Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.
A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A synthetic progestational hormone with no androgenic or estrogenic properties. Unlike many other progestational compounds, dydrogesterone produces no increase in temperature and does not inhibit OVULATION.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Sexual activities of animals.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of estradiol.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Excision of the uterus.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (1/3862)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

Differential regulation of specific genes in MCF-7 and the ICI 182780-resistant cell line MCF-7/182R-6. (2/3862)

To elucidate the mechanisms involved in anti-oestrogen resistance, two human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and the ICI 182780-resistant cell line, MCF-7/182R-6, have been compared with regard to oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, ER function, ER regulation, growth requirements and differentially expressed gene products. MCF-7/182R-6 cells express a reduced level of ER protein. The ER protein is functional with respect to binding of oestradiol and the anti-oestrogens tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and ICI 182780, whereas expression and oestrogen induction of the progesterone receptor is lost in MCF-7/182R-6 cells. The ER protein and the ER mRNA are regulated similarly in the two cell lines when subjected to treatment with oestradiol or ICI 182780. Oestradiol down-regulates ER mRNA and ER protein expression. ICI 182780 has no initial effect on ER mRNA expression whereas the ER protein level decreases rapidly in cells treated with ICI 182780, indicating a severely decreased stability of the ER protein when bound to ICI 182780. In vitro growth experiments revealed that the ICI 182780-resistant cell line had evolved to an oestradiol-independent phenotype, able to grow with close to maximal growth rate both in the absence of oestradiol and in the presence of ICI 182780. Comparison of gene expression between the two cell lines revealed relatively few differences, indicating that a limited number of changes is involved in the development of anti-oestrogen resistance. Identification of the differentially expressed gene products are currently in progress.  (+info)

Low levels of cathepsin D are associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial cancer. (3/3862)

Total cytosolic cathepsin D (Cat D) levels were estimated by an immunoradiometric assay in a series of 156 consecutive patients with surgical stages I-III primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, the tissue content of both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and p185HER-2/neu, DNA content (ploidy), and the fraction of S-phase cells (S-phase) were also estimated. Tumoral Cat D content ranged from 0 to 243 pmol mg(-1) protein (median 44 pmol mg(-1) protein) and was not associated with any of the established clinicopathological and biological prognostic variables, with the exception of a weak positive correlation with the tumoral p185HER-2/neu levels. Univariable analysis performed on a subset of 97 patients, followed for a minimum of 2 years or until death, showed that patient age at diagnosis, high histological grade, advanced surgical stage, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, low levels of Cat D, negative ER and PR status, aneuploidy, and high S-phase were predictive of the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. However, multivariable analysis revealed that only histological grade, surgical stage, Cat D and PR were significantly associated with the patient's outcome. From these findings, we conclude that Cat D is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma, its low levels being associated with a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

Marker molecules of human endometrial differentiation can be hormonally regulated under in-vitro conditions as in-vivo. (4/3862)

An established cell culture system of isolated human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells has been used to study the effects of oestrogen and progesterone, as well as their antagonists, upon endometrial cells. Normal hormonal regulation in vivo was investigated simultaneously in endometrial tissue samples taken at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Several marker molecules analysed by immunohistochemistry appeared to depend strongly on endocrine regulation and could be traced in culture. Immunohistochemically, basic parameters of cell biology were identified in vitro, e.g. cell proliferation (Ki-67), adhesion molecules (beta3 integrin) and paracrine factors (leukaemia inhibitory factor). The most reliable parameters to assess hormonal influences were oestrogen and progesterone receptor molecules. Immunohistochemical localization could be improved by molecular biological analysis using RT-PCR. In the presence of oestrogen, a significant expression of hormone receptors was also shown by RT-PCR, and withdrawal of oestrogens and addition of gestagen, i.e. medroxyprogesterone acetate, caused receptor downregulation. Addition of the anti-oestrogen ICI 182.780 to cell-culture medium significantly decreased the synthesis of progesterone receptors.  (+info)

Endometrial oestrogen and progesterone receptors and their relationship to sonographic appearance of the endometrium. (5/3862)

The rapid development of ultrasonographic equipment now permits instantaneous assessment of follicles and endometrium. The sonographic appearance of the endometrium has been discussed in relation to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. However, a generally agreed view of the relationship of the sonographic appearance to fecundity in IVF cycles has not emerged. We have studied the relationship between steroid receptors and the sonographic appearance of the preovulatory endometrium in natural cycles and ovulation induction cycles. Preovulatory endometrial thickness was not found to be indicative of fecundity, although a preovulatory endometrial thickness of <9 mm related to an elevated miscarriage rate. The preovulatory endometrial echo pattern did not predict fecundity. No relationships were found among endometrial appearance, endometrial steroid receptors and steroid hormone concentrations in serum. Oestrogen or progesterone receptor concentrations were not related to endometrial thickness or to concentrations of serum oestradiol, the only significant correlation being found between the endometrial concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. The ratio of progesterone:oestrogen receptor concentration was somewhat less in echo pattern B (not triple line) endometrium compared with pattern A (triple line) endometrium. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations appeared stable on gonadotrophin induction, though fewer numbers were found during clomiphene cycles than in natural cycles. With regard to the distribution of receptor concentration between clomiphene and natural cycles, most women using clomiphene had very low oestrogen receptor populations. Pregnancy rates were low, in spite of high ovulatory rates during clomiphene treatment and were mainly related to low oestrogen receptor concentrations in preovulatory endometrium.  (+info)

Mechanism of action and clinical effects of antiprogestins on the non-pregnant uterus. (6/3862)

Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism of action of antiprogestins. The biological response to a progesterone antagonist depends on many factors. The usual effect is that of an antagonist, but progesterone agnostic or even antioestrogenic or oestrogenic effects have also been observed. The present review focuses on the clinical applications of antiprogestins in the non-pregnant uterus. Whereas high doses of antiprogestins block ovulation, low doses impair endometrial development without affecting ovulation, hormonal levels or bleeding patterns Indeed, the endometrium is the tissue which is the most sensitive to antiprogestins. The effect of antiprogestins is to produce a delay in endometrial maturation and to postpone the appearance of the implantation window. This concept of 'endometrial contraception' requires further testing in humans, although the principle has been proven in monkeys. In contrast to the low doses of mifepristone which delay endometrial maturation, a minimum dose of 50 mg is required to produce endometrial bleeding. Late luteal phase antiprogestin administration does not disturb ovulation, hormonal levels or bleeding patterns. This has clinical application, and mifepristone has been used together with prostaglandins in women with delayed menses to successfully prevent implantation. Mifepristone has also been shown to be an effective post-coital agent. However, when used on a regular basis once monthly at the end of the cycle as a potential contraceptive, the results are disappointing. Because of their antiproliferative and anti-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium, antiprogestins are also used in the treatment of oestrogen-dependent conditions such as endometriosis and fibromyomas. In humans, chronic administration of high doses of antiprogestins has on rare occasions been associated with endometrial hyperplasia, presumably a consequence of unopposed oestrogen activity. This does not occur with low doses (1 mg daily for 5 months).  (+info)

Expression of the oxytocin receptor in relation to steroid receptors in the uterus of a primate model, the marmoset monkey. (7/3862)

The dynamics of the receptors for oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and oxytocin (OTR) in the marmoset uterus have been analysed throughout the entire cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri obtained during the early, mid/late and late proliferative phase, and the early, mid and late secretory phase and early pregnancy were examined by immunohistochemistry (OTR, ER, PR) and autoradiography (OTR). A massive upregulation of the ER in the cell nuclei of glandular epithelium and stromal cells during the mid proliferative phase was succeeded by a declining staining intensity and positively stained cell number in the secretory phase. PR immunoreactivity increased in the late proliferative phase and early secretory phase, mainly within the cell nuclei, and then declined in both intensity and cell number towards the mid to late secretory phase. Myometrium showed a similar staining pattern for the steroid receptors. OTR were expressed weakly in stroma throughout the entire cycle, increasing slightly in the secretory phase. Glandular epithelium showed positive staining only during the periovulatory period. Myometrial OTR expression was weak during the proliferative phase, increased towards the secretory phase, and was maximal in the late secretory phase. Myometrial tissue adjacent to endometrium was most strongly stained. A cyclic shift evidently occurred in the pattern of steroid receptors, perhaps reflecting the steroid environment or the luteinizing hormone increase associated with ovulation.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional studies of leukocytes in human endometrium and endometriosis. (8/3862)

The aetiology of endometriosis, a common and disabling disorder, is presently unknown, although immune dysfunction could allow ectopic endometrial fragments to survive outside the uterine cavity. These studies investigate the relationship between leukocyte populations, steroid hormone receptor expression, proliferative activity, bcl-2 expression and apoptosis in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis or adenomyosis at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Significantly increased oestrogen receptor expression, bcl-2 expression and numbers of CD8+ leukocytes were found in ectopic compared with eutopic endometrium in endometriosis, and CD56+ endometrial granulated lymphocytes (eGLs) were significantly reduced in ectopic endometrium. Apoptotic cells were rarely found in control and subject endometria. In contrast with endometriosis, adenomyotic lesions showed identical steroid hormone receptor expression, proliferative activity, bcl-2 expression and leukocyte subpopulations to eutopic endometrium, indicating different aetiologies for these disorders. The unusual CD56+ CD16- eGLs present in large numbers in late secretory phase eutopic endometrium were highly purified (>98%) by immunomagnetic separation. Except for a negligible cytotoxic activity of eGLs from early proliferative samples, cytotoxic activity of eGLs from non-pregnant endometrium during the menstrual cycle was comparable with those in peripheral blood, predominantly CD56+ CD16+ natural killer cells. eGLs from non-pregnant endometrium and early pregnancy showed a variable proliferative response to 5 and 100 U/ml interleukin-2 over 48-h and 120-h time courses. eGLs are evidently functionally important in the eutopic endometrium. Their absence in endometriotic lesions together with increased CD+8 T-cell numbers and increased oestrogen receptor and bcl-2 expression may have significant effects on the development and progression of endometriosis.  (+info)

The fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is essential for synthesis of 2-hydroxylated fatty acids in myelinating and other cells and deficiency of this enzyme causes a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia also known as fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration. Despite its important role in sphingolipid metabolism, regulation of FA2H and its interaction with other proteins involved in the same or other metabolic pathways is poorly understood. To identify potential interaction partners of the enzyme, quantitative mass-spectrometry using stable isotope labeling of cells was combined with formaldehyde cross-linking and proximity biotinylation, respectively. Beside other enzymes involved in sphingolipid synthesis, intermembrane transfer of ceramide, and putative redox partners of FA2H, progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 were identified as putative interaction partners. These two related heme binding proteins are known to regulate several cytochrome P450 ...
Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) in the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of ...
Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) expression in fetal membranes among women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM).
Background: Progesterone receptors play a key role in the development of canine mammary tumours, and recent research has focussed on their possible value as therapeutic targets using antiprogestins. Cloning and sequencing of the progesterone receptor gene has shown that the receptor has two isoforms, A and B, transcribed from a single gene. Experimental studies in human breast cancer suggest that the differential expression of progesterone receptor isoforms has implications for hormone therapy responsiveness. This study examined the effects of the antiprogestin aglepristone on cell proliferation and mRNA expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in mammary carcinomas in dogs treated with 20 mg/Kg of aglepristone (n = 22) or vehicle (n = 5) twice before surgery. Results: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken before and after treatment were used to analyse total progesterone receptor and both isoforms by RT-qPCR and Ki67 antigen labelling. Both total progesterone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates nuclear association of human progesterone receptors. AU - Qiu, Ming. AU - Olsen, Abby. AU - Faivre, Emily. AU - Horwitz, Kathryn B.. AU - Lange, Carol A. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - Breast cancers often have increased MAPK activity; this pathway may drive breast cancer cell growth by targeting steroid hormone receptors. MAPK phosphorylates human progesterone receptors (PRs) on Ser294, thus regulating several aspects of PR activity. To study the role of PR Ser294 phosphorylation on subcellular distribution, we stably expressed wild-type (wt) or S294A (Ser294 to Ala) PR-B in several cell types. PRs phosphorylated on Ser294 were nuclear. Activation of MAPK induced Ser294 phosphorylation and rapid nuclear translocation of wt, but not S294A, PR-B; both receptors concentrated in the nucleus after progestin treatment. The MAPK kinase inhibitor, U0126, blocked epidermal growth factor but not progestin-induced Ser294 phosphorylation and ...
Estrogen and progesterone receptors were measured in cystosols prepared from 32 normal ovaries and 25 benign and 49 malignant ovarian tumors. In normal ovarian tissue, estrogen and progesterone receptors were detected in 22 and 75% of specimens, respectively. Estrogen receptors were present in low concentrations ranging from 2 to 9 fmol/mg cytosol protein. The estrogen receptor content and distribution were similar in benign tumors (20%), but progesterone receptors were significantly decreased in 16% of specimens (P less than 0.001). In malignant ovarian tissues, estrogen receptors were present in 57% of specimens in concentration ranging from 1 to 132 fmol/mg cytosol protein. Of these, 72% of tissues had estrogen-receptor concentrations greater than 10 fmol/mg cytosol protein. The presence of estrogen receptors in ovarian cancer was significantly different from normal ovaries and benign tumor tissues (P less than 0.01). Progesterone receptors were detectable in 29% of ovarian cancer specimens. Estrogen
TY - JOUR. T1 - The yeast SIN3 gene product negatively regulates the activity of the human progesterone receptor and positively regulates the activities of GAL4 and the HAP1 activator. AU - Nawaz, Zafar. AU - Baniahmad, Claudia. AU - Burris, Thomas P.. AU - OMalley, Bert W.. AU - Stillman, David J.. AU - TsaiTsaiTsai, Ming Jer. PY - 1994/11/1. Y1 - 1994/11/1. N2 - The activation of gene transcription in eukaryotic organisms is regulated by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins as well as by non-DNA-binding proteins. In this report we describe the modulatory functions of a non-DNA-binding protein, SIN3 (also known as SDI1, UME4, RPD1, and GAM2) on the transactivation properties of the human progesterone receptor (hPR), GAL4, and the HAPl activator in yeast. Our data suggest that SIN3 is a dual function protein. It negatively regulates the transcriptional activities of hPR-A and hPR-B by affecting the N-terminal activation domain (AFI). SIN3 positively regulates the transcriptional activities of ...
For the eCQM version of this measure, the initial patient population for this measure has been limited to patients with a first recorded breast cancer diagnosis within the past 5 years, as opposed to accounting for that patient population through the use of an exception (as is the case for claims implementation). The numerator captures patients who are prescribed adjuvant tamoxifen or AI, or received adjuvant tamoxifen or AI during the 12 month period. Date of breast cancer diagnosis is defined as date of pathologic diagnosis.. The requirement of Count ,=2 of Encounter, Performed is to establish that the eligible professional has an existing relationship with the patient.. ...
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Background: Progesterone receptors play a key role in the development of canine mammary tumours, and recent research has focussed on their possible value as therapeutic targets using antiprogestins. Cloning and sequencing of the progesterone receptor gene has shown that the receptor has two isoforms, A and B, transcribed from a single gene. Experimental studies in human breast cancer suggest that the differential expression of progesterone receptor isoforms has implications for hormone therapy responsiveness. This study examined the effects of the antiprogestin aglepristone on cell proliferation and mRNA expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in mammary carcinomas in dogs treated with 20 mg/Kg of aglepristone (n = 22) or vehicle (n = 5) twice before surgery. Results: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken before and after treatment were used to analyse total progesterone receptor and both isoforms by RT-qPCR and Ki67 antigen labelling. Both total progesterone ...
Environmental gestagens are an emerging class of contaminants that have been recently measured in surface water and can interfere with reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Gestagens include endogenous progestogens, such as progesterone (P4), which bind P4-receptors and have critically important roles in vertebrate physiology and reproduction. Gestagens also include synthetic progestins, which are components of human and veterinary drugs, such as melengestrol acetate (MGA). Endogenous progestogens are essential in the regulation of reproduction in mammalian species, but the role of P4 in amphibian larval development remains unclear. This project aims to understand the roles and the regulatory mechanisms of P4 in amphibians and to assess the consequences of exposures to environmental gestagens on the P4-receptor signaling pathways in frogs. Here, we established the developmental profiles of the P4 receptors: the intracellular progesterone receptor (ipgr), the membrane progesterone receptor β ...
