Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pituitary Hormone Release Inhibiting Hormones: Polypeptide hormones produced in the hypothalamus which inhibit the release of pituitary hormones. Used for PHRIH in general or for which there is no specific heading.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Adenoma, Basophil: A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Septo-Optic Dysplasia: A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Craniopharyngioma: A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Adenoma, Acidophil: A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)Central Nervous System Cysts: Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Receptors, Prolactin: Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Somatotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Pituitary Irradiation: Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pituitary Gland, Intermediate: The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type IHormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Corticotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Lactotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyCushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Thyrotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Thyrotropin, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.beta-Lipotropin: A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 184.108.40.206.
Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist. (1/206)1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis. (+info)
alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages. (2/206)The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial. (+info)
Regulation of basal expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme genes by PACAP. (3/206)We have previously reported that the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is important in the gene regulation of both induction and basal expressions of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to activate the intracellular cAMP/PKA pathway. In the present study, using primary cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells, we determined whether the basal activity of the PACAP receptor might play a role in the maintenance of the basal expression of these enzyme genes via the cAMP/PKA pathway. The potent PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP (6-38) caused a reduction of TH and DBH mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner as well as their enzyme activities and TH protein level. The effects of PACAP (6-38) and the PKA inhibitor H-89 exhibited generally similar trends, and were not additive in the reduction of TH and DBH gene expression and activities, suggesting that they take a common intracellular signaling pathway. The antagonist also caused decreases in the intracellular norepinephrine and epinephrine levels similar to the effect of H-89. Taken together, the data suggests that PACAP is involved in the regulation of maintenance of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes TH and DBH by utilizing the cAMP/PKA pathway. (+info)
Enhanced expression of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) in normal human keratinocytes during differentiation: evidence for increased expression of POMC peptides near suprabasal layer of epidermis. (4/206)Immunohistochemical staining of human skin specimen showed the stronger localization of proopiomelanocortin peptides near the suprabasal layer of the epidermis, where keratinocytes are mostly differentiated. To test the possibilities of whether the production of proopiomelanocortin peptides or their receptor-binding activity or both is increased during differentiation of keratinocytes, we treated the cells in culture with Ca2+ to induce their differentiation. The production of proopiomelanocortin peptides and its gene expression were not induced significantly, but the binding ability of melanocortin receptor, as well as its gene expression were stimulated by Ca2+. Ultraviolet B irradiation, an inducer of differentiation, stimulated both proopiomelanocortin production and melanocortin receptor expression. These data show that normal human keratinocytes express melanocortin receptor similar to melanocytes, and that it is induced during differentiation. (+info)
Expression, pharmacological, and functional evidence for PACAP/VIP receptors in human lung. (5/206)Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) type 1 (PAC(1)) and common PACAP/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) type 1 and 2 (VPAC(1) and VPAC(2), respectively) receptors were detected in the human lung by RT-PCR. The proteins were identified by immunoblotting at 72, 67, and 68 kDa, respectively. One class of PACAP receptors was defined from (125)I-labeled PACAP-27 binding experiments (dissociation constant = 5.2 nM; maximum binding capacity = 5.2 pmol/mg protein) with a specificity: PACAP-27 approximately VIP > helodermin approximately peptide histidine-methionine (PHM) >> secretin. Two classes of VIP receptors were established with (125)I-VIP (dissociation constants of 5.4 and 197 nM) with a specificity: VIP approximately helodermin approximately PACAP-27 >> PHM >> secretin. PACAP-27 and VIP were equipotent on adenylyl cyclase stimulation (EC(50) = 1.6 nM), whereas other peptides showed lower potency (helodermin > PHM >> secretin). PACAP/VIP antagonists supported that PACAP-27 acts in the human lung through either specific receptors or common PACAP/VIP receptors. The present results are the first demonstration of the presence of PAC(1) receptors and extend our knowledge of common PACAP/VIP receptors in the human lung. (+info)
High-voltage-activated calcium current and its modulation by dopamine D4 and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptors in cerebellar granule cells. (6/206)Cerebellar granule cells were a good mold for electrophysiologic studies at the single neuron level. Two distinct types of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels were present in cerebellar granule cells. These calcium channels change their expression, gating, and pharmacological properties during development, suggesting that calcium channel must be related to the processes of granule cell maturation and excitability. Dopamine inhibited L-type calcium current by activating D4 receptor, and this effect might involve another signaling system with the exception of cAMP system. The functional D4 receptor discovered in cerebellum not only gave a possibility to find other antipsychotics, but also supported the existence of a dopaminergic system in the granule cell involving the D4 receptor. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) could increase intracellular Ca2+ content by activation of Ca2+ channel and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores. The effects were also cAMP-independent. Activating Ca2+ currents might be an important and necessary role of PACAP as a neurotropic factor involved in the control of multiplication, differentiation, and migration of granule cells. (+info)
