Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.
A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A synthetic progestational hormone with no androgenic or estrogenic properties. Unlike many other progestational compounds, dydrogesterone produces no increase in temperature and does not inhibit OVULATION.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Sexual activities of animals.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of estradiol.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Excision of the uterus.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (1/3862)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

Differential regulation of specific genes in MCF-7 and the ICI 182780-resistant cell line MCF-7/182R-6. (2/3862)

To elucidate the mechanisms involved in anti-oestrogen resistance, two human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and the ICI 182780-resistant cell line, MCF-7/182R-6, have been compared with regard to oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, ER function, ER regulation, growth requirements and differentially expressed gene products. MCF-7/182R-6 cells express a reduced level of ER protein. The ER protein is functional with respect to binding of oestradiol and the anti-oestrogens tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and ICI 182780, whereas expression and oestrogen induction of the progesterone receptor is lost in MCF-7/182R-6 cells. The ER protein and the ER mRNA are regulated similarly in the two cell lines when subjected to treatment with oestradiol or ICI 182780. Oestradiol down-regulates ER mRNA and ER protein expression. ICI 182780 has no initial effect on ER mRNA expression whereas the ER protein level decreases rapidly in cells treated with ICI 182780, indicating a severely decreased stability of the ER protein when bound to ICI 182780. In vitro growth experiments revealed that the ICI 182780-resistant cell line had evolved to an oestradiol-independent phenotype, able to grow with close to maximal growth rate both in the absence of oestradiol and in the presence of ICI 182780. Comparison of gene expression between the two cell lines revealed relatively few differences, indicating that a limited number of changes is involved in the development of anti-oestrogen resistance. Identification of the differentially expressed gene products are currently in progress.  (+info)

Low levels of cathepsin D are associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial cancer. (3/3862)

Total cytosolic cathepsin D (Cat D) levels were estimated by an immunoradiometric assay in a series of 156 consecutive patients with surgical stages I-III primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, the tissue content of both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and p185HER-2/neu, DNA content (ploidy), and the fraction of S-phase cells (S-phase) were also estimated. Tumoral Cat D content ranged from 0 to 243 pmol mg(-1) protein (median 44 pmol mg(-1) protein) and was not associated with any of the established clinicopathological and biological prognostic variables, with the exception of a weak positive correlation with the tumoral p185HER-2/neu levels. Univariable analysis performed on a subset of 97 patients, followed for a minimum of 2 years or until death, showed that patient age at diagnosis, high histological grade, advanced surgical stage, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, low levels of Cat D, negative ER and PR status, aneuploidy, and high S-phase were predictive of the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. However, multivariable analysis revealed that only histological grade, surgical stage, Cat D and PR were significantly associated with the patient's outcome. From these findings, we conclude that Cat D is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma, its low levels being associated with a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

Marker molecules of human endometrial differentiation can be hormonally regulated under in-vitro conditions as in-vivo. (4/3862)

An established cell culture system of isolated human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells has been used to study the effects of oestrogen and progesterone, as well as their antagonists, upon endometrial cells. Normal hormonal regulation in vivo was investigated simultaneously in endometrial tissue samples taken at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Several marker molecules analysed by immunohistochemistry appeared to depend strongly on endocrine regulation and could be traced in culture. Immunohistochemically, basic parameters of cell biology were identified in vitro, e.g. cell proliferation (Ki-67), adhesion molecules (beta3 integrin) and paracrine factors (leukaemia inhibitory factor). The most reliable parameters to assess hormonal influences were oestrogen and progesterone receptor molecules. Immunohistochemical localization could be improved by molecular biological analysis using RT-PCR. In the presence of oestrogen, a significant expression of hormone receptors was also shown by RT-PCR, and withdrawal of oestrogens and addition of gestagen, i.e. medroxyprogesterone acetate, caused receptor downregulation. Addition of the anti-oestrogen ICI 182.780 to cell-culture medium significantly decreased the synthesis of progesterone receptors.  (+info)

Endometrial oestrogen and progesterone receptors and their relationship to sonographic appearance of the endometrium. (5/3862)

The rapid development of ultrasonographic equipment now permits instantaneous assessment of follicles and endometrium. The sonographic appearance of the endometrium has been discussed in relation to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. However, a generally agreed view of the relationship of the sonographic appearance to fecundity in IVF cycles has not emerged. We have studied the relationship between steroid receptors and the sonographic appearance of the preovulatory endometrium in natural cycles and ovulation induction cycles. Preovulatory endometrial thickness was not found to be indicative of fecundity, although a preovulatory endometrial thickness of <9 mm related to an elevated miscarriage rate. The preovulatory endometrial echo pattern did not predict fecundity. No relationships were found among endometrial appearance, endometrial steroid receptors and steroid hormone concentrations in serum. Oestrogen or progesterone receptor concentrations were not related to endometrial thickness or to concentrations of serum oestradiol, the only significant correlation being found between the endometrial concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. The ratio of progesterone:oestrogen receptor concentration was somewhat less in echo pattern B (not triple line) endometrium compared with pattern A (triple line) endometrium. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations appeared stable on gonadotrophin induction, though fewer numbers were found during clomiphene cycles than in natural cycles. With regard to the distribution of receptor concentration between clomiphene and natural cycles, most women using clomiphene had very low oestrogen receptor populations. Pregnancy rates were low, in spite of high ovulatory rates during clomiphene treatment and were mainly related to low oestrogen receptor concentrations in preovulatory endometrium.  (+info)

Mechanism of action and clinical effects of antiprogestins on the non-pregnant uterus. (6/3862)

Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism of action of antiprogestins. The biological response to a progesterone antagonist depends on many factors. The usual effect is that of an antagonist, but progesterone agnostic or even antioestrogenic or oestrogenic effects have also been observed. The present review focuses on the clinical applications of antiprogestins in the non-pregnant uterus. Whereas high doses of antiprogestins block ovulation, low doses impair endometrial development without affecting ovulation, hormonal levels or bleeding patterns Indeed, the endometrium is the tissue which is the most sensitive to antiprogestins. The effect of antiprogestins is to produce a delay in endometrial maturation and to postpone the appearance of the implantation window. This concept of 'endometrial contraception' requires further testing in humans, although the principle has been proven in monkeys. In contrast to the low doses of mifepristone which delay endometrial maturation, a minimum dose of 50 mg is required to produce endometrial bleeding. Late luteal phase antiprogestin administration does not disturb ovulation, hormonal levels or bleeding patterns. This has clinical application, and mifepristone has been used together with prostaglandins in women with delayed menses to successfully prevent implantation. Mifepristone has also been shown to be an effective post-coital agent. However, when used on a regular basis once monthly at the end of the cycle as a potential contraceptive, the results are disappointing. Because of their antiproliferative and anti-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium, antiprogestins are also used in the treatment of oestrogen-dependent conditions such as endometriosis and fibromyomas. In humans, chronic administration of high doses of antiprogestins has on rare occasions been associated with endometrial hyperplasia, presumably a consequence of unopposed oestrogen activity. This does not occur with low doses (1 mg daily for 5 months).  (+info)

Expression of the oxytocin receptor in relation to steroid receptors in the uterus of a primate model, the marmoset monkey. (7/3862)

The dynamics of the receptors for oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and oxytocin (OTR) in the marmoset uterus have been analysed throughout the entire cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri obtained during the early, mid/late and late proliferative phase, and the early, mid and late secretory phase and early pregnancy were examined by immunohistochemistry (OTR, ER, PR) and autoradiography (OTR). A massive upregulation of the ER in the cell nuclei of glandular epithelium and stromal cells during the mid proliferative phase was succeeded by a declining staining intensity and positively stained cell number in the secretory phase. PR immunoreactivity increased in the late proliferative phase and early secretory phase, mainly within the cell nuclei, and then declined in both intensity and cell number towards the mid to late secretory phase. Myometrium showed a similar staining pattern for the steroid receptors. OTR were expressed weakly in stroma throughout the entire cycle, increasing slightly in the secretory phase. Glandular epithelium showed positive staining only during the periovulatory period. Myometrial OTR expression was weak during the proliferative phase, increased towards the secretory phase, and was maximal in the late secretory phase. Myometrial tissue adjacent to endometrium was most strongly stained. A cyclic shift evidently occurred in the pattern of steroid receptors, perhaps reflecting the steroid environment or the luteinizing hormone increase associated with ovulation.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional studies of leukocytes in human endometrium and endometriosis. (8/3862)

The aetiology of endometriosis, a common and disabling disorder, is presently unknown, although immune dysfunction could allow ectopic endometrial fragments to survive outside the uterine cavity. These studies investigate the relationship between leukocyte populations, steroid hormone receptor expression, proliferative activity, bcl-2 expression and apoptosis in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis or adenomyosis at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Significantly increased oestrogen receptor expression, bcl-2 expression and numbers of CD8+ leukocytes were found in ectopic compared with eutopic endometrium in endometriosis, and CD56+ endometrial granulated lymphocytes (eGLs) were significantly reduced in ectopic endometrium. Apoptotic cells were rarely found in control and subject endometria. In contrast with endometriosis, adenomyotic lesions showed identical steroid hormone receptor expression, proliferative activity, bcl-2 expression and leukocyte subpopulations to eutopic endometrium, indicating different aetiologies for these disorders. The unusual CD56+ CD16- eGLs present in large numbers in late secretory phase eutopic endometrium were highly purified (>98%) by immunomagnetic separation. Except for a negligible cytotoxic activity of eGLs from early proliferative samples, cytotoxic activity of eGLs from non-pregnant endometrium during the menstrual cycle was comparable with those in peripheral blood, predominantly CD56+ CD16+ natural killer cells. eGLs from non-pregnant endometrium and early pregnancy showed a variable proliferative response to 5 and 100 U/ml interleukin-2 over 48-h and 120-h time courses. eGLs are evidently functionally important in the eutopic endometrium. Their absence in endometriotic lesions together with increased CD+8 T-cell numbers and increased oestrogen receptor and bcl-2 expression may have significant effects on the development and progression of endometriosis.  (+info)

Progesterone receptors (PRs) are a type of nuclear receptor proteins that are expressed in the nucleus of certain cells and play a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including the menstrual cycle, embryo implantation, and maintenance of pregnancy. These receptors bind to the steroid hormone progesterone, which is produced primarily in the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.

Once progesterone binds to the PRs, it triggers a series of molecular events that lead to changes in gene expression, ultimately resulting in the modulation of various cellular functions. Progesterone receptors exist in two main isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, which differ in their size, structure, and transcriptional activity. Both isoforms are expressed in a variety of tissues, including the female reproductive tract, breast, brain, and bone.

Abnormalities in progesterone receptor expression or function have been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying PR signaling is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are expressed in various tissues and cells throughout the body. They play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and cellular responses to the hormone estrogen. There are two main subtypes of ERs, ERα and ERβ, which have distinct molecular structures, expression patterns, and functions.

ERs function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences called estrogen response elements (EREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. When estrogen binds to the ER, it causes a conformational change in the receptor that allows it to recruit co-activator proteins and initiate transcription of the target gene. This process can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including changes in cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

Estrogen receptors are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues, bone homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and cognitive function. They have also been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. As a result, ERs are an important target for therapeutic interventions in these diseases.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid that is used in the medical termination of pregnancy (also known as medication abortion or RU-486). It works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Mifepristone is often used in combination with misoprostol to cause uterine contractions and expel the products of conception from the uterus.

It's also known as an antiprogestin or progesterone receptor modulator, which means it can bind to progesterone receptors in the body and block their activity. In addition to its use in pregnancy termination, mifepristone has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and hormone-dependent cancers.

It is important to note that Mifepristone should be administered under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional and it is not available over the counter. Also, it has some contraindications and potential side effects, so it's essential to have a consultation with a doctor before taking this medication.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of prostaglandin F2α, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like substance in the body. It is used in veterinary medicine as a uterotonic agent to induce labor and abortion in various animals such as cows and pigs. In human medicine, it may be used off-label for similar purposes, but its use must be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks.

It is important to note that Dinoprost is not approved by the FDA for use in humans, and its availability may vary depending on the country or region. Always consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any medication, including Dinoprost.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Hydroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is produced by the body during pregnancy to support the growth and development of the fetus. Hydroxyprogesterone is used in medical treatments to help prevent preterm birth in certain high-risk pregnancies.

There are several different forms of hydroxyprogesterone that have been developed for use as medications, including:

1. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC): This is a synthetic form of progesterone that is given as an injection once a week to help prevent preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by helping to thicken the lining of the uterus and prevent contractions.
2. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone: This is a natural hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory for use as a medication. It has been studied for its potential to help prevent preterm birth, although it is not currently approved for this use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
3. 21-Hydroxyprogesterone: This is another natural hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory for use as a medication. It has been studied for its potential to help prevent preterm birth and for its ability to reduce the risk of certain complications in women with a history of premature birth.

It's important to note that hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may not be appropriate for all women. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant and have concerns about preterm birth, it's important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider.

Luteal cells, also known as granulosa-lutein cells, are specialized cells found in the ovary that play a crucial role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are formed from the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle after ovulation, during which the follicle ruptures and releases the egg (oocyte). The remaining cells then transform into luteal cells, forming a structure called the corpus luteum.

The primary function of luteal cells is to produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen, two hormones that are essential for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining early pregnancy. Progesterone stimulates the growth of blood vessels in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus), making it thicker and more receptive to the implantation of a fertilized egg. It also suppresses further development of ovarian follicles, preventing the release of additional eggs during pregnancy.

