family. Studies in several cellular systems have ... These examples demonstrate important roles of purinergic receptors in the modulation of cytokine production. Extension of these ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jul3/149894748662-P2-purinergic-receptor-modulation-of-cytokine-production.php

Association of Clopidogrel Therapy and Stent Thrombosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govAssociation of Clopidogrel Therapy and Stent Thrombosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists. Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists. Purinergic Antagonists. Purinergic Agents. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00484926

Plus itPlus it

The P2 purinergic receptors comprise seven P2X receptor subunits (P2X1-7), which are ligand-gated ion channels (North, 2002), ... Hippocampal neurons express both P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors. PPADS is a nonselective (but nonuniversal) P2 receptor ... Extracellular ATP plays an important role in cellular signaling via P2 type-purinergic receptors (Kanjhan et al., 1996), which ... Furthermore, we found that the protective role of ATP is mediated by the P2 purinergic receptor signaling pathway. Together, ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/9/3081

Trial of Cilostazol in Symptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis II - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTrial of Cilostazol in Symptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis II - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists. Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists. Purinergic Antagonists. Purinergic Agents. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00130039

Stimulation of P2 receptors causes release of IL-1β-loaded microvesicles from human dendritic cells | Blood JournalStimulation of P2 receptors causes release of IL-1β-loaded microvesicles from human dendritic cells | Blood Journal

The P2 purinergic receptors of human dendritic cells: identification and coupling to cytokine release. FASEB J 2000; 14:2466- ... DCs express plasma membrane receptors for extracellular nucleotides named P2 receptors (P2Rs). Stimulation of P2Rs in these ... Stimulation of P2 receptors causes release of IL-1β-loaded microvesicles from human dendritic cells. Cinzia Pizzirani, Davide ... Stimulation of P2 receptors causes release of IL-1β-loaded microvesicles from human dendritic cells. Blood, 109(9), 3856-3864. ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/109/9/3856?ijkey=e7a63a0e3d16403c8efe2283c12257942a63508b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

Ziganshin AU[au] - PubMed - NCBIZiganshin AU[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Purinergic P2-receptors as potential targets of new pharmaceutical products].. Ziganshin AU. ... Contrasting effects of P2 receptor agonists on spontaneous contractility of human fallopian tubes with and without acute ... Contractile activity of human greater saphenous vein mediated by P2-receptors.. Ziganshin AU, Khaziakhmetov DF, Ziganshina LE, ... Term-dependency of P2 receptor-mediated contractile responses of isolated human pregnant uterus. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Ziganshin+AU%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Stimulation-induced increases in cerebral blood flow and local capillary vasoconstriction depend on conducted vascular...Stimulation-induced increases in cerebral blood flow and local capillary vasoconstriction depend on conducted vascular...

Depended on Purinergic Type 2 Receptors.. To probe the mechanism of ATP-puffing-induced constriction, 0.5 mM of the P2 receptor ... ATP-induced capillary constriction was blocked by purinergic P2 receptors. Thus, conducted vascular responses in capillaries ... 2011) The P2 receptor antagonist PPADS supports recovery from experimental stroke in vivo. PLoS One 6:e19983. ... Preconditioning with the P2 receptor antagonist PPADS alleviated pericyte constriction after ischemia, which may be related to ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/115/25/E5796

HAEMOSTASIS & COAGULATION  by Sumayyah Mian on PreziHAEMOSTASIS & COAGULATION by Sumayyah Mian on Prezi

Irreversibly bind to purinergic P2 receptors for ADP GPIIb/IIIa RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS ABXICIMAB. TIROFIBAN. EPTIFIBATIDE. PGI2. ... Thromboxane A2 PLATELET AGGREGATION GpIIb-IIIa Receptor Conformation Integrin complex found on platelets. Receptor for ... cAMP in platelet -, GpIIb/IIIa surface receptor inhibition PGI3 (e.g. via Omega-3 fatty acids) = anti-aggregatory t-PA ... expression of GPIIb/IIIa receptors HEPARINS. PROMOTE TFPI RELEASE FROM VASCULAR WALL Platelet factor 4, B-thromboglobulin ...
more infohttps://prezi.com/4siqudxbpln8/haemostasis-coagulation/