Functional characterization of structural alterations in the sequence of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan yields a pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide type 1 receptor-specific antagonist. (7/206)Maxadilan is a vasodilatory peptide derived from sand flies that is an agonist at the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor. Surprisingly, maxadilan does not share significant sequence homology with PACAP. To examine the relationship between structure and activity of maxadilan, several amino acid substitutions and deletions were made in the peptide. These peptides were examined in vitro for binding to crude membranes derived from rabbit brain, a tissue that expresses PACAP type 1 receptors; and induction of cAMP was determined in PC12 cells, a line that expresses these receptors. The peptides were examined in vivo for their ability to induce erythema in rabbit skin. Substitution of the individual cysteines at positions 1 and 5 or deletion of this ring structure had little effect on activity. Substitution of either cysteine at position 14 or 51 eliminated activity. Deletion of the 19 amino acids between positions 24 and 42 resulted in a peptide with binding, but no functional activity. The capacity of this deletion mutant to interact with COS cells transfected with the PACAP type 1 receptor revealed that this peptide was a specific antagonist to the PACAP type 1 receptor. (+info)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides directly stimulate sympathetic neuron neuropeptide Y release through PAC(1) receptor isoform activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. (8/206)Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAP) have potent regulatory and neurotrophic activities on superior cervical ganglion (SCG) sympathetic neurons with pharmacological profiles consistent for the PACAP-selective PAC(1) receptor. Multiple PAC(1) receptor isoforms are suggested to determine differential peptide potency and receptor coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways. The current studies examined rat SCG PAC(1) receptor splice variant expression and coupling to intracellular signaling pathways mediating PACAP-stimulated peptide release. PAC(1) receptor mRNA was localized in over 90% of SCG neurons, which correlated with the cells expressing receptor protein. The neurons expressed the PAC(1)(short)HOP1 receptor but not VIP/PACAP-nonselective VPAC(1) receptors; low VPAC(2) receptor mRNA levels were restricted to ganglionic nonneuronal cells. PACAP27 and PACAP38 potently and efficaciously stimulated both cAMP and inositol phosphate production; inhibition of phospholipase C augmented PACAP-stimulated cAMP production, but inhibition of adenylyl cyclase did not alter stimulated inositol phosphate production. Phospholipase C inhibition blunted neuron peptide release, suggesting that the phosphatidylinositol pathway was a prominent component of the secretory response. These studies demonstrate preferential sympathetic neuron expression of PACAP-selective receptor variants contributing to regulation of autonomic function. (+info)
Photoaffinity labeling analysis of the interaction of pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) with the PACAP...
Photoaffinity labeling analysis of the interaction of pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) with the PACAP type I receptor -- Cao et al. 244 (2): 400 -- FEBS Journal: YJ Cao, E Kojro, G Gimpl, M Jasionowski, F Kasprzykowski, L Lankiewicz and F Fahrenholz Max-Planck-Institut fur Biophysik, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. To identify residues and domains of…
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor | Cell Sciences
Secondary conformational conversion is involved in glycosaminoglycans-mediated cellular uptake of the cationic cell-penetrating...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) contribute to the cellular uptake of cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). However, molecular details about the contributions of GAGs in CPP internalization remain unclear. In this study, we examined the cellular uptake mechanism of the arginine-rich CPP pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). We observed that the uptake efficacy of PACAP is dependent on the expression of cell surface GAGs. As the binding of PACAP to sulfated GAGs induced a random coil-to-α-helix conformational conversion, we investigated the role of the helical formation in PACAP internalization. Whereas this secondary structure was not crucial for efficient internalization in GAGs-deficient cells, PACAP α-helix was essential for GAGs-dependent uptake.. ...
anti-MCH-1R antibody [C3], C-term | GeneTex
PACAP (1-38), Human, Ovine, Rat - CCP1370-10mg | acris-antibodies.com
PACAP (1-38), Human, Ovine, Rat - CCP1370-5mg | acris-antibodies.com
Pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP): another novel target for treatment of primary headaches? |...
Zurück zum Zitat Miyata A, Jiang L, Dahl RD et al (1990) Isolation of a neuropeptide corresponding to the N-terminal 27 residues of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide with 38 residues (PACAP38). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 170:643-648 CrossRefPubMed Miyata A, Jiang L, Dahl RD et al (1990) Isolation of a neuropeptide corresponding to the N-terminal 27 residues of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide with 38 residues (PACAP38). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 170:643-648 CrossRefPubMed ...
Cellular models for the study of the pharmacology and signaling of melanin-concentrating hormone receptors - edoc
Cellular models for the study of the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) have become indispensable tools for pharmacological profiling and signaling analysis of MCH and its synthetic analogues. Although expression of MCH receptors is most abundant in the brain, MCH-R(1) is also found in different peripheral tissues. Therefore, not only cell lines derived from nervous tissue but also from peripheral tissues that naturally express MCH receptors have been used to study receptor signaling and regulation. For screening of novel compounds, however, heterologous expression of MCH-R(1) or MCH-R(2) genes in HEK293, Chinese hamster ovary, COS-7, or 3T3-L1 cells, or amplified MCH-R(1) expression/signaling in IRM23 cells transfected with the G(q) protein gene are the preferred tools because of more distinct pharmacological effects induced by MCH, which include inhibition of cAMP formation, stimulation of inositol triphosphate production, increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) and/or activation ...
Melanin-concentrating Hormone Receptors
A fresh marine sediment certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7306-a, for butyltin and phenyltin analysis has been prepared and certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). of analytes in sample preparations. Tropolone was used as chelating agent in all the extraction methods. Certified values are given for TBT 443?g kg?1 as Sn, DBT 51 2?g kg?1 as Sn, MBT 67 625115-55-1 manufacture 3?g kg?1 as Sn, TPhT 6.9 1.2?g kg?1 as Sn, and DPhT 3.4 1.2?g kg?1 as Sn. These levels are less than in additional sediment CRMs designed for analysis of organotin chemical substances currently. option of NaBEt4 was ready inside a glove package that was purged with N2 gas. Additional chemicals used had been of analytical reagent quality. Pure water made by usage of a Milli-Q water-purification program (resistivity 18?M cm, Nihon Millipore Kogyo, Tokyo, Japan) was used through the entire experiments. Synthesis from the ...