If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, and the levels of progesterone and estrogen will decrease, leading to menstruation. However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo will produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which stimulates the luteal cells to continue producing progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over these functions around the 10th week of gestation.

In summary, luteal cells are specialized ovarian cells that produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy to prepare the uterus for implantation and maintain pregnancy.

Pseudopregnancy, also known as pseudocyesis or phantom pregnancy, is a psychological condition where an individual (most commonly in women) believes they are pregnant when they are not. This belief is often accompanied by various physical symptoms such as weight gain, abdominal distention, and breast enlargement that mimic those of a genuine pregnancy, despite there being no actual fetal development. These symptoms are caused by the body's hormonal and physiological responses to the individual's strong belief of being pregnant. It is important to note that this condition is rare and can be resolved with proper medical evaluation, counseling, and support.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

"Gonanes" is not a recognized medical term. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmacology, gonanes refer to a class of steroidal compounds that have a chemical structure similar to testosterone, which is the primary male sex hormone. These compounds are often used as the basis for developing drugs that can affect the reproductive system or other systems in the body that are influenced by testosterone and its derivatives.

It's important to note that while gonanes may have implications for medical research and drug development, they do not have a specific medical definition in the same way that terms like "myocardial infarction" or "diabetes mellitus" do.

Granulosa cells are specialized cells that surround and enclose the developing egg cells (oocytes) in the ovaries. They play a crucial role in the growth, development, and maturation of the follicles (the fluid-filled sacs containing the oocytes) by providing essential nutrients and hormones.

Granulosa cells are responsible for producing estrogen, which supports the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in preparation for a potential pregnancy. They also produce inhibin and activin, two hormones that regulate the function of the pituitary gland and its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

These cells are critical for female reproductive health and fertility. Abnormalities in granulosa cell function can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and infertility.

20-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone is a weak endogenous progestin, a form of progesterone, naturally occurring in the body. It is a metabolite of progesterone and has only about 1% of the activity of its parent compound. It is formed by the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone.

Medical Definition:
20-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone (20-α-DHP): An endogenous progestin, a weak metabolite of progesterone, formed by the action of 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone. It has only about 1% of the activity of its parent compound, progesterone.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Norpregnadienes are a type of steroid hormone that are structurally similar to progesterone, but with certain chemical groups (such as the methyl group at C10) removed. They are formed through the metabolism of certain steroid hormones and can be further metabolized into other compounds.

Norpregnadienes have been studied for their potential role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of reproductive function and the development of certain diseases such as cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their functions and clinical significance.

Oviducts, also known as fallopian tubes in humans, are pair of slender tubular structures that serve as the conduit for the ovum (egg) from the ovaries to the uterus. They are an essential part of the female reproductive system, providing a site for fertilization of the egg by sperm and early embryonic development before the embryo moves into the uterus for further growth.

In medical terminology, the term "oviduct" refers to this functional description rather than a specific anatomical structure in all female organisms. The oviducts vary in length and shape across different species, but their primary role remains consistent: to facilitate the transport of the egg and provide a site for fertilization.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

The estrous cycle is the reproductive cycle in certain mammals, characterized by regular changes in the reproductive tract and behavior, which are regulated by hormonal fluctuations. It is most commonly observed in non-primate mammals such as dogs, cats, cows, pigs, and horses.

The estrous cycle consists of several stages:

1. Proestrus: This stage lasts for a few days and is characterized by the development of follicles in the ovaries and an increase in estrogen levels. During this time, the female may show signs of sexual receptivity, but will not allow mating to occur.
2. Estrus: This is the period of sexual receptivity, during which the female allows mating to take place. It typically lasts for a few days and is marked by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which triggers ovulation.
3. Metestrus: This stage follows ovulation and is characterized by the formation of a corpus luteum, a structure that produces progesterone to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually regress, leading to the next phase.
4. Diestrus: This is the final stage of the estrous cycle and can last for several weeks or months. During this time, the female's reproductive tract returns to its resting state, and she is not sexually receptive. If pregnancy has occurred, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function later in pregnancy.

It's important to note that the human menstrual cycle is different from the estrous cycle. While both cycles involve hormonal fluctuations and changes in the reproductive tract, the menstrual cycle includes a shedding of the uterine lining (menstruation) if fertilization does not occur, which is not a feature of the estrous cycle.

The follicular phase is a term used in reproductive endocrinology, which refers to the first part of the menstrual cycle. This phase begins on the first day of menstruation and lasts until ovulation. During this phase, several follicles in the ovaries begin to mature under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland.

Typically, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to mature, while the others regress. The dominant follicle produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a possible pregnancy. The follicular phase can vary in length, but on average it lasts about 14 days.

It's important to note that the length and characteristics of the follicular phase can provide valuable information in diagnosing various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid dysfunction.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Luteolysis is the physiological process that leads to the breakdown and regression of the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that forms after ovulation. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which supports pregnancy in mammals. If pregnancy does not occur, luteolysis takes place approximately 10-14 days after ovulation in humans and is characterized by the degeneration of the corpus luteum, decreased production of progesterone, and the initiation of the menstrual cycle or the onset of a new reproductive cycle.

The primary event that triggers luteolysis is the release of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) from the uterus, which reaches the corpus luteum through the systemic circulation and causes vasoconstriction, reduced blood flow, and structural damage to the corpus luteum. This results in a decline in progesterone levels, which ultimately leads to menstruation or the onset of a new reproductive cycle.

In summary, luteolysis is a crucial process in the female reproductive system that regulates hormonal balance and prepares the body for a new reproductive cycle when pregnancy does not occur.

Castration is a surgical procedure to remove the testicles in males or ovaries in females. In males, it is also known as orchiectomy. This procedure results in the inability to produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm in men and eggs in women), and can be done for various reasons such as medical treatment for certain types of cancer, to reduce sexual urges in individuals with criminal tendencies, or as a form of birth control in animals.

Intravaginal administration refers to the delivery of medications or other substances directly into the vagina. This route of administration can be used for local treatment of vaginal infections or inflammation, or to deliver systemic medication that is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa.

Medications can be administered intravaginally using a variety of dosage forms, including creams, gels, foams, suppositories, and films. The choice of dosage form depends on several factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, the desired duration of action, and patient preference.

Intravaginal administration offers several advantages over other routes of administration. It allows for direct delivery of medication to the site of action, which can result in higher local concentrations and fewer systemic side effects. Additionally, some medications may be more effective when administered intravaginally due to their ability to bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver.

However, there are also potential disadvantages to intravaginal administration. Some women may find it uncomfortable or inconvenient to use this route of administration, and there is a risk of leakage or expulsion of the medication. Additionally, certain medications may cause local irritation or allergic reactions when administered intravaginally.

Overall, intravaginal administration can be a useful route of administration for certain medications and conditions, but it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks when choosing this method.

Pregnenolone is defined as a steroid hormone produced in the body from cholesterol. It's often referred to as the "mother hormone" since many other hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, and estrogen, are synthesized from it.

Pregnenolone is primarily produced in the adrenal glands but can also be produced in smaller amounts in the brain, skin, and sex organs (ovaries and testes). It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as maintaining membrane fluidity, acting as an antioxidant, and contributing to cognitive function.

However, it's important to note that while pregnenolone is a hormone, over-the-counter supplements containing this compound are not approved by the FDA for any medical use or condition. As always, consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases (20-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of steroid hormone precursors to their active forms by adding or removing a hydroxyl group at the 20th carbon position of the steroid molecule.

There are several isoforms of 20-HSDs, each with distinct tissue distribution and substrate specificity. The most well-known isoforms include 20-HSD type I and II, which have opposing functions in regulating the activity of cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal gland.

Type I 20-HSD, primarily found in the liver and adipose tissue, converts inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. In contrast, type II 20-HSD, expressed mainly in the kidney, brain, and immune cells, catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting cortisol back to cortisone.

Dysregulation of 20-HSDs has been implicated in various medical conditions, such as metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancers. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing targeted therapies for these conditions.

The myometrium is the middle and thickest layer of the uterine wall, composed mainly of smooth muscle cells. It is responsible for the strong contractions during labor and can also contribute to bleeding during menstruation or childbirth. The myometrium is able to stretch and expand to accommodate a growing fetus and then contract during labor to help push the baby out. It also plays a role in maintaining the structure and shape of the uterus, and in protecting the internal organs within the pelvic cavity.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Oxytocin is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including social bonding, childbirth, and breastfeeding. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to facilitate labor and delivery. After giving birth, oxytocin continues to be released in large amounts during breastfeeding, promoting milk letdown and contributing to the development of the maternal-infant bond.

In social contexts, oxytocin has been referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone," as it is involved in social bonding, trust, and attachment. It can be released during physical touch, such as hugging or cuddling, and may contribute to feelings of warmth and closeness between individuals.

In addition to its roles in childbirth, breastfeeding, and social bonding, oxytocin has been implicated in other physiological functions, including regulating blood pressure, reducing anxiety, and modulating pain perception.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Androstenedione is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. It is a precursor to both male and female sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. In the adrenal glands, it is produced from cholesterol through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes. Androstenedione can also be converted into other steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrone.

In the body, androstenedione plays an important role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice in men, and breast development and menstrual cycles in women. It also contributes to bone density, muscle mass, and overall physical strength.

Androstenedione is available as a dietary supplement and has been marketed as a way to boost athletic performance and increase muscle mass. However, its effectiveness for these purposes is not supported by scientific evidence, and it may have harmful side effects when taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Additionally, the use of androstenedione as a dietary supplement is banned by many sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

5-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone, also known as 5α-DHP, is a metabolite of progesterone. It is formed in the body by the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone. 5-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone is a weak androgen and has been found to have some effects on the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. It may also play a role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle in women. However, its precise physiological functions are not fully understood.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Diestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, which is similar to the menstrual cycle in humans. It follows the phase of estrus (or heat), during which the animal is receptive to mating. Diestrus is the period of relative sexual quiescence and hormonal stability between cycles. In this phase, the corpus luteum in the ovary produces progesterone, preparing the uterus for potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a drop in progesterone levels and the onset of the next estrous cycle. The duration of diestrus varies among species.

In humans, this phase is analogous to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, since humans do not exhibit estrous behavior, the term 'diestrus' is typically not used in human reproductive physiology discussions.

Pregnancy maintenance refers to the ongoing process and care required to support and sustain a healthy pregnancy until childbirth. This includes regular prenatal check-ups to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, proper nutrition, regular exercise, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking or consuming alcohol. In some cases, pregnancy maintenance may also include medical interventions such as hormone treatments or bed rest. The goal of pregnancy maintenance is to ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

Progesterone-binding globulin (PBG) is a glycoprotein found in the blood that binds and transports progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryonic development. PBG is produced primarily by the liver and its production can be influenced by various factors such as estrogen levels, pregnancy, and certain medications. By binding to progesterone, PBG helps regulate the levels of free, unbound progesterone in the body, which is important for maintaining hormonal balance and proper physiological functioning. It's also known as progesterone receptor protein (PRP), pregnancy-specific β1-glycoprotein, or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) when it binds to both androgens and estrogens.

Medroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is a female sex hormone produced by the corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle and by the placenta during pregnancy. As a medication, medroxyprogesterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including:

* Abnormal menstrual bleeding
* Endometrial hyperplasia (overgrowth of the lining of the uterus)
* Contraception (birth control)
* Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women
* Prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women
* Treatment of certain types of cancer, such as endometrial and renal cancers

Medroxyprogesterone works by binding to progesterone receptors in the body, which helps to regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and prevent the growth of some types of cancer. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injectable solutions, and depot suspensions for intramuscular injection.

It's important to note that medroxyprogesterone can have significant side effects, and its use should be monitored by a healthcare provider. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take medroxyprogesterone, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting medroxyprogesterone.

Pregnenolone is defined as a neurosteroid, which is a steroid hormone that is produced in the nervous system. It is synthesized from cholesterol and is the precursor to other steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, and the sex hormones (estrogens and androgens). Pregnenolone has been shown to have a number of important functions in the body, including modulation of neurotransmitter systems, regulation of ion channels, and protection of nerve cells from damage. It is thought to play a role in various physiological processes, such as memory, learning, and mood regulation. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Progesterone reductase is not a widely recognized or used term in medical literature. However, based on the terms "progesterone" and "reductase," it can be inferred that progesterone reductase might refer to an enzyme responsible for reducing or converting progesterone into another form through a reduction reaction.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. Reductases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons from a donor to an acceptor, often resulting in the reduction of a substrate. In this context, progesterone reductase could potentially refer to an enzyme responsible for reducing progesterone into a different steroid hormone or metabolite.

However, it is essential to note that there is no widely accepted or established definition of "progesterone reductase" in medical literature. If you are looking for information on a specific enzyme related to progesterone metabolism, I would recommend consulting primary scientific literature or seeking guidance from a medical professional.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Anestrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the period of sexual quiescence in female animals, during which they do not exhibit estrous cycles. This phase is characterized by low levels of reproductive hormones and is seen in some species as a part of their natural reproductive cycle, while in others it may indicate an abnormality or underlying health issue.

For example, in dogs, anestrus is the period between heat cycles when the reproductive system is relatively inactive. In contrast, in domestic cats, continuous estrous cycling is the norm, and they do not typically exhibit an anestrus phase.