Stem cells of somatic tissues are hypothesized to protect themselves from mutation and cancer risk through a process of selective segregation of their template DNA strands during asymmetric division. Mouse mammary epithelium contains label-retaining epithelial cells that divide asymmetrically and retain their template DNA. Immunohistochemistry was used in murine mammary glands that had been labeled with [3H]thymidine during allometric growth to investigate the co-expression of DNA label retention and estrogen receptor (ER)-α or progesterone receptor (PR). Using the same methods, we investigated the co-localization of [3H]thymidine and ER-α or PR in mammary tissue from mice that had received treatment with estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin subsequent to a long chase period to identify label-retaining cells. Label-retaining epithelial cells (LRECs) comprised approximately 2.0% of the entire mammary epithelium. ER-α-positive and PR-positive cells represented about 30-40% of the LREC subpopulation.
Receptors are proteins on cells that may attach to hormones that circulate in the blood. Normal breast cells and some breast cancer cells have receptors that attach to estrogen and progesterone. These two hormones often fuel the growth of breast cancer cells.. A biopsy can check to see if the cells have estrogen or progesterone receptors.. Cancer cells may contain neither, one, or both of these receptors. Breast cancers that contain estrogen receptors are called ER-positive (ER+) cancers, while those containing progesterone receptors are called PR-positive (PR+) cancers.. Women with hormone receptor-positive cancers tend to have a better prognosis and are much more likely to respond to hormone therapy than women with cancers without these receptors.. The ACS says that about one of five breast cancers have too much of a growth-promoting protein called HER2. The HER2 gene instructs the cells to make this protein. Tumors with increased levels of HER2 are referred to as HER2-positive.. Because ...
About one in eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer, according to commonly used statistics.. But other reports indicate that breast cancer rates are on the decline, likely because of improved recognition, prevention, and treatment. One advancement is the ability to identify different breast cancer types based on specific molecules found in tumors. The distinction greatly aids in breast cancer treatment selection and helps doctors predict how aggressive cancers will advance.. A crucial step in the process of beast cancer evaluation is testing tumor tissue removed during a biopsy or surgery to determine if it has estrogen and progesterone receptors - molecules that the hormones bind to.. Cancerous cells may have none, one, or both receptors. Breast cancers that have estrogen receptors are called ER-positive (or ER+). Those with progesterone receptors are referred to as PR-positive (or PR+).. In addition to hormone receptors, some breast cancers have high levels of a ...
Human progesterone receptor (PR) contains a motif that interacts with the SH3 domain of Src and mediates rapid activation of Src and downstream MAPK (Erk-1/-2) without relying on the transcriptional activity of the receptor. Here we investigated the role and intracellular location of this nontranscriptional activity of PR. Progestin activation of Src/MAPK occurred outside the nucleus with the B isoform of PR that was distributed between the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with PR-A that was predominantly nuclear. Breast cancer cells stably expressing wild-type PR-B or PR-B with disrupting point mutations in the SH3 domain binding motif (PR-BDeltaSH3) that do not affect the transcriptional activity of PR, were compared for effects of progestin on endogenous target gene expression and cell proliferation. Progestin induction of the cyclin D1 gene, which lacks a progesterone response element, was dependent on PR activation of the Src/MAPK pathway, whereas induction of the Sgk (serum and glucocorticoid
Recent investigations suggest progestin receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) associates with and transports a wide range of molecules such as heme, cytochromes P450, steroids with 21 carbons, membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRα/Paqr7), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and insulin receptor. It is difficult to discriminate the true functions of PGRMC1 from the functions of its associated molecules using biochemical and pharmacological approaches. To determine the physiological function(s) of PGRMC1, we generated global knockouts for pgrmc1 (pgrmc1−/−) in zebrafish. We found a reduction in both spawning frequency and the number of embryos produced by female mutants. We also observed reduced sensitivity of fully-grown immature oocytes to a progestin hormone and a reduced number of oocytes undergone meiotic maturation both in vivo and in vitro in pgrmc1−/−. This reduced sensitivity to progestin corresponds well with significant reduced expression of mPRα, the receptor mainly ...
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The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells. It is activated by the steroid hormone progesterone. In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22, it has two main forms, PR-A and PR-B, that differ in their molecular weight. A third, lesser-known isoform, the PR-C, also exists. The PR-B is the positive regulator of the effects of progesterone, while PR-A and PR-C serve to antagonize the effects of PR-B. Progesterone is necessary to induce the progesterone receptors. When no binding hormone is present the carboxyl terminal inhibits transcription. Binding to a hormone induces a structural change that removes the inhibitory action. Progesterone antagonists prevent the structural reconfiguration. After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with dimerization follows and the complex enters the nucleus and binds to DNA. There transcription takes place, resulting in formation ...
Purpose: We examined Estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA expression and molecular subtypes in breast cancers that are Progesterone receptor (PR) positive but ER negative by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess if these cancers molecularly resemble true ER positive cancers.. Patients and Methods: Patients were those with newly diagnosed ERBB2-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy containing sequential taxane and antheracycline-based regimens (then endocrine therapy if ER-positive by IHC). ER and PR status was determined by IHC in 501 primary breast cancers in routine pathology laboratory. Gene expression profiling was done with the Affymetrix U133A gene chip (Gene Expression Omnibus number: GSE25066). We compared expressions of ESR1, MKI67 mRNA and molecular subtypes determined by the PAM 50 classifier between IHC-ER-positive/PR-positive (n = 223), ER-positive/PR-negative (n = 73), ER-negative/PR-positive (n = 20), and ER-negative/PR-negative (n = 185) cancers. We also plotted ...
There is accumulating evidence to suggest that progesterone plays an essential role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of mammary glands and thus may play a key role in breast cancer. The biological response to progesterone is mediated by two distinct forms of the human progesterone receptor (PR-A and PR-B forms). In most cell contexts, the B form functions as a transcriptional activator, whereas the A form functions as a transcriptional inhibitor of steroid hormones. Recently it has been demonstrated that there is differential hormone dependent regulation of the phosphorylation of the A and B forms of the receptor. Treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with progestin agonist increases the phosphorylation of Ser190 and Ser294 with different kinetics. These phosphorylation events may differentially affect the transcriptional activity of the receptor ...
Progesterone receptor (Page rank) and progestins influence mammary tumorigenesis; nevertheless, the relatives advantages of Page rank isoforms A and N (PRA and PRB, respectively) in tumor cell migration continues to be difficult. phrase on FAK signaling might affect adhesion/motility hence, underscoring the inference of Page rank isoforms in breasts cancers invasiveness and metastatic advancement with root healing final results. Launch Individual progesterone receptor (Page rank) can be a essential transcription aspect included in advancement and difference of feminine reproductive system tissues. It can be portrayed from a one gene as two isoforms, PRA (94 kDa) and PRB (116 kDa), at identical level, PRA getting truncated for the 164 N-terminal amino acids of PRB. On hormone presenting, PRA and PRB homodimers or heterodimers display specific transcriptional regulatory features by concentrating on different subsets of genetics (Graham < 0.001,**< 0.01, *< 0.05. Supplementary Materials ...
Introduction:. Hormone receptors ER and PgR are routinely assessed by pathologists using immunohistochemical (IHC) assays to guide treatment decisions. Patients who are hormone receptor positive are offered hormonal therapy, such as tamoxifen, which improves survival. Although both ER and PgR are evaluated, ER is primarily utilized for patient management as the clinical utility of PgR has not been clearly established according to CAP/ASCO guidelines. Notably, a meta-analysis by the Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group reported that PgR status was not significantly predictive of response to adjuvant tamoxifen, suggesting that PgR may not have a role in breast cancer management. More recently, the level of PgR expression has been hypothesized to be important in predicting response to endocrine therapy, where high PgR levels are more indicative of estrogen-dependent tumors, and thus more sensitive to hormonal treatment.. In this study, we evaluate PgR expression using the current ...
As demonstrated in progesterone receptor-deficient mice, the physiological effects of progesterone depend completely on the presence of the human progesterone receptor (hPR), a member of the steroid-receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors. The single-copy human (hPR) gene uses separate promoters and translational start sites to produce two isoforms, hPR-A and -B, which are identical except for an additional 165 amino acids present only in the N terminus of hPR-B.[8] Although hPR-B shares many important structural domains with hPR-A, they are in fact two functionally distinct transcription factors, mediating their own response genes and physiological effects with little overlap. Selective ablation of PR-A in a mouse model, resulting in exclusive production of PR-B, unexpectedly revealed that PR-B contributes to, rather than inhibits, epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These results suggest that in the uterus, the ...
As demonstrated in progesterone receptor-deficient mice, the physiological effects of progesterone depend completely on the presence of the human progesterone receptor (hPR), a member of the steroid-receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors. The single-copy human (hPR) gene uses separate promoters and translational start sites to produce two isoforms, hPR-A and -B, which are identical except for an additional 165 amino acids present only in the N terminus of hPR-B.[8] Although hPR-B shares many important structural domains with hPR-A, they are in fact two functionally distinct transcription factors, mediating their own response genes and physiological effects with little overlap. Selective ablation of PR-A in a mouse model, resulting in exclusive production of PR-B, unexpectedly revealed that PR-B contributes to, rather than inhibits, epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These results suggest that in the uterus, the ...
breast cancer that does not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This limits the effective treatment options for patients. See also |b>estrogen receptor assay,|/b> |b>human epidermal growth factor receptor 2|/b>,|b> progesterone receptor assay|/b>.
Inclusion Criteria - Histologically or cytologically confirmed invasive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) or locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) that is incurable, unresectable, and previously treated with multimodality therapy - Measurable disease that is evaluable per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 - Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status of 0 or 1 - Willing to provide tumor biopsy sample at the time of screening - Local histological or cytological confirmation of estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor status as defined by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) per American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists criteria - Percentage of ER and/or progesterone receptor positivity, if available - Willing to provide blood samples at the time of screening, on-study, and at progression for exploratory research on biomarkers - HER2-positive BC as defined by an IHC score of 3+ or gene amplified by in situ hybridization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HSP40 binding is the first step in the HSP90 chaperoning pathway for the progesterone receptor. AU - Patricia Hernández, M.. AU - Chadli, Ahmed. AU - Toft, David O.. PY - 2002/4/5. Y1 - 2002/4/5. N2 - The progesterone receptor (PR) can be isolated in its native conformation able to bind hormone, yet its ligand-binding domain rapidly loses its activity at elevated temperature. However, an in vitro chaperoning system consisting of five proteins (HSP40, HSP70, HOP, HSP90, and p23) with ATP is capable of restoring this function. The first step of this chaperoning mechanism is usually thought to be the binding of HSP70 to PR. Our findings here show that the binding of HSP40 to PR is, instead, the first step. HSP40 binding occurred rapidly and was not dependent on ATP or other proteins. The stoichiometry of HSP40 to native PR in these complexes was ∼1:1. HSP40 bound specifically and with a high affinity to native PR (Kd = 77 nM). The binding of HSP40 to PR was sustained and did not ...
Exploratory objectives include exposure-response analysis for the efficacy (PFS and OS) and safety (incidence of Grade 3-5 adverse events, related to UGT1A1 endpoints).. Three-hundred and twenty-eight (328) patients are anticipated to be enrolled. Approximately 100 institutions will participate in this study, including sites in North America and Europe.. Clinical sites will use standard ASCO/CAP criteria for the pathological diagnosis of TNBC, defined as negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Receptor results will be based on local assessment of the most recent biopsy findings (or other pathology reports). HER2 negative is defined as one of the following: 0 or 1+ by immunohistochemistry (IHC), or if IHC 2+, then fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ratio of HER2 gene: chromosome 17 being less than 2, as per standard guidelines. ER- and PR-negative is defined as , 1% of cells expressing hormonal receptors by IHC, ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Estrogen receptor-1 (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are ligand-induced transcription factors. Accessory proteins, termed coactivators modulate the transcriptional activation of these factors. It has been shown that coactivators enhance transcription of the target genes and play important roles in diverse pathological processes, such as cancers, inherited genetic diseases, metabolic disorders, and inflammation. Earlier work by our laboratory identified E6-associated protein (E6-AP) as a coactivator of steroid hormone receptors. In an attempt to identify E6-AP-interacting protein(s), we have cloned WW-domain binding protein-2 (WBP-2) and have shown that WBP-2 selectively coactivates the transactivation functions of ER and PR. WBP-2 is a novel polyproline rich (PPXY) motif containing protein. The PPXY motif of WBP-2 has been shown to be involved in transcriptional activation pathways. The PPXY motif interacts with WW-domain containing proteins and form PPXY ...
Your bodys hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, may play a role in how your breast cancer progresses. Normal cells are equipped with receptors that, as the name suggests, allow them to receive information (including growth signals) from circulating hormones, like your TV receiver picks up cable or satellite signals. If your breast cancer cells have estrogen and progesterone receptors - in medical language, if theyre ER/PR positive - then theyre capable of detecting estrogens signal and using it to fuel growth. If the cancer cells lack the receptors - ER-/PR-negative - then they cant hear the growth-signaling message. About 70 percent of breast cancer patients have positive ER/PR hormone status. While being ER/PR-positive sounds bad, theres actually a benefit. Doctors can take advantage of the receptors presence, either by using an anti-estrogen drug such as tamoxifen that blocks the receptors and jams estrogens growth signal, or by using drugs such as aromatase inhibitors ...
Cochrane, DR, et al. (2012) Progestin regulated miRNAs that mediate progesterone receptor action in breast cancer. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.. 2012 May 15; 355(1):15-24. PM ID: ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Molecular determinants of context-dependent progesterone receptor action in breast cancer. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In gene expression experiments, hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-positive tumors generally cluster within the luminal B subset; whereas HR-negative/HER2-positive tumors reside in the HER2-enriched subset. We investigated whether the clinical behavior of HER2-positive tumors differs by HR status. We evaluated 3,394 patients who presented to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) centers with stage I to III HER2-positive breast cancer between 2000 and 2007. Tumors were grouped as HR-positive/HER2-positive (HR+/HER2+) or HR-negative/HER2-positive (HR-/HER2+). Chi-square, logistic regression and Cox hazard proportional regression were used to compare groups. Median follow-up was four years. Patients with HR-/HER2+ tumors (n = 1,379, 41% of total) were more likely than those with HR+/HER-2+ disease (n = 2,015, 59% of total) to present with high histologic grade and higher stages (P
Progesterone regulates reproductive function through two intracellular receptors, progesterone receptor-A (PR-A) and progesterone receptor-B (PR-B), that arise from a single gene and function as transcriptional regulators of progesterone-responsive genes. Although in vitro studies show that PR isoforms can display different transcriptional regulatory activities, their physiological significance is unknown. By selective ablation of PR-A in mice, we show that the PR-B isoform modulates a subset of reproductive functions of progesterone by regulation of a subset of progesterone-responsive target genes. Thus, PR-A and PR-B are functionally distinct mediators of progesterone action in vivo and should provide suitable targets for generation of tissue-selective progestins. ...
...Estrogen and progesterone receptors and the gene HER2 these are the ... This is a continuing line of work with all evidence pointing toward t...The finding of androgen receptors (AR) as a potential target in breast...The study presented this week explores the ability of estrogen-positiv...,AACR,news:,Studies,show,increasing,evidence,that,androgen,drives,breast,cancer,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
PubMed journal article: Effects of tibolone and conventional HRT on the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the breast. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Dr Lal PathLabs offers test service for Progesterone Receptor Pr Test for checking Cancer. View details of cost of test, pre-test information and report availability on Dr Lal PathLabs.
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This review article published in the journal ONCOLOGY® looks at the successful clinical development of immunotherapies, PARP inhibitors, and antibody-drug conjugates for the management of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer and how these have improved the survival outcome of patients. Over the coming years, therapeutic developments in precision medicine will likely change the treatment landscape and might make the current definition of triple-negative breast cancer as a disease that is estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 negative obsolete. ...