One of the first studies to show convincing proof of agonist-specific states was transfection studies using the type-1 pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor. The agonists (PACAP-27 and -38) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) with equal potencies, but only PACAP-38 could invoke the inositol phosphate response through phospholipase C (PLC) (Spengler et al., 1993). In subsequent work, the authors document the existence of a new splice variant of the PACAP receptor that was characterized by a 21-amino acid deletion in the N-terminal extracellular domain. They demonstrated that this domain modulates the receptor selectivity with respect to PACAP-27 and -38 binding and controls the relative potencies of the two agonists in phospholipase C stimulation (Pantaloni et al., 1996).. One of the first examples of agonist-specific states from mutational analysis was a Cys to Phe mutation in TM3 of the α1b-AR, a helix-turn below the critical Asp 125 involved in binding the ...
21 April 2017:. A new paper from CNBP researchers (lead author Wenjie Chen pictured) reports on the design of a new light-triggerable liposome. The work has just been published in the journal Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acid and is accessible online.. Journal: Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acid.. Title: Light-triggerable liposomes for enhanced endo/lysosomal escape and gene silencing in PC12 cells.. Authors: Wenjie Chen, Wei Deng, Ewa M. Goldys.. Abstract: Liposomes are an effective gene/drug delivery system, widely used in biomedical applications including gene therapy and chemotherapy. Here we designed a photo-responsive liposome (lipVP) loaded with a photosensitizer verteporfin (VP). This photosensitizer is clinically approved for photodynamic therapy (PDT). LipVP was employed as a DNA carrier for pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (PAC1R) gene knockdown in PC12 cells. This has been done by incorporating PAC1R antisense oligonucleotides inside the lipVP cavity. ...
Melanokortinski 1 receptor - Wikipedia
Melanokortin 1 receptor (MC1R), takođe poznat kao melanocit-stimulišući hormon receptor (MSHR), melanin-aktivirajući peptidni receptor, ili melanotropin receptor, jeste G protein-spregnuti receptor koji vezuje klasu pituitarni peptidnih hormona koji su poznati kao melanokortini. U ovu grupu hormona se ubrajaju adrenokortikotropski hormon (ACTH) i različite forme melanocit-stimulišućih hormona (MSH). MC1R je jedan od ključnih proteina koji učestvuju u regulaciji sisarske boje kože i kose. On je lociran na membrani plazme specijalizovanih ćelija koje se zovu melanociti. Te ćelije proizvode pigment melanin procesom melanogeneze. Ovaj receptor kontroliše tip proizvedenog melanina. Aktivacija ovog receptor uzrokuje da melanociti pređu sa generisanja žutog ili crvenog feomelanina na smeđi ili crni eumelanin.. ...
Come cells may end up being handy magic size systems for medication finding and modelling human being illnesses while very well while to investigate cellular relationships and molecular occasions in the early phases of advancement. In basic principle, inbuilt elements such as cell features and extrinsic components launched by developing of come cells can result in growth development and immunological reactions after come cell transplantation. Restorative study displays there are many natural queries concerning security problems of come cell medical applications. Come cell therapy is definitely a quickly improving field that requires to concentrate even more on getting a extensive technology for evaluating risk. A range of risk elements (from inbuilt to extrinsic) should end up being regarded for secure scientific control cell therapies. farming of control cells which enhances the tumorigenicity risk (23,24). The primary factors behind the high risk for growth advancement by control cell therapy ...
anti-PACAP receptor antibody | GeneTex
Anti-VPAC2 (VIPR2) (extracellular) Antibody | AVR-002 | Alomone Labs
Anti-VPAC2 (VIPR2) (ext.) Antibody from Alomone Labs is a highly specific rabbit polyclonal Ab directed against the human protein. Applications: ICC, IFC, LCI, WB. Free samples available. Control antigen included. Lyophilized. Global shipping at room temperature. Your top supplier for VIP and PACAP receptor research!
MCHR1 knockout cell line
Changes of dopamine content and cell proliferation by dexamethsone via pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes of dopamine content and cell proliferation by dexamethsone via pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in PC12 cell. AU - Yang, Ting Ting. AU - Tsao, Chiung Wen. AU - Li, Jin Shiou. AU - Wu, Hung Tsung. AU - Hsu, Chao Tien. AU - Cheng, Juei Tang. PY - 2007/10/9. Y1 - 2007/10/9. N2 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide observed in adrenal gland and sympathetic ganglia to regulate catecholamine synthesis and release. Both PACAP and glucocorticoid showed the activity to elevate catecholamine level through the stimulation of biosynthesis. However, the relationship of glucocorticoid and PACAP for this action is still unclear. Thus, alterations of gene expression, dopamine (DA) content, and cell proliferation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells are employed as indicators to clarify this relationship in the present study. From the analysis of RT-PCR, the mRNA level of PACAP was observed to be raised by dexamethasone ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide produces a phase shift associated with induction of mPer expression in the...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide produces a phase shift associated with induction of mPer expression in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. AU - Minami, Y.. AU - Furuno, K.. AU - Akiyama, M.. AU - Moriya, T.. AU - Shibata, S.. PY - 2002/8/2. Y1 - 2002/8/2. N2 - The main mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Clock genes such as the mouse Period gene (mPer) play a role in this core clock mechanism in the mouse. With brief light exposure during the subjective night, the photic information, which is conveyed directly to the suprachiasmatic nucleus via the retinohypothalamic tract, results in mPer1 and mPer2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are co-stored in the retinohypothalamic tract. Recent studies have suggested that not only glutamate but also PACAP are key players in the phase shift that occurs during subject night; however, ...
The effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on elevated plus maze behavior and hypothermia induced by...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on elevated plus maze behavior and hypothermia induced by morphine withdrawal. AU - Lipták, Nándor. AU - Dochnal, Roberta. AU - Babits, Anikó. AU - Csabafi, Krisztina. AU - Szakács, Júlia. AU - Tóth, Gábor. AU - Szabó, Gyula. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on morphine withdrawal-induced behavioral changes and hypothermia in male CFLP mice. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and jump tests were used to assess naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced behavior responses. Different doses of subcutaneous (s.c.) naloxone, (0.1 and 0.2. mg/kg, respectively) were used to precipitate the emotional and psychical aspects of withdrawal on EPM and 1. mg/kg (s.c.) was used to induce the somatic withdrawal signs such as jumping, and the changes in body temperature. In our EPM studies, naloxone ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the regulation of...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP): Assessment of dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation, insulin-releasing...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP): Assessment of dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation, insulin-releasing activity and antidiabetic potential. AU - Green, BD. AU - Irwin, Nigel. AU - Flatt, Peter. PY - 2006/6. Y1 - 2006/6. N2 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a member of the glucagon family of peptides. Like other members, most notably glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), PACAP is rapidly degraded by dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV). This study investigated how degradation by DPP IV affected the insulinotropic activity of PACAP, and whether PACAP exerted acute antihyperglycemic properties in normal or ob/ob mice. DPP IV degradation of PACAP(127) over 18 h led to the formation of PACAP(3-27), PACAP(5-27) and ultimately PACAP(6-27). In contrast to 1.4-1.8-fold concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion by PACAP(1-27), these peptide fragments lacked insulinotropic activity. While PACAP(1-27) and PACAP(1-38) generated significant ...
"Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Orchestrates Neuron" by Linghai Kong, Rebecca Albano et al.
Glutamate signaling is achieved by an elaborate network involving neurons and astrocytes. Hence, it is critical to better understand how neurons and astrocytes interact to coordinate the cellular regulation of glutamate signaling. In these studies, we used rat cortical cell cultures to examine whether neurons or releasable neuronal factors were capable of regulating system xc-(Sxc), a glutamate-releasing mechanism that is expressed primarily by astrocytes and has been shown to regulate synaptic transmission. We found that astrocytes cultured with neurons or exposed to neuronal-conditioned media displayed signiﬁcantly higher levels of Sxc activity. Next, we demonstrated that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) may be a neuronal factor capable of regulating astrocytes. In support, we found that PACAP expression was restricted to neurons, and that PACAP receptors were expressed in astro-cytes. Interestingly, blockade of PACAP receptors in cultures comprised of astrocytes and
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of migraineurs | Cell &...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays several important roles in vasodilation, neurotransmission, neuromodulation and neurotrophy, as well as activation of the trigeminovascular system. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between altered PACAP levels in peripheral blood and different types of headache. The present study enrolled 101 outpatients with headache and 35 healthy control volunteers. Blood samples were collected from the cubital vein and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated. Total mRNA in the PBMCs was extracted and the expression of PACAP mRNA was analyzed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). There was a significant decrease in PACAP mRNA expression in the PBMCs of the migraine (M) group relative to the healthy control group. However, there were no significant differences in PACAP mRNA expression between the control group and tension-type headache (TTH), cluster headache (CH), or medication overuse headache
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of migraineurs | Cell &...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays several important roles in vasodilation, neurotransmission, neuromodulation and neurotrophy, as well as activation of the trigeminovascular system. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between altered PACAP levels in peripheral blood and different types of headache. The present study enrolled 101 outpatients with headache and 35 healthy control volunteers. Blood samples were collected from the cubital vein and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated. Total mRNA in the PBMCs was extracted and the expression of PACAP mRNA was analyzed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). There was a significant decrease in PACAP mRNA expression in the PBMCs of the migraine (M) group relative to the healthy control group. However, there were no significant differences in PACAP mRNA expression between the control group and tension-type headache (TTH), cluster headache (CH), or medication overuse headache
Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on mesencephalic...
PRIME PubMed | Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide as a neurotransmitter in the canine ileal circular muscle
ADCYAP1R1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor precursor - Bos taurus (Bovine) - ADCYAP1R1 gene...
This is a receptor for PACAP-27 and PACAP-38. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. May regulate the release of adrenocorticotropin, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, epinephrine, and catecholamine. May play a role in spermatogenesis and sperm motility. Causes smooth muscle relaxation and secretion in the gastrointestinal tract (By similarity).
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide | REACH
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake ...
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide | CTD
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration...
It has been observed that pituitary-adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescued DAergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improved motor alterations induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models. Recently we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in DA-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinsons disease. The behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin), metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B) and PARK7/DJ-1 protein contents were measured before and after PACAP-treatment in both models.. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA- induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. The monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In ...
Southern California Conferences for Undergraduate Research - Southern California Conferences for Undergraduate Research:...
The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a peptide hormone, which binds to the pituitary adenylate cyclase type I (PAC1) receptor, and is recognized as a factor with pleiotropic physiological functions in many different organ systems. The PAC1R receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor and is part of the glucagon superfamily. The structure for the ectodomains of PAC1 receptor has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and x-ray crystallography. However, the binding pose of PACAP remains debatable as the structure from NMR shows different topology from the structure derived from x-ray crystallography. In this study, we used molecular dynamic simulations to effectively understand the most stable and reliable interaction between this neuropeptide and its receptor. The binding pocket of PAC1 and interaction between PACAP and PAC1 receptor will be used to design PAC1 receptor peptidomimetics and small molecular antagonists.