In some cases, anestrus may be induced by factors such as poor nutrition, stress, or illness, and it can have negative consequences for an animal's reproductive health if it persists for too long. If an animal is experiencing prolonged anestrus or other reproductive issues, it is important to consult with a veterinarian for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

Prostaglandin F (PGF) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandin F is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various tissues throughout the body, including the uterus, lungs, and kidneys.

There are two major types of prostaglandin F: PGF1α and PGF2α. These compounds play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including:

* Uterine contraction: Prostaglandin F helps to stimulate uterine contractions during labor and childbirth. It is also involved in the shedding of the uterine lining during menstruation.
* Bronchodilation: In the lungs, prostaglandin F can help to relax bronchial smooth muscle and promote bronchodilation.
* Renal function: Prostaglandin F helps to regulate blood flow and fluid balance in the kidneys.

Prostaglandin F is also used as a medication to induce labor, treat postpartum hemorrhage, and manage some types of glaucoma. It is available in various forms, including injections, tablets, and eye drops.

Estrone is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It's one of the three major naturally occurring estrogens in women, along with estradiol and estriol. Estrone is weaker than estradiol but has a longer half-life, meaning it remains active in the body for a longer period of time.

Estrone is produced primarily in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat tissue. In postmenopausal women, when the ovaries stop producing estradiol, estrone becomes the dominant form of estrogen. It plays a role in maintaining bone density, regulating the menstrual cycle, and supporting the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics.

Like other forms of estrogen, estrone can also have effects on various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, and breast tissue. Abnormal levels of estrone, either too high or too low, can contribute to a variety of health issues, such as osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities, and increased risk of certain types of cancer.

Proestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, specifically referring to the phase preceding estrus (heat) during which follicle development and estrogen production occur. It is characterized by the swelling of the vulva and the onset of behaviors indicating readiness to mate, although the animal is not yet receptive to males. This stage typically lasts around 2-13 days, depending on the species. In humans, this equivalent phase does not exist due to menstrual cycles rather than estrous cycles.

Estrus synchronization is a veterinary medical procedure used in the management of domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep. It is a process of coordinating the estrous cycles of animals so that they can be bred at the same time or have their fertility treatments performed simultaneously. This is achieved through the use of various hormonal therapies, including progestins, prostaglandins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH).

The goal of estrus synchronization is to improve reproductive efficiency in animal production systems by ensuring that a larger number of animals become pregnant during a shorter breeding season. This can lead to more uniform calf or lamb crops, reduced labor and management costs, and increased profitability for farmers and ranchers.

Estrus synchronization is a complex process that requires careful planning and implementation, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the animals' reproductive performance. It is typically performed under the guidance of a veterinarian or animal reproduction specialist.

'Labor, Obstetric' refers to the physiological process that occurs during childbirth, leading to the expulsion of the fetus from the uterus. It is divided into three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of regular contractions and cervical dilation and effacement (thinning and shortening) until full dilation is reached (approximately 10 cm). This stage can last from hours to days, particularly in nulliparous women (those who have not given birth before).
2. The second stage starts with complete cervical dilation and ends with the delivery of the baby. During this stage, the mother experiences strong contractions that help push the fetus down the birth canal. This stage typically lasts from 20 minutes to two hours but can take longer in some cases.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta (afterbirth) and membranes, which usually occurs within 15-30 minutes after the baby's birth. However, it can sometimes take up to an hour for the placenta to be expelled completely.

Obstetric labor is a complex process that requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pregnanediones" is not a recognized term in medical terminology or pharmacology. It seems that the term may be a combination of "pregnan" (a root word related to steroid hormones produced by the ovaries and testes) and "dione" (a suffix used in chemistry to denote a ketone with two carbonyl groups). However, without a clear context or a specific chemical structure, it's not possible to provide an accurate definition or description.

If you have any more information about the term or if you meant something different, please let me know and I will do my best to help you.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

The Corpus Luteum is a temporary endocrine structure formed in the ovary after the release of a mature egg (ovulation) during the menstrual cycle. It produces progesterone and estrogen, which support the early stages of pregnancy by maintaining the lining of the uterus (endometrium). "Corpus Luteum Maintenance" refers to the physiological processes that sustain the function and survival of the Corpus Luteum.

The maintenance of the Corpus Luteum is primarily regulated by two hormones: luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). After ovulation, a surge in LH triggers the formation of the Corpus Luteum. In the absence of pregnancy, the Corpus Luteum begins to degenerate after approximately 10-14 days, leading to a decline in progesterone levels and the onset of menstruation.

However, if conception occurs, the developing embryo starts producing hCG, which shares structural similarities with LH. This hCG maintains the Corpus Luteum by binding to LH receptors and stimulating the continued production of progesterone. The high levels of progesterone help thicken the endometrium and prepare it for implantation of the fertilized egg, ensuring a suitable environment for fetal development during early pregnancy.

In summary, Corpus Luteum Maintenance refers to the hormonal regulation and physiological processes that sustain the function and survival of the Corpus Luteum, primarily through the actions of LH and hCG, leading to the production of progesterone and supporting the early stages of pregnancy.

The Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme, also known as Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) protein or P450scc, is a complex enzymatic system that plays a crucial role in the production of steroid hormones. It is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of steroid-producing cells, such as those found in the adrenal glands, gonads, and placenta.

The Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme is responsible for converting cholesterol into pregnenolone, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones, and vitamin D. This enzymatic complex consists of two components: a flavoprotein called NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, which provides electrons for the reaction, and a cytochrome P450 protein called CYP11A1, which catalyzes the actual cleavage of the cholesterol side chain.

Defects in the Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired steroidogenesis and accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the adrenal glands and gonads.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Equine Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones derived from the pituitary gland of horses. They consist of two subunits: a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit that determines the biological activity of each hormone. There are two main types of equine gonadotropins: Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (eFSH) and Equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH).

eFSH plays a crucial role in the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females, while eLH stimulates ovulation and the production of sex steroids in both males and females. These hormones are often used in veterinary medicine to induce ovulation and improve fertility in horses, as well as in research to study the physiology and biochemistry of gonadotropins and reproduction. It's important to note that equine gonadotropins have limited application in human reproductive medicine due to potential immunogenic reactions and other safety concerns.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the adrenal glands and, in smaller amounts, by the ovaries and testes. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

In a medical context, 17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone may also refer to a synthetic form of this hormone that is used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, a medication called 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHP) is used to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by suppressing uterine contractions and promoting fetal lung maturity.

It's important to note that 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Follicular fluid is the fluid that accumulates within the follicle (a small sac or cyst) in the ovary where an egg matures. This fluid contains various chemicals, hormones, and proteins that support the growth and development of the egg cell. It also contains metabolic waste products and other substances from the granulosa cells (the cells that surround the egg cell within the follicle). Follicular fluid is often analyzed in fertility treatments and studies as it can provide valuable information about the health and viability of the egg cell.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Estradiol receptors are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are activated by the hormone 17-β estradiol, which is a form of estrogen. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the breasts, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and brain.

There are two main types of estradiol receptors, known as ERα and ERβ. Once activated by estradiol, these receptors function as transcription factors, binding to specific DNA sequences in the nucleus of cells and regulating the expression of target genes. This process plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics, as well as in various physiological processes such as bone metabolism, cognitive function, and cardiovascular health.

Abnormalities in estradiol receptor signaling have been implicated in several diseases, including breast and endometrial cancers, osteoporosis, and neurological disorders. As a result, estradiol receptors are an important target for the development of therapies aimed at treating these conditions.

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Dydrogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of medical therapy. It is primarily used as a hormonal supplement during infertility treatments and to prevent pregnancy loss in women with a history of miscarriage due to progesterone deficiency.

Dydrogesterone works by mimicking the effects of natural progesterone, which helps to prepare the lining of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and supports the early stages of pregnancy. It is also used in the treatment of endometriosis, a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of it, causing pain and other symptoms.

Dydrogesterone is available in various forms, including tablets and capsules, and is typically taken orally. The dosage and duration of treatment may vary depending on the specific medical condition being treated and the individual patient's needs. As with any medication, dydrogesterone should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

The decidua is a specialized type of tissue that lines the uterus during pregnancy. It forms after the implantation of a fertilized egg (embryo) into the uterine lining, and it plays an important role in supporting the growth and development of the embryo and fetus.

The decidua is composed of several layers, including the decidual capsularis, which surrounds the embryo, and the decidual parietalis, which lines the rest of the uterus. The tissue is rich in blood vessels and contains a variety of immune cells that help to protect the developing fetus from infection.

During pregnancy, the decidua produces various hormones and growth factors that support the growth of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. After the birth of the baby, the decidua is shed along with the placenta in a process called childbirth or parturition.

It's worth noting that abnormalities in the decidua can contribute to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and miscarriage.

Oxytocin receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of cells, primarily in the uterus and mammary glands. They bind to the hormone oxytocin, which is produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland.

When oxytocin binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to various physiological responses. In the uterus, oxytocin receptors play a crucial role in promoting contractions during labor and childbirth. In the mammary glands, they stimulate milk letdown and ejection during breastfeeding.

Oxytocin receptors have also been identified in other tissues, including the brain, heart, and kidneys, where they are involved in a variety of functions such as social bonding, sexual behavior, stress response, and cardiovascular regulation. Dysregulation of oxytocin receptor function has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and hypertension.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

A pregnancy test is a medical diagnostic tool used to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. These tests detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the placenta after fertilization. Pregnancy tests can be performed using a variety of methods, including urine tests and blood tests.

Urine pregnancy tests are typically performed at home and involve either dipping a test strip into a sample of urine or holding the strip under a stream of urine for several seconds. The test strip contains antibodies that react with hCG, producing a visual signal such as a line or plus sign if hCG is present.

Blood pregnancy tests are performed by a healthcare provider and can detect lower levels of hCG than urine tests. There are two types of blood pregnancy tests: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative tests simply detect the presence or absence of hCG, while quantitative tests measure the exact amount of hCG present in the blood.

Pregnancy tests are generally very accurate when used correctly, but false positives and false negatives can occur. False positives may occur due to certain medical conditions or medications that contain hCG. False negatives may occur if the test is taken too early or if it is not performed correctly. It is important to follow the instructions carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if there is any uncertainty about the results.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Sexual maturation is the process of physical development during puberty that leads to the ability to reproduce. This process involves the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, changes in hormone levels, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. In females, this includes the onset of menstruation and the development of breasts and hips. In males, this includes the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the production of sperm. Achieving sexual maturation is an important milestone in human development and typically occurs during adolescence.

Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) is a type of nuclear receptor protein that is activated by the hormone estrogen. It is encoded by the gene ESR1 and is primarily expressed in the cells of the reproductive system, breast, bone, liver, heart, and brain tissue.

When estrogen binds to ERα, it causes a conformational change in the receptor, which allows it to dimerize and translocate to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, ERα functions as a transcription factor, binding to specific DNA sequences called estrogen response elements (EREs) and regulating the expression of target genes.

ERα plays important roles in various physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of female reproductive organs, bone homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. It is also a critical factor in the growth and progression of certain types of breast cancer, making ERα status an important consideration in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

Norethindrone is a synthetic form of progesterone, a female hormone that is produced naturally in the ovaries. It is used as a medication for various purposes such as:

* Preventing pregnancy when used as a birth control pill
* Treating endometriosis
* Managing symptoms associated with menopause
* Treating abnormal menstrual bleeding

Norethindrone works by thinning the lining of the uterus, preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), and changing the cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg. It is important to note that norethindrone should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

20-α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (20-α-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of steroids, specifically the oxidation of 20α-hydroxysteroids to 20-keto steroids. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism and regulation of steroid hormones, such as corticosteroids and progestogens.

In the adrenal gland, 20-α-HSD is involved in the biosynthesis and interconversion of various corticosteroids, including cortisol, cortisone, and aldosterone. By catalyzing the conversion of cortisol to cortisone or vice versa, this enzyme helps maintain a balance between active and inactive forms of these hormones, which is essential for proper physiological functioning.

In the reproductive system, 20-α-HSD is involved in the metabolism of progestogens, such as progesterone and its derivatives. This enzyme can convert active forms of progestogens into their inactive counterparts, thereby regulating their levels and activity within the body.

Dysregulation or mutations in 20-α-HSD have been implicated in several medical conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and certain reproductive disorders.

I apologize, but "estrenes" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology in English. It may be a term used in another language or context. If you could provide more context or clarify what you are looking for, I would be happy to help further.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Delayed embryo implantation is a medical condition that occurs when the fertilized egg (embryo) does not attach to the uterine lining (endometrium) within the expected time frame, typically within 7-10 days after ovulation. In delayed implantation, the embryo may take longer than usual to implant, which can result in a prolonged menstrual cycle or irregular bleeding.

There are several possible reasons for delayed implantation, including hormonal imbalances, uterine abnormalities, immune system dysfunction, and chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo. In some cases, delayed implantation may be a sign of infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss.

Diagnosis of delayed implantation typically involves monitoring hormone levels and tracking menstrual cycles. Imaging tests such as ultrasound or hysteroscopy may also be used to assess the uterine lining and detect any abnormalities that could be contributing to the delay in implantation.

Treatment for delayed implantation depends on the underlying cause. Hormonal therapies, medications to suppress the immune system, or surgery to correct uterine abnormalities may be recommended in some cases. In vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo transfer may also be considered as a treatment option for couples experiencing delayed implantation and infertility.

Pregnanes are a class of steroid hormones and steroids that contain a pregnane nucleus, which is a steroid core with a carbon skeleton consisting of 21 carbons. This structure includes four fused rings, labeled A through D, and is derived from cholesterol.