Machelle_Moeller_CNP: There are many treatment options available for breast cancer. The treatments recommended are based on a variety of different factors, including pathology of tumor (size, type of tumor, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, her2/neu [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2] status), nodal involvement and spread of disease. There are not many new treatments available for stage 1, 2 or 3 disease, as most treatments, which are based on the nature of study design and availability, are for metastatic patients. Once proven in that setting, the drugs will sometimes be studied in earlier cancer stages. In regards to metastatic disease, there is a new HER2+ treatment meant to be used in combination with docetaxel and Herceptin®, and it is called Perjeta™. There is also a medication that has been used for renal cell cancer (kidney cancer) in the past, and was recently FDA-indicated for hormone-positive metastatic disease, Afinitor®. While this drug is not new, the indication ...
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Dear Users, In order to make these forums more enjoyable, when you ask something about breast cancer, please include the following in your post - Age - Age of diagnosis or time since diagnosis - menopausal or not at diagnosis - Specific type of cancer (adenocarcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma etc) - Markers such as estrogen and progesterone receptor status (ER/PR), her2neu status. - Stage at diagnosis
Rich Cartun can enlighten us here, but in my experience ER/PR is expressed at many differenct levels in the patient samples, you cannot just ask is it positive or negative. As Steve mentioned fixation can affect the results. Your control tissue should be fixed and processed as close to the same as the patient tissue as possible. Using control tissue with different levels of ER/PR expression is a really good idea, sometimes tissue arrays or composits may be necessary. If your + control has a very high level of expression and you consider patient material which does not stain at that level negative or inadequate you are asking for trouble. Patsy Steve Machin UK wrote: > Im my experience ER positivity varies greatly with fixation time to > such an extent that core biopsies ,fixed for a couple of hours, can > not be used to control breast lumps. > So make sure the tissue blocks are the same size and fixed for the > same length of time. > Also, use three grades of positivity in the control tissue, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of progesterone receptor polymorphism with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss in Taiwanese Han population. AU - Su, Mei Tsz. AU - Lee, I. Wen. AU - Chen, Yi Chi. AU - Kuo, Pao Lin. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements This study was supported by an intramural grant from National Cheng-Kung University Hospital (NCKH-9702035). Funding Information: Financial support This study was supported by an intramural grant from National Cheng-Kung University Hospital (NCKH-9702035).. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - Purpose: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) could be caused by insufficient progesterone in the luteal phase of menstruation and early pregnancy. Progesterone plays a critical role in oocyte maturation, embryo implantation and placenta maintenance in early gestation. This study was set out to investigate the association between polymorphisms of the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene and idiopathic RPL. Methods: One hundred twenty-one women with a history of idiopathic ...
Prolonged excessive estrogen exposure unopposed by progesterone is widely accepted to be a risk factor for endometrial cancer development. The physiological function of progesterone is dependent upon the presence of its receptor [progesterone receptor (PGR)] and several studies have reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PGR gene to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. We sought to confirm the associations with endometrial cancer risk previously reported for four different PGR polymorphisms. A maximum of 2888 endometrial cancer cases and 4483 female control subjects from up to three studies were genotyped for four PGR polymorphisms (rs1042838, rs10895068, rs11224561 and rs471767). Logistic regression with adjustment for age, study, ethnicity and body mass index was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P-values. Of the four SNPs investigated, only rs11224561 in the 3′ region of the PGR gene was found to be ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential localization and activity of the A- and B-forms of the human progesterone receptor using green fluorescent protein chimeras. AU - Lim, Carol S.. AU - Baumann, Christopher T.. AU - Htun, Han. AU - Xian, Wenjuan. AU - Irie, Masako. AU - Smith, Catharine L.. AU - Hager, Gordon L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Subcellular localization and transcriptional activity of green fluorescent protein-progesterone receptor A and B chimeras (GFP-PRA and GFP- PRB) were examined in living mammalian cells. Both GFP-PRA and B chimeras were found to be similar in transcriptional activity compared with their non- GFP counterparts. GFP-PRA and PRA were both weakly active, while GFP-PRB and PRB gave a 20- to 40-fold induction using a reporter gene containing the full-length mouse mammary tumor virus long-terminal repeat linked to the luciferase gene (pLTRluc). Using fluorescence microscopy, nuclear/cytoplasmic distributions ...
Background Progesterone, via its nuclear receptor (PR), exerts an overall tumorigenic effect on both uterine fibroid (leiomyoma) and breast cancer tissues, whereas the antiprogestin RU486 inhibits growth of these tissues through an unknown mechanism. Here, we determined the interaction between common or cell-specific genome-wide binding sites of PR and mRNA expression in RU486-treated uterine leiomyoma and breast cancer cells. Principal Findings ChIP-sequencing revealed 31,457 and 7,034 PR-binding sites in breast cancer and uterine leiomyoma cells, respectively; 1,035 sites overlapped in both cell types. Based on the chromatin-PR interaction in both cell types, we statistically refined the consensus progesterone response element to G•ACA• • •TGT•C. We identified two striking differences between uterine leiomyoma and breast cancer cells. First, the cis-regulatory elements for HSF, TEF-1, and C/EBPα and β were statistically enriched at genomic RU486/PR-targets in uterine leiomyoma, whereas
Prevention There are no specific targeted drugs for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, and recurrence is common, Dr. Lee continued. Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive type of breast cancer that characteristically has a high recurrence rate within the first five years after diagnosis. While some breast cancers may test positive for estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors or overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), TNBC tests negative for all three. To be diagnosed as triple-negative breast cancer… Because the cancer cells lack these proteins, treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer are limited. The cancer cells are triple negative, which means they dont have receptors for estrogen or progesterone and they dont have extra copies of the HER2 gene. Learn the signs and symptoms of breast cancer and talk to your doctor immediately if you experience any of these signs. Breast cancer. The tumour is high grade (grade 3). High-risk early ...
PHILADELPHIA - New findings published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, confirm the risk of breast cancer among women who are obese and not physically active, and suggests additional mechanisms beyond estrogen.. Scientists from the Womens Health Initiative have found a relationship between obesity, physical activity and triple-negative breast cancer, a subtype of breast cancer characterized by a lack of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 expression. Triple-negative breast cancers account for about 10 to 20 percent of all breast cancers and are associated with an extremely poor prognosis due to a lack of targeted drug therapies.. Breast cancer is not just one disease. It is a complex combination of many diseases, said Amanda Phipps, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. The fact that we found an association with triple-negative breast cancer is unique because, biologically, this ...
Bacolla, A, Temiz NA, Ming Yi, Ivanic J, Cer, RZ, Donohue DE, Ball EV, Mudunuri US, Wang, G, Jain A, Volfovsky N, Luke BT, Stepehens RM, Cooper DN, Collins JR, and Vasquez. Guanine holes are prominent targets for mutation in cancer and inherited disease. PLOS Genetics 9:1-14. Bunch K, Tinnemore D, Huff S, Hoffer ZS, Burney RO, Stallings JD. Expression Patterns of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Components 1 and 2 in Endometria From Women With and Without Endometriosis. Reprod Sci. 2013 Jun 21. Burns, MB, Lackey L, Carpenter MA, Rathore A, Land AM, Leonard B, Refsland EW, Kotandeniya D, Tretyakova N, Nikas JB, Yee D, Temiz NA, Donoue RM, McDougle M, Brown WL, Law EK, and Harris RS. APOBEC3B is an enzymatic source of mutation in breast cancer. Nature 494:366-370. Causey, MW, Miller S, Hoffer Z, Hempel J, Stallings JD, Jin G, Alam H, and Martin M. Beneficial effects of histone deacetylase inhibition with severe hemorrhage and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Surgical Research 184:533-540. ...
Bacolla, A, Temiz NA, Ming Yi, Ivanic J, Cer, RZ, Donohue DE, Ball EV, Mudunuri US, Wang, G, Jain A, Volfovsky N, Luke BT, Stepehens RM, Cooper DN, Collins JR, and Vasquez. Guanine holes are prominent targets for mutation in cancer and inherited disease. PLOS Genetics 9:1-14. Bunch K, Tinnemore D, Huff S, Hoffer ZS, Burney RO, Stallings JD. Expression Patterns of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Components 1 and 2 in Endometria From Women With and Without Endometriosis. Reprod Sci. 2013 Jun 21. Burns, MB, Lackey L, Carpenter MA, Rathore A, Land AM, Leonard B, Refsland EW, Kotandeniya D, Tretyakova N, Nikas JB, Yee D, Temiz NA, Donoue RM, McDougle M, Brown WL, Law EK, and Harris RS. APOBEC3B is an enzymatic source of mutation in breast cancer. Nature 494:366-370. Causey, MW, Miller S, Hoffer Z, Hempel J, Stallings JD, Jin G, Alam H, and Martin M. Beneficial effects of histone deacetylase inhibition with severe hemorrhage and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Surgical Research 184:533-540. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wnt modulates MCL1 to control cell survival in triple negative breast cancer. AU - Yang, Lixin. AU - Perez, Aldwin A.. AU - Fujie, Sayuri. AU - Warden, Charles. AU - Li, Jie. AU - Wang, Yafan. AU - Yung, Bryan. AU - Chen, Yun Ru. AU - Liu, Xiyong. AU - Zhang, Hang. AU - Zheng, Shu. AU - Liu, Zheng. AU - Ann, David. AU - Yen, Yun. PY - 2014/2/24. Y1 - 2014/2/24. N2 - Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has higher rates of recurrence and distant metastasis, and poorer outcome as compared to non-TNBC. Aberrant activation of WNT signaling has been detected in TNBC, which might be important for triggering oncogenic conversion of breast epithelial cell. Therefore, we directed our focus on identifying the WNT ligand and its underlying mechanism in TNBC cells.Methods: We performed large-scale analysis of public microarray data to screen the WNT ligands and the clinical significance of the responsible ligand in TNBC. WNT5B was identified and its overexpression in TNBC was ...
Hypothesis. PR are involved in breast cancer growth. The antiprogestin mifepristone (MFP) exerts antitumor effects in mammary carcinomas with high expression of PRA. The investigators hypothesize that breast cancers with higher levels of PRA than PRB will benefit from an antiprogestin therapy.. Precis. The aim of the study is to select 20 breast cancer patients, with primary tumors expressing PR (50% or higher) and 1.5 fold PRA as compared with PRB, for a neoadjuvant treatment with mifepristone (MFP) during 14 days in between biopsy core and surgery. There are no studies at the present time selecting breast cancer patients according to the prevailing PR isoform expressed. This is extremely important since antiprogestins might have no effect or even stimulate those over-expressing PRB.. Background. Breast cancer remains one of the main causes of death in women. Current endocrine treatments are aimed to target either estrogen receptors (ER) or to inhibit the synthesis of 17-β-estradiol (E2). ...
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) does not have the expression of estrogen receptor , progesterone receptor and individual epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). KISS1R promotes tumor invasion. We present that and mRNA and KISS1R proteins are upregulated in TNBC tumors, in comparison to regular breasts tissues. KISS1R signaling promotes medication resistance by raising the appearance of efflux medication transporter, breasts cancer resistance proteins (BCRP) and by causing the activity and transcription from the receptor tyrosine kinase, AXL. and transcripts are raised in TNBC tumors, in comparison to regular breasts, and TNBC tumors expressing KISS1R also exhibit AXL and BCRP. Hence, KISS1R represents a possibly novel therapeutic focus on to restore medication awareness in TNBC sufferers. Breast cancer may be the leading reason behind cancer related fatalities in women world-wide1. Triple-negative breasts cancer (TNBC) includes 15C20% of breasts cancers, occurring frequently in females ...
About Trodelvy. Trodelvy (sacituzumab govitecan-hziy) is a first-in-class antibody and topoisomerase inhibitor conjugate directed to the Trop-2 receptor, a protein frequently expressed in multiple types of epithelial tumors, including metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), where high expression is associated with poor survival and relapse.. Trodelvy is also being developed as an investigational treatment for metastatic urothelial cancer, hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER 2-) metastatic breast cancer and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Additional evaluation across multiple solid tumors is also underway.. About Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). TNBC is an aggressive type of breast cancer, accounting for approximately 15% of all breast cancers. The disease is diagnosed more frequently in younger and premenopausal women and is more prevalent in African American and Hispanic women. TNBC cells do not have estrogen and progesterone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Up-regulation of the progesterone receptor (PR)-C isoform in laboring myometrium by activation of nuclear factor-κB may contribute to the onset of labor through inhibition of PR function. AU - Condon, Jennifer C.. AU - Hardy, Daniel B.. AU - Kovaric, Kelly. AU - Mendelson, Carole R.. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Progesterone acting via the progesterone receptor (PR) plays a critical role in maintaining uterine quiescence during pregnancy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the transactivating capability of the PR is down-regulated in the myometrium at term by a change in uterine PR isoform ratio resulting from local activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway. Overexpression of the truncated PR-C isoform in human myometrial cells inhibited PR-B transactivation. Expression of PR isoforms, PR-A, PR-B, and PR-C, was characterized by immunoblotting and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) in fundal and lower uterine segment myometrium from pregnant women in labor and ...
Progesterone receptors (PR) have been detected in human astrocytomas; however, the expression pattern of PR isoforms in these brain tumors is unknown. Progesterone receptor isoforms expression was studied in 13 biopsies of astrocytomas (6 grade III, and 7 grade IV) from adult Mexican patients by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Progesterone receptor expression was observed at mRNA and at protein levels in 66% and 83% of astrocytomas grade III, respectively, whereas 100% of astrocytomas grade IV expressed PR. Almost all PR mRNA content in astrocytomas grades III and IV corresponded to PR-B. The number of immunoreactive cells expressing PR-B was higher than that expressing PR-A in 73% of the cases. Estrogen receptor-á protein was only observed in 33% of astrocytomas grade III, whereas no astrocytomas grade IV expressed it. These data suggest that PR-B is the predominant isoform expressed in human astrocytomas grades III and IV, and that estrogen ...
From an immunotherapy standpoint, one of the biggest problems with triple negative breast cancer is that it doesnt produce any known antigens, or molecules recognized by the immune system, that are unique to the tumor, says Cassandra Callmann, Ph.D., who is presenting the work. If you dont have a known tumor-specific antigen, its hard to train your immune system to go after the tumor while ignoring healthy cells.. According to the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Foundation, this disease accounts for 15-20% of all breast cancers. The tumor gets its name from the fact that it tests negative for the estrogen receptor, the progesterone receptor and excess HER2 protein - three proteins commonly produced in large amounts by other types of breast cancer. Because triple negative breast cancer lacks these markers, many commonly used breast cancer drugs arent effective. This is one reason triple negative breast cancer has a poorer prognosis than other forms of the disease, according to the American ...
Introduction: Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) represent 10 to 15% of all breast cancers. This subtype is caracterized by the absence of the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and the absence of Her2 overexpression. TNBC has poor prognosis and does not respond to endocrine therapy or trastuzumab. The BRCA1 gene plays a key role in TNBC, where its expression can be lost in multiple ways: germinal mutation followed by deletion of the second allele, or negative regulations by promoter methylation or miRNA-mediated silencing. BRCA1-deficient tumours exhibit defect in DNA repair and respond to DNA-damaging chemotherapy or PARP inhibitors. We aimed to establish a correlation between BRCA1-related molecular parameters, other tumor characteristics and clinical follow up in order to better classify TNBC and define prognostic factors.. Method: In the tumoral tissues of 60 TNBC patients, the expression of BRCA1 protein and mRNA was quantified in situ. Promoter methylation ...
Estrogen and/or progesterone receptor analysis performed on the primary tumor prior to randomization. Results must be known at the time of randomization.(Note: Patients whose tumor is estrogen receptor negative with progesterone receptor status unknown or undetermined, must have the progesterone receptor assayed in order to determine hormonal receptor status. Patients whose tumor is progesterone receptor negative with estrogen receptor status unknown or undetermined, must have the estrogen receptor assayed in order to determine hormonal receptor status ...
Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular classification of triple-negative breast cancer. AU - Ahn, Sung Gwe. AU - Kim, Seung Jun. AU - Kim, Cheungyeul. AU - Jeong, Joon. PY - 2016/9. Y1 - 2016/9. N2 - Tumor heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been the main barrier in conquering breast cancer. To dissect the molecular diversity of TNBC and discover therapeutic targets for TNBC, the molecular classification of TNBC is a prioritized issue in research area. Accordingly, recent studies have been successful in classifying TNBC into several distinct subtypes with specific biologic pathways. Despite the different methodologies used and varied number of final subtypes, these studies identically suggested that TNBC consists of four major subtypes: basal-like, mesenchymal, luminal androgen receptor, and immune-en-riched. By reviewing these methods of classifications of TNBC, we highlight the unmet need to develop a molecular classifier suited for TNBC.. AB - Tumor heterogeneity of triple-negative ...