New insights about the peculiar role of the 28-38 C-terminal segment and some selected residues in PACAP for signaling and...
The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), which exists in two isoforms of 27 and 38 amino acids, can induce neuronal protection in vitro and in vivo following the activation of PAC1, a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). With its potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, this peptide represents a promising avenue for the development of therapeutic strategies to potentially cure or at least slow the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Beyond the canonical G protein signal effectors, GPCRs are also coupled to a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways that can be independently activated by biased ligands, thereby expanding vastly the potential for discovering new drugs. Interestingly, some studies have demonstrated distinct signaling features for the PACAP isoforms. With this observation in mind, we assessed the impact of chemical and structural modifications introduced into specific regions of the PACAP isoforms on their neuroprotective effects, and
PACAP and Its Receptors Exert Pleiotropic Effects in The Ne
Melanin-Concentrating Hormone and Sleep - Molecular, Functional and Clinical Aspects | S.R. Pandi-Perumal | Springer
γ-melanotropin and β-endorphin after dexamethasone<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - γ-melanotropin and β-endorphin after dexamethasone. AU - Meador-Woodruff, James H.. AU - Silk, Kenneth R.. AU - Kronfol, Ziad. AU - Watson, Stanley J.. AU - Akil, Huda. PY - 1989/4/1. Y1 - 1989/4/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024652543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024652543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0006-3223(89)90278-3. DO - 10.1016/0006-3223(89)90278-3. M3 - Letter. C2 - 2541805. AN - SCOPUS:0024652543. VL - 25. SP - 975. EP - 976. JO - Biological Psychiatry. JF - Biological Psychiatry. SN - 0006-3223. IS - 7. ER - ...
"The dual effect of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (msh) on the growth " by R Halaban and A B. Lerner
α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH), amide | Adenylate Cyclase Activator | MedChemExpress
α-MSH (α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone) References
REB TECHNOLOGY | Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine
Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine Description:. Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine is a compound that includes amino acids and lipid residue, used in cosmetics and personal care products, specifically whitening formulas, to prevent skin cells from producing melanin pigmentation. Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine inhibits melanotropin, a melanin stimulator found in the skin. Melanotropin controls tyrosinase activity (tyrosinase being an essential enzyme in the production of melanin), melanin (eumalanin) synthesis and melanosome; therefore, by preventing the production of melanotropin, the pigmentation process is reduced or halted.. INCI Name: Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine. CAS No.: 175357-18-3. Solubility: Oil soluble. Appearance: White or off white powder. Typical Application: whitens , bleaching , lighten dark spots .. ...
CiNii 論文 - Perspectives on Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) in the...
PACAP is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that belongs to the secreting/glucagon/VIP family. PACAP functions as a hypothalamic hormone, neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, vasodilator, and neurotrophic factor. Its structure has been remarkably conserved during evolution. The PACAP receptor is G protein-coupled with seven transmembrane domains and also belongs to the VIP receptor family. PACAP, but not VIP, binds to PAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R, whereas PACAP and VIP bind to VPAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R and VPAC,SUB,2,/SUB,-R with a similar affinity. Despite the sizable homology of the structures of PACAP and VIP and their receptors, the distribution of these peptides and receptors is quite different. At least eight subtypes of PACAP specific, or PAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R, result from alternate splicing. Each subtype is coupled with specific signaling pathways, and its expression is tissue or cell specific. Although PACAP fulfills most requirements for a physiological hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormone, it does not consistently ...
CiNii Articles - Finding partner for orexigenic peptide : The receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a G...
Adrenal disease in childhood: clinical and molecular aspects by I.A. Hughes, A.J.L. Clark, P.-E. Mullis - Stowarzyszenie Books
Clinical Presentation The initial diagnosis of ACTH resistance may occur in infancy or later. In general, cases presenting in infancy will often have had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia followed after several months by the observation that the child is excessively pigmented. Occasionally, pigmentation is commented on shortly after birth. Neonatal jaundice may also be an early feature indicative in these cases of glucocorticoid deficiency. Often, an excessively severe response to comparatively minor infective illnesses will result in the investigations that establish the diagnosis. Weber A, De Vroede M, Wienker TF, Jansen M: Clinical variability and molecular genetics in a family with triple A syndrome. Horm Res 1997;48(S2):191. Robbins LS, Nadeau JH, Johnson KR, Kelly MA, Roselli-Rehfuss L, Baack E, Mountjoy KG, Cone RD: Pigmentation phenotypes of variant extension locus alleles result from point mutations that alter MSH receptor function. Cell 1993;72:827-834. Light K, Jenkins PJ, Weber A, ...
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Kabra DG, Pfuhlmann K, García-Cáceres C, Schriever SC, Casquero García V, Kebede AF, Fuente-Martin E, Trivedi C, Heppner K, Uhlenhaut NH, Legutko B, Kabra UD, Gao Y, Yi CX, Quarta C, Clemmensen C, Finan B, Müller TD, Meyer CW, Paez-Pereda M, Stemmer K, Woods SC, Perez-Tilve D, Schneider R, Olson EN, Tschöp MH, Pfluger PT. Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 29; 7:10782 ...