Pregnanes are important precursors for the synthesis of various steroid hormones in the body, including progesterone, which plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle. Other examples of pregnanes include cortisol, a stress hormone produced by the adrenal gland, and aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.

It's worth noting that pregnanes can also refer to synthetic compounds that contain this steroid nucleus and are used in various medical and research contexts.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Theca cells are specialized cells that are part of the follicle where the egg matures in the ovary. They are located in the outer layer of the follicle and play an important role in producing hormones necessary for the growth and development of the follicle and the egg within it. Specifically, they produce androgens, such as testosterone, which are then converted into estrogens by another type of cells in the follicle called granulosa cells. These hormones help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a possible pregnancy. In some cases, theca cells can become overactive and produce too much testosterone, leading to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Superovulation, also known as controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), refers to the process of inducing the development and release of multiple mature ova (eggs) from the ovaries during a single reproductive cycle. This is achieved through the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or other fertility medications, which stimulate the ovarian follicles to grow and mature beyond the normal number. Superovulation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of successful conception by obtaining a larger number of ova for fertilization and embryo transfer.

Gonadotropins are hormones produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating reproduction and sexual development. There are two main types of gonadotropins:

1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH is essential for the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries (in females) or sperm production in the testes (in males). In females, FSH stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the dominant follicle. In males, LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Together, FSH and LH work synergistically to regulate various aspects of reproductive function and sexual development. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to stimulate the production and release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Abnormal levels of gonadotropins can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as infertility or menstrual irregularities in females and issues related to sexual development or function in both sexes. In some cases, synthetic forms of gonadotropins may be used clinically to treat these conditions or for assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the uterus, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from different types of cells within the uterus, leading to various types of uterine neoplasms. The two main categories of uterine neoplasms are endometrial neoplasms and uterine sarcomas.

Endometrial neoplasms develop from the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. Most endometrial neoplasms are classified as endometrioid adenocarcinomas, arising from glandular cells in the endometrium. Other types include serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma.

Uterine sarcomas, on the other hand, are less common and originate from the connective tissue (stroma) or muscle (myometrium) of the uterus. Uterine sarcomas can be further divided into several subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

Uterine neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and difficulty urinating or having bowel movements. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and tissue biopsies to determine the type and extent of the neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and patient's overall health but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

Pregnenediones are a class of steroid hormones that contain a pregnane structure, which is a skeleton formed by four fused cyclohexane rings. Specifically, pregnenediones are characterized by having a ketone group (a carbonyl group, -C=O) at the 20th carbon position of this pregnane structure. They can be further classified into various subgroups based on the presence and location of other functional groups in the molecule.

Pregnenediones are not typically used as medications, but they do play important roles in the human body. For example, progesterone is a naturally occurring pregnenedione that plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and preparing the uterus for childbirth. Other pregnenediones may also have hormonal activity or serve as intermediates in the synthesis of other steroid hormones.

Relaxin is a hormone produced by the ovaries and, during pregnancy, also by the placenta and the fetal membranes. Its primary function is to relax the uterus and pelvic joints in preparation for childbirth, hence its name. It does this by softening the connective tissues and increasing their elasticity, which allows them to stretch more easily. Relaxin also plays a role in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, helping to maintain healthy blood pressure levels.

Additionally, relaxin has been shown to have effects on other parts of the body, such as reducing muscle stiffness and joint pain, increasing flexibility, and potentially even playing a role in bone metabolism. However, more research is needed to fully understand all of its functions and potential therapeutic uses.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a sex hormone and androgen that plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It is synthesized from testosterone through the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT is essential for the normal development of the male genitalia during fetal development and for the maturation of the sexual organs at puberty.

In addition to its role in sexual development, DHT also contributes to the growth of hair follicles, the health of the prostate gland, and the maintenance of bone density. However, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness).

DHT exerts its effects by binding to androgen receptors in various tissues throughout the body. Once bound, DHT triggers a series of cellular responses that regulate gene expression and influence the growth and differentiation of cells. In some cases, these responses can lead to unwanted side effects, such as hair loss or prostate enlargement.

Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase, such as finasteride and dutasteride, are sometimes used to treat conditions associated with excess DHT production. These drugs work by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors, thereby alleviating symptoms and slowing disease progression.

In summary, dihydrotestosterone is a potent sex hormone that plays a critical role in male sexual development and function. While it is essential for normal growth and development, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as BPH and androgenetic alopecia. Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase are sometimes used to treat these conditions by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors.

Androstenols are a type of steroid compound that is found in both animals and humans. They are classified as pheromones, which are chemicals that can affect the behavior or physiology of other members of the same species. Androstenols are found in high concentrations in male sweat, and they have been suggested to play a role in human sexual attraction and communication.

In particular, androstenols are thought to have a positive and calming effect on people, and may help to reduce stress and anxiety. They have also been shown to increase feelings of approachability and friendliness between individuals. Some studies have suggested that androstenols may be particularly effective at enhancing social interactions in women.

Androstenols are often used in perfumes and colognes, as well as in aromatherapy products, because of their potential to promote positive social interactions and reduce stress. However, it is important to note that the effects of androstenols on human behavior and physiology are still not fully understood, and more research is needed to confirm their role in human communication and attraction.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) medication that is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. It works by blocking the action of estrogen in the body, particularly in breast tissue. This can help to stop or slow the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors.

Tamoxifen has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in both men and women. It is often used as a part of adjuvant therapy, which is treatment given after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Tamoxifen may also be used to treat metastatic breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Common side effects of tamoxifen include hot flashes, vaginal discharge, and changes in mood or vision. Less commonly, tamoxifen can increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, and endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus). However, for many women with breast cancer, the benefits of taking tamoxifen outweigh the risks.

It's important to note that while tamoxifen can be an effective treatment option for some types of breast cancer, it is not appropriate for all patients. A healthcare professional will consider a variety of factors when determining whether tamoxifen is the right choice for an individual patient.

Metestrus is the second phase of the estrous cycle in animals, specifically referring to the period of sexual receptivity and ovulation. In humans, this phase corresponds to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. During metestrus, the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure formed from the remains of the ovarian follicle after ovulation, produces progesterone, which prepares the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg. The duration of metestrus varies among species and can last several days to a few weeks. It is followed by diestrus, the final phase of the estrous cycle, during which the corpus luteum regresses, and hormone levels drop, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining in non-pregnant individuals.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Estrogen antagonists, also known as antiestrogens, are a class of drugs that block the effects of estrogen in the body. They work by binding to estrogen receptors and preventing the natural estrogen from attaching to them. This results in the inhibition of estrogen-mediated activities in various tissues, including breast and uterine tissue.

There are two main types of estrogen antagonists: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and pure estrogen receptor downregulators (PERDS), also known as estrogen receptor downregulators (ERDs). SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, can act as estrogen agonists or antagonists depending on the tissue type. For example, they may block the effects of estrogen in breast tissue while acting as an estrogen agonist in bone tissue, helping to prevent osteoporosis.

PERDS, such as fulvestrant, are pure estrogen receptor antagonists and do not have any estrogen-like activity. They are used primarily for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Overall, estrogen antagonists play an important role in the management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and other conditions where inhibiting estrogen activity is beneficial.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

"Pregnancy proteins" is not a standard medical term, but it may refer to specific proteins that are produced or have increased levels during pregnancy. Two common pregnancy-related proteins are:

1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): A hormone produced by the placenta shortly after fertilization. It is often detected in urine or blood tests to confirm pregnancy. Its primary function is to maintain the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen during early pregnancy until the placenta takes over these functions.

2. Pregnancy-Specific beta-1 Glycoprotein (SP1): A protein produced by the placental trophoblasts during pregnancy. Its function is not well understood, but it may play a role in implantation, placentation, and protection against the mother's immune system. SP1 levels increase throughout pregnancy and are used as a marker for fetal growth and well-being.

These proteins have clinical significance in monitoring pregnancy progression, detecting potential complications, and diagnosing certain pregnancy-related conditions.

Luteinization is the process in which a structure called the granulosa cell in the ovary transforms into a luteal cell after ovulation, or the release of an egg from the ovary. This transformation is triggered by the LH (luteinizing hormone) surge that occurs just before ovulation.

The luteal cells then begin to produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen, which are important hormones for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining early pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum (the structure formed by the luteinized granulosa cells) will degenerate and progesterone levels will decrease, leading to menstruation.

Luteinization can also refer to a similar process that occurs in the testes, where Sertoli cells transform into Leydig cells in response to LH stimulation, leading to the production of testosterone.

Luteolytic agents are substances that cause the breakdown or regression of the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that forms after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy in mammals. These agents work by inhibiting the secretion of prostaglandins, which are necessary for maintaining the integrity of the corpus luteum. By causing the breakdown of the corpus luteum, luteolytic agents can induce menstruation or cause the termination of an early pregnancy. Examples of luteolytic agents include prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α) and its analogs, as well as certain dopamine agonists such as cabergoline. These agents are used in various clinical settings, including reproductive medicine and veterinary medicine.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that was prescribed to pregnant women from the 1940s until the early 1970s to prevent miscarriage, premature labor, and other complications of pregnancy. However, it was later discovered that DES could cause serious health problems in both the mothers who took it and their offspring.

DES is a non-selective estrogen agonist, meaning that it binds to and activates both estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) in the body. It has a higher binding affinity for ERα than for ERβ, which can lead to disruptions in normal hormonal signaling pathways.

In addition to its use as a pregnancy aid, DES has also been used in the treatment of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. However, due to its potential health risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, DES is no longer widely used in clinical practice.

Some of the known health effects of DES exposure include:

* In women who were exposed to DES in utero (i.e., their mothers took DES during pregnancy):
+ A rare form of vaginal or cervical cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma
+ Abnormalities of the reproductive system, such as structural changes in the cervix and vagina, and an increased risk of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and preterm delivery
+ An increased risk of breast cancer later in life
* In men who were exposed to DES in utero:
+ Undescended testicles
+ Abnormalities of the penis and scrotum
+ A higher risk of testicular cancer
* In both men and women who were exposed to DES in utero or who took DES themselves:
+ An increased risk of certain types of breast cancer
+ A possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including high blood pressure and stroke.

It is important for individuals who have been exposed to DES to inform their healthcare providers of this fact, as it may have implications for their medical care and monitoring.

A uterine contraction is a rhythmic, involuntary muscle tightening that occurs in the uterus. These contractions are primarily caused by the activation of smooth muscle cells within the uterine wall, known as myometrial cells. They play a crucial role in various reproductive processes, including menstruation, implantation of a fertilized egg, and childbirth (labor).

During labor, strong and frequent uterine contractions help to dilate the cervix and efface (thin) the lower part of the uterus. As the contractions become more intense and regular, they assist in moving the baby down through the birth canal, ultimately resulting in delivery. Uterine contractions are regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules, ensuring proper coordination and timing throughout the reproductive process.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

'Ovum transport' refers to the movement of an egg or ovum from the mature follicle within the ovary, through the fallopian tube, and ultimately to the uterus. This process is a critical part of the female reproductive system and occurs during each menstrual cycle.

The ovulation phase of the menstrual cycle triggers the release of a mature egg from the follicle in the ovary. The fimbriated end of the fallopian tube captures the egg and transports it into the tube, where it may encounter sperm for fertilization. Cilia lining the inside of the fallopian tubes create wave-like motions that help propel the egg towards the uterus.

If fertilization occurs, the resulting zygote will continue to travel down the fallopian tube and implant itself into the uterine lining, initiating pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the egg will be shed along with the uterine lining during menstruation.

"ErbB-2" is also known as "HER2" or "human epidermal growth factor receptor 2." It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) found on the surface of some cells. ErbB-2 does not bind to any known ligands, but it can form heterodimers with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB-3 and ErbB-4, which do have identified ligands. When a ligand binds to one of these receptors, it causes a conformational change that allows the ErbB-2 receptor to become activated through transphosphorylation. This activation triggers a signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overexpression or amplification of the ERBB2 gene, which encodes the ErbB-2 protein, is observed in approximately 20-30% of breast cancers and is associated with a more aggressive disease phenotype and poorer prognosis. Therefore, ErbB-2 has become an important target for cancer therapy, and several drugs that target this receptor have been developed, including trastuzumab (Herceptin), lapatinib (Tykerb), and pertuzumab (Perjeta).

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Pituitary hormone-releasing hormones (PRHs), also known as hypothalamic releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, are small neuropeptides produced and released by the hypothalamus - a small region of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating the secretion and release of various pituitary hormones, which in turn control several essential bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

There are several PRHs, each with a specific target pituitary hormone:

1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): Stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of thyroid hormones.
2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): Regulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which are essential for reproductive functions.
3. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): Stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of cortisol and other glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands.
4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): Stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for growth, development, and metabolism regulation.
5. Somatostatin or growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH): Inhibits the release of GH from the anterior pituitary gland and also suppresses the secretion of thyroid hormones.
6. Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) or prolactin-releasing factor (PRF): Stimulates the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for lactation and reproductive functions.
7. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) or dopamine: Inhibits the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland.

These releasing hormones and inhibitory hormones work together to maintain a delicate balance in various physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions. Dysregulation of these hormonal systems can lead to various endocrine disorders and diseases.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Leiomyoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that originates from the smooth muscle cells. It most commonly occurs in the uterus, where it is also known as a fibroid, but can also develop in other parts of the body such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Leiomyomas are typically slow-growing and often cause no symptoms, although they can lead to various complications depending on their size and location. Treatment options for leiomyomas include surveillance, medication, or surgical removal.

Hypophysectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal or partial removal of the pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, just above the nasal cavity, and is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions.

Hypophysectomy may be performed for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. In some cases, it may be used to treat pituitary tumors or other conditions that affect the function of the pituitary gland. It may also be performed as a research procedure in animal models to study the effects of pituitary hormone deficiency on various physiological processes.

The surgical approach for hypophysectomy may vary depending on the specific indication and the patient's individual anatomy. In general, however, the procedure involves making an incision in the skull and exposing the pituitary gland through a small opening in the bone. The gland is then carefully dissected and removed or partially removed as necessary.

Potential complications of hypophysectomy include damage to surrounding structures such as the optic nerves, which can lead to vision loss, and cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Additionally, removal of the pituitary gland can result in hormonal imbalances that may require long-term management with hormone replacement therapy.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase, also known as CYP17A1, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the adrenal glands and gonads. This enzyme catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and subsequent lyase cleavage of pregnenolone and progesterone, converting them into dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, respectively. These steroid intermediates are essential for the biosynthesis of both glucocorticoids and sex steroids, including cortisol, aldosterone, estrogens, and testosterone.

Defects in the CYP17A1 gene can lead to several disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased production of cortisol and sex steroids and increased mineralocorticoid levels. This condition results in sexual infantilism, electrolyte imbalances, and hypertension.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are a type of nuclear receptor proteins found inside cells that bind to glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormones. These receptors play an essential role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and stress response.

When a glucocorticoid hormone such as cortisol binds to the GR, it undergoes a conformational change that allows it to translocate into the nucleus of the cell. Once inside the nucleus, the GR acts as a transcription factor, binding to specific DNA sequences called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) located in the promoter regions of target genes. The binding of the GR to the GRE can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of co-regulatory proteins.

Glucocorticoids have diverse effects on the body, including anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. They are commonly used in clinical settings to treat a variety of conditions such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, long-term use of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, including osteoporosis, weight gain, and increased risk of infections, due to the widespread effects of these hormones on multiple organ systems.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system by binding to specific hormones, such as Luteinizing Hormone, and triggering a series of intracellular events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function.

In particular, LH receptors are found on the cells of the ovaries and testes. In females, when LH binds to its receptor in the ovary, it stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. In males, LH (also known as Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone in this context) binding to its receptor on testicular Leydig cells triggers the production of testosterone.

Therefore, LH receptors are essential for reproductive processes and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin analog used primarily in veterinary medicine for the treatment and prevention of various conditions. The main therapeutic uses of Cloprostenol include:

1. Induction of parturition (labor) in cows, helping to synchronize calving in managed herds.
2. Termination of pregnancy in cattle, especially in cases where the fetus is nonviable or the pregnancy poses a risk to the animal's health.
3. Treatment of uterine and oviductal disorders, such as pyometra (infection of the uterus) and salpingitis (inflammation of the oviduct), in cattle and pigs.
4. Prevention of postpartum disorders, like endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus) and mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands), by promoting uterine involution and improving overall reproductive performance in cattle.
5. Control of estrus (heat) in cattle, as an aid in estrous synchronization programs for artificial insemination.

Cloprostenol is available in various formulations, such as intramuscular or subcutaneous injectable solutions, and is typically administered by a veterinarian or trained personnel. It is important to note that the use of Cloprostenol and other prostaglandin analogs should be carried out under the guidance and supervision of a veterinary professional, as improper usage can lead to adverse effects or complications.

Endometrial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the endometrium, which is the innermost lining of the uterus. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two main types of endometrial cancer are type I, also known as endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and type II, which includes serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma.

Type I endometrial cancers are usually estrogen-dependent and associated with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, and prolonged exposure to estrogen without progesterone. They tend to grow more slowly and have a better prognosis than type II cancers.

Type II endometrial cancers are less common but more aggressive, often presenting at an advanced stage and having a worse prognosis. They are not typically associated with hormonal factors and may occur in women who have gone through menopause.

Endometrial neoplasms can also include benign growths such as polyps, hyperplasia, and endometriosis. While these conditions are not cancerous, they can increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer and should be monitored closely by a healthcare provider.

**Norgestrel** is a synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone **progesterone**. It is a type of **progestin**, which is often used in various forms of hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel works by thickening cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. Additionally, norgestrel can also prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) and thin the lining of the uterus, which makes it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Norgestrel is available in various forms, such as oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). It's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any hormonal birth control method to discuss potential benefits, risks, and side effects.

Here are some medical definitions related to norgestrel:

1. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone, used in various forms of hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can have varying levels of androgenic, estrogenic, and anti-estrogenic activity. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
2. **Progesterone**: A naturally occurring steroid hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
3. **Hormonal birth control**: A method of preventing pregnancy that uses hormones to regulate ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, or thin the lining of the uterus. Hormonal birth control methods include oral contraceptive pills, patches, rings, injections, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
4. **Emergency contraception**: A form of hormonal birth control used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Emergency contraception is typically more effective when taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse, but it can still be effective up to 120 hours afterward. Norgestrel is one of the active ingredients in some emergency contraceptive pills.
5. **Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)**: A form of hormone replacement therapy used to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. MHT typically involves using estrogen and progestin or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Norgestrel is a type of progestin that can be used in MHT.
6. **Androgenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as testosterone and some progestins, that are associated with male characteristics, such as facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass. Norgestrel has weak androgenic activity.
7. **Estrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones, such as estradiol and some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), that are associated with female characteristics, such as breast development and menstrual cycles. Norgestrel has weak estrogenic activity.
8. **Antiestrogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that block or oppose the actions of estrogens. Norgestrel has antiestrogenic activity.
9. **Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)**: A type of drug that acts as an estrogen agonist in some tissues and an estrogen antagonist in others. SERMs can be used to treat or prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis, and other conditions associated with hormonal imbalances. Norgestrel is not a SERM but has antiestrogenic activity.
10. **Progestogen**: A synthetic or natural hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestogens can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestogen.
11. **Progesterone**: A natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and regulates the menstrual cycle. Norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.
12. **Progestin**: A synthetic hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestins can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestin.
13. **Progestational agent**: A drug or hormone that has progesterone-like effects on the body. Progestational agents can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and irregular menstrual cycles. Norgestrel is a type of progestational agent.
14. **Progestogenic**: Describing the effects of hormones or drugs that mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
15. **Progesterone receptor modulator (PRM)**: A type of drug that binds to and activates or inhibits the progesterone receptors in the body. PRMs can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a type of PRM.
16. **Progestogenic activity**: The ability of a drug or hormone to mimic or enhance the actions of progesterone in the body. Norgestrel has progestogenic activity.
17. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
18. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that blocks the action of progestogens in the body. Progestogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
19. **Progesterone agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progesterone in the body. Progesterone agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
20. **Progestogenic agonist**: A drug that enhances the action of progestogens in the body. Progesterogenic agonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone agonist.
21. **Progesterone receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterone receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
22. **Progestogenic receptor modulator**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and can either activate or inhibit its activity. Progesterogenic receptor modulators can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is a progesterone receptor modulator.
23. **Progestin**: A synthetic form of progesterone that is used in hormonal contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins can be either progesterone agonists or antagonists, depending on their chemical structure and activity at the progesterone receptor. Norgestrel is a progestin.
24. **Progesterone antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterone antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Norgestrel is not a progesterone antagonist.
25. **Progestogenic antagonist**: A drug that binds to the progesterone receptor and inhibits its activity. Progesterogenic antagonists can be used to treat various medical conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibro

Stromal cells, also known as stromal/stroma cells, are a type of cell found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. They are often referred to as the "connective tissue" or "supporting framework" of an organ because they play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the tissue. Stromal cells include fibroblasts, adipocytes (fat cells), and various types of progenitor/stem cells. They produce and maintain the extracellular matrix, which is the non-cellular component of tissues that provides structural support and biochemical cues for other cells. Stromal cells also interact with immune cells and participate in the regulation of the immune response. In some contexts, "stromal cells" can also refer to cells found in the microenvironment of tumors, which can influence cancer growth and progression.

Estradiol antagonists, also known as antiestrogens, are a class of drugs that block the effects of estradiol, a female sex hormone, by binding to estrogen receptors without activating them. This results in the inhibition of estrogen-mediated activities in the body.

These drugs are often used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers, such as breast cancer, where estrogen can promote the growth of cancer cells. By blocking the effects of estrogen, estradiol antagonists can help to slow or stop the growth of these cancer cells and reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

Examples of estradiol antagonists include tamoxifen, raloxifene, and fulvestrant. While these drugs are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as hot flashes, mood changes, and vaginal dryness. In some cases, they may also increase the risk of blood clots and endometrial cancer.

Aromatase is a enzyme that belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, and it is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens through a process called aromatization. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway, particularly in females where it is primarily expressed in adipose tissue, ovaries, brain, and breast tissue.

Aromatase inhibitors are used as a treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, as they work by blocking the activity of aromatase and reducing the levels of circulating estrogens in the body.

Aminoglutethimide is a medication that is primarily used to treat hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. It works by blocking the production of certain hormones in the body, including estrogen and cortisol. Aminoglutethimide is an inhibitor of steroid synthesis, specifically targeting the enzymes involved in the conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones.

The medication is available in oral form and is typically taken 2-3 times a day. Common side effects include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, skin rash, and changes in appetite or weight. More serious side effects may include liver damage, severe allergic reactions, and changes in heart rhythm.

It's important to note that aminoglutethimide can interact with other medications, so it's crucial to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are currently taking before starting this medication. Additionally, regular monitoring of liver function and hormone levels may be necessary during treatment with aminoglutethimide.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Cytosol refers to the liquid portion of the cytoplasm found within a eukaryotic cell, excluding the organelles and structures suspended in it. It is the site of various metabolic activities and contains a variety of ions, small molecules, and enzymes. The cytosol is where many biochemical reactions take place, including glycolysis, protein synthesis, and the regulation of cellular pH. It is also where some organelles, such as ribosomes and vesicles, are located. In contrast to the cytosol, the term "cytoplasm" refers to the entire contents of a cell, including both the cytosol and the organelles suspended within it.

Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), is a protein found in human plasma that binds and transports cortisol, corticosterone, and other steroid hormones. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the distribution, metabolism, and elimination of these hormones. Transcortin has a higher affinity for cortisol than corticosterone, making it the primary transporter of cortisol in the bloodstream. By binding to transcortin, cortisol is prevented from rapidly entering cells and exerting its effects, thus controlling the rate at which cortisol can interact with its target tissues.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Estrogen Receptor beta (ER-β) is a protein that is encoded by the gene ESR2 in humans. It belongs to the family of nuclear receptors, which are transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to hormonal signals. ER-β is one of two main estrogen receptors, the other being Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α), and it plays an important role in mediating the effects of estrogens in various tissues, including the breast, uterus, bone, brain, and cardiovascular system.

Estrogens are steroid hormones that play a critical role in the development and maintenance of female reproductive and sexual function. They also have important functions in other tissues, such as maintaining bone density and promoting cognitive function. ER-β is widely expressed in many tissues, including those outside of the reproductive system, suggesting that it may have diverse physiological roles beyond estrogen-mediated reproduction.

ER-β has been shown to have both overlapping and distinct functions from ER-α, and its expression patterns differ between tissues. For example, in the breast, ER-β is expressed at higher levels in normal tissue compared to cancerous tissue, suggesting that it may play a protective role against breast cancer development. In contrast, in the uterus, ER-β has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects and may protect against endometrial cancer.

Overall, ER-β is an important mediator of estrogen signaling and has diverse physiological roles in various tissues. Understanding its functions and regulation may provide insights into the development of novel therapies for a range of diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease.

Parturition is the process of giving birth, or the act of delivering newborn offspring. In medical terms, it refers to the expulsion of the products of conception (such as the fetus, placenta, and membranes) from the uterus of a pregnant woman during childbirth. This process is regulated by hormonal changes and involves complex interactions between the mother's body and the developing fetus. Parturition typically occurs after a full-term pregnancy, which is approximately 40 weeks in humans.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a complex of symptoms that occur in the latter part of the luteal phase (the second half) of the menstrual cycle, typically starting 5-11 days before the onset of menses, and remitting shortly after the onset of menstruation. The symptoms can be physical, psychological, or behavioral and vary from mild to severe. They include but are not limited to: bloating, breast tenderness, cramps, headaches, mood swings, irritability, depression, anxiety, fatigue, changes in appetite, and difficulty concentrating.

The exact cause of PMS is not known, but it appears to be related to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, particularly fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels. Some women may be more susceptible to these hormonal shifts due to genetic factors, neurotransmitter imbalances, or other health conditions.

Treatment for PMS often involves a combination of lifestyle changes (such as regular exercise, stress management, and dietary modifications), over-the-counter pain relievers, and, in some cases, hormonal medications or antidepressants. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

Estriol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is produced in the placenta during pregnancy and is used as a marker for fetal growth and development. Estriol levels can be measured in the mother's urine or blood to assess fetal well-being during pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic forms of estriol are sometimes used in hormone replacement therapy to treat symptoms of menopause.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Marsupialia" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an order that includes mammals known as marsupials. These are mammals that carry their young in a pouch after birth. Examples of marsupials include kangaroos, koalas, and opossums. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

A pessary is a medical device that is inserted into the vagina to provide support for the uterus, vaginal vault, or bladder. It is often used in the management of pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence, and other gynecological conditions. Pessaries come in various shapes and sizes, and they are typically made of silicone, rubber, or plastic. They can be worn for extended periods of time and are usually removable and cleanable. The selection and fitting of a pessary should be performed by a healthcare professional, such as a gynecologist or nurse midwife.

