Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Receptors, Prostaglandin E: Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES. The receptor may also signal through the activation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP1 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GQ and the subsequently activates TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. Additional evidence has shown that the receptor can act through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI and subsequently inhibits ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Prostaglandins E, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.Prostaglandin Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Prostaglandins A: (13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Prostaglandins D: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Cyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Arachidonic AcidsCyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.16,16-Dimethylprostaglandin E2: A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Prostaglandins B: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They are potent pressor substances and have many other physiological activities.Prostaglandins G: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.NitrobenzenesSulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Meclofenamic Acid: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Receptors, Epoprostenol: Cell surface receptors for EPOPROSTENOL. They are coupled to HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Receptors, Thromboxane A2, Prostaglandin H2: A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polyphloretin Phosphate: A polymeric mixture of polyesters of phosphoric acid and phloretin. It blocks some cellular responses to prostaglandins.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.OxazepinesMacrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Prostanoic Acids: 2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid: A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Mice, Inbred C57BLLabor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HydrazinesCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hydantoins: Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Group IV Phospholipases A2: A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.Prostaglandins A, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandin A that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGA.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Flurbiprofen: An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Quinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.ZymosanStomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESColon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.Menstruation-Inducing Agents: Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Pyrogens: Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.Phospholipases A2, Cytosolic: A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Luteal Cells: PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Bicyclo CompoundsPhenylbutyratesAngiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.DibenzoxazepinesNitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).

Differential regulation of renal prostaglandin receptor mRNAs by dietary salt intake in the rat. (1/182)

BACKGROUND: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prostaglandin (PG) receptor expression in the rat kidney is subject to physiological regulation by dietary salt intake. METHODS: Rats were fed diets with 0.02 or 4% NaCl for two weeks. PG receptor expression was assayed in kidney regions and cells by ribonuclease protection assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Functional correlates were studied by measurement of PGE2-induced cAMP formation and renin secretion in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells isolated from animals on various salt intakes. RESULTS: EP1 and EP3 receptors were predominantly expressed, and the EP2 receptor was exclusively expressed in the rat kidney medulla. The EP4 receptor was strongly expressed in glomeruli and in renin-secreting JG granular cells. IP receptor transcripts were found mainly in cortex. Maintaining rats on a low- or high-NaCl diet did not affect the expression of EP1 or IP receptors, whereas EP4 transcripts in glomeruli were increased twofold by salt deprivation. Consistent with this, we found that PGE2-evoked cAMP production and renin secretion by JG cells from salt-deprived animals were significantly higher compared with cells obtained from salt-loaded animals. In the outer medulla, EP3 transcripts correlated directly with salt intake, and mRNA abundance was increased twofold by a high-NaCl diet. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that subtype-specific, regional changes in PG receptor expression are involved in the renal adaptation to changes in salt intake. The results are in accord with the general concept that renocortical PGE2 stimulates renin secretion and maintains renal blood flow during low-salt states, whereas medullary PGE2 promotes salt excretion in response to a high salt intake.  (+info)

Roles of prostaglandin E receptors in mesangial cells under high-glucose conditions. (2/182)

BACKGROUND: High glucose reportedly stimulates prostaglandin (PG) E2 production and DNA synthesis in mesangial cells (MCs). However, the pathophysiological significance of PGE2 in MCs has remained unclear. METHODS: The effects of prostanoids on [3H]-thymidine uptake and cAMP production in rat MCs cultured with 5.6 mM glucose, 25 mM glucose, or 5.6 mM glucose supplemented with 19.4 mM mannitol were examined. The gene expression of PGE2 receptor (EP) subtypes in MCs was analyzed with Northern blotting techniques. RESULTS: Northern blotting indicated EP1 and EP4 gene expression in MCs. EP1 agonists and PGE2 stimulated [3H]-thymidine uptake in MCs. EP1 antagonists dose dependently attenuated high-glucose-induced [3H]-thymidine uptake, which suggests EP1 involvement, by an increase in intracellular Ca2+, in DNA synthesis of MCs. On the other hand, forskolin, db-cAMP, and 11-deoxy-PGE1, an EP4/EP3/EP2 agonist, significantly decreased DNA synthesis in MCs. These inhibitory effects are thought to be mediated via EP4 as a result of an increase in cAMP synthesis. The effects via EP4 seem to be particularly important because PGE2-induced cAMP synthesis was significantly attenuated in the high-glucose group compared with the mannitol group, in which [3H]-thymidine uptake did not increase in spite of augmented PGE2 production. CONCLUSION: The increase in DNA synthesis in MCs under high-glucose conditions can be explained, at least in part, by the high-glucose-induced inhibition of cAMP production via EP4, which augments EP1 function in conjunction with the overproduction of PGE2.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of the four prostaglandin E2 receptor proteins EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 in human kidney. (3/182)

Four prostaglandin E2 receptor subtypes designated EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 have been shown to mediate a variety of effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on glomerular hemodynamics, tubular salt and water reabsorption, and on blood vessels in the human kidney. Despite the important role of renal PGE2, the localization of PGE2 receptor proteins in the human kidney is unknown. The present study used antipeptide antibodies to the EP1 to EP4 receptor proteins for immunolocalization in human kidney tissue. Immunoblot studies using these antibodies demonstrated distinct bands in membrane fraction from human kidney. By means of immunohistochemistry, expression of the human EP1 receptor subtype protein in renal tissue was detected mainly in connecting segments, cortical and medullary collecting ducts, and in the media of arteries and afferent and efferent arterioles. The human EP2 receptor subtype protein was detectable only in the media of arteries and arterioles. The human EP3 receptor subtype protein was strongly expressed in glomeruli, Tamm-Horsfall negative late distal convoluted tubules, connecting segments, cortical and medullary collecting ducts, as well as in the media and the endothelial cells of arteries and arterioles. Staining of the human EP4 receptor subtype protein was observed in glomeruli and in the media of arteries. However, no signal of either receptor subtype was detected in the thick ascending limb, the macula densa, or in adjacent juxtaglomerular cells. These results support the concept that PGE2 modulates specific functions in different anatomical structures of the human kidney.  (+info)

Role of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 in colon carcinogenesis. (4/182)

Although the cyclooxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade has been suggested to play an important role in colon carcinogenesis, the molecular species of prostanoids and receptors involved have not been fully elucidated yet. We examined the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs), putative preneoplastic lesions of the colon, in two lines of knockout mice, each deficient in prostaglandin E receptors, EP1 and EP3, by treatment with the colon carcinogen, azoxymethane. Formation of ACFs was decreased only in the EP1-knockout mice to approximately 60% of the level in wild-type mice. Administration of 250, 500, or 1000 ppm of a novel selective EP1 antagonist, ONO-8711, in the diet to azoxymethane-treated C57BL/6J mice also resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of ACF formation. Moreover, when Min mice, having a nonsense mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene, were given 500 ppm ONO-8711 in the diet, the number of intestinal polyps was significantly reduced to 57% of that in the basal diet group. These results strongly suggest that prostaglandin E2 contributes to colon carcinogenesis to some extent through its action at the EP1 receptor. Thus, EP1 antagonists may be good candidates as chemopreventive agents for colon cancer.  (+info)

Responses of intraocular pressure and the pupil of feline eyes to prostaglandin EP1 and FP receptor agonists. (5/182)