PACAP27 (Human) Antiserum › PeptaNova
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents cytokine-induced cytotoxicity via inhibition of inducible nitric...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents cytokine-induced cytotoxicity via inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in βTC cells. AU - Sekiya, Kayo. AU - Nagasaki, Hiroshi. AU - Ozaki, Nobuaki. AU - Suzuki, Atsushi. AU - Miura, Yoshitaka. AU - Oiso, Yutaka. PY - 2000/11/11. Y1 - 2000/11/11. N2 - Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease resulting from apoptotic destruction of pancreatic β-cells. The activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by inflammatory cytokines is considered a mediator of destruction in β-cells. Recent findings showed that the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), whose distribution was identified in pancreatic neurons, inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in cytokine-activated macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of PACAP in the cytokine-exposed mice β-cell line, βTC cells. 1 x 10 -8 M PACAP inhibited the reduction of cell ...
Melanin-concentrating hormone | definition of melanin-concentrating hormone by Medical dictionary
Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release - Nunan ...
Harmar AJ, Arimura A, Gozes I, Journot L, Laburthe M, Pisegna JR, Rawlings SR, Robberecht P, Said SI, Sreedaran SP, Wank SA, Waschek JA. 1998. International Union of Pharmacology. XVIII. Nomenclature of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Pharmacol Rev 50:265-270 ...
Survival of rat MCH (melanin-concentrating hormone) neurons in hypothalamus slice culture: histological, pharmacological and...
Hypothalamic slices containing the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were prepared from 6- to 8-day-old rats and maintained in stationary culture for up to 35 days in order to analyse how well the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons survived. As previously reported for other brain areas, this method yielded a long-term well-preserved organotypic organization. Light- and electron-microscopic investigations showed that differentiation continued and that synaptic contacts developed in vitro. After a period of elimination of damaged cells and fibres, most of the remaining neurons and glial cells retained a normal morphology throughout the culture period. MCH neurons, in particular, survived well as attested by the strong immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization signals still observed after several weeks. In a comparison with the day of explantation, competitive reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the remarkable stability of the level of MCH mRNA at least until the 20th
Similar papers for Eating elicited by orexin-a, but not melanin-concentrating hormone, is opioid mediated. - Semantic Scholar
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A are orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitters produced primarily in the lateral hypothalamus. Because two other hypothalamic peptides, neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide, increase food intake by a mechanism that depends on activation of opioid receptors, we assessed whether MCH or orexin-A also elicits food intake via opioid receptor activation. A dose of naloxone (0.3 mg/kg, ip) that had no effect on its own reduced the acute orexigenic effect of third ventricular (i3vt) orexin-A (3 ng/rat). However, this same dose of naloxone had no effect on i3vt MCH (5 microg/rat)-induced hyperphagia. Because the opioid system has also been linked to food selection, we investigated whether MCH or orexin-A alters food choice when rats have simultaneous access to two diets differing in the relative amounts of fat and carbohydrate. Whereas i3vt MCH stimulated intake of both diets and did not alter food choice, i3vt orexin-A stimulated intake of only the high fat
KAKEN - Researchers | SHIMOZONO Masami (80271138)
Adrenocorticotropin/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/MSH)-like peptides modulate adenylate cyclase activity in rat brain...
Entropy Production: January 2010
Silva et al. (2009) published in the journal Nature that this same receptor, foxa2, is found in the hypothalamus (of mice) and it directly effects the hunger reflex. What they did was to take normal and genetically obese mice, fast them, and inject some of them with insulin to put them into the fed state. They then sacrificed the mice and dissected their brains, using an antibody-based stain to identify neurons that were positive for foxa2 and orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Orexin and MCH are known to be associated with feeding and, incidentally, sleep behaviour (Willie, 2001). From their results the authors concluded that the production of the neuropeptides orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were promoted by the foxa2 receptor (but only with insulin attached to it). One of the stronger pieces of evidence was that foxa2 was found in the cytoplasm of the mouse neurons when in the fasted state but in the nucleus when in the fed state. Transcription of messenger RNA ...
Melanin concentrating hormone - wikidoc
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic orexinogenic hypothalamic peptide originally isolated from the pituitary gland of teleost fish where it controls skin pigmentation. In mammals it is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy balance. When administered artificially, it increases food intake. It also seems to activate the stress axis. ...
Stress in early childhood
The hormone then reacts with receptors inside of the cell. The activated receptors reach the nucleus of the cells and ... These hormones travel through the blood vessels to the anterior pituitary gland of the brain. At this location, ... There are two glucocorticoid receptors; one is the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and another is the glucocorticoid receptor ( ... compared to the hormones of the SAM system. The effect of cortisol depends upon the type of receptor that it interacts with ...
"A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release". Science. 273 (5277): 974-77. Bibcode: ... Ghrelin receptor. The ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a (a splice-variant of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, with the ... The receptor for ghrelin, the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found on the same cells in the brain as ... Ghrelin was discovered after the ghrelin receptor (called growth hormone secretagogue type 1A receptor or GHS-R) was discovered ...
Posterior pituitary hormones. *Vasopressin receptor agonists. *Hormones of the hypothalamus. *Hormones of the pregnant female ... oxytocin receptor binding. • hormone activity. • neurohypophyseal hormone activity. • neuropeptide hormone activity. Cellular ... Its actions are mediated by specific, oxytocin receptors. The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that requires ... Cardiac effects: oxytocin and oxytocin receptors are also found in the heart in some rodents, and the hormone may play a role ...
Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 ( ... Peptide hormones *GHRH (somatocrinin) through binding to the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) ... These cells release the peptides growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin, also known as human growth hormone (hGH or HGH) in its human form, is a peptide hormone ...
Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 ( ... peptide hormones *GHRH (somatocrinin) through binding to the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) ... These cells release the peptides Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ... Lin-Su K, Wajnrajch MP (December 2002). "Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) and the GHRH Receptor". Reviews in Endocrine ...
... receptors of human pituitary gland". J. Endocrinol. Invest. 24 (1): RC1-3. doi:10.1007/bf03343800. PMID 11227737. Harrington JJ ... Deghenghi R, Papotti M, Ghigo E, Muccioli G (2001). "Cortistatin, but not somatostatin, binds to growth hormone secretagogue ( ... Robas N, Mead E, Fidock M (2004). "MrgX2 is a high potency cortistatin receptor expressed in dorsal root ganglion". J. Biol. ... 2003). "Cortistatin rather than somatostatin as a potential endogenous ligand for somatostatin receptors in the human immune ...
The pituitary synthesizes and secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH, in turn, stimulates production of the thyroid ... In Igsf1 deficient mice, the receptor for TRH is downregulated in the pituitary. This decrease could explain, at least in part ... TSH secretion is controlled by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is released by neurons in the hypothalamus of the ... How the loss of IGSF1 causes a decrease in TRH receptors is presently unknown. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000147255 - ...
These receptors are activated by the peptide hormone α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and antagonized by the agouti- ... It has been found that AgRP stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to release ACTH, cortisol and prolactin. ... The appetite-stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibited by the hormone leptin and activated by the hormone ghrelin. Adipocytes ... Ghrelin has receptors on NPY/AgRP neurons that stimulate the secretion of NPY and AgRP to increase appetite. AgRP is stored in ...
"Entrez Gene: GNRHR gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor". "Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Receptors: GnRH receptor". IUPHAR ... G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. It is expressed on the surface of pituitary gonadotrope cells as well as lymphocytes ... This gene encodes the receptor for type 1 gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This receptor is a member of the seven-transmembrane ... Bédécarrats GY, Kaiser UB (2007). "Mutations in the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor: insights into receptor ...
TGF beta signaling pathway
They also regulate many hormones including pituitary, gonadal and hypothalamic hormones as well as insulin. They are also nerve ... The type II receptor is a serine/threonine receptor kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the Type I receptor. Each ... It can then either form a receptor complex with activin A receptor, type IB (ACVR1B) or with activin A receptor, type IC ( ... TGFβ superfamily ligands bind to a type II receptor, which recruits and phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists European Medicines Agency. "Orgalutran". Retrieved 11 May 2012. Oberyé, J ... Ganirelix competitively blocks GnRH receptors on the pituitary gonadotroph, quickly resulting in the suppression of ... The drug works by blocking the action of GnRH upon the pituitary, thus rapidly suppressing the production and action of LH and ... Ganirelix has a significantly higher receptor binding affinity (Kd = 0.4 nM) than GnRH (Kd = 3.6 nM). When ganirelix is given ...
"Treatment of Pituitary Gigantism with the Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Pegvisomant". The Journal of Clinical ... "Treatment of Pituitary Gigantism with the Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Pegvisomant". The Journal of Clinical ... "Congenital gigantism due to growth hormone-releasing hormone excess and pituitary hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation ... Acromegaly Deep-sea gigantism Dwarfism Giant of Castelnau Growth hormone Homo heidelbergensis Hypothalamic-pituitary-somatic ...
3,5-T2 is an active thyroid hormone. It stimulates the TR-beta receptor for thyroid hormones and thus increases energy ... It has agonistic (thyromimetic) effects at myocardial tissue and pituitary, which results in 3,5-T2 to suppress TSH release. 3, ... 3,5-Diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) is an active thyroid hormone within the class of iodothyronines. It has two iodine atoms at ... This could explain why patients with low T3 syndrome don't benefit from substitution therapy with thyroid hormones. Goglia F ( ...
Neurobiological effects of physical exercise
The "stress hormone", cortisol, is a glucocorticoid that binds to glucocorticoid receptors. Psychological stress induces the ... the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis [12,13]). Finally, anxiolytic effects of EX mediated by atrial natriuretic peptide have ... a neuropeptide hormone, in the brain and periphery, resulting in increased signaling through its receptor tyrosine kinase, ... IGF-1 elicits its physiological effects by binding to a specific receptor tyrosine kinase, the IGF-1 receptor, to control ...
V1 receptors are found in various sites around the body. The major points include the CNS, Liver, Anterior Pituitary, Muscle ( ... Felypressin is a non-catecholamine vasoconstrictor that is chemically related to vasopressin, the posterior pituitary hormone. ... Felypressin is a Vasopressin 1 agonist, and will thus have effects at all Arginine vasopressin receptor 1As. It will, however, ...
Effects of stress on memory
The anterior pituitary in turn releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH induces the release of corticosteriods and ... When a receptor within the body senses a stressor, a signal is sent to the anterior hypothalamus. At the reception of the ... Stress hormones influence the processes carried out in the hippocampus and amygdala which are also associated with emotional ... These stress hormones are also hindering the hippocampus from receiving enough energy by diverting glucose levels to ...
... has an immediate onset of action, binding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the pituitary gland ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists Princivalle M, Broqua P, White R, et al (March 2007). Rapid suppression ... GnRH antagonists compete with natural GnRH for binding to GnRH receptors in the pituitary gland. This reversible binding blocks ... This induces a fast and profound reduction in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and in turn, ...
Either Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or any Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (i.e. Lupron) may be used. GnRH ... Clomiphene (trademarked as Clomid) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). It is the most widely used fertility drug ... the hypothalamus secretes GnRh which in turn stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete LH and FSH which help in ovulation. ... hMG is a medication containing a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and a lutenizing hormone (LH). There currently are no ...