The acrosome reaction is a crucial event in the fertilization process of many species, including humans. It occurs when the sperm makes contact with and binds to the zona pellucida, the glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix that surrounds the egg. This interaction triggers a series of molecular events leading to the exocytosis of the acrosome, a membrane-bound organelle located at the tip of the sperm head.

The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes that help the sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and reach the egg's plasma membrane. During the acrosome reaction, the outer acrosomal membrane fuses with the sperm plasma membrane, releasing these enzymes and causing the release of the inner acrosomal membrane, which then reorganizes to form a structure called the acrosomal cap.

The acrosome reaction exposes new proteins on the sperm surface that can interact with the egg's plasma membrane, allowing for the fusion of the two membranes and the entry of the sperm into the egg. This event is essential for successful fertilization and subsequent embryonic development.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Bromocriptine is a dopamine receptor agonist drug, which means it works by binding to and activating dopamine receptors in the brain. It has several therapeutic uses, including:

* Treatment of Parkinson's disease: Bromocriptine can be used alone or in combination with levodopa to help manage the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control.
* Suppression of lactation: Bromocriptine can be used to suppress milk production in women who are not breastfeeding or who have stopped breastfeeding but still have high levels of prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production.
* Treatment of pituitary tumors: Bromocriptine can be used to shrink certain types of pituitary tumors, such as prolactinomas, which are tumors that secrete excessive amounts of prolactin.
* Management of acromegaly: Bromocriptine can be used to manage the symptoms of acromegaly, a rare hormonal disorder characterized by abnormal growth and enlargement of body tissues, by reducing the production of growth hormone.

Bromocriptine is available in immediate-release and long-acting formulations, and it is usually taken orally. Common side effects of bromocriptine include nausea, dizziness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects are rare but can include hallucinations, confusion, and priapism (prolonged erection).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sesame Oil" is not a medical term. It is a type of oil that is extracted from sesame seeds. Sesame oil is often used in cooking and has some traditional uses in medicine, such as being used as a carrier oil for certain herbal remedies. However, it does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions about the use of sesame oil in a medical context or its potential health benefits, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional.

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus (womb). Depending on the specific medical condition and necessity, a hysterectomy may also include the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. There are different types of hysterectomies, including:

1. Total hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed.
2. Supracervical (or subtotal) hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
3. Radical hysterectomy: This procedure involves removing the uterus, cervix, surrounding tissues, and the upper part of the vagina. It is typically performed in cases of cervical cancer.
4. Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries can be performed along with a hysterectomy depending on the patient's medical condition and age.
5. Salpingectomy: The removal of one or both fallopian tubes can also be performed along with a hysterectomy if needed.

The reasons for performing a hysterectomy may include but are not limited to: uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic prolapse, cervical or uterine cancer, and chronic pelvic pain. The choice of the type of hysterectomy depends on the patient's medical condition, age, and personal preferences.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Reproductive control agents, also known as contraceptives or fertility control agents, refer to substances or methods that are intentionally used to prevent or reduce the likelihood of conception and pregnancy. These can include hormonal medications (such as birth control pills, patches, or injections), barrier methods (like condoms or diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), emergency contraceptives, and surgical procedures (like tubal ligation or vasectomy). Some natural methods, such as fertility awareness-based methods, can also be used for reproductive control. These agents are used to prevent unintended pregnancies and allow individuals to plan and space their pregnancies according to their personal preferences and circumstances.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

'Digitalis' is a medication that is derived from the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea). It contains cardiac glycosides, primarily digoxin and digitoxin, which have positive inotropic effects on the heart muscle, increasing its contractility. Digitalis is primarily used to treat various types of heart failure and atrial arrhythmias. It works by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump in heart muscle cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium and enhanced cardiac muscle contraction.

It's important to note that digitalis has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between a therapeutic and toxic dose is small. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of serum drug levels and clinical response to ensure safe and effective use. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as visual disturbances and cardiac arrhythmias.

Steroid receptors are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are activated by the binding of steroid hormones or related molecules. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including development, homeostasis, and metabolism. Steroid receptors function as transcription factors, regulating gene expression when activated by their respective ligands.

There are several subtypes of steroid receptors, classified based on the specific steroid hormones they bind to:

1. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR): Binds to glucocorticoids, which regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR): Binds to mineralocorticoids, which regulate electrolyte and fluid balance.
3. Androgen receptor (AR): Binds to androgens, which are male sex hormones that play a role in the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics.
4. Estrogen receptor (ER): Binds to estrogens, which are female sex hormones that play a role in the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics.
5. Progesterone receptor (PR): Binds to progesterone, which is a female sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.
6. Vitamin D receptor (VDR): Binds to vitamin D, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism.

Upon ligand binding, steroid receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to dimerize, interact with co-regulatory proteins, and bind to specific DNA sequences called hormone response elements (HREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. This interaction leads to the recruitment of transcriptional machinery, ultimately resulting in the modulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of steroid receptor signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, metabolic disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) is a medical treatment in which estrogen hormones are administered to replace the estrogen that is naturally produced by the ovaries but declines, especially during menopause. This therapy is often used to help manage symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness. It can also help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. ERT typically involves the use of estrogen alone, but in some cases, a combination of estrogen and progestin may be prescribed for women with a uterus to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. However, ERT is associated with certain risks, including an increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and stroke, so it's important for women to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before starting this therapy.

Macropodidae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic family in the order Diprotodontia, which includes large marsupials commonly known as kangaroos, wallabies, and tree-kangaroos. These animals are native to Australia and New Guinea. They are characterized by their strong hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, and a long muscular tail used for balance. Some members of this family, particularly the larger kangaroo species, can pose a risk to humans in certain situations, such as vehicle collisions or aggressive encounters during breeding season. However, they are not typically associated with medical conditions or human health.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Bucladesine" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use in medicine. It's possible that there may be some mistake or typo in the spelling. If you have any more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

Vaginal creams, foams, and jellies are topical formulations specifically designed for vaginal application. These products contain various active ingredients intended to treat or manage various vaginal conditions such as infections, dryness, or irritation. The choice of formulation depends on the specific indication, patient preference, and the properties of the active ingredient.

1. Vaginal Creams: These are smooth, thick, and creamy preparations that often contain a water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. They are typically used to deliver medications for treating vaginal infections like candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, or trichomoniasis. Vaginal creams can also be used as lubricants or moisturizers to alleviate dryness and discomfort.

2. Vaginal Foams: These are aerosolized formulations that contain a propellant gas, which creates a light and airy consistency when dispensed. The foam formulation facilitates the even distribution of the active ingredient throughout the vaginal area. Vaginal foams are often used to deliver medications for treating vaginal infections or as contraceptive foams.

3. Vaginal Jellies: These are semi-solid preparations with a smooth, slippery consistency, similar to gelatin. They are typically water-based and can easily spread and coat the vaginal mucosa. Vaginal jellies are often used as lubricants or to deliver medications for local action in the vagina, such as antifungal, antibacterial, or anesthetic agents.