PURPOSE: Previous studies suggested that FP receptors do not mediate the relaxation of the ciliary muscle and reduction of intraocular pressure in cats by prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the reduction of intraocular pressure in cats induced by PGF2alpha is mediated by FP or other prostaglandin receptors. METHODS: One eye of each cat was treated topically with prostaglandin F2alpha, fluprostenol (FP receptor agonist), or 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (EP1 receptor agonist) in a dose range of 12.5 to 50 microg. The effects of SC19220 and SC51089 (EP1 receptor antagonists), BWA868c, and SQ29548 (DP and TP receptor antagonists, respectively) on the intraocular response to PGF2alpha were also examined. At intervals up to 6 hours after treatment, intraocular pressure was measured with a pneumotonometer, and pupil diameters were measured with a millimeter ruler. RESULTS: In the dose ranges used, PGF2alpha and 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 decreased intraocular pressure and pupil diameter. The greatest reduction of intraocular pressure by 50.0 microg PGF2alpha was 5.0+/-1.4 mm Hg, whereas that by 50 microg 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 was 6.2+/-1.5 mm Hg. The isopropyl ester of PGF 2alpha at a dose of 1.25 microg reduced intraocular pressure by 3.75+/-0.25 mm Hg at 2 hours. At doses up to 100 microg, fluprostenol did not decrease intraocular pressure but did reduce pupil diameter. SC19220, a weak but selective EP1 receptor antagonist, inhibited the intraocular pressure response to both PGF2alpha and 17-phenyl trinor PGE2. The more potent EP1 receptor antagonist SC51089 had a greater inhibitory effect than SC19220 on the intraocular pressure response to PGF2alpha. Both of these antagonists had a small but non-dose dependent and statistically insignificant effect on the pupil response to PGF2alpha. These observations suggest that in cats, intraocular pressure and pupil responses to PGF2alpha, are mediated by EP1 and FP receptors, respectively. However, SC19220 significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the pupil response to 17-phenyl trinor PGE2alpha suggesting that EP1 receptors mediate pupil response to this agonist. DP and TP receptor antagonists at doses 5- to 20-fold greater than the IC50 values had no effect on the ocular hypotensive response to PGF2alpha. The concurrent administration of 12.5 microg of each of PGF2alpha and 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 did not produce an additive effect on intraocular pressure, indicating that in cats PGF2alpha and 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 act on the same receptor type. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a significant proportion of the ocular hypotensive action of PGF2alpha in cats is mediated by EP1 but not by FP receptor. Evidence was also provided to show that 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 is an ocular hypotensive agent in cats.  (+info)

Corticotropin-releasing hormone increases the expression of the prostaglandin E(2) receptor subtype EP1 in amnion WISH cells. (6/182)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on the expression of the prostaglandin (PG) E(2) EP1 receptor subtype and PGE(2) production in amnion WISH cells (AWC). AWC cultures were incubated with CRH. Culture fluid was collected for PGE(2) measurement, and the cells were collected and analyzed for EP1 protein and mRNA. Immunohistochemical localization of the EP1 receptor was also performed. Incubation of AWC with CRH resulted in a dose-dependent increase (r = 0.97) in the level of EP1 receptor protein (P < 0.001). Coincubation of AWC with CRH and indomethacin resulted in the decreased production of PGE(2) while having no effect on EP1 receptor expression. A significant but not dose-dependent increase in EP1 mRNA expression was also observed (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical evaluation verified cell membrane localization of the receptor in both stimulated and unstimulated cells and confirmed the increased expression of EP1 receptor in response to CRH. Incubation of AWC with CRH also resulted in increased culture fluid PGE(2) levels (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the role CRH plays in the initiation of labor may also involve the promotion of elevated PGE(2) levels and increased expression of the EP1 receptor in amnion.  (+info)

Impaired bone resorption to prostaglandin E2 in prostaglandin E receptor EP4-knockout mice. (7/182)

Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) acts as a potent stimulator of bone resorption. In this study, we first clarified in normal ddy mice the involvement of protein kinase A and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in PGE(2)-induced bone resorption, and then identified PGE receptor subtype(s) mediating this PGE(2) action using mice lacking each subtype (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) of PGE receptor. In calvarial culture obtained from normal ddy mice, both PGE(2) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Bt(2)cAMP) stimulated bone resorption and induced MMPs including MMP-2 and MMP-13. Addition of an inhibitor of protein kinase A, H89, or an inhibitor of MMPs, BB94, significantly suppressed bone-resorbing activity induced by PGE(2.) In calvarial culture from EP1-, EP2-, and EP3-knockout mice, PGE(2) stimulated bone resorption to an extent similar to that found in calvaria from the wild-type mice. On the other hand, a marked reduction in bone resorption to PGE(2) was found in the calvarial culture from EP4-knockout mice. The impaired bone resorption to PGE(2) was also detected in long bone cultures from EP4-knockout mice. Bt(2)cAMP greatly stimulated bone resorption similarly in both wild-type and EP4-knockout mice. Induction of MMP-2 and MMP-13 by PGE(2) was greatly impaired in calvarial culture from EP4-knockout mice, but Bt(2)cAMP stimulated MMPs induction similarly in the wild-type and EP4-knockout mice. These findings suggest that PGE(2) stimulates bone resorption by a cAMP-dependent mechanism via the EP4 receptor.  (+info)

Characterization of temporal and cell-specific changes in transcripts for prostaglandin E(2) receptors in pseudopregnant rat endometrium. (8/182)

In the rodent uterus, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is believed to have a major role in implantation and decidualization. The present study investigated the temporal and hormonal control of mRNA expression for the four E-prostanoid (EP(1-4)) receptors in the rat endometrium. For Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization, samples were obtained from rats on Days 1-10 of pseudopregnancy or from rats differentially sensitized for the decidual cell reaction with estradiol. No EP(1) mRNA signal was detected. Endometrial EP(2) and EP(3) mRNA levels increased to a maximum on Day 5, and the mRNAs were localized to the luminal epithelium at the antimesometrial pole, and in the endometrial stroma and glandular epithelium, respectively. Endometrial EP(4) mRNA levels were unchanged on Days 1-5, but the mRNA was concentrated in the antimesometrial endometrial stroma on Day 5. Cell-specific expression of EP(2), EP(3), and EP(4) on Day 5 was dependent upon a dose of estradiol given on Day 4 that induced differential uterine sensitization on Day 5. After the application of a deciduogenic stimulus on Day 5, mRNA levels for these receptors decreased significantly, while in nonstimulated horns they remained elevated. Overall, these results support a role for PGE(2) in the onset of receptivity and initiation of decidualization in the rat.  (+info)

*Prostaglandin EP1 receptor

"Combined effects of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 and subtype EP4 antagonists on intestinal tumorigenesis in adenomatous ... Prostaglandin receptors Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) Prostaglandin ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) is a 42kDa prostaglandin receptor encoded by the PTGER1 gene. EP1 is one of four identified ... Han C, Michalopoulos GK, Wu T (April 2006). "Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 transactivates EGFR/MET receptor tyrosine kinases ...

*MPGES-1

1994). "Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human prostaglandin E receptor EP1 subtype". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (35): 26767-72 ... 1994). "Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of the human prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype". J. Biol. Chem ... Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) or Prostaglandin E synthase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGES ... 2002). "Expression of prostaglandin I(2) synthase, but not prostaglandin E synthase, changes in myometrium of women at term ...

*Prostaglandin D2 synthase

"Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human prostaglandin E receptor EP1 subtype". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 ... and characterization of the human prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (16): 11873- ... Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase (PTGDS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGDS gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... is a glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase that catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin ...

*Prostaglandin EP3 receptor

PTGER1 prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), 42kDa". Woodward DF, Jones RL, Narumiya S (September 2011). "International ... Eicosanoid receptor Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) ... Prostaglandin EP3 receptor (53kDa), also known as EP3, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the ... prostaglandin DP, E2, and E4 receptors (see Prostaglandin receptors). When initially bound to PGE2 or other of its agonists, it ...

*Prostaglandin F receptor

1994). "Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human prostaglandin E receptor EP1 subtype". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (35): 26767-72 ... Prostaglandin F receptor (FP) is a receptor belonging to the prostaglandin (PG) group of receptors. FP binds to and mediates ... Prostaglandin F2 alpha Prostaglandin receptors Eicosanoid receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122420 - Ensembl, May ... "Cloning of the rat and human prostaglandin F2 alpha receptors and the expression of the rat prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor". ...

*Prostaglandin EP4 receptor

Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) Eicosanoid receptor ... Pang L, Cai Y, Tang EH, Irwin MG, Ma H, Xia Z (2016). "Prostaglandin E Receptor Subtype 4 Signaling in the Heart: Role in ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the PTGER4 gene in humans ... Cai Y, Ying F, Song E, Wang Y, Xu A, Vanhoutte PM, Tang EH (December 2015). "Mice lacking prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 ...