Purinski receptor - Википедија, слободна енциклопедијаPurinski receptor - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

Harden TK, Boyer JL, Nicholas RA (1995). „P2-purinergic receptors: subtype-associated signaling responses and structure". ... Biogeno aminski receptor - Eikozanoidni receptor (Prostaglandinski receptor) - G protein-spregnuti receptor - Imunski receptor ... Neurotransmiterski receptor - Mirisni receptori - Proteazom-aktivirani receptor - Purinski receptor - Transferinski receptor ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ...
more infohttps://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purinski_receptor

P2Y1 receptors mediate inhibitory purinergic neuromuscular transmission in the human colon | Gastrointestinal and Liver...P2Y1 receptors mediate inhibitory purinergic neuromuscular transmission in the human colon | Gastrointestinal and Liver...

There are two families of P2 receptors, P2X receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels, and P2Y receptors, which belong to ... Purinergic P2 receptors might be involved in several functions in the gastrointestinal tract, including synaptic transmission ... Several subtypes of receptors (P2X1-7 and P2Y1, 2, 4, 6, 11-14) in each family have been described. Purinergic receptors play a ... This suggests that purinergic receptors, activated by the release of ATP from enteric neurons, act on P2Y1 receptors, but other ...
more infohttp://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/291/4/G584

Schwann Cell-Derived Factors Modulate Synaptic Activities at Developing Neuromuscular Synapses | Journal of NeuroscienceSchwann Cell-Derived Factors Modulate Synaptic Activities at Developing Neuromuscular Synapses | Journal of Neuroscience

Previous reports have shown that ATP binds to the purinergic P2 receptor on muscles. ATP then activates the protein kinase C ( ... Plasticity of Signaling by Spinal Estrogen Receptor α, κ-Opioid Receptor, and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors over the Rat ... which can be inhibited by the P2 receptor blocker reactive blue 2 (10 μm) or the PKC inhibitor staurosporine (0.5 μm) (Fu et al ... It is possible that active factors in SC-CM can bind unknown receptors on the nerve terminal and be transported to the ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/27/25/6712.long

Phagocytic Cell Killing Mediated by Secreted Cytotoxic Factors of Vibrio cholerae | Infection and ImmunityPhagocytic Cell Killing Mediated by Secreted Cytotoxic Factors of Vibrio cholerae | Infection and Immunity

... it has been demonstrated that macrophages have surface-associated P2 purinergic receptors such as P2Y and P2Z. P2Z receptors, ... 1995) P2-purinergic receptors: subtype-associated signaling and structure. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 35:541-579. ... Since purinergic receptors such as P2Z receptors are involved in macrophage cell death, an intriguing possibility for how a ... For example, adenosine and AMP activate P1 receptors while ATP and ADP activate the P2 receptors. The ionic ATP4− form and ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/68/9/4930?ijkey=543a9d81ff1072aab10e100bd317e2125fc280bc&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Browsing 1. Schools by TitleBrowsing 1. Schools by Title

Labeling and tracking P2 purinergic receptors in living cells using ATP-conjugated quantum dots  Jiang, Shan; Liu, Aiping; ... It has been increasingly recognized that adenosine-5 ′ -triphosphate (ATP) signaling through P2 purinergic receptors has a ...
more infohttps://dr.ntu.edu.sg/handle/123456789/4/browse?rpp=20&order=ASC&sort_by=1&etal=-1&type=title&starts_with=L

Unusual clinical history of a male infant with Edwards syndrome.Unusual clinical history of a male infant with Edwards syndrome.