It is essential to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when using these products, as improper use may lead to reduced effectiveness or increased side effects.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, and UBE3A. Membrane progesterone receptor Selective progesterone receptor modulator ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... In common with other steroid receptors, the progesterone receptor has a N-terminal regulatory domain, a DNA binding domain, a ... Progesterone antagonists prevent the structural reconfiguration. After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with ...
Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are a group of cell surface receptors and membrane steroid receptors belonging to the ... The discovery of a membrane located progesterone receptor (mPR) unrelated to the classical progesterone receptor (PR) in fish ... Membrane progesterone receptor delta (mPRδ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAQR6 gene. Membrane progesterone ... Unlike the progesterone receptor (PR), a nuclear receptor which mediates its effects via genomic mechanisms, mPRs are cell ...
Membrane progesterone receptor Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB (2012). "Progesterone receptors, their isoforms and progesterone ... The progesterone receptor A (PR-A) is one of three known isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), the main biological target ... Scarpin KM, Graham JD, Mote PA, Clarke CL (2009). "Progesterone action in human tissues: regulation by progesterone receptor ( ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Intracellular receptors, Progestogens, ...
Membrane progesterone receptor Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB (2012). "Progesterone receptors, their isoforms and progesterone ... The progesterone receptor B (PR-B) is one of three known isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), the main biological target ... Scarpin KM, Graham JD, Mote PA, Clarke CL (2009). "Progesterone action in human tissues: regulation by progesterone receptor ( ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Intracellular receptors, Progestogens, ...
Membrane progesterone receptor Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB (2012). "Progesterone receptors, their isoforms and progesterone ... The progesterone receptor C (PR-C) is one of three known isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), the main biological target ... Scarpin KM, Graham JD, Mote PA, Clarke CL (2009). "Progesterone action in human tissues: regulation by progesterone receptor ( ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Intracellular receptors, Progestogens, ...
A selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) is an agent that acts on the progesterone receptor (PR), the biological ... the progesterone receptor (Fig. 1) is a member of the ligand-dependent nuclear hormone receptor family. Two major progesterone ... When inactive the progesterone receptor, as for other steroid receptor, forms a complex consisting of itself, heat shock ... 4) on the D ring play a key role in binding to the progesterone receptor and/or glucocorticoid receptor. Minor changes in the ...
Raynaud JP, Philibert D, Azadian-Boulanger G (1974). "Progesterone-Progestin receptors". Basic Life Sciences. 4 (PART A): 143- ... It is a derivative of progesterone, and is the combined derivative of 17α-methylprogesterone and 19-norprogesterone. The drug ... Delettré J, Mornon JP, Lepicard G, Ojasoo T, Raynaud JP (January 1980). "Steroid flexibility and receptor specificity". Journal ...
... is the most important progestogen in the body. As a potent agonist of the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) ( ... The estrogen receptor, as well as the progesterone receptor, have been detected in the skin, including in keratinocytes and ... Progesterone enhances the function of serotonin receptors in the brain, so an excess or deficit of progesterone has the ... In addition, progesterone is an agonist of the more recently discovered membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs), of which the ...
Hould FS, Fried GM, Fazekas AG, Tremblay S, Mersereau WA (December 1988). "Progesterone receptors regulate gallbladder motility ...
Hould F, Fried G, Fazekas A, Tremblay S, Mersereau W (1988). "Progesterone receptors regulate gallbladder motility". J Surg Res ...
Examples of antiprogestogens include the progesterone receptor weak partial agonist mifepristone, the selective progesterone ... Oct 2006). "Progesterone receptor antagonists". Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 7 (10): 882-90. PMID 17086932. Tang, OS.; Ho, PC. ( ... They act by blocking the progesterone receptor (PR) and/or inhibiting or suppressing progestogen production. Antiprogestogens ... Antiprogestogens, or antiprogestins, also known as progesterone antagonists or progesterone blockers, are a class of drugs ...
Spelsberg TC, Steggles AW, O'Malley BW (2008). "Progesterone-binding components of chick oviduct. 3. Chromatin acceptor sites ... As far back as the early 1970s, receptor-associated nonhistone proteins were known to support the function of nuclear receptors ... The first authentic, common nuclear receptor coactivator was steroid receptor coactivator 1, or SRC-1 (NCOA1), first cloned in ... Early cell transfection experiments had shown that discrete regions of certain receptors, such as thyroid hormone receptor, ...
The cells express estrogen/progesterone-receptors. Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma, or undifferentiated (high-grade) ...
Progesterone receptor (PR; NR3C3, PGR) (Sex hormones: Progesterone) 4: Androgen receptor (AR; NR3C4, AR) (Sex hormones: ... Nuclear receptors Subfamily 3: Estrogen Receptor-like Group A: Estrogen receptor (Sex hormones: Estrogen) 1: Estrogen receptor- ... G Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30) binds estrogen, Membrane Progestin Receptor (mPR) binds progesterone, G Protein-Coupled ... Nuclear receptors that bind steroid hormones are all classified as type I receptors. Only type I receptors have a heat shock ...
It is a potent and highly selective partial agonist of the progesterone receptor (PR). As of 2017, the drug is in phase II ... Selective progesterone receptor modulators, Benzosulfones, Conjugated dienes, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary ... "Selective progesterone receptor modulators". Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 26 (4): 237-42. doi:10.1097/GCO.0000000000000082. ... is a synthetic and steroidal selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) which is under development by Bayer HealthCare ...
It is a potent and highly selective silent antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR). The drug reached phase II clinical ... Whitaker LH, Williams AR, Critchley HO (2014). "Selective progesterone receptor modulators". Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 26 (4 ...
Whitaker LH, Williams AR, Critchley HO (2014). "Selective progesterone receptor modulators". Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 26 (4 ... steroidal selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) related to mifepristone which is under development by Repros ... Selective progesterone receptor modulators, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary system drug stubs). ... "In vitro antiprogestational/antiglucocorticoid activity and progestin and glucocorticoid receptor binding of the putative ...
... the progesterone receptor (PGR). In prostate cancer, YTHDC1 has also been shown to interact with the protein metadherin, ...
Zeberg, Hugo; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante (2020). "The Neandertal Progesterone Receptor". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 37 ( ...
... and sigma receptors. The neurosteroid progesterone (PROG) that activates progesterone receptors expressed in peripheral and ... The GABAA receptors are made up of subunits which form a receptor complex. Humans have 19 receptor subunits and are classified ... In pharmacology, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, also known as GABAkines or GABAA receptor potentiators, are ... "Progesterone receptor-mediated effects of neuroactive steroids". Neuron. 11 (3): 523-30. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(93)90156-L. PMID ...
"Progesterone receptors: form and function in brain". Front Neuroendocrinol. 29 (2): 313-39. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2008.02.001. ... Suppression of estrogen receptors in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus in female rats has been observed to reduce ... Androgen receptor antagonists such as flutamide and bicalutamide cause little to no decrease in sexual desire in women. Low ... During this stage in the cycle, estrogens are elevated in the female and progesterone levels are low. At this time, mating is ...
Wendler A, Albrecht C, Wehling M (2012). "Nongenomic actions of aldosterone and progesterone revisited". Steroids. 77 (10): ... Membrane mineralocorticoid receptors (mMRs) or membrane aldosterone receptors are a group of receptors which bind and are ... v t e (G protein-coupled receptors, Mineralocorticoids, Human proteins, All stub articles, Receptor stubs). ... Meinel S, Gekle M, Grossmann C (2014). "Mineralocorticoid receptor signaling: crosstalk with membrane receptors and other ...
Estrogens do not have off-target activity at other steroid hormone receptors such as the androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid ... Yip CH, Rhodes A (2014). "Estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer". Future Oncol. 10 (14): 2293-301. doi:10.2217/ ... or mineralocorticoid receptors, nor do they have neurosteroid activity by interacting with neurotransmitter receptors, unlike ... Estrogens act as selective agonists of the estrogen receptors (ERs), the ERα and the ERβ. They may also bind to and activate ...
In a study on mated male mice, there is evidence shown that when progesterone receptors are tampered with, using an antagonist ... Thus, this indicates that aggression and paternal behavior in mated male mice is linked to progesterone receptors; that is, ... when progesterone receptors are blocked by RU486 antagonist, males are less aggressive, and more paternal toward offspring. ... Progesterone receptors mediate male aggression toward infants. PNAS,100(5), 2951-2956. Holmes, W.G. (1977), "'Cannibalism in ...
... opposed by sigma antagonistic activity from progesterone. Another endogenous ligand, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, was also found to ... Sigma receptors (σ-receptors) are protein cell surface receptors that bind ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) ... There are two subtypes, sigma-1 receptors (σ1) and sigma-2 receptors (σ2), which are classified as sigma receptors for their ... σ-receptors were originally believed to be a type of opioid receptor. When the σ1 receptor was isolated and cloned, it was ...
These hormone receptors (HR) are the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR). Immunohistochemical analysis of ... PR (progesterone receptor) is a gene expressed in around 50% of ER+ breast cancer patients. Clinical studies have shown that ... Another receptor that often plays a role in breast cancer, although it is not a hormone receptor, is the human epidermal growth ... "Estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer". Future Oncology (London, England). 10 (14): 2293-2301. doi:10.2217/fon. ...
Progesterone receptor modulators like mifepristone and gestrinone have the potential (based on only one randomized controlled ... Patel B, Elguero S, Thakore S, Dahoud W, Bedaiwy M, Mesiano S (2014). "Role of nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms in ... July 2017). "Progesterone receptor modulators for endometriosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Wiley. 2017 (7 ... Indeed, the activation of Toll-like receptors in macrophages leads to a greater activity of this immune cell type. They, in ...
Tumors with high progesterone receptor expression have a good prognosis compared to tumors with low progesterone receptor ... of women with high progesterone receptor disease survived to three years, compared with 36% of women with low progesterone ... If a tumor is well-differentiated and known to have progesterone and estrogen receptors, progestins may be used in treatment. ... They typically have estrogen and/or progesterone receptors. The prognosis for low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is good, ...
Baker ME, Katsu Y (July 2020). "Progesterone: An enigmatic ligand for the mineralocorticoid receptor". Biochemical Pharmacology ... The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group ... MR is a receptor with equal affinity for mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. It belongs to the nuclear receptor family ... Mineralocorticoid receptor has been shown to interact with: Glucocorticoid receptor and TRIM24. Aldosterone Glucocorticoid ...
Certain receptors include estrogen/progesterone, glucocorticoid, and HER2. The most well-studied cell signal transduction ... Some theories suggest a genetic cause while other literature supports the involvement of hormone and growth factor receptors, ... and Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha (RARA); important genes for regulating DNA synthesis. The current theory behind the ...
5α-DHP is an agonist of the progesterone receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor (albeit with an ... The steroid has been found to possess 82% of the affinity of progesterone for the progesterone receptor in rhesus monkey uterus ... 5α-DHP, via the progesterone receptor, and allopregnanolone, via the GABAA receptor, act together to induce lordosis in animals ... GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, GABAA-rho receptor negative allosteric modulators, Pregnane X receptor agonists ...
Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, and UBE3A. Membrane progesterone receptor Selective progesterone receptor modulator ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... In common with other steroid receptors, the progesterone receptor has a N-terminal regulatory domain, a DNA binding domain, a ... Progesterone antagonists prevent the structural reconfiguration. After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with ...
Estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor tests look for receptors that attach to the hormones estrogen and/or progesterone in ... Breast cancers that have these receptors often respond well to some types of treatments. Learn more. ... Receptors are proteins that attach to certain substances. ... What are estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) tests? ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/estrogen-receptor-progesterone-receptor-tests/ Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Tests. ...
PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR11-(4-DIMETHYLAMINO-PHENYL)-17-HYDROXY-13-METHYL-17-PROP-1-YNYL-1,2,6,7,8,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-DODEC ... 2W8Y: RU486 bound to the progesterone receptor in a destabilized agonistic conformation. ...
A key hormone receptor evolved quickly as or early humans migrated from Africa, producing localized gene changes that may ... Stanford Medicine News 2018 06 Hormone receptor and prematurity risk Story Genetic variation in progesterone receptor tied to ... Progesterone is a reproductive hormone. Its receptor, a protein expressed in tissues such as the uterus, ovary and cervix, ... Because progesterone and its receptor are so important for pregnancy, the results were unexpected. "People have thought ...
... of nuclear hormone receptors contains a highly conserved globular domain and a less conserved carboxyl-terminal extension (CTE ... Despite previous observations that the CTEs of some classes of nuclear receptors are structured and interact with DNA outside ... We have determined the structure of the progesterone receptor (PR)-DBD-CTE DNA complex at a resolution of 2.5 A, which revealed ... Structure of the progesterone receptor-deoxyribonucleic acid complex: novel interactions required for binding to half-site ...
Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Modulates Human Cytochrome P450 Activities in an Isoform-Dependent Manner. Shingo ... Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Modulates Human Cytochrome P450 Activities in an Isoform-Dependent Manner ...
Decreased Progesterone Levels and Progesterone Receptor Antagonists Promote Apoptotic Cell Death in Bovine Luteal Cells1. Title ... Decreased Progesterone Levels and Progesterone Receptor Antagonists Promote Apoptotic Cell Death in Bovine Luteal Cells1. ... Decreased Progesterone Levels and Progesterone Receptor Antagonists Promote Apoptotic Cell Death in Bovine Luteal Cells1 ...
The place of selective progesterone receptor modulators in myoma therapy - Minerva Ginecologica 2016 June;68(3):313-20 - ... The place of selective progesterone receptor modulators in myoma therapy. Jacques DONNEZ 1, Olivier DONNEZ 2, 3, Guillaume E. ... The place of selective progesterone receptor modulators in myoma therapy. Minerva Ginecol 2016 June;68(3):313-20. ... the goal of the study was to analyze the efficacy of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). From four studies, it ...
Changes in Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Her-2/neu Status with Time: Discordance Rates Between Primary and ... Changes in Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Her-2/neu Status with Time: Discordance Rates Between Primary and ... Changes in Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Her-2/neu Status with Time: Discordance Rates Between Primary and ... Changes in Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Her-2/neu Status with Time: Discordance Rates Between Primary and ...
Progesterone receptor (PR) which belongs to the same steroid hormone receptor family as androgen receptors are little known in ... Progesterone receptor (PR) which belongs to the same steroid hormone receptor family as androgen receptors are little known in ... The progesterone receptors in human prostate Yu, Yue Abstract. The prostate composes of epithelium and stroma, both of which ... Androgen receptors are reported to regulate the development and maintenance the function of prostate. ...
... Publication , ... "Expression of a Truncated Progesterone Receptor (PR-M) Correlates with Mitochondrial Content in Human Tissues." In Reproductive ... "Expression of a Truncated Progesterone Receptor (PR-M) Correlates with Mitochondrial Content in Human Tissues." Reproductive ... Expression of a Truncated Progesterone Receptor (PR-M) Correlates with Mitochondrial Content in Human Tissues. In: Reproductive ...
0.023 for progesterone receptor). Statistical analysis indicated that expression of the progesterone nuclear receptor is ... we conducted the present study to determine whether expression levels of the progesterone and glucocorticoid nuclear receptor ... Previous studies in our laboratory have shown associations of specific nuclear receptor gene variants with sporadic breast ... From: Expression of glucocorticoid and progesterone nuclear receptor genes in archival breast cancer tissue ...
The Progesterone Receptor (PR) status obtained from a PATIENT with breast cancer during a Breast Cancer Care Spell. ... BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS. The Progesterone Receptor (PR) status obtained from a PATIENT with breast cancer during a ... BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS is the data element of BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS. ... has an attribute BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS of type BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS. ...
... the BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS is recorded if the ESTROGEN RECEPTOR STATUS is Negative (less than 1%). ... BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS. Note: the BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS is recorded if the ESTROGEN RECEPTOR STATUS ... BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS. Note: the BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS is recorded if the ESTROGEN RECEPTOR STATUS ... BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS references in description BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS. Data Set. Cancer Outcomes ...
This may explain the high frequency of the Neandertal progesterone receptor alleles in modern human populations. ... The gene encoding the progesterone receptor (PGR) carries introgressed Neandertal haplotypes with two non-synonymous ... The hormone progesterone is important for preparing the uterine lining for egg implantation and in maintaining the early stages ... the modern human population and that present-day carriers of the Neandertal haplotypes express higher levels of the receptor. ...
Recombinant anti-Human Progesterone Receptor (PR) antibody. Clone 14B3. Engineered into new species and isotypes to improve ... Western blot using anti-Progesterone Receptor antibody 14B3 (Ab03318). MCF7 cells lysate (35µg protein in RIPA buffer) was ... Western blot using anti-Progesterone Receptor antibody 14B3 (Ab03318). MCF7 cells lysate (35µg protein in RIPA buffer) was ... Immunofluorescence staining of MCF7 cells with anti-Progesterone Receptor antibody 14B3 (Ab03318). Immunofluorescence analysis ...
Specifically, whether the tumor expresses estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or Her2. And, with ER+ disease ... Elacestrant (RAD1901) is an Orally Available Estrogen Receptor Degrader. Louis Gilman February 20, 2023. ... Breast cancer is subdivided into categories based on the tumor receptor status. ...