*Prostaglandin EP2 receptor

Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin receptors Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) Prostaglandin ... An S, Yang J, Xia M, Goetzl EJ (November 1993). "Cloning and expression of the EP2 subtype of human receptors for prostaglandin ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (53kDa), also known as EP2, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the ... of available EP1 receptors) is ~13 nM for PGE2 and ~10 nM for PGE1 with the human receptor and ~12 nM for PGE2 with the mouse ...

*Eicosanoid receptor

PGE2: EP-(PGE2) (PGE2 receptor) EP1-(PGE2) (PTGER1) - PTGER1; EP1 is a receptor for prostaglandin E2; relative potencies in ... and structure of the receptors and their subtypes". Pharmacol. Rev. 46 (2): 205-29. PMID 7938166. Brink C, Dahlén SE, Drazen J ... PGD2: DP-(PGD2) (PGD2 receptor) DP1 (PTGDR1) - PTGDR1; DP1 is a receptor for Prostaglandin D2; relative potencies in binding to ... The TP receptor is expressed in most human cells types as two alternatively spliced isoforms, TP receptor-α and TP receptor β, ...

*Sulprostone

... prostaglandin EP1 receptor, prostaglandin EP2 receptor, prostaglandin EP3 receptor, and prostaglandin EP4 receptor. ... Markovič T, Jakopin Ž, Dolenc MS, Mlinarič-Raščan I (2017). "Structural features of subtype-selective EP receptor modulators". ... It is listed as a comparatively weak receptor agonist of the prostaglandin EP1 receptor. In all events, this as well as other ... Sulprosotone binds to and activates the prostaglandin EP3 receptor with far greater efficacy than the other PGE2 receptors and ...

*Thromboxane receptor

... activation of its prostaglandin F receptor and prostaglandin E2-induced activation of its prostaglandin EP1 receptor receptor ... Molecular biology findings have provided definitive evidence for two human TP receptor subtypes. The originally cloned TP from ... and prostaglandin D2-induced activation of its prostaglandin DP1 receptor cause TP receptor desensitization by activating ... These receptor down regulating events are triggered by the G protein-coupled receptor kinases mobilized during TP receptor ...