One member of a larger family of oxygen sensing enzymes could offer a viable target for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), UTSW researchers report in a new study. The findings, published online this week in Cancer Discovery, might offer hope to this subset of patients who have few effective treatment options and often face a poor prognosis.. TNBC-so called because it lacks estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and overexpression of the growth-promoting protein HER2-makes up only 15 to 20 percent of all breast cancers. However, explains Qing Zhang, Ph.D., associate professor in the department of pathology at UTSW and a Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) Scholar in Cancer Research, its the deadliest of all breast cancers, with a five-year survival rate of 77 percent compared with 93 percent for other types.. Unlike other cancers which are hormone receptor or HER2 positive, TNBC has no targeted treatments, so patients must rely only on surgery, chemotherapy, and ...
Immune response in malignancy has been widely studied in recent years in hope for new targeted therapies and even understanding the mechanisms underlying the formation of neoplasms. Regarding triple-negative breast cancer, the results have been divergent and scarce. However, it seems that this subgroup of breast cancers has even distinct immune microenvironment compared to other breast cancer types. The purpose of this study was to survey immunological microenvironment in triple-negative breast cancer by detecting a wide range of different immune cells and figuring out if they have any influence on the prognosis ...
e22158 Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is generally considered as a poorer prognostic subgroup, with a propensity for earlier relapse and visceral involvement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of non-metastatic TNBC patients in a National registry setting and identify clinical and pathologic variables associated with survival. METHODS From a retrospective registry cohort of 296 TNBC patients treated and followed between 1993-2007, we identified 248 patients with early stage disease, with follow-up of at least 12 months. The prognostic impact of several clinical variables were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate anayses. RESULTS Median age was 48. The majority of the patient group had invasive ductal carcinoma (n:204, 82.3%). Distribution by stage was as follows: stage 1: 49 (19.8%), st 2: 125 (50.4%), st 3: 69 (27.8%). Excluding 11 patients, all had received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were
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PubMed journal article Effect of dietary intake of isoflavones on the estrogen and progesterone receptor status of breast cance were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Capecitabine did not alter overall disease-free survival, but when added to other systemic therapies, there was an improvement. Overall survival was also improved when capecitabine was given in addition to other therapies. There is no evidence supporting a predictive value of capecitabine-specific adverse events on outcome. It can be concluded that the addition of capecitabine to other treatment may be recommended for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, Dr. van Mackelenbergh stated.. Dr. Mackelenbergh said there was one caveat: The meta-analysis showed no data comparing the effects of capecitabine with carboplatin in triple-negative breast cancer. One trial is recruiting patients to evaluate this in the post-neoadjuvant setting. The effect of capecitabine compared with other systemic therapies, including carboplatin, remains to be investigated.. Capecitabine is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as monotherapy or in combination with docetaxel in ...
Data show abundant mPRalpha (PAQR7), mPRbeta (PAQR8), and mPRgamma (PAQR5), but not classical nuclear PR (A or B isoforms) mRNA expression and mPRalpha protein expression in a panel of commonly used ovarian cancer cell lines ...
For women diagnosed with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, the combination of chemotherapy and an immunotherapy drug called atezolizumab (also known by its brand name, Tecentriq) can have significant survival benefit. For women diagnosed with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, the combination of chemotherapy and an immunotherapy drug called atezolizumab (also known by its brand name, Tecentriq) can have significant survival benefit.
Triple-negative breast cancer is very aggressive. Heres a case of an HIV patient also diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer.
Shortly before Christmas, It took me by surprise that a dear breast cancer friend, Marie Anello-Algeris health has a taken a turn and was receiving Hospice Care. I knew for at least a year that Marie was stage 4 but never really had spoken much of her illness for she was always so upbeat and joked often with us in our online group. Marie had Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) that has spread to her brain believed to be a Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). Hearing of Maries passing the day after Christmas, December 26, 2012 at age 42, heartbreaking... Been feeling the sadness among us TNBC sisters in our online support group. Marie was a one-of-a-kind very sweet, beautiful and caring woman and a mother who hurts leaving her 4 children behind. May your memory lives on within our hearts, and may God Bless your Children as you shine down upon them. No more worries, no more treatments, no more pain... just peace I pray for you, Marie. I will treasure the kindness and thoughtfulness that Marie had ...
Roche has gained EU-wide approval for Tecentriq in combination with chemotherapy as a treatment for patients with metastatic PD-L1 positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).. Tecentriq is the first of the checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapies to gain approval in the setting, first in the US in March this year, and now in Europe.. This will help it to carve out a stronghold within the highly competitive immuno-oncology market, where Merck & Co/MSDs Keytruda has emerged as the runaway market leader, largely thanks to its lead in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).. p { margin-bottom: 0.25cm; line-height: 115%; background: transparent none repeat scroll 0% 0%; }strong { font-weight: bold; }. The approval is based on the phase 3 IMpassion130 study, which showed only modest improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) in all TNBC patients, but showed a significant 10 month improvement in overall survival in the PD-L1 positive subgroup.. TNBC is an aggressive and hard-to-treat subtype of breast ...
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a breast cancer (BC) subtype that is characterized by its strong invasion and a high risk of metastasis. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these phenotypes are unclear. TUFT1 plays an important role in BC and impacts the proliferation and survival of BC cells. Recent studies have shown that TUFT1 mediates intracellular lysosome localization and vesicle transport by regulating Rab GTPase, but the relevance of this activity in TNBC is unknown. Therefore, our aim was to systematically study the role of TUFT1 in the metastasis and chemoresistance of TNBC. We measured TUFT1, Rab5-GTP, and Rac1-GTP expression levels in samples of human TNBC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and conducted univariate and multivariate analyses. shRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression, combined with transwell assays, co-immunoprecipitation, a nude mouse xenograft tumor model, and GTP activity assays were used for further mechanistic studies. TUFT1 expression was positively
Membrane-associated progesterone receptors are restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum and are shown to regulate the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes which are involved in steroidogenesis or drug detoxification. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 belong to the membrane-associated progesterone receptor family and are of interest due to their suspected role during cell cycle. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 are thought to bind to each other; thereby suppressing entry into mitosis. We could previously report that PGRMC2 interacts with the nucleoporin ALADIN which when mutated results in the autosomal recessive disorder triple A syndrome. ALADIN is a novel regulator of mitotic controller Aurora kinase A and depletion of this nucleoporin leads to microtubule instability. In the current study, we present that proliferation is decreased when ALADIN, PGRMC1 or PGRMC2 are over-expressed. Furthermore, we find that depletion of ALADIN results in mislocalization of Aurora kinase A and PGRMC1 in metaphase cells. Additionally, PGRMC2 is over
Genome-wide expression analysis suggested alternations in the gene expression profile of 243 genes in MB231Br cells in comparison using the parent line [50]. with PP1, synergistically improved the progesterones inhibitory influence on cell migration and invasion research proven that mPRwas indicated and functioned as an important mediator for progesterone induced inhibitory results on cell migration and invasion in BPBC cells. This inhibitory impact was improved by PP1 via FAK dephosphorylation, MMP9, VEGF, and KCNMA1 downregulation systems. Our research provides a fresh clue toward the introduction of book promising real estate agents and pathways for inhibiting nuclear hormonal receptor-negative and endocrine-resistant breasts malignancies. 1. Intro Current antihormonal therapies are generally used for the treating hormone receptor positive breasts malignancies (i.e., estrogen receptor alpha and/or nuclear progesterone receptors, ER+ and/or PR+). For ER+ breasts malignancies, antiestrogen ...
Joan Lundens triple negative breast cancer diagnosis made headlines in 2014. Discover the TNBC approach a doctor and breast cancer conquerer recommends.
Classification of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by DNA Damage Immune Response (DDIR) signature and Homologous Recombination Deficiency (HRD) status: Analysis of SWOG S9313 adjuvant ...
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting of 2016 is behind us, but oncologists, patients, and journalists are still analyzing the most interesting presentations made there. Below, we describe some of the more prominent results in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), both promising and disappointing.. Researchers are testing a drug known as IMMU-132 (sacituzumab govitecan) in patients with a variety of cancers. This drug is an antibody-drug conjugate, which means that its molecules contain two parts. One is an antibody that binds to a protein called TROP-2, which is found on the surface of cancer cells, but rarely on normal cells. The antibody part of IMMU-132 is linked to the second part: an anti-cancer drug called SN-38 (the active form of the chemotherapy drug irinotecan). When IMMU-132 binds to cancer cells via TROP-2, it is absorbed by them. But normal cells that do not have TROP-2 on their surface are unlikely to bind IMMU-132 and absorb the drug. TROP-2 is found on the ...
ROCKVILLE, Md., March 24, 2016-- Rexahn Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing next generation therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, announced today that additional data supporting the Company s novel, investigational anti-cancer therapeutic, Supinoxin™, for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer, were...
Two biomarkers - a 44-gene DNA Damage Response (DDIR) signature and stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) - can serve as prognostic markers in people diagnosed with triple negative breast cancer, according to a new study.
The role of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in breast cancer is still under investigation. Various studies have provided evidence that ERβ behaves as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, whereas some studies of estrogen receptor α (ERα) negative breast cancer reported a positive correlation between high ERβ expression and poor prognostic phenotypes, such as induced proliferation, invasion and metastasis. In the present immunohistochemistry study of 99 ERα/progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast cancer samples, nuclear expression of ERβ was positively associated with membranous expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Ki67 (proliferation marker) and tumor size. Moreover, both endogenous and exogenous ERβ upregulated BCRP expression which induced BCRP-mediated drug resistance and enhanced proliferation of ERα-/PR- breast cancer cells in the presence of 17β-estradiol, whereas these effects were reversed by additional use of tamoxifen (TAM). In addition, the regulation of BCRP ...
As demonstrated in progesterone receptor-deficient mice, the physiological effects of progesterone depend completely on the presence of the human progesterone receptor (hPR), a member of the steroid-receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors. The single-copy human (hPR) gene uses separate promoters and translational start sites to produce two isoforms, hPR-A and -B, which are identical except for an additional 165 amino acids present only in the N terminus of hPR-B.[12] Although hPR-B shares many important structural domains with hPR-A, they are in fact two functionally distinct transcription factors, mediating their own response genes and physiological effects with little overlap. Selective ablation of PR-A in a mouse model, resulting in exclusive production of PR-B, unexpectedly revealed that PR-B contributes to, rather than inhibits, epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These results suggest that in the uterus, the ...
Estrogen and progesterone are 2 female hormones. They can stimulate the growth of some cells, including breast cancer cells. Estrogen and progesterone receptors are inside (in the nucleus or other parts of the cell) or on the surface of normal breast cells and some types of breast cancer cells. Thes
Progesterone Receptor (PR) Antagonists- Pipeline Insights, 2015, provides the in-depth analysis of the pipeline assets across the Progesterone Receptor (PR) Antagonists. The main objective of this report to track competitor pipeline molecules, related research activities, technology, collaborations, in-licensing and out-licensing deals.
3.Phylogenetic Analysis of Anthropoidea Based on Progesterone Receptor Gene Sequences. CHEN Cao-yi1, Derek WILDMAN2a,b,c, ZHU Xin-yu1, LIU Wei3a,b, WANG Kang-le1, SU Min4, TAN Xiang-ling1. [Abstract] [Download] ...
Incorporation of disodium molybdate in the homogenization buffer for breast cancer specimens was shown to inhibit a time and temperature dependent loss of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor binding capacity in the cytosols. Since positive receptor values are correlated with response to endocrine therapy, the effect of molybdate incorporation on ER/PR classification was further investigated in two separate series of specimens. In one series of 75 consecutive specimens, ER and PR were analyzed before incorporation of molybdate in the assays, and the results compared with the next 75 consecutive specimens after incorporation of molybdate. The mean ages of the 2 groups of patients were not significantly different (59.1 +/- 13.4 versus 59.4 +/- 13.3 years). It was found that the PR binding capacity was significantly higher, the proportion of ER+/PR- specimens was significantly reduced, and that a bimodal distribution of ER+ specimens only became apparent when molybdate was incorporated in the ER
5α-DHP is an agonist of the progesterone receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor (albeit with an ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogen receptor modulators. ... Receptor/signaling modulators. GABAA receptor positive modulators. GABA metabolism/transport modulators. ... September 1993). "Progesterone receptor-mediated effects of neuroactive steroids". Neuron. 11 (3): 523-30. doi:10.1016/0896- ...
Progesterone receptor biology and applications to breast cancer, Mother of Vice President Kamala Harris. ... The progesterone receptor and its isoforms in mammary development. Mol. Genet. Metab. 68:182-90. ... "Cellular expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in mammary glands: Regulation by hormones, development and aging", ... Developmental regulation of murine mammary progesterone receptor gene expression. Endocrinology 126:2882-89. ...
Levonorgestrel is a progestogen, i.e. progesterone-receptor agonist. The hormonal IUD's primary mechanism of action is to ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogen receptor modulators. ... Progesterone is a hormone in the endometrium that counteracts estrogen driven growth.[53] Very low levels of progesterone will ... progesterone can negatively regulate estrogen driven growth. Tumors formed are correlated with insufficient progesterone and ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoid receptor modulators. List of ... The mechanisms yielding this effect on progesterone differ among species. In the sheep, where progesterone sufficient for ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Mineralocorticoids and antimineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoid receptor modulators. List of ... the endogenous type I and type II receptor agonist) or RU28362 (a specific type II receptor agonist) to adrenalectomized ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... mineralocorticoid receptor activity. • steroid binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • steroid hormone receptor ... G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans ... "Estrogen (G protein coupled) Receptor". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ...
Progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception: a randomized controlled trial. „Obstet Gynecol". 108 (5), s. 1089- ... Endometrial effects of a single early luteal dose of the selective progesterone receptor modulator CDB-2914. „Fertil Steril". ... MikaelM. Häggström MikaelM., Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ...
Estrogen and progesterone receptor status is frequently negative, corresponding with poor survival. The tumors are highly ... Typically IBC shows low levels of estrogen and progesterone receptor sensitivity, corresponding with poor outcome. In cases ... Estrogen and Progesterone receptor positive cases have not shown to have a better prognosis.[20] Pathological complete response ... Treatment with antibiotics or progesterone have been observed to cause a temporary regression of symptoms in some cases.[8][9][ ...
C-SCLC appear to express female hormone (i.e. estrogen and/or progesterone) receptors in a high (50%-67%) proportion of cases, ... "Immunohistochemical expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in primary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors". Archives of ... Inhibitors of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) *tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI's):[9] *erlotinib (Tarceva)[10][ ... Riely GJ, Politi KA, Miller VA, Pao W (December 2006). "Update on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small cell ...
As many meningiomas have receptors for progesterone, progesterone blockers are being investigated. Two other drugs that are ...
Pullen MA, Laping N, Edwards R, Bray J (September 2006). "Determination of conformational changes in the progesterone receptor ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogen receptor modulators. ... is a synthetic pregnane steroid and a derivative of progesterone.[1][2] It is specifically a derivative of 17α- ...
... and progesterone receptors in epithelial cells, granular cells and fibroblasts of VF, suggesting that some of the structural ... androgen and progesterone receptors were found more commonly in males than in females. In others studies, it has been suggested ... "Immunohistochemical searching for estrogen and progesterone receptors in women vocal fold epithelia". Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. ... Actually, it is believed that the number of hormonal receptors in the pre-pubertal phase is higher than in any other age.[29] ...
Hould F, Fried G, Fazekas A, Tremblay S, Mersereau W (1988). "Progesterone receptors regulate gallbladder motility". J Surg Res ... melanocortin receptor → cAMP. melanogenesis by melanocytes in skin and hair Motilin. MLN. Small intestine. Motilin receptor. ... CT receptor → cAMP. Construct bone, reduce blood Ca2+ Cholecystokinin. CCK. duodenum. CCK receptor. Release of digestive ... Receptor Target Tissue Effect Amylin (or Islet Amyloid Polypeptide). IAPP. pancreas. pancreatic β-cells. amylin receptor. ...