... Article Agoulnik, IU, Krause, WC, Bingman, WE et al. (2003). Repressors ... 2003). Repressors of androgen and progesterone receptor action . JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 278(33), 31136-31148. 10.1074 ... of androgen and progesterone receptor action . JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 278(33), 31136-31148. 10.1074/jbc.M305153200 ...
Progesterone receptor modulates ER action in breast cancer. Nature 523, 313-317 (2015). ... Estrogen receptor- directs ordered, cyclical, and combinatorial recruitment of cofactors on a natural target promoter. Cell 115 ... Endogenous purification reveals GREB1 as a key estrogen receptor regulatory factor. Cell Rep. 3, 342-349 (2013). ... Switching of chromatin-remodelling complexes for oestrogen receptor-α. EMBO Rep. 9, 563-568 (2008). ...
Further analyses suggested that the association in white Europeans was largely limited to progesterone receptor (PR)-positive ... particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor ... Confirmation of 5p12 as a susceptibility locus for progesterone-receptor-positive, lower grade breast cancer. ... Confirmation of 5p12 as a susceptibility locus for progesterone-receptor-positive, lower grade breast cancer. ...
The progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS) has been identified as a risk modifier for benign and malignant gynecological diseases ...
Merged progesterone receptor. Restricted to female breast and diagnosis years 2004 or later ... Merged estrogen receptor. Restricted to female breast and diagnosis years 2004 or later ...
... Balduzzi A.;Bagnardi V.; ... Introduction The prognostic value of low estrogen and progesterone receptors expression (ER/PgR 1%-10%) in early breast cancer ... Introduction The prognostic value of low estrogen and progesterone receptors expression (ER/PgR 1%-10%) in early breast cancer ... Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1424 consecutive patients with HER2/neu-negative and low endocrine receptors ...
Regulation of rat mineralocorticoid receptor expression in neurons by progesterone ... Regulation of rat mineralocorticoid receptor expression in neurons by progesterone. Endocrinology, 136, 3800-3806. ...
title = "Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1: an integrative review",. abstract = "Progesterone receptor membrane ... Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1: an integrative review. / Cahill, Michael. In: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and ... Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1: an integrative review. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2007; ... Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 : an integrative review. In: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. ...
... progesterone receptor; GCDFP-15 = gross cystic disease fluid protein-15; WT-1 = Wilms tumor gene 1; PSA = prostate specific ... CK = cytokeratin; CEA = carcinoembryonic antigen; TTF1 = thyroid transcription factor 1; ER = estrogen receptor; PR = ...
Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism * Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism * Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism * Remission Induction ... human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), and Basal type. Probability of pCR (ypT0/isN0) as a function of tumor size and ...
Estrogen and progesterone regulate opiate receptor densities in multiple brain regions. / Weiland, Nancy G.; Wise, Phyllis M. ... Estrogen and progesterone regulate opiate receptor densities in multiple brain regions. Endocrinology. 1990 Feb;126(2):804-808 ... Weiland, N. G., & Wise, P. M. (1990). Estrogen and progesterone regulate opiate receptor densities in multiple brain regions. ... Weiland, Nancy G. ; Wise, Phyllis M. / Estrogen and progesterone regulate opiate receptor densities in multiple brain regions. ...
a ER = estrogen receptor; SERM = selective estrogen-receptor modulator; PR = progesterone receptor; HPA = hypothalamic, ...
  • Several studies have now shown no association between progesterone receptor gene +331G/A polymorphisms and breast or endometrial cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key hormone receptor evolved quickly as or early humans migrated from Africa, producing localized gene changes that may affect modern women's risk of preterm birth, according to a Stanford-led study. (stanford.edu)
  • The researchers found that East Asian populations have one version of the progesterone receptor gene that appears to protect them against giving birth prematurely, whereas other populations with European or African ancestry have a higher prematurity risk and other versions of this gene. (stanford.edu)
  • The variations in the progesterone receptor gene - consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms, or one-letter changes in the genetic code - were found in regions of the gene that regulate when it is switched on and off. (stanford.edu)
  • The gene encoding the progesterone receptor (PGR) carries introgressed Neandertal haplotypes with two non-synonymous substitutions and a mobile Alu element. (anthropogeny.org)
  • We show that two Neandertal haplotypes carrying the PGR gene entered the modern human population and that present-day carriers of the Neandertal haplotypes express higher levels of the receptor. (anthropogeny.org)
  • The progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS) has been identified as a risk modifier for benign and malignant gynecological diseases. (unifesp.br)
  • The mechanisms whereby progesterone (P 4 ), acting via the progesterone receptor (PR), inhibits proinflammatory/contractile gene expression during pregnancy are incompletely defined. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cloning and sequencing of the progesterone receptor gene has shown that the receptor has two isoforms, A and B, transcribed from a single gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This segment is not present in the receptor-A. As demonstrated in progesterone receptor-deficient mice, the physiological effects of progesterone depend completely on the presence of the human progesterone receptor (hPR), a member of the steroid-receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test results are frequently referred to as the hormone receptor status. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your hormone receptor status shows you have one or both of these receptors on your cancer cells, you may respond well to certain types of treatments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Knowing your hormone receptor status will help your health care provider decide how to treat it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pattern of the association was quite homogeneous by BC subtypes based on hormone receptor status. (springer.com)
  • What Is My Hormone Receptor Status? (cancercare.org)
  • Androgen receptors are reported to regulate the development and maintenance the function of prostate. (ubc.ca)
  • Progesterone receptor (PR) which belongs to the same steroid hormone receptor family as androgen receptors are little known in prostate. (ubc.ca)
  • Selective ablation of PR-A in a mouse model, resulting in exclusive production of PR-B, unexpectedly revealed that PR-B contributes to, rather than inhibits, epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • As progesterone is known to play a key role in promoting myoma growth, the goal of the study was to analyze the efficacy of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). (minervamedica.it)
  • Donnez J, Donnez O, Courtoy GE, Dolmans MM. The place of selective progesterone receptor modulators in myoma therapy. (minervamedica.it)
  • Receptor quantification in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala and hypothalamus was done by receptor autoradiography using a selective ligand for muscarinic M 4 receptors. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Receptor quantification in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala and hypothalamus was done by receptor autoradiography using a selective ligand for muscarinic M4 receptors. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • It is a selective antagonist of the progesterone receptor at low doses and blocks the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-II) at higher doses. (centerwatch.com)
  • We investigated the effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and hormonal treatment for 10 weeks by estradiol and progesterone on muscarinic M 4 receptor subtype in different brain areas of female rats. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • This type happens when the cancer cells don't have the right hormonal receptors. (webmd.com)
  • The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its receptor, a protein expressed in tissues such as the uterus, ovary and cervix, binds to the hormone and sends signals that keep pregnant women from going into labor too soon. (stanford.edu)
  • PR is a protein molecule, a cellular core receptor belonging to a steroidal superfamily, which can be bonded to the corresponding hormone to form a hormone-receptor complex, enabling hormones to exert their biological effects. (absoluteantibody.com)
  • Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) contains a cytochrome b5 domain fold and belongs to the so-called membrane-associated progesterone receptor (MAPR) protein family that is widespread in eukaryotes. (edu.au)
  • Breast cancer is subdivided into categories based on the tumor receptor status. (cancer-research-network.com)
  • Mixture analysis using principal components suggested co-exposures to multiple airborne heavy metals may drive associations with tumor receptor status. (cdc.gov)
  • MammaPrint/BluePrint subtyping classified patients into four molecular subgroups: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), and Basal type. (nih.gov)
  • 08/14/23 gen, progesterone hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). (bvsalud.org)
  • These effects were blocked by pretreatment with a progesterone receptor antagonist, RU486. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Korlym (mifepristone) is a small-molecule progesterone and glucocorticoid antagonist. (centerwatch.com)
  • The DNA binding domain (DBD) of nuclear hormone receptors contains a highly conserved globular domain and a less conserved carboxyl-terminal extension (CTE). (nih.gov)
  • Despite previous observations that the CTEs of some classes of nuclear receptors are structured and interact with DNA outside of the hexanucleotide hormone response element (HRE), there has been no evidence for such a CTE among the steroid receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Ironically, despite being the archetypal member of the MAPR family, it has yet to be demonstrated that PGRMC1 exhibits specific progesterone binding. (edu.au)
  • We also found that SRC-3 depletion in cultured HESCs results in a significant attenuation in the induction of a wide-range of established biomarkers of decidualization, despite exposure of these cells to a deciduogenic stimulus and normal progesterone receptor expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Experimental studies in human breast cancer suggest that the differential expression of progesterone receptor isoforms has implications for hormone therapy responsiveness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study examined the effects of the antiprogestin aglepristone on cell proliferation and mRNA expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in mammary carcinomas in dogs treated with 20 mg/Kg of aglepristone (n = 22) or vehicle (n = 5) twice before surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both total progesterone receptor and isoform A mRNA expression levels decreased after treatment with aglepristone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hsu, SP & Lee, WS 2011, ' Progesterone receptor activation of extranuclear signaling pathways in regulating p53 expression in vascular endothelial cells ', Molecular Endocrinology , 卷 25, 編號 3, 頁 421-432. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • 1994. Ah receptor in embryonic mouse palate and effects of TCDD on receptor expression. (cdc.gov)
  • When analysing separately subgroups, according to the oestrogen receptor (ER) status both approaches could predict clinical outcome more easily for the ER-positive than for the ER-negative cohort. (lu.se)
  • Receptors are proteins that attach to certain substances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These results, taken together, support the notion that sequences outside of the HREs influence the DNA binding affinity and specificity of steroid receptors. (nih.gov)
  • ER/PR tests look for receptors that attach to the hormones estrogen and progesterone in a sample of breast cancer tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some breast cancers are sensitive to your body's naturally occurring female hormones - estrogen and progesterone. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The breast cancer cells have receptors on the outside of their walls that can catch specific hormones that circulate through your body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This type of cancer doesn't have hormone receptors, so it won't be affected by endocrine treatments aimed at blocking hormones in the body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Background: Estrogen receptor (ER) status and progesterone receptor (PgR) status are strong prognostic and predictive markers in breast carcinomas. (mindunwindart.com)
  • These findings suggest that the antiproliferative effects of aglepristone in canine mammary carcinomas are mediated by progesterone receptor isoform A. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunohistochemical (IHC) labelling at diagnosis has identified approximately two thirds of canine mammary carcinomas as progesterone receptor (PR) positive [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The effect of estrogen on the hippocampal muscarinic M 4 receptor subtype is a novel finding and may have functional significance for cholinergic receptors especially in relation to postmenopausal memory problems and neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer's disease. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • In addition, mifepristone appears to have little or no affinity for estrogen, muscarinic, histaminic or monoamine receptors. (centerwatch.com)
  • Ovariectomy up-regulated M 4 receptors in the dentate gyrus, CA1, CA3, frontal cortex and hypothalamus whereas the estrogen treatment restored M 4 binding to that of the sham group. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Progesterone treatment had no effect on the ovariectomy-induced up-regulation of M 4 receptors. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Humans have unexpectedly high genetic variation in the receptor for a key pregnancy-maintaining hormone, according to research led by scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine . (stanford.edu)
  • The hormone progesterone is important for preparing the uterine lining for egg implantation and in maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. (anthropogeny.org)
  • About 70 percent of all breast cancers in women have receptors that attach to estrogen and/or progesterone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About 80 percent to 90 percent of breast cancers in men have these receptors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cancers that have one or both types of these receptors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mifepristone has high affinity for the GR-II receptor but little affinity for the GR-I (MR, mineralocorticoid) receptor. (centerwatch.com)
  • BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS is the same as attribute BREAST PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS . (datadictionary.nhs.uk)
  • The Progesterone Receptor (PR) status obtained from a PATIENT with breast cancer during a Breast Cancer Care Spell. (datadictionary.nhs.uk)
  • receptor status. (mindunwindart.com)
  • Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. (cdc.gov)
  • Progesterone receptors play a key role in the development of canine mammary tumours, and recent research has focussed on their possible value as therapeutic targets using antiprogestins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epidemiological and clinical data indicate that progesterone has proliferative effects on normal and neoplastic canine mammary epithelium [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aglepristone is currently used in clinical practice to induce abortion and treat pyometra, as well in the treatment of proliferative progesterone-dependent diseases such as mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in queens and vaginal tumours in bitches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Estrogen and progesterone suppress physiological responses to the administration of opiate peptides. (illinois.edu)
  • This steroid induced suppression of opiate receptors appears to have important physiological repercussions and provides a basis for the steroid-induced differential sensitivity to exogenous opiates that has been observed previously. (illinois.edu)
  • After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with dimerization follows and the complex enters the nucleus and binds to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The negative and positive feedback actions of estrogen and progesterone on the hypothalamus may be mediated in part by the endogenous opiate system. (illinois.edu)
  • 1991. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls with Ah receptor affinity on lymphoid development in the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius on chick embryos in ovo and in mouse thymus anlagen in vitro . (cdc.gov)
  • This may explain the high frequency of the Neandertal progesterone receptor alleles in modern human populations. (anthropogeny.org)
  • We previously showed that progesterone (P4) inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through a p53-dependent pathway. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • 1999. Transactivation activity of human, zebrafish, and rainbow trout aryl hydrocarbon receptors expressed in COS-7 cells: Greater insight into species differences in toxic potency of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl congeners. (cdc.gov)
  • 1999. Adverse reproductive outcomes in the transgenic Ah receptor-deficient mouse. (cdc.gov)
  • It is currently unknown which if any polymorphisms in this receptor are of significance to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biocon Biologics Ltd), BT-ON014 - in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of those patients who have not received chemotherapy for their metastatic disease - in combination with an aromatase inhibitor for the treatment of postmenopausal patients with hormone-receptor positive MBC, not previously treated with trastuzumab. (who.int)
  • The findings also predict that the genetic forms of the progesterone receptor seen in East Asians would not necessarily protect against premature birth in other populations. (stanford.edu)
  • Because progesterone and its receptor are so important for pregnancy, the results were unexpected. (stanford.edu)
  • Changes in the progesterone receptor near the end of pregnancy help trigger labor. (stanford.edu)
  • Using auto radiographic techniques, we measured the density of naloxone- binding sites at various times of the day in intact proestrous, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen or estrogen plus progesterone. (illinois.edu)
  • Estrogen treatment restored the exploratory behavior of the ovariectomized rats to that of the sham group whereas the progesterone-treated rats were less alert to the surrounding when compared to the sham and estrogen supplemented rats. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • ER/PR tests will show whether there are ER and/or PR receptors on your breast cancer cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Immunofluorescence staining of MCF7 cells with anti-Progesterone Receptor antibody 14B3 (Ab03318). (absoluteantibody.com)
  • The cells of this type of breast cancer have receptors that allow them to use the hormone estrogen to grow. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This type of breast cancer is sensitive to progesterone, and the cells have receptors that allow them to use this hormone to grow. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Furthermore, a significant decrease in the proliferation index (percentage of Ki67-labelled cells) was observed in progesterone-receptor positive and isoform-A positive tumours in aglepristone-treated dogs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumor cells that have many of these receptors on their surfaces are said to be estrogen- or progesterone-receptor positive. (cancercare.org)
  • Estrogen and progesterone play key roles in a woman's sexual development and reproductive functions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Progesterone is a reproductive hormone. (stanford.edu)
  • The PR-B is the positive regulator of the effects of progesterone, while PR-A serve to antagonize the effects of PR-B. Progesterone is necessary to induce activation of the progesterone receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confirmation of 5p12 as a susceptibility locus for progesterone-receptor-positive, lower grade breast cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Estrogen receptor (ER) positive. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Progesterone receptor (PR) positive. (mayoclinic.org)