*Hormonal breast enhancement

... and EP4 receptors, but not the EP1 receptor, in mammary gland tissue, which in turn results in the potent induction of ... 29-. ISBN 978-1-4822-2286-9. Chang SH, Ai Y, Breyer RM, Lane TF, Hla T (2005). "The prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 is required ... "Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk overall and by molecular subtype among young women". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers ... "Cyclooxygenase-2 transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor through specific E-prostanoid receptors and tumor necrosis ...
5890 Increased levels of PGE2 have been detected in a variety of malignancies including HNSCC. Several lines of evidence, beyond the finding of elevated levels of PGE2 in tumors, suggest that PGE2 plays a role in tumor growth. For example, PGE2 can stimulate cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis while inhibiting apoptosis and immune surveillance. Treatment with anti-PGE2 monoclonal antibody has been reported to suppress the growth of transplantable HNSCC in experimental animals. PGE2 elicits cellular responses via interaction with four cell surface receptors, EP1-4. In this study, we first investigated the expression of EP1-4 in human HNSCC and then attempted to identify which EP receptor was responsible for mediating the growth of experimental HNSCC. Real-time PCR indicated that each of the four EP receptors was commonly expressed in human HNSCC and in 1483 cell xenografts, a transplantable model of HNSCC. Treatment with ONO-8713, an EP1 receptor antagonist (RA), did not suppress ...
Prostaglandin E Receptor EP4兔多克隆抗体(ab45295)可与人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Rat hepatocytes have previously been reported to possess prostaglandin E₂ receptors of the EP₃-type (EP₃-receptors) that inhibit glucagonstimulated glycogenolysis by decreasing cAMP. Here, the isolation of a functional EP₃ϐ receptor cDNA clone from a rat hepatocyte cDNA library is reported. This clone can be translated into a 362-amino-acid protein, that displays over 95% homology to the EP₃ϐ receptor from mouse mastocytoma. The amino- and carboxy-terminal region of the protein are least conserved. Transiently transfected HEK 293 cells expressed a single binding site for PGE₂ with an apparent Kd of 15 nM. PGE₂ | PGF₂α | PGD₂ competed for [³H]PGE₂ binding sites as did the EP₃ receptor agonists M&B 28767 = sulprostone | misoprostol but not the EP₁ receptor antagonist SC 19220. In stably transfected CHO cells M&B 28767 | sulprostone = PGE₂ | misoprostol | PGF₂α inhibited the forskolin-elicited cAMP formation. Thus, the characteristics of the EP₃ϐ receptor of rat
Kim M.Y., Choi T.Y., Kim J.H., Lee J.H., Kim J.G., Sohn K.C., Yoon K.S., Kim C.D., Lee J.H., Yoon T.J.. BACKGROUND: Melanocyte dendrites serve as the principal conduit for melanosome transfer. The dendrite formation requires actin polymerization mediated by Rho family GTPases including RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate and explore the involvement of p38 MAPK in melanocyte dendrite formation. METHODS: We transduced melanoma cells with adenovirus harboring the expression cassette for constitutive active form of MKK6, an upstream MAPKK for p38 MAPK. RESULTS: We investigated the effect of melanogenic inducers on melanocyte dendricity, using SK-mel-24 melanoma cells because that this cell line is refractory to several melanogenic inducers in terms of melanogenesis. TPA-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and the elongation of dendrite length, suggesting that MKK6 may be involved in this process. Overexpression of the constitutive active form of MKK6 resulted ...
Rabbit polyclonal Prostaglandin E Receptor EP2 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
PGE2, the major product of cyclooxygenases implicated in carcinogenesis, is significantly upregulated in cervical cancer. PGE2 via prostanoid receptor EP4 stimulates proliferation and motility while inhibiting apoptosis and immune surveillance. It promotes angiogenesis by stimulating the production of pro-angiogenic factors. The present study demonstrates GW627368X, a highly selective competitive EP4 antagonist, which hinders cervical cancer progression by inhibiting EP4/epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) interactive signaling. GW627368X reduced protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation which in turn leads to decreased cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation. Decreased PKA phosphorylation also directly enhanced Bax activity and in part reduced glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)β phosphorylation. Owing to the interactive signaling between EP4 and EGFR, GW627368X lowered EGFR phosphorylation in turn reducing Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and GSK3β activity ...
Prostaglandin E Receptors: Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
EP2 Subtype Prostaglandin E Receptors: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLATE CYCLASE.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. FP receptor - Prostanoid receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Using flow cytometry, we found that PGE(2) decreased the percentage of cells in G0/G1 and increased the number of cells in S phase. PGE(2) also increased expression of cyclin D3, a known regulator of the cell cycle and this effect was mimicked by the EP1/EP3 agonist sulprostone ...
AKT1兔单克隆抗体[EP2109Y](ab81283)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC实验严格验证,被37篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
TRAF6兔单克隆抗体[EP591Y](ab33915)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到9个独立的用户反馈。
Anti-Smad4 antibody [EP618Y] (ab40759) has been cited in 35 publications. References for Human, Mouse in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB
only been back a couple days bloviating buffoon maybe? ...Find answers to the question, Most Annoying EP Member? from people who know at Ask Experience.
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab40810 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab52817 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
Nature Genetics DOI: - 10 treatment of ed .1038/ng1541 Other papers from Nature Geneticsto are published online at the same time and with the same embargo:[5] A gene expression map of Arabidopsis thaliana development DOI: 10.1038/ng1543 - [6] Combinatorial microRNA target prediction DOI: 10.1038/ng1536[7] A genomic screen in yeast implies kynurenine 3 - monooxygenase as a therapeutic target for Huntingtons disease DOI: 10.1038/ng1542of elements from different Nature journals are published online at the same time and with the same embargo:Nature Neuroscience[8] electric receptor neuron dynamics shape information transmission DOI: 10.1038/nn1433Nature Immunology[9] suppression of allergic inflammatory by prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 DOI: 10.1038/ni1188[10] Regulation of T cell receptor alpha gene assembly by a complex hierarchy of germline promoters Yes DOI: 10.1038/ni1189Nature Structural and Molecular Biology[11] Structure of the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin - remodeling domain of eukaryotic ...
Anti-Prostaglandin E Receptor EP4 antibody conjugated to SureLight® Allophycocyanin validated for Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse, Rat and Shp…
Vol 9: PGE2 Promotes Apoptosis Induced by Cytokine Deprivation through EP3 Receptor and Induces Bim in Mouse Mast Cells.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Reaktivität: Huhn, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 16 verschiedene PTGER3 ELISA Kits vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikoerper-online.de bestellbar!
Other retinoids may be chosen from those described in the following patents or patent applications: US 4,666,941, US 4,581,380, EP 0 210 929, EP 0 232 199, EP 0 260 162, EP 0 292 348, EP 0 325 540, EP 0 359 621, EP 0 409 728, EP 0 409 740, EP 0 552 282, EP 0 584 191, EP 0 514 264, EP 0 514 269, EP 0 661 260, EP 0 661 258, EP 0 658 553, EP 0 679 628, EP 0 679 631, EP 0 679 630, EP 0 708 100, EP 0 709 382, EP 0 722 928, EP 0 728 739, EP 0 732 328, EP 0 740 937, EP 0 776 885, EP 0 776 881, EP 0 823 903, EP 0 832 057, EP 0 832 081, EP 0 816 352, EP 0 826 657, EP 0 874 626, EP 0 934 295, EP 0 915 823, EP 0 882 033, EP 0 850 909, EP 0 879 814, EP 0 952 974, EP 0 905 118, EP 0 947 496, WO 98/56783, WO 99/10322, WO 99/50239, WO 99/65872 ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. EP2 receptor - Prostanoid receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is one of four receptors identified for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Throu
We will determine the contributions of the four receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) domains to the energetics of RTK lateral dimerization. The six receptors chosen f...
Pill with imprint EP132 EP132 is Green, Elliptical / Oval and has been identified as Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and clidinium bromide 5 mg / 2.5 mg. It is supplied by EXCELLIUM PHARMACEUTICAL.
Pretty awesome band, I really like the awesome blasts mixed with hardcore influence and realllyyy heavy breakdowns. Not your average deathcore act. They have another self-titled EP, and its pretty damn good too! Pick them both up if you want to support a really good up-and-coming band ...
I thought after the tos and fros of this argument at least one OL rep would give him the reference study. Pretty sure ppl sitting on the fence about
Deshalb: ausführliche autobiografische Randnotizen zu diesem Werk und allerhand andere Anekdoten (die wahrscheinlich sonst niemand interessieren) gibt es hier ...
Background and purpose: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to inhibit cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. However, the EP receptor that mediates this beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of PGE2 has not been elucidated definitively. The aim of this study was to identify the EP receptor by which PGE2 inhibits cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. This was determined by using recently-developed EP receptor ligands. Experimental approach: The effects of PGE2 and EP-selective agonists on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) generation from macrophages were evaluated. The effects of EP2-selective (PF-04852946, PF-04418948) and EP4-selective (L-161,982, CJ-042794) antagonists on PGE2 responses were studied. The expression of EP receptor subtypes by human lung macrophages was determined by RT-PCR. Key results: PGE2 inhibited LPS-induced and Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. ...
Expression and regulation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype mRNAs in rat sensory ganglia and spinal cord in response to peripheral inflammation ...
What a stupid farking question. Youve always been sick mate. ...Find answers to the question, I Caught A Virus On EP And Now Im Sick. Do I Have The Flu Or Only An Experience Of It? :( from people who know at Ask Experience.
Listen to Ep. 41: Welton Chang Interview-From The DIA To Superforecasting and forty-nine more episodes by NonProphets, free! No signup or install needed. Ep. 80: Zelensky MemCon. Ep. 79: A Letter to Erdogan.