Previous Document: Extracellular ATP and cancer: an overview with special reference to P2 purinergic receptors.. Next Document: ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Unusual-clinical-history-male-infant/18575830.html
  • Gap junctions and purinergic P2 receptors (P2Rs) can be regarded as belonging to a common functional unit, given that they are involved in the transmission of calcium signals between cells. (ad-astra.ro)
  • We have previously shown that deletion of the Gja1 gene alters expression levels of numerous genes encoding proteins with diverse functions, including purinergic receptors (P2Rs), and have found that genes synergistically or antagonistically expressed in wild-type tissues are more prone to be similarly or oppositely regulated in Cx43-nulls. (ad-astra.ro)
  • ii) selected P2 receptors genes were silenced via specific small interfering RNAs. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Our findings indicate that, in brain and in cultured astrocytes, several of these coexpressed genes encode proteins that are components of P2R signal-transduction pathways and/or directly interact with these receptors, including the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx45 as well as pannexins. (ad-astra.ro)
  • Pseudaminic acid on Campylobacter jejuni flagella modulates dendritic cell IL-10 expression via Siglec-10 receptor: a novel flagellin-host interaction. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, a P2-purinergic receptor leading to the generation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor may be activated in endothelial cells with advancing age. (ahajournals.org)
  • In situ hybridization indicated that P2Y 2 mRNA was present in endothelial cells of the intima and in some smooth muscle cells scattered throughout the media of adult rat aortas, while almost all medial smooth muscle cells of rat embryo aorta expressed this receptor. (ahajournals.org)
  • Since macrophage cell death leads to the death of the engulfed pathogen ( 17 , 25 ), activation of the purinergic receptors is an accepted part of the phagocytic process. (asm.org)
  • Leukocytes are the principle producers of a number of key cytokines, and these cells also express numerous members of the purinergic P2 receptor family. (duhnnae.com)
  • 18 Interestingly, all cells capable of IL-1β release also express the P2X 7 receptor (P2X 7 R) at a high level. (bloodjournal.org)
  • and 6 ) P2Y 1 receptors were localized in smooth muscle cells as well as in enteric neurons. (physiology.org)
  • periodate-oxidized-ATP (oATP)-treated macrophage and mast cells or such cells exposed to 0.1 mM Mg 2+ , where surface-associated P2Z receptors could not be activated, were not susceptible to subsequent ATP addition. (asm.org)
  • For example, Ins(1,4,5)P 3 -sensitive Ca 2+ stores, usually linked to a variety of G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors, are ubiquitous in mammalian cells, 1 2 4 but ryanodine-sensitive stores are not widely expressed among nonmuscle cells 4 5 (for exceptions, see Wu et al. (arvojournals.org)
  • 11 12 13 This receptor has recently been cloned from mouse neuroblastoma cells, 14 rat alveolar cells, 15 and human airway epithelial cells, 16 which has led to the detection of P2Y 2 mRNA in various tissues such as spleen, kidney, liver, heart, lung, and skeletal muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the role of this receptor in thrombin-dependent tissue factor-induced thromboembolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • In an NG 108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell suspension, extracellular ATP (via P2-purinergic receptors) and bradykinin stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation, which was accompanied by an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). (biochemj.org)
  • 2′-deoxy- N 6 -methyl adenosine 3′,5′-diphosphate tetraammonium salt (MRS 2179) was used as a selective inhibitor of P2Y 1 receptors. (physiology.org)
  • Similar results were obtained after intravenous administration of N 6 -methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′:5′-bisphosphate, a selective antagonist of the P2Y 1 receptor, to wild-type mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we aimed at investigating the role of ATP and specific P2 receptors in the appearance of cell injury in a cardiac model of ischaemic/hypoxic stress. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Overall, these findings indicate a role for ATP and its receptors in modulating cardiomyocyte damage during ischaemic/hypoxic stress. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Purinergic receptors play a crucial role in the control of gastrointestinal motility. (physiology.org)
  • P2Y receptors are present in almost all human tissues where they exert various biological functions based on their G-protein coupling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is strongly enhanced by inflammatory mediators (eg, the microbial cell-wall component lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), 1 neurotransmitters (eg, bradykinin), 5 inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, GM-CSF, or TNFα), 1 and Toll-like receptor ligands. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The aim of this study was to characterize purinergic inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in the human colon. (physiology.org)
  • We also found that exogenous ATP protected Aβ42-mediated reduction in synaptic molecules, such as NMDA receptor 2A and PSD-95, through P2 purinergic receptors and prevented Aβ42-induced spine reduction in cultured primary hippocampal neurons. (jneurosci.org)