Selective progesterone receptor modulators and progesterone antagonists: mechanisms of action and clinical applications. „Hum ... J.C. Condon, D.B. Hardy, K. Kovaric and C.R. Mendelson, Up-regulation of the progesterone receptor (PR)-C isoform in laboring ... P.H. Giangrande and D.P. McDonnell, The A and B isoforms of the human progesterone receptor: two functionally different ... F.M. Horne and D.L. Blithe, Progesterone receptor modulators and the endometrium: changes and consequences, Hum Reprod Update ...
"Changes in estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and pS2 expression in tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer". Cancer ... Resistance to selective estrogen receptor modulator drugs[edit]. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a commonly ... Loss of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)[110] *Although this may be a mechanism of resistance in a minority of women, most ERα+ ... Mutations in estrogen receptors. *Alterations in co-regulatory proteins *Interactions between the SERM, ER, and co-regulatory ...
androgens,[10] progesterone[10] Granulosa cells. Granulosa lutein cells. progesterone,[5] estrogen(majority),[5] and inhibin A[ ... Cholesterol-LDL complexes bind to receptors on the plasma membrane of luteal cells and are internalized. Cholesterol is ... Steroidogenesis, with progesterone in yellow field at upper center.[11] The androgens are shown in blue field, and aromatase at ... The corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which is a steroid hormone responsible for the decidualization of the endometrium (its ...
... metribolone has high affinity for the progesterone receptor (PR), and binds to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as well.[5][6] ... "Towards the mapping of the progesterone and androgen receptors". J. Steroid Biochem. 27 (1-3): 255-69. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(87 ... Notes: Values are percentages (%). Reference ligands (100%) were progesterone for the PR, testosterone for the AR, estradiol ... Delettré J, Mornon JP, Lepicard G, Ojasoo T, Raynaud JP (January 1980). "Steroid flexibility and receptor specificity". J. ...
Levonorgestrel is a progestogen, i.e. progesterone-receptor agonist. The hormonal IUD's primary mechanism of action is to ... Progesterone is a hormone in the endometrium that counteracts estrogen driven growth.[53] Very low levels of progesterone will ... progesterone can negatively regulate estrogen driven growth. Tumors formed are correlated with insufficient progesterone and ... Luukkainen replaced the progesterone with the hormone levonorgestrel to be released over a five-year period, creating what is ...
It has been found to possess slightly lower affinity for the androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) relative to ... "Towards the mapping of the progesterone and androgen receptors". J. Steroid Biochem. 27 (1-3): 255-69. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(87 ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... The estrogen receptor, as well as the progesterone receptor, have been detected in the skin, including in keratinocytes and ... Estradiol acts primarily as an agonist of the estrogen receptor (ER), a nuclear steroid hormone receptor. There are two ... Estradiol affects target tissues mainly by interacting with two nuclear receptors called estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogen receptor modulators. ... It binds to the progesterone receptor with approximately 22% of the affinity of progesterone.[19] The progestogenic activity of ...
... which was discovered to also be a progesterone receptor antagonist.[7][8] In October 1981, endocrinologist Étienne-Émile ... In April 1980, as part of a formal research project at Roussel-Uclaf for the development of glucocorticoid receptor antagonists ...
Further information: Prostaglandin F2α receptor. PGF2α acts by binding to the prostaglandin F2α receptor. It is released in ... Conversely, higher progesterone levels inhibit production of PGF2α and oxytocin, as the effects of the hormones are in ... It acts on the corpus luteum to cause luteolysis, forming a corpus albicans and stopping the production of progesterone. Action ... receptors, COX-1 and COX-2 to form Prostaglandin H2, an intermediate. Lastly, the compound reacts with Aldose Reductase (AKR1B1 ...
SGA acts primarily as a high-affinity agonist of the progesterone receptor (272% of the affinity of progesterone and 136% of ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogen receptor modulators. ... and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone.[1][3][9][10] It ... Progesterone receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogens and antiestrogens. List of progestogens. ...
These mutations can occur in the genes coding for GnRH, LH, and FSH or their receptors. Depending on which hormone and receptor ... When the egg is released, the empty follicle sac begins to produce progesterone to inhibit the hypothalamus and the anterior ... A mutation that cause a gain of function for LH receptor can result in a condition known as testotoxicosis, which cause puberty ... If conception occurs, the placenta will take over the secretion of progesterone; therefore the mother cannot ovulate again. If ...
Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 ... These hormones can contribute to lactogenesis, luteal maintenance and progesterone production (in rats) during the later stages ... Placental lactogen I and II were identified as prolactin-like molecules that can bind to prolactin receptor with high affinity ...
Drugs such as bromocriptine interact with the dopaminergic receptor sites as agonists with selectivity for D2 receptors, making ... which is reversed through injection of progesterone. Thus, it was concluded that ergotoxin, and related ergolines, act via the ... These substances are neuroleptic and are either an antagonist of dopamine at the postsynaptic level at the D2 receptor site or ... Drugs such as bromocriptine act as a dopamine receptor agonist, stimulating the nerves that control movement.[13] Newer ...
"MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2/neu receptor status in breast cancer". Breast ... miR-181 could acquire a resistance to tamoxifen, the drug is successfully used to treat women with estrogen receptor-positive ... One selective modulators of estrogen receptor having specific activities of tissue. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen ( ... which leads to high levels of steadystate phosphorylated intermediates and reducing the threshold of T cell receptor signaling ...
... androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR) in reporter gene bioassays". Toxicol. Sci. 83 (2): 264-72. doi:10.1093/ ... "Interaction of polycyclic musks and UV filters with the estrogen receptor (ER), ... "Hyraceum, the fossilized metabolic product of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), shows GABA-benzodiazepine receptor affinity" ...
... androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR) in reporter gene bioassays". Toxicol. Sci. 83 (2): 264-72. doi:10.1093/ ... allowing visitors to approach antiquity through their olfaction receptors.[7] ... "Interaction of polycyclic musks and UV filters with the estrogen receptor (ER), ... "Hyraceum, the fossilized metabolic product of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), shows GABA-benzodiazepine receptor affinity" ...
In another ligand/receptor interaction, an oligosaccharide component of the egg binds and activates a receptor on the sperm and ... and chemotactic gradients of progesterone have been confirmed as the signal emanating from the cumulus oophorus cells ... These receptors are unknown in mice but have been identified in guinea pigs.[citation needed] ... The receptor galactosyltransferase (GalT) binds to the N-acetylglucosamine residues on the ZP3 and is important for binding ...
2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... ER RBA = Relative binding affinity to estrogen receptors of rat uterine cytosol. Uterine weight = Percentage change in uterine ...
The official start to its development started in December 1986 when Merck's president, Edward Scolnick, announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in West Point, Pennsylvania and placed Emilio Emini in charge of the laboratory.[11] A couple months later on January, 1987, a team of researchers consisting of Emilio Emini, Joel Huff, and Irving Sigal, kickstarted their studies by basing their project off of earlier research on the protease enzyme, renin.[5] They were the ones who started the process of research and development into protease inhibitors and its relation to the virus. Over a year later, in July 1988, Nancy Kohl, Emilio Emini, et al., published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Science about the idea of inhibiting the protease.[11] On February, 1989, Manuela Navia, Paula Fitzgerald, et al., published a paper that showed the three-dimensional structure of HIV's protease enzyme.[5] Other ...
progesterone biosynthetic process. • female gamete generation. • positive regulation of bone resorption. • regulation of ... transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of ... immunoreactivity and hormone receptor mRNA in testicular tissue of infertile men". Cell Tissue Res. 278 (3): 595-600. PMID ... "Cysteine residues in a synthetic peptide corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit receptor-binding ...
C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... Progesterone-only type contraceptives and long-acting reversible contraception are associated with worsened acne.[91] ... Flutamide, a pure antagonist of the androgen receptor, is effective in treating acne in women.[112][120] It appears to reduce ... Duarte FH, Jallad RS, Bronstein MD (November 2016). "Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators in acromegaly". ...
T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Taxon identifiers. *Wikidata: Q146217 ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogen receptor modulators. ... Progesterone receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogens and antiestrogens. List of progestogens. ... D2 receptor antagonists (prolactin releasers) (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide, risperidone, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... increase beta adrenergic receptors while decreasing alpha adrenergic receptors- which results in increased levels of ... D2 receptor antagonists (prolactin releasers) (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide, risperidone, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, ... Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of androgens/anabolic ...
Androgen receptor degradersEdit. Selective androgen receptor degraders (SARDs) are another new type of antiandrogen that has ... Neumann F (1978). "The physiological action of progesterone and the pharmacological effects of progestogens--a short review". ... Androgen receptor antagonistsEdit. Androgens and anti-. androgens at the AR[82][83]. Compound. RBA (%). ... and are analogous to selective estrogen receptor degraders (SERDs) like fulvestrant (a drug used to treat estrogen receptor- ...
Main articles: Progesterone receptor A, Progesterone receptor B, and Progesterone receptor C ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... Progesterone is necessary to induce the progesterone receptors. When no binding hormone is present the carboxyl terminal ... In common with other steroid receptors, the progesterone receptor has a N-terminal regulatory domain, a DNA binding domain, a ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... Premazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative.[1] It is a partial agonist of benzodiazepine receptors and was shown in 1984 to ... Premazepam is a pyrrolodiazepine benzodiazepine and acts as a partial agonist at benzodiazepine receptors. The mean time taken ... Mennini T; Barone D; Gobbi M (1985). "In vivo interaction of premazepam with benzodiazepine receptors: relation to its ...
... and sigma receptors.[18] The neurosteroid Progesterone (PROG) that activates progesterone receptors expressed in peripheral and ... The GABAA receptors are made up of subunits which form a receptor complex. Humans have 19 receptor subunits and are classified ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... "Progesterone receptor-mediated effects of neuroactive steroids". Neuron. 11 (3): 523-30. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(93)90156-L. PMID ...
"Systemic administration of an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive receptor P2X7 improves recovery after spinal cord injury" ...
... bourgeonal imitated the role of progesterone in stimulating sperm to swim (chemotaxis), a process unrelated to odor reception.[ ... "Identification of a Testicular Odorant Receptor Mediating Human Sperm Chemotaxis". Science. 299 (5615): 2054-8. doi:10.1126/ ...
Holtorf prescribes naltrexone, an opioid receptor blocker, used most often to treat opiate addiction, and buproprion ( ... Holtorf, K (2009). "The bioidentical hormone debate: Are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Taxon identifiers. *Wikidata: Q35625 ...
Further, to help understand the neurobiology of behavior, fox and dog orthologs of serotonin receptor genes were cloned.[9] ... Levels of the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone differed. Belyaev[5] stated: "Perhaps the most important observation ...
Low-density lipoproteins are taken into the cell by LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis in clathrin-coated pits, and then ... and progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone (the sex hormones), and their derivatives. It provides the basic structure of all ... By serving as ligands for specific receptors on cell membranes, the apolipoproteins that reside on the surface of a given ... Among the genes transcribed are the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. The former scavenges circulating LDL from the ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... D2 receptor antagonists (prolactin releasers) (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide, risperidone, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, ... Acolbifene (INN) (developmental code names EM-652, SCH-57068) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ...
... α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki = 75 nM and 86 nM, respectively).[12] It possesses low or no affinity for the 5-HT1A, 5- ... niaprazine was later discovered to have low or no binding affinity for the H1 and mACh receptors (Ki = , 1 μM), and was instead ... α2-adrenergic receptor (Ki = 730 nM),[12] likely acting as an antagonist there as well. ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... receptor complex". Planta Med. 68 (12): 1059-62. doi:10.1055/s-2002-36357. PMID 12494329.. ... a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi". Biochem. Pharmacol. 64 (9): 1415-24. doi: ... is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects". Planta Med. 61 (3): 213-6. doi:10.1055/s-2006-958058. ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Taxon identifiers. *Wikidata: Q122679 ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... "In vivo estrogen bioactivities and in vitro estrogen receptor binding and transcriptional activities of anticoagulant synthetic ...
The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ... regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity. • neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. • ... NMDA receptor activity[edit]. NMDA receptor activation is essential to producing the activity-dependent molecular changes ...
Progesterone Follicular phase 2 mg/day 1.7 mg/day 2100 L/day 0.3-3 nmol/L 0.1-0.9 ng/mL ... Guerriero, G (April 2009). "Vertebrate sex steroid receptors: evolution, ligands, and neurodistribution". Annals of the New ... Progesterone is the most important and only naturally occurring human progestogen. In general, androgens are considered "male ... Their effects are mediated by slow genomic mechanisms through nuclear receptors as well as by fast nongenomic mechanisms ...
... activation of the D2 receptor promoter by members of the retinoic acid receptor-retinoid X receptor family". Proceedings of the ... progesterone preparations, norethisterone/ethinylestradiol ('OrthoNovum 7/7/7'), St. John's Wort, phenytoin, and systemic ... Isotretinoin has a low affinity for retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR), but may be converted ... transcriptional activation of the dopamine D2 receptor - in addition to serotonin and glutamate receptors - is regulated by ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... A-366,833 is a drug developed by Abbott, which acts as an agonist at neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors selective for the ... "Central nicotinic receptors: structure, function, ligands, and therapeutic potential". ChemMedChem. 2 (6): 746-767. doi:10.1002 ... heptanes as Novel α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Selective Agonists". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 50 (22): 5493-5508 ...
... it means that the cells of the patient cannot express the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2 receptor.[5] ...
Estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor tests look for receptors that attach to the hormones estrogen and/or progesterone in ... Breast cancers that have these receptors often respond well to some types of treatments. Learn more. ... Receptors are proteins that attach to certain substances. ... What are estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) tests? ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/estrogen-receptor-progesterone-receptor-tests/ Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Tests. ...
... dien-11-aryl derivatives of the formula I with a progesterone antagonising effect and processes for their preparation, their ... Compounds with an antagonistic effect on the progesterone receptor (competitive progesterone receptor antagonists) have been ... like progesterone itself, bind to the progesterone receptor and, in dosages above the ovulation inhibitory dose, inhibit ... with the Human Progesterone A or Progesterone B Receptor and a MTV-LUC Reporter Construct ...
Progesterone receptor-mediated effects on apoptosis in periovulatory granulosa cells. Doktorsavhandling Direkt till fulltext på ... This thesis focuses on progesterone receptor (PR)-mediated regulation of granulosa cell apoptosis during the final phase of ... cholesterol ester and progesterone. Based on this we investigated the granulosa cell dependence on cholesterol synthesis and in ...
Progesterone-receptor antagonists and statins decrease de novo cholesterol synthesis and increase apoptosis in rat and human ... Progesterone-receptor (PR) stimulation promotes survival in rat and human periovulatory granulosa cells. To investigate the ... Receptors, Progesterone/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism, Signal Transduction/physiology ... and progesterone. Correspondingly, specific inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in periovulatory rat granulosa cells using 3- ...
Main articles: Progesterone receptor A, Progesterone receptor B, and Progesterone receptor C ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... Progesterone is necessary to induce the progesterone receptors. When no binding hormone is present the carboxyl terminal ... In common with other steroid receptors, the progesterone receptor has a N-terminal regulatory domain, a DNA binding domain, a ...
Progesterone receptors in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis.. Conneely OM1, Jericevic BM, Lydon JP. ... The steroid hormone, progesterone (P), is a central coordinator of all aspects of female reproductive activity and plays a key ... The effects of P on the mammary gland are mediated by two structurally and functionally distinct nuclear receptors PR-A and PR- ... Null mutation of both receptors in PR knockout (PRKO) mice has demonstrated a critical role for PRs in mediating pregnancy- ...
Expected for release later this year, the 2019 "Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Testing in Breast Cancer: American Society ... Testing of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors (ER/PgR) in Breast Cancer. During the open comment period, April15-29, 2019, the ... Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Testing in Breast Cancer Guideline Update Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Testing in ...
This is the summary of results of the progesterone receptor assay. ... and Progesterone Receptor Summary and is the summary of results of the progesterone receptor (PR) assay. ... Source item name: Combined from CS Site-Specific Factor 2 (breast) and Progesterone Receptor Summary ... Progesterone Receptor Summary from Site-Specific Data Item) ...
Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is used as a biomarker of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) function and breast cancer prognosis ... Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer.. Mohammed H1, Russell IA1, Stark R1, Rueda OM1, Hickey TE2, ... Corrigendum: Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer. [Nature. 2015] ... The progesterone-decreased ERα binding regions correlate with progesterone down-regulated genes. b. Kaplan Meier survival curve ...
Estrogen receptor antagonists. Class Summary. Inhibit estrogen effects by competitively binding to the estrogen receptor. ... Progesterone antagonists. Class Summary. RU-486 has been used experimentally to treat this medical condition. ... Estrogen-receptor protein in intracranial meningiomas. J Neurosurg. 1979 Apr. 50(4):499-502. [Medline]. ... Competitively binds to the estrogen receptor, producing a nuclear complex that decreases DNA synthesis and inhibits estrogen ...
Progesterone receptor. P06401. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological action? ... Progesterone receptor. Kind. protein. Organism. Human. Polypeptides. Name. UniProt ID. ... Progesterone. approved, vet_approved. yes. agonist. Details. DB00603. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. approved, investigational. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Progesterone Receptor antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 6 publication(s). ... Anti-Progesterone Receptor antibody (ab131486) at 1/500 dilution + MDA435 cell extract. Predicted band size: 98 kDa. ... Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.. Isoform A: ... IHC image of Progesterone Receptor staining in Human Testis formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a ...
Although the overall fold of the progesterone receptor is similar to that found in related receptors, the progesterone receptor ... Here we report the 1.8 A crystal structure of a progesterone-bound ligand-binding domain of the human progesterone receptor. ... The physiological effects of progestins are mediated by the progesterone receptor, a member of the steroid/nuclear receptor ... The physiological effects of progestins are mediated by the progesterone receptor, a member of the steroid/nuclear receptor ...
And we also propose that helix 12 in apo-form PR LBD, not like other NR LBDs, such as human estrogen receptor α (ERα) LBD, may ... PR ligand, such as progesterone, induces conformation changes in PR ligand binding domain (LBD), thus mediates subsequent gene ... a member of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, plays a vital role for female reproductive tissue development, differentiation ...
IntroductionOestrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) is traditionally measured on all breast tumour specimens to identify those ... Progesterone receptor B (PRB) promoter hypermethylation in sporadic breast cancer. Progesterone receptor B hypermethylation in ... Human progesterone receptor A form is a cell- and promoter-specific repressor of human progesterone receptor B function. Mol ... Kiani J, Khan A, Khawar H, Shuaib F, Pervez S (2006) Estrogen receptor α negative and Progesterone receptor positive breast ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Progesterone Receptor antibody [SP2] validated for IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen ... Anti-Progesterone Receptor antibody [SP2], prediluted. See all Progesterone Receptor primary antibodies. ... Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.. Isoform A: ... Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR3 subfamily.. Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain. ...
... phosphate/Progesterone receptor/Progesterone receptor (Ser190) phosphate/Progesterone receptor (Ser345) phosphate/Src (Tyr419) ... phosphate/Yes (Tyr426) phosphate in the Nuclear Receptor Signaling research area. ... Progesterone Receptor Signaling Antibody Sampler Kit. Progesterone Receptor Signaling Antibody Sampler Kit #12807. PRINT. This ... Phospho-Progesterone Receptor (Ser190) Antibody detects endogenous levels of progesterone receptors B and A only when ...
Humans have unexpectedly high genetic variation in the receptor for a key pregnancy-maintaining hormone, according to research ... Progesterone is a reproductive hormone. Its receptor, a protein expressed in tissues such as the uterus, ovary and cervix, ... Because progesterone and its receptor are so important for pregnancy, the results were unexpected. "People have thought ... The findings also predict that the genetic forms of the progesterone receptor seen in East Asians would not necessarily protect ...
Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, and UBE3A. Membrane progesterone receptor Selective progesterone receptor modulator ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... In common with other steroid receptors, the progesterone receptor has a N-terminal regulatory domain, a DNA binding domain, a ... Progesterone antagonists prevent the structural reconfiguration. After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with ...
Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are a group of cell surface receptors and membrane steroid receptors belonging to the ... The discovery of a membrane located progesterone receptor (mPR) unrelated to the classical progesterone receptor (PR) in fish ... Membrane progesterone receptor delta (mPRδ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAQR6 gene. Membrane progesterone ... Unlike the progesterone receptor (PR), a nuclear receptor which mediates its effects via genomic mechanisms, mPRs are cell ...
Cancer cells that are progesterone receptor negative do not need progesterone to grow, and usually do not stop growing when ... Describes cells that do not have a protein to which the hormone progesterone will bind. ... treated with hormones that block progesterone from binding. ... progesterone receptor negative listen (proh-JES-teh-rone reh- ... Cancer cells that are progesterone receptor negative do not need progesterone to grow, and usually do not stop growing when ...
A key hormone receptor evolved quickly as or early humans migrated from Africa, producing localized gene changes that may ... Genetic variation in progesterone receptor tied to prematurity risk. A key hormone receptor evolved quickly as or early humans ... Progesterone is a reproductive hormone. Its receptor, a protein expressed in tissues such as the uterus, ovary and cervix, ... Because progesterone and its receptor are so important for pregnancy, the results were unexpected. "People have thought ...
We looked at three immunohistochemical progesterone receptor assays, in addition to original ligand-binding assay results, in a ... Despite similar agreement and concordance with the progesterone receptor assays, clear differences were noted with regards to 5 ... Three commonly utilized autostainer vendors-Dako, Leica and Ventana-provide ready-to-use progesterone receptor assays; however ... suggest that clinical utility of estrogen receptor assays vary when investigated in combination with progesterone receptor. ...
Compare Progesterone receptor ELISA Kits from Assay Biotech from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... Progesterone receptor ELISA Kits from Assay Biotech. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 5 Progesterone receptor ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
... and progesterone receptors are present in human lung cancers, 19 resected lung cancers were examined for receptors using a ... Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Bronchogenic Carcinoma. Philip T. Cagle, Dina R. Mody and Mary R. Schwartz ... Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Bronchogenic Carcinoma Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... and one small cell carcinoma were positive for progesterone receptors (,6.9 fmol/mg cytosol protein). One tumor, a squamous ...
The progesterone receptor (PR) is a progestin-activated steroid receptor member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ... Molecular cloning of the chicken progesterone receptor. Science 233 767-70 View Abstract , View PubMed. Kastner P, Krust A, ... Complete amino acid sequence of the human progesterone receptor deduced from cloned cDNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 143 ... 9930019P03Rik ; BB114106 ; ENSMUSG00000074510 ; NR3C3 ; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 3 ; PGR ; PR ; PR-A ; PR-B ...
Effects of danazol on incidence of progesterone and oestrogen receptors in benign breast disease. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; ... Effects of danazol on incidence of progesterone and oestrogen receptors in benign breast disease.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987 ... In women given danazol the number of biopsy specimens that were positive for progesterone receptors rose from 14 out of 31 ... It was only in this group that a significant and long-standing increase in progesterone receptors was observed. These findings ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Thermo Scientific Lab Vision Progesterone Receptor Ab-8, Mouse ... Provide accurate, reproducible results with the Thermo Scientific Progesterone Receptor Ab-8, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. ... Provide accurate, reproducible results with the Thermo Scientific Progesterone Receptor Ab-8, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. ...
Response to progestin therapy positively correlates with hormone receptor expression, in particular progesterone receptor (PR ... Inverse Relationship between Progesterone Receptor and Myc in Endometrial Cancer.. [Tamar Kavlashvili, Yichen Jia, Donghai Dai ... Second, progesterone increased PR activity yet blunted Myc mRNA and protein expression. Finally, overexpression of PR by ... What remained unclear was the mechanism of action and if estrogen receptor α (ERα), the principle inducer of PR, is necessary ...
Eighteen of 79 colorectal cancers contained estradiol receptor, while 34 specimens were positive for progesterone receptor. In ... the presence of progesterone receptor seems to be partially correlated to the presence of estradiol receptor while, in stomach ... Estradiol and Progesterone Receptors in Malignant Gastrointestinal Tumors. Vincenzo Sica, Ernesto Nola, Enrico Contieri, ... Estradiol and Progesterone Receptors in Malignant Gastrointestinal Tumors. Vincenzo Sica, Ernesto Nola, Enrico Contieri, ...
  • A study about the mPRγ subtype has generated an antibody against this receptor in order to explore the role of mPRγ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progesterone Receptor Signaling Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting total and active levels of progesterone receptor (PR) as well as the active forms of PR downstream targets. (cellsignal.com)
  • Phospho-Progesterone Receptor (Ser190) Antibody detects endogenous levels of progesterone receptors B and A only when phosphorylated at Ser190 and Ser26, respectively. (cellsignal.com)
  • Phospho-Progesterone Receptor (Ser345) Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of progesterone receptors B and A only when phosphorylated at Ser345 and Ser181, respectively. (cellsignal.com)
  • Following the adoption of immunohistochemical techniques was the development of automated immunostainers and adoption of multiple different progesterone receptor antibody clones. (nature.com)
  • Provide accurate, reproducible results with the Thermo Scientific Progesterone Receptor Ab-8, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. (fishersci.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Progesterone Receptor Monoclonal Antibody (Alpha PR6) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-411, RRID AB_2283820. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody does not cross-react with estrogen receptor or glucocorticoid receptor. (thermofisher.com)
  • View detailed Progesterone Receptor antibody specifications by linking to the specific product blocks. (scbt.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Progesterone R/NR3C3 Antibody (Alpha PR6) [ABIN266931] - Staining of human uterus tissue. (antibodies-online.com)
  • As demonstrated in progesterone receptor-deficient mice, the physiological effects of progesterone depend completely on the presence of the human progesterone receptor (hPR), a member of the steroid-receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mPRs appear to be involved in the neuroprotective and antigonadotropic effects of progesterone and allopregnanolone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PR mediates the physiological effects of progesterone, which plays a central role in reproductive events associated with the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. (thermofisher.com)
  • The effects of progesterone are mediated by two functionally different isoforms of the progesterone receptor, PR-A and PR-B, which are transcribed from distinct, estrogen-inducible promoters within a single copy of the PR gene. (scbt.com)
  • 14 15 16 17 In any event, the molecular mechanisms by which a concomitant progesterone therapy could counteract the estrogen replacement treatment are not known in detail and are the subject of controversy, because some study results could not support the deleterious effects of progesterone. (ahajournals.org)
  • Progesterone receptor, a member of the steroid receptor superfamily, mediates the physiologic effects of progesterone. (genetex.com)
  • Several studies have now shown no association between progesterone receptor gene +331G/A polymorphisms and breast or endometrial cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of P on the mammary gland are mediated by two structurally and functionally distinct nuclear receptors PR-A and PR-B that arise from a single gene. (nih.gov)
  • Membrane progesterone receptor alpha (mPRα) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAQR7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane progesterone receptor gamma (mPRγ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAQR5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • While some of the alternative progesterone actions are nongenomic, others may ultimately lead to altered gene transcription involving the activation of second messengers (such as MAP kinases) and through the alteration of progesterone receptors transactivation through effects on coactivators (such as SRC2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. (abcam.com)
  • Richer JK, Jacobsen BM, Manning NG, Abel MG, Wolf DM, Horwitz KB (2002) Differential gene regulation by the two progesterone receptor isoforms in human breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • The researchers found that East Asian populations have one version of the progesterone receptor gene that appears to protect them against giving birth prematurely, whereas other populations with European or African ancestry have a higher prematurity risk and other versions of this gene. (eurekalert.org)
  • The variations in the progesterone receptor gene -- consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms, or one-letter changes in the genetic code -- were found in regions of the gene that regulate when it is switched on and off. (eurekalert.org)
  • A key hormone receptor evolved quickly as or early humans migrated from Africa, producing localized gene changes that may affect modern women's risk of preterm birth, according to a Stanford-led study. (stanford.edu)
  • Estrogen and progesterone receptors, and the gene HER2 these are the big three markers and/or targets in breast cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Using a Rosa26 gene targeting strategy in mouse embryonic stem cells, we have generated a new transgenic mouse (Pgr-B LSL ), which is designed to conditionally express the epitope-tagged mouse progesterone receptor-B (PGR-B) isoform when crossed with a specific cre driver mouse. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Progesterone regulates reproductive function through two intracellular receptors, progesterone receptor-A (PR-A) and progesterone receptor-B (PR-B), that arise from a single gene and function as transcriptional regulators of progesterone-responsive genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • To investigate the differential effects of estrogens and progesterone, we examined their influence on AT 1 receptor gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions -Because AT 1 receptor regulation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis, the differential effects of estrogen and progesterone on the expression of this gene may in part explain the potentially counteracting effects of these reproductive hormones on the incidence of postmenopausal cardiovascular diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. (genetex.com)
  • These two isoforms are transcribed from distinct estrogen receptor (ER)-inducible promoters within a single copy PR gene. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • Interestingly, expression of progesterone catabolic rate-determining enzyme, 5-α-reductase was upregulated in the DG of Nenf −/− , together with a significant increase in the expression of the δGABA A receptor gene, involved in DG tonic inhibition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Baniahmad A, Ha I, Reinberg D, Tsai MJ, Tsai SY, and O'Malley BW (1993): Interaction of human thyroid hormone receptor β with transcription factor TFIIB may mediate target gene derepression and activation by thyroid hormone. (springer.com)
  • Glass CK, Lipkin SM, Devary OV, and Rosenfeld MG (1989): Positive and negative regulation of gene transcription by a retinoic acid-thyroid hormone receptor heterodimer. (springer.com)
  • K. R. Yamamoto, Steroid receptor regulated transcription of specific genes and gene networks, Ann. (springer.com)
  • The aim was to test if mRNA from tissue surrounding breast cancer affected quantification of estrogen receptor α ( ESR1 ), progesterone receptor ( PGR ) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 ( ERBB2 ), by comparing gene expression from whole slide and tumor-enriched sections, and correlating gene expression from whole slide sections with corresponding immunohistochemistry. (springer.com)
  • RNA expression studies of genes flanking the X-chromosome breakpoint revealed that both patients have reduced expression levels of the gene Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1). (diva-portal.org)
  • A functional promoter polymorphism in the progesterone receptor (PR) gene previously has been associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The single-copy human progesterone receptor (hPR) gene is a member of the steroid-receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors 1 that has separate promoters and translational start sites to produce two isoforms, hPR-A and hPR-B 2 - 4 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the progesterone receptor (PR) gene previously has been described 12 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Progesterone receptors (PR), encoded by a single ER-regulated gene, are primarily valued as indicators of estrogen responsiveness. (asm.org)
  • The progesterone receptor ( PR ), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr202/Tyr204 of human p44 MAP kinase, or with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues surrounding Ser115 or Tyr541 of human progesterone receptor protein, or Tyr416 of human Src protein. (cellsignal.com)
  • Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to residues surrounding Ser190 of human progesterone receptor protein or Ser345 of human progesterone receptor B protein. (cellsignal.com)
  • Its receptor, a protein expressed in tissues such as the uterus, ovary and cervix, binds to the hormone and sends signals that keep pregnant women from going into labor too soon. (eurekalert.org)
  • Describes cells that do not have a protein to which the hormone progesterone will bind. (cancer.gov)
  • Second, progesterone increased PR activity yet blunted Myc mRNA and protein expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As assessed by semiquantitative and real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting, expression of the PR coactivators cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein and steroid receptor coactivators 2 and 3 was decreased in fundal uterine tissue of women in labor. (pnas.org)
  • Western blots revealed that estrogen induced a downregulation and progesterone an upregulation of the AT 1 receptor protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recognizes endogenous levels of Progesterone Receptor (pS294) protein. (genetex.com)
  • Neudesin (Neuron-derived neurotrophic factor, NENF), a membrane-associated progesterone receptor family (MAPR) member, is a neuron secreted protein with neurotrophic properties during embryonic stages. (frontiersin.org)
  • In cellular biology, a receptor is a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell. (odalizer.com)
  • Progesterone receptor (PR) ligand binding induces rapid and transient (5- to 10-min) activation of cytosolic c-Src-Ras-Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling that is independent of PR functioning as transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant Human progesterone receptor protein expressed in E.coli encodes 412-562 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 43 kDa. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The progesterone receptor (PgR) is an estrogen-regulated protein. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Progesterone inhibited oestrogen-mediated growth of ERα(+) cell line xenografts and primary ERα(+) breast tumour explants, and had increased anti-proliferative effects when coupled with an ERα antagonist. (nih.gov)