Churning Scottish epic-indie types Frightened Rabbit have a new three-song EP, and theyve thoughtfully posted it for free download. The three-track EP,
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
This is the first digital EP on Pyramid Transmissions by label co-founder ADJ. Following on from his numerous releases on Touchin Bass, Ai Records...
The latest EP from Chicagodamn. Affirming once again why hes at the very top of his game. 3 more unique, live take MPC jams that will destroy and delight in equal measure. LTD Hand-Stamped 12 - 300 copies ...
This track has been hot on the blogosphere for at least a day now and rightly so because every single Burns pumps out is just gold. This EP is the third out
Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) is a 42kDa prostaglandin receptor encoded by the PTGER1 gene. EP1 is one of four identified EP receptors, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 which bind with and mediate cellular responses principally to prostaglandin E2) (PGE2) and also but generally with lesser affinity and responsiveness to certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors). Animal model studies have implicated EP1 in various physiological and pathological responses. However, key differences in the distribution of EP1 between these test animals and humans as well as other complicating issues make it difficult to establish the function(s) of this receptor in human health and disease. The PTGER1 gene is located on human chromosome 19 at position p13.12 (i.e. 19p13.12), contains 2 introns and 3 exons, and codes for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) of the rhodopsin-like receptor family, Subfamily A14 (see rhodopsin-like receptors#Subfamily A14). Studies in mice, rats, and guinea pigs have found EP1 ...
Spinal prostaglandin E receptors of the EP2 subtype and the glycine receptor α3 subunit, which mediate central inflammatory hyperalgesia, do not contribute to pain after peripheral nerve injury or formalin ...
Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and E2 (PGE2) are ligands for the prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP) family, which consists of four subtype receptors, designated as EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4. Interestingly, PGE2 mediates inflammation whereas PGE1 acts as an anti-inflammatory factor. However, the molecular basis of their opposite actions on the same set of EP receptors is poorly understood. To study the ligand recognition differences, a potential high throughput mutagenesis and constrained peptide was used. A peptide constrained to a conformation of the second-extracellular loop of human prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) receptor subtype 3 (hEP3) was synthesized. The contacts between the peptide residues at S211 and R214, and PGE2 were first identified by NMR spectroscopy. The results were used as a guide for site-directed mutagenesis of the hEP3 protein. The S211L and R214L mutants expressed in HEK293 cells lost binding to [3H]PGE2. This study found that the non-conserved S211 and R214 of the hEP3 are involved in PGE2 ...
In the present study, examination of the effects of EP1 and EP3 receptors on AOM-induced ACF formation in mice provided evidence of an involvement of the PGE receptor subtype EP1, but not EP3, in colon carcinogenesis. The involvement of the EP1 receptor in colon carcinogenesis was confirmed using a novel EP1 antagonist, ONO-8711, in terms of ACF development. This antagonist was also effective in decreasing ACF formation, even when administered after AOM treatment. This indicates that the reduction of ACF formation by the antagonist was mediated not at the level of AOM metabolism but rather through postinitiation processes. Moreover, ONO-8711 clearly suppressed intestinal polyp formation in Min mice.. It has been reported that the number of AOM-induced ACFs per colon is reduced by 34∼53%, relative to control values, by administration of traditional NSAIDs (sulindac and piroxicam) and COX-2-selective inhibitors (nimesulide and celecoxib) in rodents (21, 22, 23) . The observed suppression ...
RaQualia Pharma is developing orally-active prostaglandin E receptor (EP4) antagonists, for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain, acute pain,
From experiments in mice in which the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesizing enzyme mPGES-1 was genetically deleted, as well as from experiments in which PGE2 was injected directly into the brain, PGE2 has been implicated as a mediator of inflammatory induced anorexia. Here we aimed at examining which PGE2 receptor (EP1-4) that was critical for the anorexic response to peripherally injected interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, deletion of neither EP receptor in mice, either globally (for EP1, EP2, and EP3) or selectively in the nervous system (EP4), had any effect on the IL-1β induced anorexia. Because these mice were all on a C57BL/6 background, whereas previous observations demonstrating a role for induced PGE2 in IL-1β evoked anorexia had been carried out on mice on a DBA/1 background, we examined the anorexic response to IL-1β in mice with deletion of mPGES-1 on a C57BL/6 background and a DBA/1 background, respectively. We confirmed previous findings that mPGES-1 knock-out mice on a DBA/1 ...
Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and E2 (PGE2) are ligands for the prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP) family, which consists of four subtype receptors, designated as EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4. Interestingly, PGE2 mediates inflammation ...
1997906528, 97906528, 97906528.1, EP 0880590 A4, EP 0880590A4, EP-A4-0880590, EP0880590 A4, EP0880590A4, EP19970906528, EP97906528, PCT/1997/2039, PCT/US/1997/002039, PCT/US/1997/02039, PCT/US/97/002039, PCT/US/97/02039, PCT/US1997/002039, PCT/US1997/02039, PCT/US1997002039, PCT/US199702039, PCT/US97/002039, PCT/US97/02039, PCT/US97002039, PCT/US9702039 ...
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Complete information for EP300 gene (Protein Coding), E1A Binding Protein P300, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
... phases are the workhorse phases for preparative and process scale SFC purifications. Celeris 2EP (2-ethyl pyridine) and 4EP (4-ethyl pyridine) media is designed to be highly reproducible based on tight product specifications and low metal content. Celeris 2EP is especially well-suited for separation of acidic compounds and exhibits broad selectivity towards a variety of other compound types. The Celeris 4EP phase offers alternate selectivity to the 2EP phase. Celeris 2EP and 4EP SFC columns deliver high performance separations comparable to other ethyl pyridine phases at a much lower price ...
Technos favorite "sandwich" makers are back, with a tasty acid-soaked EP on Chicago house master DJ Pierres new label AA Trax. The "Acid Dreams" EP ...
In this feature interview, EP Lab Digest® speaks with Dr. George Mark from the Heart House of New Jersey about his use of Boston Scientifics S-ICD System. (This is the experience of Dr. Mark. Please refer to the Directions For Use for the full impla ...
I just had another ep study at the University of Utah on Sept.28. I had one back in Jan. of this year also and both times they could not induce my nsvt or my svt. I was wondering how can they really sa...
Roc Marciano is back for a new EP riding the success of his highly acclaimed LP Marcberg from last year, teaming up with the talented Alchemist and Oh No as part of the production team.
Plzeňský InnerSphere boli až do doby, kým som nedržal ich debutové EP, pre mňa veľkou neznámou. A hneď na úvod musím priznať, že ich veľmi rád spoznávam. Poďme ale pekne po poriadku. Debutové EP vydáva […]. ...
CD with these two swedish bands of melodic Death/ Black that includes the EP from 96 "Sorgh p Svarte Vingar Fl gh" by DAWN and the only EP ever recorded by CARDINAL SIN also in 96 "Spiteful Intents ...
Hi, you do realise that this being taken down will be obsessively bitched about by the constantly whinging blogger Jonny Zchivago? I give it 24 hours before he gets his rancid knickers in a twist ...
Nachthexen are a band - possibly a coven - from Sheffield making fresh, fiery and eminently danceable synth punk. This record follows on and includes
It would seem that PGE2 ethanolamide has a similar profile of action to that of PGE2 in that it binds to EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors. The affinity of PGE2 ethanolamide for EP receptor subtypes is significantly lower than that of PGE2, being 500-, 500-, 440-, and 651-fold lower than that of PGE2 for hEP1, hEP2, hEP3, and hEP4 receptors, respectively. The inclusion of the FAAH inhibitor PMSF did not alter theKi values for either PGE2 or PGE2 ethanolamide. This suggests that PGE2 ethanolamide is acting on the receptor directly rather than being cleaved to form PGE2. It is notable that Kozak et al. (2001) have demonstrated that PGE2 ethanolamide is subject to little or no hydrolysis in rat or human blood. It has been previously demonstrated that anandamide and other ethanolamides have significant affinity for the vanilloid VR1 receptor (Smart et al., 2000; Ross et al., 2001). However in this study, PGE2ethanolamide seemed to have limited affinity for the VR1 receptor with a Ki value of ,10 μM, ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although the factors underlying CRC development and progression are multifactorial, there is an important role for tumor-host interactions, especially interactions with myeloid cells. There is also increasing evidence that cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins are important mediators of CRC development and growth. Although prevention trials with either nonselective NSAIDs or COX-2 selective agents have shown promise, the gastrointestinal or cardiovascular side effects of these agents have limited their implementation. The predominant prostaglandin involved in CRC pathogenesis is PGE2. Since myeloid cells express high levels of the PGE2 receptor subtype, EP4, we selectively ablated EP4 in myeloid cells and studied adenoma formation in a mouse model of intestinal adenomatous polyposis, ApcMin/+ mice. ApcMin/+mice with selective myeloid cell deletion of EP4 had marked inhibition of both adenoma number and size, with ...
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. Has a relaxing effect on smooth muscle. May play an important role in regulating renal hemodynamics, intestinal epithelial transport, adrenal aldosterone secretion, and uterine function.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
COMPLETE SEASON 2 SUPERNATURAL Ep.01 In My Time of Dying Ep.02 Everbody Loves a Clown Ep.03 Bloodlust Ep.04 Children Shoudnt Play With Dead Things Ep.05 Simon Said Ep.06 No Exit Ep.07 The Usual Suspects Ep.08 Crossroad Blues Ep.09 Croatoan Ep.10 Hunted Ep.11 Playthings Ep.12 Nightshifter Ep.13 Houses of The Holy Ep.14 Born Under a Bad Sign Ep.15 Tall Tales Ep.16 Roadkill Ep.17 Heart Ep.18 Hollywood Babylon Ep.19 Folsom Prison Blues Ep.20 What Is And What Should Never Be Ep.21 All Hell Breaks Loose (part I) Ep.22 All Hell Breaks Loose (part II) enjoy ...
Serono was developing dual agonists of the prostaglandin E2 and E4 (EP2 and EP4) receptors for the treatment of asthma. The compounds are analogues of
1999920266, 99920266, 99920266.6, EP 1079764 A4, EP 1079764A4, EP-A4-1079764, EP1079764 A4, EP1079764A4, EP19990920266, EP99920266, PCT/1999/9610, PCT/US/1999/009610, PCT/US/1999/09610, PCT/US/99/009610, PCT/US/99/09610, PCT/US1999/009610, PCT/US1999/09610, PCT/US1999009610, PCT/US199909610, PCT/US99/009610, PCT/US99/09610, PCT/US99009610, PCT/US9909610 ...
As we close in on the US release of his debut album, A Larum, UK singer/songwriter/storyteller Johnny Flynn has a free EP available now featuring tracks from the full-length as well as non-album and vinyl-only versions of songs. Titled Hong Kong Cemetry, the EP is available in select record stores across the country
MUST DIE! is in beast mode right now. His Fever Dream EP came out in the summertime. His Tokyo Police EP with CRNKN was released in the spring, only w
The Cheek of Hers new EP for 2012 "Megaphonic" will be released very shortly!. Tracks written, recorded, currently being mixed/mastered, Photo shoot promo done, CD Art Work in process and a new band line-up is coming together for some showcases! Please stay tuned for more updates!. The first single from Megaphonic was released in March 2012 "Yes. Its a Love Song". Please check it out, support and download before the full EP is released ...
China Gp&Ep Series Electrical Measuring Transducer, Find details about China Current Transducer, Power Transducer from Gp&Ep Series Electrical Measuring Transducer - Zhejiang Hanpu Power Technology Co., Ltd.
Balego & Associates Inc. - BalegoOnline.org Galvanic Pad Model 800, 4 x 7 1/package EP85224 [U_800] - Ground pad for use with galvanic stimulators, Model 800, 4 x 7 (10.2cm x 17.8cm) rectangle
Balego & Associates Inc. - BalegoOnline.org Galvanic Pad Model 800, 4 x 7 1/package EP85224 [U_800] - Ground pad for use with galvanic stimulators, Model 800, 4 x 7 (10.2cm x 17.8cm) rectangle
5prime and 3prime flanking sequence map 5483 bp apart, consistent with 2 insertions or 1 insertion associated with a rearrangement. The terminal 7 bp of the 5prime end of the P element are missing, GDP ...
Pill with imprint EP 104 is White, Round and has been identified as Colchicine 0.6 mg. It is supplied by United Research Laboratories/Mutual Pharmaceutical Company.
I decided to look further into this topic as weve had several of our HealingWell family that have had these EP studies done in the past, and a few that will maybe be looking into this procedure in the future. For you... ...
Diverse shades of dub techno from Fold on his return to Electric Minds. Between the deft, pacy techno clip of Gully to the rugged jabs and muscular subbass of
Mad Decent is a Los Angeles-based record label spearheaded by Wesley Pentz, better known as Diplo. Been invading your ears since 2006!
ClinicalTrials.gov summary of A Comparative Study of Mefloquine and S-P as Prophylaxis Against Malaria in Pregnant HIV + Patients
The basal level of TP receptor phosphorylation may influence its activation. Since the previously discussed isomerization states of GPCRs influence ligand binding (See IV. TP RECEPTOR FUNCTION, C. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, 4. ROLE OF G PROTEINS above), receptor agonist binding affinity may be influenced by the basal state of phosphorylation. Evidence in favor of this hypothesis comes from the studies of Kinsella, et al and Habib, et al (60,66). Inhibition of PKC by staurosporin resulted in a modest increase in antagonist binding to TP receptors (66), and PKC inhibitors reduced TP receptor basal phosphorylation (60). A PKA inhibitor also increased antagonist binding to TP receptors (66).. PKA and PKC ecto-kinases could contribute to control of TP receptor activation by phosphorylation of the third extracellular loop (66,86, 163). Evidence in support of these kinases having an effect on TP receptor function includes the total inhibition of I-BOP-induced platelet aggregation and of arachidonic acid, ...
Pigmentation may result from melanocyte proliferation, melanogenesis, migration or increases in dendricity. Recently, it has been reported that secreted phospholipase A(2)(sPLA(2)) known as a component of bee venom (BV), stimulates melanocyte dendric
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Work in this thesis was primarily involved with the characterisation of four receptors, the turkey and bovine P2Y1, and the human P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, transfected into the human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1. It also describes the preliminary characterisation of two vascular smooth muscle cell types, and the generation of P2Y1-GST fusion proteins for the production of antibodies.;1321N1 cells were found to release nucleotides in response to sheer stress, but this was overcome by adaptation of the stimulation method. 1321N1 cells expressing the four receptors were assayed for PLC activity, and the rank order of agonist potency for each receptor was generally consistent with reports in the literature. Nucleotide interconversion at the surface of 1321N1 cells was also examined indirectly using the ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL 67156 and hexokinase. Although there was no significant effect of nucleotide breakdown on the agonist concentration-responses, it was found that upstream conversion of ...
|p|Ki = 9.1, 4.9, 0.33, 0.79 nM for EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors respectively [1]|/p||p|Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is lipid-derived autacoid which is the main effector prostanoid produced in the zebrafish, and it works by binding and activating the PGE2
BioAssay record AID 619798 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at human prostanoid TP receptor expressed in QBI-HEK 293A cells assessed as inhibition of 1-BOP-induced increase in inositol monophosphate after 1 hr by time-resolved fluorescence method.
Prostaglandin E2 has potent effects on T cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, adhesion, migration, expression of membrane Rs and diverse synthetic responses to antigens and mitogens (Goetzl et al., 1995a). Expression of a characteristic pattern of different subtypes of EP Rs by each subset of T cells is the principal determinant of specificity of the response of those T cells to PGE2. Aspects of ligand specificity and transductional biochemical pathways have been partially defined for each of the subtypes of EP Rs expressed by T cells. The HSB.2 T cell is a "double-negative" thymocyte (Adams et al., 1970; Hara et al., 1988), that coexpresses a total of 7000 EP3, EP2 and EP4 Rs per cell with a Kdof 3.7 nM (Zeng et al., 1996a). The results of ligand binding studies (Zeng et al., 1996a) and RT-PCR analyses (fig. 1) suggested that the levels of expression of EP R mRNA and protein by unstimulated HSB.2 T cells are in the order of prevalence of EP3 Rs = EP2 Rs ,EP4 Rs, without EP1 Rs. The ...
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Microchip dsPIC33EP512MC504 datasheet, dsPIC33EP512MC504 PDF, dsPIC33EP512MC504 download, dsPIC33EP512MC504 datasheet pdf, 16-Bit Microcontrollers and Digital Signal Controllers
Teenage Bottlerockets latest EP, American Deutsch Bag is three songs of pop punk excellence. The EP includes two covers, the German song "Ich bin Ausländer und Spreche Nicht Gut Deutsch" and Tony Slys "Via Munich" which originally appeared on The Songs of Tony Sly: A Tribute. The EPs TBR original "Im the One Smoking Marijuana Motherfucker" is classic balls to the wall, Ramones-esque pop punk. The entire EP is a fun listen and a must for fans of TBR and pop punk in general. ...
Torturizer - Faceless (EP) [2016], Torturizer, Torturizer - Death/Thrash Metal (São Luís / Maranhão), Death/Thrash Metal, São Luís - Maranhão, Brazil,Corporation Northeast,Northeast Metalhead,Metal,Norte,Nordeste,Download,Full Álbum,Full Download,2016,Ep.
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Superbrothers: Sword & Sworcery EP. Download Superbrothers: Sword & Sworcery EP and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
Die klinische Relation konnte bisher bei allen evozierten Potentialen (EP) nachgewiesen werden [1, 2, 6, 7, 9]. In den meisten Fällen zeigen die EP Funktionsstörungen des Nervengewebes bereits bevor...
Here is the best resource for homework help with C EP 215 : The Preschool Child at NMSU. Find C EP215 study guides, notes, and practice tests from NMSU.
EP Wealth Advisors LLC increased its position in Amgen, Inc. (NASDAQ:AMGN) by 4.6% in the 2nd quarter, according to the company in its most recent filing with the SEC. The fund owned 59,401 shares of the medical research companys stock after acquiring an additional 2,613 shares during the quarter. Amgen comprises 1.3% of EP Wealth […]
China Copovidone Pvp Va64 USP36 Ep8, Find details about China Plasdone S-630, Pvp Va64 from Copovidone Pvp Va64 USP36 Ep8 - Shanghai Dexiang Medicine Tech. Co., Ltd.
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Superbrothers: Sword & Sworcery EP Micro. Download Superbrothers: Sword & Sworcery EP Micro and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
Mau ep ba ang aspirin sa nga buntis? - Naniniwala Ba Kayo sa Hilot (Thread II) | Female Network. Ideal for treating acne spots directly.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential mRNA expression of prostaglandin receptor subtypes in macrophage activation. AU - Hubbard, Neil. AU - Lee, S. H.. AU - Lim, D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Assessing the regulation of macrophage receptors for prostaglandin (PGE2) is essential to understanding the control which that potent lipid mediator has in modulating macrophage activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the differential mRNA expression of PGE2 receptor subtypes (EP) during macrophage exposure to activating and transducing agents. RAW 264.7 macrophages constitutively expressed mRNA for EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor subtypes. Messenger RNA for EP4 was expressed at a much higher level when compared to EP2 in unstimulated macrophages as assessed by kinetic quantitative RT-PCR. When macrophages were stimulated with LPS, EP2 mRNA levels were 12-fold higher when compared to unstimulated macrophages, while EP4 mRNA remained unchanged. Conversely, mRNA levels of both EP2 and EP4 ...
Prostaglandin receptors or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as the primary receptors for one or more of the classical, naturally occurring prostanoids viz., prostaglandin D2, (i.e. PGD2), PGE2, PGF2alpha, prostacyclin (PGI2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and PGH2.[1] They are named based on the prostanoid to which they preferentially bind and respond, e.g. the receptor responsive to PGI2 at lower concentrations than any other prostanoid is named the Prostacyclin receptor (IP). One exception to this rule is the receptor for thromboxane A2 (TP) which binds and responds to PGH2 and TXA2 equally well. All of the prostanoid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors belonging to the Subfamily A14 of the rhodopsin-like receptor family except for the Prostaglandin DP2 receptor which is more closely related in amino acid sequence and functionality to chemotactic factor receptors such as the receptors for C5a and leukotriene B4.[2] Prostanoid ...