  • These studies suggest that elephant shark MR is activated by progesterone, which acts as an antagonist of the human MR. Given the abundance of the MR in elephant shark ovaries and testis, these findings suggest that the MR may play an unappreciated role in reproductive physiology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Context is developing Apristor, a first-in-class orally-bioavailable progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist for PR+ breast cancer. (businesswire.com)
  • In our earlier study with progesterone, RU-486 was used as a progesterone receptor antagonist to find out the mechanism of progesterone action on melanoma cells. (scirp.org)
  • In order to determine the mechanism of progesterone action, a bioassay involving co-incubation of progesterone with RU-486, a progesterone receptor antagonist, was carried out. (scirp.org)
  • Nowadays, the exploration on the pharmacotherapies, such as progesterone receptor antagonist (PRA) requires more attention. (portlandpress.com)
  • Progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist aglepristone (RU534) has been used successfully for pregnancy termination and therapy of pyometra, vaginal tumors, and mammary hyperplasia in bitches and queens. (uzh.ch)
  • Here we show that TRPV1 physically interacts with the Sigma 1 Receptor (Sig-1R), a chaperone that binds progesterone, an antagonist of Sig-1R and an important neurosteroid associated to the modulation of pain. (unam.mx)
  • This is observed both in males treated with a synthetic antagonist of Sig-1R and in pregnant females where progesterone levels are elevated. (unam.mx)
  • The receptor status was correlated with tumor type, tumor differentiation and tumor stage. (ovid.com)
  • To examine if higher intake of isoflavones prior to diagnosis was associated with a positive status of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in breast tumor tissue, a retrospective study was conducted in 2004 to 2005 in 756 Chinese women with histologically confirmed breast cancer. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Tumor estrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor status already determined or scheduled to be determined at time of surgery without intervening therapy. (knowcancer.com)
  • Microarray-based readout of ER, PR, and HER2 shows a high concordance with immunohistochemistry/CISH and provides an additional, objective, and quantitative assessment of tumor receptor status in breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, including tissue samples from 773 Danish patients with an ovarian tumor, we evaluated whether estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression correlated with clinico-pathological parameters, and a possible prognostic impact on ovarian cancer (OC) patients was investigated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Høgdall EV, Christensen L, Høgdall CK, Blaakaer J, Gayther S, Jacobs IJ, Christensen IJ and Kjaer SK: Prognostic value of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor tumor expression in Danish ovarian cancer patients: From the 'MALOVA' Ovarian Cancer Study. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Unlike the progesterone receptor (PR), a nuclear receptor which mediates its effects via genomic mechanisms, mPRs are cell surface receptors which rapidly alter cell signaling via modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of mPRγ in lung and liver of mice indicates that the receptor mediates the actions of progesterone outside the reproductive tract as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AT 1 receptor mediates many biological effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), such as vasoconstriction, water and sodium retention, free radical release, and cell growth. (ahajournals.org)
  • PGRMC1 mediates the anti-apoptotic action of progesterone in ovarian cells and it acts as a positive regulator of several cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed reactions. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, progesterone mediates alveolar proliferation during mammary gland development in the mouse ( 39 ), where PR isoforms induce the appropriate expression of potent mitogenic signaling molecules, including Wnts ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Select Progesterone Receptor antibodies from monoclonal antibodies listed below. (scbt.com)
  • The mechanism of inhibition of cell growth was due to apoptosis and this effect of RU-486 was neither mediated through progesterone receptor nor glucocorticoid receptor. (scirp.org)
  • In the ovine brain, GnRH neurons do not contain type II glucocorticoid (GR), progesterone (PR), or α estrogen (ERα) receptors. (bioone.org)
  • In humans, PRA acts as a transdominant repressor of the transcriptional activity of PRB, glucocorticoid receptor, ER, androgen receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor.PRB functions mainly as a transcriptional activator. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • Bamberger CM, Bamberger A-M, DeCastro M, and Chrousos GP (1995): The glucocorticoid receptor beta, a potential endogenous inhibitor of glucocorticoid action in humans. (springer.com)
  • Giguere V, Hollenberg SM, Rosenfeld MG, and Evans RM (1986): Functional domains of the human glucocorticoid receptor. (springer.com)
  • Hollenberg SM and Evans RM (1988): Multiple and cooperative trans-activation domains of the human glucocorticoid receptor. (springer.com)
  • PR-A and -B isoforms are members of a large class of steroid hormone-activated nuclear transcription factors that includes ER, androgen receptors, mineralocorticoid receptors, and glucocorticoid receptors ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is used as a biomarker of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) function and breast cancer prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • Introduction Oestrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) is traditionally measured on all breast tumour specimens to identify those patients more likely to respond to anti-oestrogens. (springer.com)
  • Effects of danazol on incidence of progesterone and oestrogen receptors in benign breast disease. (bmj.com)
  • The number of biopsy specimens that were positive for oestrogen receptors rose transiently from eight out of 31 to 12 out of 30 and then fell to six out of 31. (bmj.com)
  • About your mother, oestrogen is still necessary to induce the progesterone receptors. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • So a high level of oestrogen would stimulate the progesterone receptors, which is obviously what happened to your mother with all the oestrogen she was taking. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • But only oestrogen can cause proliferation, progesterone causes differentiation, ie it stops mitosis. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • Much as when first starting progesterone, this stimulates the oestrogen receptors, causing all those oestrogen dominance symptoms many women get. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offers a broad range of Progesterone Receptor antibodies. (scbt.com)
  • Select appropriate Progesterone Receptor antibodies for your research by isotype, epitope, applications and species reactivity. (scbt.com)
  • Daltoé RD, Madeira KP, de Carvalho AA, de Rezende LC, Silva IV, Rangel LB. Evaluation of the progesterone receptor status in breast cancer using three different antibodies: a comparison by Allred score system. (medicalcriteria.com)
  • Progesterone receptor is expressed as two major isoforms, PR-A (81 kDa) and PR-B (116 kDa). (biotium.com)
  • The human progesterone receptor (PR) is expressed as two isoforms, PRA (94 kD) and PRB (114 kD), which function as ligand-activated transcription factors. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • Studies on the autosomal dominant syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance have shown that affected patients have a mutant allele for one of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, TRβ (Refetoff et al, 1993). (springer.com)
  • Additionally, the natural mutant receptors are able to block the transcriptional activation by both wild-type receptor isoforms (TRα and TRβ), and thus have "dominant negative activity" on this TR function. (springer.com)
  • some hypothesize that a disruption to the ratio of these two isoforms is important in breast cancer etiology because the two isoforms have different responses to their shared ligand, progesterone 15 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After progesterone binds to the receptor, restructuring with dimerization follows and the complex enters the nucleus and binds to DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a steroid receptor which binds progesterone in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competitively binds to the estrogen receptor, producing a nuclear complex that decreases DNA synthesis and inhibits estrogen effects. (medscape.com)
  • Mifepristone also binds to two other receptors within the body, which could have undesirable effects. (esrf.eu)
  • In common with other steroid receptors, the progesterone receptor has a N-terminal regulatory domain, a DNA binding domain , a hinge section, and a C-terminal ligand binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report the 1.8 A crystal structure of a progesterone-bound ligand-binding domain of the human progesterone receptor. (rcsb.org)
  • A hormone-induced stabilization of the carboxy-terminal secondary structure of the ligand-binding domain of the progesterone receptor accounts for the stereochemistry of this distinctive dimer, explains the receptor's characteristic pattern of ligand-dependent protease resistance and its loss of repression, and indicates how the anti-progestin RU486 might work in birth control. (rcsb.org)
  • While it is known that mifepristone exerts its clinical effect by binding to the ligand binding domain of the progesterone receptor, there was no three-dimensional structure of it bound to the receptor. (esrf.eu)
  • Therefore, the aim of this research was to obtain a crystal structure of the mifepristone-progesterone receptor in order to better understand the specificity of the receptors ligand binding domain. (esrf.eu)
  • These studies have extended our knowledge on the structural requirements of the progesterone receptor ligand binding domain. (esrf.eu)
  • Mifepristone (ball and stick representation) viewed within the progesterone receptor ligand binding domain (worms representation). (esrf.eu)
  • The kit uses insect cell-expressed, human progesterone receptor ligand binding domain tagged with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (also available separately) and a novel, high-affinity, fluorescent progesterone ligand (PL Red) in a homogenous, mix-and-read assay format. (creativebiomart.net)
  • An N-terminal fusion of glutathione transferase to the ligand-binding domain of the human progesterone receptor (PR-LBD(GST)) is added to a fluorescently-tagged progesterone ligand (Fluormone PL Red) in the presence of competitor test compounds in microwell plates. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Test results are frequently referred to as the hormone receptor status. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your hormone receptor status shows you have one or both of these receptors on your cancer cells, you may respond well to certain types of treatments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Knowing your hormone receptor status will help your health care provider decide how to treat it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. (abcam.com)
  • Endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancers is a standard treatment that is proven to improve patient outcome. (nature.com)
  • Immunohistochemical assays slowly replaced the ligand-binding assay for hormone receptor determination between the mid-90s and early 2000s. (nature.com)
  • Response to progestin therapy positively correlates with hormone receptor expression, in particular progesterone receptor (PR). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The finding of androgen receptors (AR) as a potential target in breast cancer is especially important in light of its prevalence in breast cancers that don't express other hormone receptor targets or have developed resistance to treatments that target estrogen dependence. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Barettino D, Ruiz MM, Vivanco, and Stunnenberg HG (1994): Characterization of the ligand-dependent transactivation domain of thyroid hormone receptor. (springer.com)
  • A decreased cholesterol synthesis was verified in experiments with both rat and human periovulatory granulosa cells treated with the PR-antagonists Org 31710 or RU 486 by measuring incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol, cholesterol ester, and progesterone. (gu.se)
  • Progesterone antagonists prevent the structural reconfiguration. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, aldosterone receptor antagonists are drugs designed to block aldosterone activation. (odalizer.com)
  • Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status are routinely assessed using immunohistochemistry assays to assist in patient prognosis and clinical management. (nature.com)
  • Receptor status was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and semiquantitative assessment was done by quick score method of endoscopic biopsy specimens. (ovid.com)
  • Breast cancer (BC) hormonal receptors status is assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a specific, sensitive, and accessible method that guide breast cancer treatment. (medicalcriteria.com)
  • Progesterone is necessary to induce the progesterone receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation. (abcam.com)
  • Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone. (abcam.com)
  • Sartorius CA, Melville MY, Hovland AR, Tung L, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB (1994) A third transactivation function (AF3) of human progesterone receptors located in the unique N-terminal segment of the B-isoform. (springer.com)
  • Mulac-Jericevic B, Lydon JP, DeMayo FJ, Conneely OM (2003) Defective mammary gland morphogenesis in mice lacking the progesterone receptor B isoform. (springer.com)
  • A mouse model engineered to conditionally express the progesterone receptor-B isoform. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This first line of analysis demonstrates the utility of the Pgr-B LSL mouse to examine the role of the PGR-B isoform in different physiologic and pathophysiologic systems that are responsive to progesterone. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By selective ablation of PR-A in mice, we show that the PR-B isoform modulates a subset of reproductive functions of progesterone by regulation of a subset of progesterone-responsive target genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using preclinical models, we demonstrated that antiprogestins are inhibitory when the level of progesterone receptor isoform A (PR-A) is higher than that of isoform B (PR-B) and that they might stimulate growth when PR-B is predominant. (ovid.com)
  • Estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) tests are used to help guide breast cancer treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ER/PR tests look for receptors that attach to the hormones estrogen and progesterone in a sample of breast cancer tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About 70 percent of all breast cancers in women have receptors that attach to estrogen and/or progesterone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About 80 percent to 90 percent of breast cancers in men have these receptors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ER/PR tests will show whether there are ER and/or PR receptors on your breast cancer cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An expert panel was convened to consider new evidence that might prompt changes to clinical practices that were established with the 2010 Guideline Recommendations for Immunohistochemical (IHC) Testing of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors (ER/PgR) in Breast Cancer. (cap.org)
  • Expected for release later this year, the 2019 "Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Testing in Breast Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology / College of American Pathologists Clinical Practice Guideline Update" will include reaffirmations and updated recommendations. (cap.org)
  • This is a merged variable created using the variables CS Site-Specific Factor 2 (breast) and Progesterone Receptor Summary and is the summary of results of the progesterone receptor (PR) assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Corrigendum: Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Breast cancer: Untangling the role of progesterone receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of binding at different time points and treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with progesterone. (nih.gov)
  • Arpino G, Weiss H, Lee AV, Schiff R, De Placido S, Osbourne CK, Elledge R (2005) Estrogen receptor-positive, Progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer: association with growth factor receptor expression and tamoxifen resistance. (springer.com)
  • Hopp TA, Weiss HL, Hilsenbeck SG, Cui Y, Allred DC, Horwitz KB, Fuqua SA (2004) Breast cancer patients with progesterone receptor PR-A-rich tumors have poorer disease-free survival rates. (springer.com)
  • We looked at three immunohistochemical progesterone receptor assays, in addition to original ligand-binding assay results, in a single retrospective, tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cohort to investigate inter- and intra-observer agreement, concordance, prognostic ability and measures of test performance. (nature.com)
  • the role of progesterone receptor is not clearly established according to ASCO/CAP guidelines 4 despite many groups showing the prognostic and predictive value of progesterone receptor as a breast cancer biomarker. (nature.com)
  • Results from a continuing clinical trial in benign breast disease indicate that danazol may induce progesterone receptors and that this effect persists after treatment. (bmj.com)
  • I realize that breast cancer is stimulated by estrogen, but have been unable to find any information on the role of the progesterone receptor in breast cancer tissue and was hoping that you could give me some information. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • The finding of androgen receptors (AR) as a potential target in breast. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This is a continuing line of work with all evidence pointing toward the addition of the androgen receptor as potential target and useful marker in all of the major subtypes of breast cancer," says Jennifer Richer, PhD, investigator at the University of Colorado Cancer Center and co-director of the CU Cancer Center Tissue Processing and Procurement Core. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Overall, approximately 77 percent of breast cancers are positive for AR, including 88 percent of cancers that are estrogen receptor positive, 59 percent of those that are HER2 positive, and 20-32 percent of triple negative breast cancers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Evaluations of epidemiologic risk factors in relation to breast cancer classified jointly by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status have been inconsistent. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To address this issue, we conducted a prospective evaluation of risk factors for breast cancer classified according to receptor status. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We have used human breast cancer cells in long term culture as an in vitro model to study the roles of estradiol and the antiestrogens, tamoxifen and nafoxidine, on cell growth and progesterone receptor (PgR) induction. (nih.gov)
  • PHILADELPHIA--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Context Therapeutics, a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the treatment of hormone driven cancers, today announces it has signed multiple research collaborations to further understand the role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling and its blockade to overcome resistance mechanisms underlying metastatic breast cancer (mBCa). (businesswire.com)
  • These collaborations are with key leaders in the progesterone and breast cancer fields and include Dr. Carol Lange, PhD at University of Minnesota and Dr. Suzanne Fuqua, PhD at Baylor College of Medicine, both of whom also serve as Scientific Advisory Board members at Context. (businesswire.com)
  • Progesterone, a major mitogen in the adult human mammary epithelium, is also a key driver of breast cancer cell proliferation. (businesswire.com)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Context's lead program is Apristor (onapristone extended release), an investigational Phase 2 drug that is being developed for progesterone receptor positive (PR+) metastatic breast cancers. (biospace.com)