PTGER1 - Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype - Homo sapiens (Human) - PTGER1 gene & proteinPTGER1 - Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype - Homo sapiens (Human) - PTGER1 gene & protein

The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(q) proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtypeAdd BLAST. 402. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... "Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human prostaglandin E receptor EP1 subtype.". Funk C.D., Furci L., Fitzgerald G.A., ... sp,P34995,PE2R1_HUMAN Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype OS=Homo sapiens GN=PTGER1 PE=2 SV=3 ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P34995

ptger1a, prostaglandin E receptor 1a (subtype EP1) - Creative Biogeneptger1a, prostaglandin E receptor 1a (subtype EP1) - Creative Biogene

PTGER1A; prostaglandin E receptor 1a (subtype EP1); ptger1b; EP1b; zPRC2; prostaglandin E receptor 1, subtype EP1b ... Profiling ServicesNuclear Receptor Screening & Profiling Services ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_ptger1a.html

PTGER1PTGER1

EP1; PGE receptor EP1 subtype; PGE receptor, EP1 subtype; PGE2 receptor EP1 subtype; prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), ... subtype EP1), 42kDa; prostaglandin E receptor 1, subtype EP1; prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype; prostanoid EP1 receptor. ... Prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1) (EP1). Target Class. GPCR. Family. Prostanoid. Official Symbol. PTGER1. Species. Human ... This protein is one of four receptors identified for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Through a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second ...
more infohttps://discoverx.com/target-data-sheets/gpcr/ptger1

Dinoprostone - DrugBankDinoprostone - DrugBank

Dinoprostone is a naturally occurring prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). It has important effects in labour. It also stimulates ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype. Molecular Weight. 41800.655 Da. References. *Baryawno N, Sveinbjornsson B, Eksborg S, ... Prostaglandin e receptor activity. Specific Function. Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is ... Prostaglandin e receptor activity. Specific Function. Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00917

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Bupivacaine (HMDB0014442)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Bupivacaine (HMDB0014442)

5. Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype. General function:. Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway. ... Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(q) proteins which activate a ... subtype EP1 (PGE2EP1), which inhibits the production of prostaglandins, thereby reducing fever, inflammation, and hyperalgesia. ... The analgesic effects of Bupivicaine are thought to potentially be due to its binding to the prostaglandin E2 receptors, ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0014442

Gene InfoGene Info

prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), 42kDa. 6596880. Full Length. BC051286. prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), ... MF] prostaglandin E receptor activity BioCarta Pathways. Pathway information courtesy of BioCarta. *Eicosanoid Metabolism * ... BP] G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway *[BP] response to lipopolysaccharide *[CC] integral to plasma membrane *[CC] ... prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), 42kDa. Protein Similarities Based on Shared Motif Content. ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GeneInfo?ORG=Hs&CID=159360&LLNO=5731

EP4/EP2 Receptor-Specific Prostaglandin E2 Regulation of Interleukin-6 Generation by Human HSB.2 Early T Cells | Journal of...EP4/EP2 Receptor-Specific Prostaglandin E2 Regulation of Interleukin-6 Generation by Human HSB.2 Early T Cells | Journal of...

1993) Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human prostaglandin E receptor EP1 subtype. J Biol Chem 268:26767-26772. ... 1993) Cloning and expression of cDNA for a Mouse EP1 subtype of prostaglandin E receptor. J Biol Chem 268:20175-20178. ... Human leukemic early T cells of the HSB.2 line coexpress the EP2, EP3 and EP4 subtypes of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors (Rs ... 1993) Cloning and expression of a cDNA for mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP2 subtype. J Biol Chem 268:7759-7762. ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/286/3/1420

Expi293 Protein Expression Data | Thermo Fisher Scientific - USExpi293 Protein Expression Data | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US

Prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), 42 kDa (PTGER1), mRNA. NM_000955.2. NP_000946.2. ,1. ... EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2), mRNA. NM_004431.3. NP_004422.2. ,1. FADD. Fas (TNFRSF6)-associated via death domain (FADD), mRNA. NM_ ... Smoothened, frizzled family receptor (SMO), mRNA. NM_005631.4. NP_005622.1. 15. TYK2. tyrosine kinase 2, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC: ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) (BMPR2), mRNA. NM_001204.6. NP_001195.2. ,1. ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/life-science/protein-biology/protein-expression/mammalian-protein-expression/transient-mammalian-protein-expression/expi293-expression-system/expi293-protein-expression-data.html

Plus itPlus it

Role of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 in colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1999;59:5093-6. ... Involvement of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP(4) in colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2002;62:28-32. ... Levels of prostaglandin E metabolite and leukotriene E(4) are increased in the urine of smokers: evidence that celecoxib shunts ... The primary study endpoint was the change in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 5-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) levels ...
more infohttp://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/4/3/296

Panoply™ Human PTGER1 Knockdown Stable Cell Line - Creative BiogenePanoply™ Human PTGER1 Knockdown Stable Cell Line - Creative Biogene

This protein is one of four receptors identified for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Throu ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. ... PTGER1 prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), 42kDa [ Homo sapiens ]. Official Symbol ... Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem; Eicosanoid ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem; G ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/Panoply-Human-PTGER1-Knockdown-Stable-Cell-Line-CSC-DC012657-1265676-14.html

Prostaglandin D2 synthase - WikipediaProstaglandin D2 synthase - Wikipedia

"Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human prostaglandin E receptor EP1 subtype". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 ... and characterization of the human prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (16): 11873- ... Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase (PTGDS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGDS gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... is a glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase that catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostaglandin_D2_synthase

RESEARCH CENTER FOR PHARMACOLOGY AND DRUG TOXICOLOGYRESEARCH CENTER FOR PHARMACOLOGY AND DRUG TOXICOLOGY

... neurogenesis from toll-like receptor 4-dependent innate immune activation by ablation of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP1 ... The present studies aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E(2) receptor subtype 3 (E-prostanoid [EP] 3) in regulating ... peptides in aged transgenic Alzheimers disease mice by transplantation with wild-type or prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 2- ... prostaglandins e*glycerophospholipids*adenosine a2b receptor*lipoxins*kinetics*picornaviridae infections*isoprostanes* ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/grant/p50/gm/research/center/research-center-for-pharmacology-and-drug-toxicology-7900527.html

Prostaglandin EP1 receptor - WikipediaProstaglandin EP1 receptor - Wikipedia

"Combined effects of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 and subtype EP4 antagonists on intestinal tumorigenesis in adenomatous ... Prostaglandin receptors Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) Prostaglandin ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) is a 42kDa prostaglandin receptor encoded by the PTGER1 gene. EP1 is one of four identified ... Han C, Michalopoulos GK, Wu T (April 2006). "Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 transactivates EGFR/MET receptor tyrosine kinases ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostaglandin_EP1_receptor

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | The Natural Product 6-Gingerol Inhibits Inflammation-Associated Osteoclast Differentiation via...IJMS | Free Full-Text | The Natural Product 6-Gingerol Inhibits Inflammation-Associated Osteoclast Differentiation via...

It also suppressed IL-1-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in osteoblasts, and the addition of exogenous PGE2 reversed ... it did not affect osteoclast precursor differentiation into osteoclasts induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ... The role of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) in bone resorption: An analysis using specific agonists ... Extracellular PGE2 is imported by the prostaglandin transporter and metabolized into an inactive form by 15-prostaglandin ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/7/2068/htm

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve  Oral Health | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health | HTML

The role of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) in bone resorption: An analysis using specific agonists ... Sarrazin, P.; Hackett, J.A.; Fortier, I.; Gallant, M.A.; de Brum-Fernandes, A. Role of EP3 and EP4 prostaglandin receptors in ... Zurier, R.B. Role of prostaglandins E in inflammation and immune responses. Adv. Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot. Res 1991, ... GPR32 is an orphan receptor that uses a β-arrestin-based ligand receptor system that elicits inflammatory and pro-resolvin ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/3/5501/htm

Prostaglandin E2 Induces Oncostatin M Expression in Human Chronic Wound Macrophages through Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase...Prostaglandin E2 Induces Oncostatin M Expression in Human Chronic Wound Macrophages through Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase...

The role of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) in bone resorption: an analysis using specific agonists ... Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) induces the c-fos and c-jun expressions via the EP(1) subtype of PGE receptor in mouse osteoblastic ... A) Relative expression of four PGE2 receptors (EP1-EP4) in differentiated THP-1 mϕ. The mRNA expression of EP receptors was ... Receptors for prostaglandin E(2) that regulate cellular immune responses in the mouse. J. Clin. Invest. 108: 1229-1235. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/189/5/2563

Generation of genetically modified mice to study molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity  - Zurich Open Repository and...Generation of genetically modified mice to study molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity - Zurich Open Repository and...

In the last project the contribution of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype 1 (EP1) to inflammatory pain was investigated. The ... EP1) to inflammatory pain was investigated. The EP1 receptor is one of four receptors of the pro‐inflammatory prostaglandin E2 ... EP1 receptor is one of four receptors of the pro‐inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is a major contributor to pain ... By binding the EP1 receptor PGE2 promotes peripheral heat sensitization. EP1 has also been suggested to play a role in ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/55487/

An Essential Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Prostaglandin E2-mediated Bone Resorption Associated with Inflammation | JEMAn Essential Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Prostaglandin E2-mediated Bone Resorption Associated with Inflammation | JEM

The role of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4) in bone resorption: an analysis using specific agonists ... In addition, the PGE receptors, divided into four subtypes (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4), are important in regulating PGE action in ... Impaired febrile response in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nature. 395:281-284. ... Impaired bone resorption to prostaglandin E2 in prostaglandin E receptor EP4-knockout mice. J. Biol. Chem. 275:19819-19823. ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/197/10/1303

Frontiers | Gliotransmission by Prostaglandin E2: A Prerequisite for GnRH Neuronal Function? | EndocrinologyFrontiers | Gliotransmission by Prostaglandin E2: A Prerequisite for GnRH Neuronal Function? | Endocrinology

... astrocytes surrounding GnRH neuronal cell bodies may respond to neuronal activity with an activation of the erbB receptor ... Over the past four decades it has become clear that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule, plays a ... Over the past four decades it has become clear that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule, plays a ... astrocytes surrounding GnRH neuronal cell bodies may respond to neuronal activity with an activation of the erbB receptor ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2011.00091/full

The role of COX-2/PGE2 in gossypol-induced apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells<...The role of COX-2/PGE2 in gossypol-induced apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells<...

Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP1 Subtype Assays ASJC Scopus subject areas. *Clinical Biochemistry ... EP1) receptor agonist, 17PT-PGE2, mimicked the protection induced by PGE2, whereas the selective EP2 receptor agonist, ... EP1) receptor agonist, 17PT-PGE2, mimicked the protection induced by PGE2, whereas the selective EP2 receptor agonist, ... EP1) receptor agonist, 17PT-PGE2, mimicked the protection induced by PGE2, whereas the selective EP2 receptor agonist, ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-role-of-cox-2pge2-in-gossypol-induced-apoptosis-of-colorectal

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1). 0.127. Cadm1. cell adhesion molecule 1. 0.125. ... fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor receptor). 0.998. ... integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12). 0.246. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process_ortho/human-context-global/10347/?gene=10520

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1). 0.074. Plcg1. phospholipase C, gamma 1. 0.074. ... integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12). 1.000. ... integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor). 0.619. ... KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 2. 0.038. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process_ortho/human-context-global/11712/?gene=10869

BrainStars: One-state GenesBrainStars: One-state Genes

prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1). GPCR 12. 1443974_at 0.827254. 1673. 6.90499. 0.438583. 1. Plcl1. phospholipase C-like ... Nuclear Receptor; NH/NT=NH/NT; AG=Axon Guidance; SLC=SLC Transporter; Fox=Forkhead ...
more infohttp://brainstars.org/onestate/?sortkey=pcalls

EP<sub>1</sub> receptor | Prostanoid receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to...EP<sub>1</sub> receptor | Prostanoid receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to...

Prostanoid receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug ... EP1 prostanoid receptor , PGE receptor EP1 subtype , prostanoid EP1 receptor , prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), 42kDa ... Kawahara H, Sakamoto A, Takeda S, Onodera H, Imaki J, Ogawa R. (2001) A prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP1 receptor ... Characterization of EP receptor subtypes responsible for prostaglandin E2-induced pain responses by use of EP1 and EP3 receptor ...
more infohttp://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=340&familyId=58&familyType=GPCR

P1234 Kidney - Stickleback TranscriptomicsP1234 Kidney - Stickleback Transcriptomics

prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1), 42kDa. [P] [G] [H] 63. ENSGACG00000011950. RCBTB2. regulator of chromosome ... signal sequence receptor, alpha. [P] [G] [H] 88. ENSGACG00000001305. SSR2. signal sequence receptor, beta (translocon- ... signal sequence receptor, alpha. [P] [G] [H] 123. ENSGACG00000008805. ~ST3GAL1. ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3- ... tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 14. [P] [G] [H] 100. ENSGACG00000002818. TRAM1L1. translocation associated ...
more infohttp://stickleback.genomezoo.net/home/contact/expression-patterns-in-kidney/p1234-kidney
  • In human mϕ, PGE 2 phosphorylated Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that hypothalamic astrocytes surrounding GnRH neuronal cell bodies may respond to neuronal activity with an activation of the erbB receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, triggering the release of PGE 2 as a chemical transmitter from the glia themselves, and, in turn, leading to the feedback regulation of GnRH neuronal activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • It also suppressed IL-1-induced prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production in osteoblasts, and the addition of exogenous PGE 2 reversed 6-gingerol-mediated inhibition of IL-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts and osteoclast differentiation in the co-cultures. (mdpi.com)
  • In particular, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of how prostaglandin E 2 induces the immunosuppressive microenvironment in gastrointestinal cancers. (jci.org)
  • Only one such agonist that is highly selective in stimulating EP1 has been synthesized and identified, ONO-D1-OO4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our aim was to investigate the expression of EPs and FP in rat uterus and to identify the regulation by estradiol, progesterone and estrogen receptor (ER) selective agonists. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of EPs and FP expression by estradiol appears to be mainly modulated via ERalpha for EP1, EP3 and FP, while EP2 and EP4 also are affected by the ERbeta selective ligand. (nih.gov)
  • 1) It mediates hyperalgesia due to EP11 receptors located in the central nervous system but suppresses pain perception due to E1 located on dorsal root ganglia neurons in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coexpression of EP 3 , EP 2 and EP 4 Rs by HSB.2 T cells has permitted us to study distinctive effects of each subtype of PGE 2 R on regulation of T cell functions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our immunohistochemical data shows a cell specific regulation of prostaglandin receptors under the influence of ovarian steroids, where EP2 is estrogen regulated in all uterine tissues examined. (nih.gov)
  • Human leukemic early T cells of the HSB.2 line coexpress the EP 2 , EP 3 and EP 4 subtypes of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) receptors (Rs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, key differences in the distribution of EP1 between these test animals and humans as well as other complicating issues make it difficult to establish the function(s) of this receptor in human health and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(q) proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. (uniprot.org)
  • Over the past four decades it has become clear that prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule, plays a fundamental role in modulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuroendocrine system and in shaping the hypothalamus. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, it did not affect osteoclast precursor differentiation into osteoclasts induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), a key cytokine causing osteoclast differentiation. (mdpi.com)
  • The primary study endpoint was the change in the levels of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and 5-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) levels in ACF and normal colonic mucosa samples obtained via endoscopy before and after curcumin treatment. (aacrjournals.org)