  • In addition, some studies have found stronger positive associations of oral contraceptive use with estrogen receptor-negative (ER − ) than with ER-positive (ER + ) breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We carried out the first assessment of the effect of oral contraceptive use on the incidence of breast cancer classified by receptor status among African American women, a group disproportionately affected by ER − cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Some studies have found stronger associations of oral contraceptive use with estrogen receptor-negative (ER − ) breast cancer than with ER-positive (ER + ) cancer ( 7 , 11 - 14 ), but others have found little or no difference ( 4 , 15 - 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In view of the possibility that oral contraceptive use may more strongly influence the risk of ER − tumors than ER + tumors and the fact that African American women are more often diagnosed with ER − tumors than white women ( 25 ), we assessed the influence of oral contraceptive use on breast cancer risk in African American women according to receptor status. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fuqua SA, Fitzgerald SD, Alfred DC, Elledge RM, Nawaz Z, Mc Donnell DP, O'Malley BW, and Mc Guire WL (1992): Inhibition of estrogen receptor action by a naturally occurring variant in human breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • There is few data on the association between dietary fiber intake and estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-defined breast cancer risk. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The level of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 aids in the determination of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This finding adds to the evidence that the progesterone receptor has an important etiologic role in breast cancer and should be evaluated in future studies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the normal developing breast, progesterone is required for ductal branching and alveolar development of the mammary gland and these effects are mediated through binding to the PR 10 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Results from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials have consistently reported that postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use increases the risk of breast cancer 16 , 17 , especially with use of combined estrogen plus progesterone formulations versus use of unopposed estrogens 18 , 19 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer (unabridged version). (medicalcriteria.com)
  • Estrogen receptor (ER) studies dominate the field of hormone-responsive breast cancer research, in part due to the clinical successes of the antiestrogen tamoxifen and, more recently, aromatase inhibitors ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently, progesterone exposure during hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been recognized as an important breast cancer risk factor, with publication of numerous clinical studies ( 66 ), including the Women's Health Initiative ( 55 ) and the 2003 Million Women Study ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Although expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and cell proliferation marker Ki67 serve as predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancers, little is known about their roles in normal breast tissue. (harvard.edu)
  • The progesterone receptor (PR) is a progestin-activated steroid receptor with two subtypes known to date (A and B). It plays a central role in diverse reproductive events associated with establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, alveolar development in the breast and sexual behavior. (axonmedchem.com)
  • It has been proposed that expression of PgR determination indicates a responsive estrogen receptor (ER) pathway, and therefore, may predict likely response to endocrine therapy in human breast cancer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Another interesting point in the following paper, shows that tamoxifen induces progesterone receptor expression for up to 6 weeks after commencing therapy. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • Progesterone receptor status determines eligibility for hormonal therapies (such as tamoxifen). (genoptix.com)
  • Cancers that have one or both types of these receptors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To confirm that estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors are present in human lung cancers, 19 resected lung cancers were examined for receptors using a prelabeled sucrose gradient method. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Eighteen of 79 colorectal cancers contained estradiol receptor, while 34 specimens were positive for progesterone receptor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The positivity of at least one receptor in colorectal cancers is higher in the female sex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Evidence presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2013 adds a fourth: androgen receptors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The results of numerous studies on oral mucosa have confirmed the effects of sex hormones on oral mucosa and the expression of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen receptors. (magiran.com)
  • 1 , 2 , 3 Currently, both estrogen receptor and progesterone receptors are routinely analyzed using immunohistochemical techniques on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens to determine patient prognosis and management. (nature.com)
  • In women given danazol the number of biopsy specimens that were positive for progesterone receptors rose from 14 out of 31 before treatment to 23 out of 30 at the end of six months' treatment and remained raised at 21 out of 31 six months later. (bmj.com)
  • This thesis focuses on progesterone receptor (PR)-mediated regulation of granulosa cell apoptosis during the final phase of follicular development, the periovulatory interval. (gu.se)
  • In mammals, the mPRα has been implied in progesterone regulation of uterine functions in humans and GnRH secretion in rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functionality of the progesterone receptor in ovarian cancer and its regulation by estrogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This research identified an unprecedented functional interaction of three membrane proteisn to accelerate cilia beating in response to progesterone: two types of receptors for a neurotransmitter typically associated to brain function (GABA) and an ion channel (TRPV4) with a prominent role in the regulation of ciliated epithelia. (prbb.org)
  • Antagonism of Sig-1R by progesterone results in the down-regulation of TRPV1 expression in the plasma membrane of sensory neurons and, consequently, a decrease in capsaicin-induced nociceptive responses. (unam.mx)
  • Selective ablation of PR-A in a mouse model, resulting in exclusive production of PR-B, unexpectedly revealed that PR-B contributes to, rather than inhibits, epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, in humans, the peak of mammary epithelial cell proliferation and the appearance of mitotic figures coincide with high progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle ( 49 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • These reports underscore the practical and immediate demand for an increased understanding of the cellular response to progesterone, with clear demarcation of PR-dependent effects on signaling pathways known to be important in cell proliferation and survival. (asm.org)
  • Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are a group of cell surface receptors and membrane steroid receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family which bind the endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid progesterone, as well as the neurosteroid allopregnanolone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure also indicates that the analogous 3-keto-steroid receptors may have a similar mechanism of action. (rcsb.org)
  • Schering-Plough used the ESRF MXpress service for data collection on crystals of the progesterone-receptor binding domain with bound ligands. (esrf.eu)
  • We have shown previously that low doses of selective sigma (sigma)- receptor ligands potentiate the excitatory response of pyramidal neurons to NMDA in the CA3 region of the dorsal hippocampus in the rat. (jneurosci.org)
  • Progesterone had no effect by itself but reversed, at low doses, the potentiation of the NMDA response induced by DHEA as well as those induced by nonsteroidal sigma ligands. (jneurosci.org)
  • While some receptors will accept multiple ligands, active specific outcomes are usually limited to the exact matching ligand. (odalizer.com)
  • In other words, while multiple ligands may couple and lodge with the receptor, action will only be initiated with one ligand receptor. (odalizer.com)
  • The expression is a term we use to describe the ultimate effector responses after receptors are coupled with their respective ligands. (odalizer.com)
  • Ligands can be called agonists when they induce the desired post-receptor events. (odalizer.com)
  • The Progesterone Receptor Competitor Assay Kit, Red, provides a sensitive and efficient method for high-throughput, fluorescence polarization-based screening of potential progesterone receptor (PR) ligands. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Here, we sought to obtain evidence that the progesterone receptor (PR) may be functional in ovarian cancer and regulated by estrogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Family members include: The general functions of these subtypes of mPR are: being steroid membrane receptors and binding progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of a membrane located progesterone receptor (mPR) unrelated to the classical progesterone receptor (PR) in fish ovaries and its subsequent identification in mammal tissues suggests that mPRs could be a potential mediator of non-traditional progesterone actions, particularly in tissues where PR is absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors usually span the cell membrane. (odalizer.com)
  • Alterations in the expression, structure and function of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) in premature ovarian failure. (diva-portal.org)
  • This research identified an unprecedented functional interaction of three membrane proteins to accelerate cilia beating in response to progesterone. (prbb.org)
  • Beside other enzymes involved in sphingolipid synthesis, intermembrane transfer of ceramide, and putative redox partners of FA2H, progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 were identified as putative interaction partners. (biochemj.org)
  • Noteworthy, Org OD-2 ( Axon 2085 ) is a selective agonist of the membrane bound progesterone receptor ( mPR ). (axonmedchem.com)
  • Membrane progesterone receptors: evidence for neuroprotective, neurosteroid signaling and neuroendocrine functions in neuronal cells. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Receptors are proteins that attach to certain substances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Edwards DP, Wardell SE, Boonyaratanakornkit V (2002) Progesterone receptor interacting coregulatory proteins and cross talk with cell signaling pathways. (springer.com)
  • Halachmi S, Marden E, Martin G, Mac Kay H, Abbondanze C, and Brown M (1994): Estrogen receptor-associated proteins: Possible mediators of hormone-induced transcription. (springer.com)
  • The assembly of progesterone receptor (PR) heterocomplexes in vitro involves at least eight components of the molecular chaperone machinery, and as earlier reports have shown, these proteins exhibit complex, dynamic, but ordered, interactions with one another and PR. (asm.org)
  • Basal phosphorylation on Ser-81, Ser-162, Ser-190 and Ser-400 is increased in response to progesterone and can be phosphorylated in vitro by the CDK2-A1 complex. (abcam.com)
  • Progesterone-receptor (PR) stimulation promotes survival in rat and human periovulatory granulosa cells. (gu.se)
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH, surrounding internal sequence amino acids 188-192 (G-L-S-P-A) of Human Progesterone Receptor (NP_000917.3). (abcam.com)
  • Vegeto E, Shahbaz MM, Wen DX, Goldman ME, O'Malley BW, McDonnell DP (1993) Human progesterone receptor A form is a cell- and promoter-specific repressor of human progesterone receptor B function. (springer.com)
  • Human progesterone receptor (PR) is expressed as two forms: the full length PR-B and the short form PR-A. PR-A lacks the first 164 amino acid residues of PR-B (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Misrahi M, Atger M, d'Auriol L, Loosfelt H, Meriel C, Fridlansky F, Guiochon-Mantel A, Galibert F and Milgrom E (1987) Complete amino acid sequence of the human progesterone receptor deduced from cloned cDNA. (nursa.org)
  • In addition, co-incubation of progesterone with RU-486 showed an additive effect on the inhibition of mouse as well as human melanoma cell growth, suggesting that the mechanism of actions of the two hormones might be different. (scirp.org)
  • KLH-conjugated synthetic peptide encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Progesterone Receptor. (genetex.com)
  • Synthetic peptide to C-terminal tail of human progesterone receptor (PR). (genetex.com)
  • Ince BA, Zhuang Y, Wrenn CK, Shapiro DJ, and Katzenellenbogen BS (1993): Powerful dominant negative mutants of the human estrogen receptor. (springer.com)
  • B. Manz, H.-J. Griull, I. Kohler, A. Heubner, and K. Pollow, Synthesis of a new disulfide affinity adsorbent for purification of human uterine progesterone receptor, Eur. (springer.com)
  • S. D. Holmes and R. C. Smith, Ion exchange, chromatofocusing and size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography of the human uterine progesterone receptor, J. Steroid Biochem. (springer.com)
  • Cancer cells that are progesterone receptor negative do not need progesterone to grow, and usually do not stop growing when treated with hormones that block progesterone from binding. (cancer.gov)
  • There are literally thousands of receptors in the body, including those specific to hormones like insulin, and for substrates like low-density lipoproteins (LDL). (odalizer.com)
  • This biochemical journey originates in the brain which converts senses received by smell, sight, or noise into chemicals called hormones that travel through the bloodstream to target receptors. (odalizer.com)
  • Once at the doorstep of the target organ the target receptor function acts as a gatekeeper and dictates how hormones outside the cells are converted into biochemcial signals inside the cell for a call to action. (odalizer.com)
  • Steroidal hormones like estrogen and progesterone side effects are good examples. (odalizer.com)
  • Estrogen and progesterone are important hormones secreted by the ovary acting through specific receptors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • What remained unclear was the mechanism of action and if estrogen receptor α (ERα), the principle inducer of PR, is necessary to restore functional expression of PR via molecularly enhanced progestin therapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These findings suggest that the decline in PR coactivator expression and in histone acetylation in the uterus near term may impair PR function by causing a functional progesterone withdrawal. (pnas.org)
  • Methods and Results -17β-Estradiol caused downregulation of AT 1 receptor mRNA expression to 46±14%, whereas progesterone led to a significant upregulation to 201±29%, as assessed by Northern analysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Estrogen-induced decrease of AT 1 receptor expression was mediated through activation of estrogen receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Estrogen-alpha and progesterone receptor expression in cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in the bitch. (ugent.be)
  • De Bosschere H, Ducatelle R, Vermeirsch H, Simoens P, Coryn M. Estrogen-alpha and progesterone receptor expression in cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in the bitch. (ugent.be)
  • The nature of this structure explains the receptor's selective affinity for progestins and establishes a common mode of recognition of 3-oxy steroids by the cognate receptors. (rcsb.org)
  • Binding affinity towards progesterone receptor (PR) by displacing [3H]progesterone. (nih.gov)
  • R. W. Kuhn, W. T. Schrader, R. G. Smith, and B. W. O'Malley, Progesterone binding components of chick oviduct: X. Purification by affinity chromatography, J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • Thus, PR-A and PR-B are functionally distinct mediators of progesterone action in vivo and should provide suitable targets for generation of tissue-selective progestins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Carcinogenic properties of ulipristal acetate (UPA), a selective progesterone receptor modulator developed for the treatment of benign gynecological conditions such as uterine fibroids, were assessed in a 26-week carcinogenicity study in transgenic TgRasH2 mice and a 104-week study in Sprague Dawley rats. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Oliver Pohl, Philip W. Harvey, Sean McKeag, Scott E. Boley and Jean-Pierre Gotteland, "Carcinogenicity and Chronic Rodent Toxicity of the Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator Ulipristal Acetate", Current Drug Safety (2013) 8: 77. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The physiological effects of progestins are mediated by the progesterone receptor, a member of the steroid/nuclear receptor superfamily. (rcsb.org)
  • The progesterone receptor (PR) is a progestin-activated steroid receptor member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. (nursa.org)
  • The cellular actions of P are mediated by the progesterone receptor (PR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors ( Li and O'Malley, 2003 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • PR negativity may be a marker for increased signalling through growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase pathways. (springer.com)
  • Preincubation of VSMCs with PD98059, SB203580, herbimycin, wortmannin, or N ω -nitro- l -arginine suggested that 17β-estradiol caused AT 1 receptor downregulation through nitric oxide-dependent pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • A study of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status and content in 43 patients with histologically proven primary epithelial ovarian tumours was undertaken. (nih.gov)
  • In 3 benign, 4 borderline and 14 malignant serous ovarian tumours no statistically significant difference was found in steroid receptor content and status. (nih.gov)
  • Progesterone plays a key role in ovarian cycle-related synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, the missense mutation attenuates PGRMC1's ability to mediate the anti-apoptotic action of progesterone in ovarian cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) belong to the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a nuclear receptor and part of a large and diverse family of transcription factors that also includes receptors for glucocorticoids, progesterone, androgens, and estrogens. (sciencemag.org)
  • The third class of nuclear receptors (Nuclear, Class 3, Estrogen Receptor-like) includes estrogen and estrogen-related receptors ( ER ), as well as the 3-ketosteroid receptors (progesterone ( PR ), androgen ( AR ), gluco- and mineralocorticoid ( GR and MR, respectively) receptors). (axonmedchem.com)
  • Nuclear run-on assays revealed that 17β-estradiol did not alter AT 1 receptor mRNA transcription rate, whereas progesterone caused an enhanced AT 1 receptor mRNA transcription rate. (ahajournals.org)
  • 17β-Estradiol decreased the AT 1 receptor mRNA half-life from 5 to 2 hours, whereas progesterone induced a stabilization of AT 1 receptor mRNA to a half-life of 10 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • Evidence for a single steroid-binding subunit and characterization of receptor mRNA, J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • Progesterone receptors in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Progesterone could display a number of potential adverse effects on the cardiovascular system that might overcome the beneficial influence of estrogens. (ahajournals.org)
  • No statistically significant results were seen in multivariate models, although a strong trend was seen with the Ventana progesterone receptor assay. (nature.com)
  • LS-F37693 is a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Quantitative detection of Rat PR / Progesterone Receptor in samples of Plasma and Serum. (lsbio.com)
  • It is based upon a Sandwich CLIA assay principle and can be used to detect levels of PR / Progesterone Receptor as low as 37.5 picograms per milliliter. (lsbio.com)
  • Contact us for bulk quantities or for assistance with other nuclear receptor assay needs, from assay development to library screening and beyond. (creativebiomart.net)
  • PR/progestin upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Wnt-1. (asm.org)
  • Inhibit estrogen effects by competitively binding to the estrogen receptor. (medscape.com)
  • Biochemicals that inhibit Progesterone Receptor have many applications in biochemical and physiological research. (scbt.com)
  • At this juncture, it is worth mentioning that our in-vitro study on melanoma cells with progesterone [5] , revealed RU-486 ability to inhibit melanoma cell growth. (scirp.org)
  • Click on the product name to view detailed information such as the chemical structure and specific chemical properties for each of our Progesterone Receptor Inhibitors. (scbt.com)
  • In stock Progesterone Receptor Inhibitors are available for immediate shipping. (scbt.com)