Thyroxine receptors in the pituitary gland are activated by the surplus hormone, suppressing additional release of TSH in a ... Agents that act as antagonists at thyroid stimulating hormone receptors are currently under investigation as a possible ... Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins recognize and bind to the thyrotropin receptor (TSH receptor) which stimulates the ... in which the body produces antibodies to the receptor for thyroid-stimulating hormone. (Antibodies to thyroglobulin and to the ...
Dexamethasone suppression test
... dexamethasone binds to glucocorticoid receptors in the anterior pituitary gland, which lie outside the blood-brain barrier, ... ACTH as measured prior to dosing of dexamethasone Equivocal results should be followed by a corticotropin-releasing hormone ... A high dose of dexamethasone exerts negative feedback on pituitary ACTH-producing cells, but not on ectopic ACTH-producing ... Dexamethasone is an exogenous steroid that provides negative feedback to the pituitary gland to suppress the secretion of ...
... which are secreted from the pituitary); all of these peptides bind to opioid receptors and produce analgesic (and other) ... The hormones are secreted from chromaffin granules; this is where the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase catalyses the conversion of ... This desensitization and downregulation of α2 adrenergic receptors is caused by the upregulation of the enzyme Adrenal G ... and a few other hormones into the blood stream. The secreted adrenaline and noradrenaline play an important role in the ...
This hormone stimulates the production of FSH receptors on the follicular granulosa cells and has at the same time a negative ... The pituitary gland secrete follicle-stimulating hormones (FSHs) that stimulate follicular growth and oocyte maturation. The ... Meiotic division I goes on in the ovulated oocyte stimulated by luteinizing hormones (LHs) produced by the pituitary gland. FSH ... This results in a competition between the follicles and only the follicle with the most FSH receptors survives and is ovulated ...
... ghrelin receptor) agonist causing release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. List of growth hormone secretagogues " ... The phase III trial for growth hormone deficiency is expected to be complete in December 2016. Macimorelin is a growth hormone ... Macimorelin (INN) is a drug being developed by Æterna Zentaris for use in the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency. As ... Koch, Linda (2013). "Growth hormone in health and disease: Novel ghrelin mimetic is safe and effective as a GH stimulation test ...
... when stimulated by the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH). LH increases cholesterol desmolase activity (an enzyme ... Prolactin (PRL) increases the response of Leydig cells to LH by increasing the number of LH receptors expressed on Leydig cells ... They produce testosterone in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH). Leydig cells are polyhedral in shape, display a large ... Leydig cells release a class of hormones called androgens (19-carbon steroids). They secrete testosterone, androstenedione and ...
receptor binding. • V1A vasopressin receptor binding. • V1B vasopressin receptor binding. • neuropeptide hormone activity. ... Pituitary gland, brain. Adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in response to stress; social interpretation of olfactory ... Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a ... regulation of receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • maternal aggressive behavior. • positive ...
Neuroscience of sex differences
Estrogen receptors have been found in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, indicating the ... Gonadal hormone receptors have also been found in the basal forebrain nuclei. Estradiol influences cognitive function, ... Oxytocin is a hormone that induces contraction of the uterus and lactation in mammals. It is also a characteristic hormone of ... Hormones and Behavior. 40 (2): 86-92. doi:10.1006/hbeh.2001.1680. PMID 11534967. Simerly RB (February 2005). "Wired on hormones ...
Reproductive-cell cycle theory
The theory argues that these cellular changes are directed by reproductive hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis ... HPG axis). Receptors for reproductive hormones (such as estrogens, progestagens, androgens and gonadotropins) have been found ... However, only biological hormones appear to have these effects. The use of non-human or synthetic hormones has been shown to ... Hormones levels then begin to change in men around age 30 and more abruptly in women when they reach menopause, around age 50. ...
Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Male lactation Prolactin modulator Prolactin receptor Prolactin-releasing hormone ... autocrine and paracrine manner through the prolactin receptor and a large number of cytokine receptors. Pituitary prolactin ... Human prolactin receptors are insensitive to mouse prolactin. Prolactin levels may be checked as part of a sex hormone workup, ... Prolactin receptors are present in the mammillary glands, ovaries, pituitary glands, heart, lung, thymus, spleen, liver, ...
Type 2 diabetes
2011). "Chapter 17: Pancreatic hormones & diabetes mellitus". Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: ... are superior to other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or ... pituitary axes. Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency ... "Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ...
The intestines also contain receptors that send satiety signals to the brain. The hormone cholecystokinin is secreted by the ... These include depression, food allergies, ingestion of certain chemicals, bulimia, anorexia nervosa, pituitary gland ... "MCH (Melanin Concentrating Hormone) and MCH-2 Receptor". Mice lacking Melanin-Concentrating Hormone are hypophagic and lean ... The signals from the stomach are initiated by the release of the peptide hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is a hormone that increases ...
الوحدة الفرعية بيتا للفولليتروبين - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of receptor activity. • G- ... Saxena BB، Rathnam P (1976). "Amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary ... Fujiki Y، Rathnam P، Saxena BB (1980). "Studies on the disulfide bonds in human pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone". ... Shome B، Parlow AF (1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone: first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the hormone- ...
Hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. *Hormones of the thyroid gland ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ... It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered ... Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4). It is used to ...
It can also be due to one or more of many abnormal conditions, such as chronic (prolonged) growth hormone or thyroid hormone ... Androgen receptor (Androgen insensitivity syndrome). *general: Hypogonadism (Delayed puberty). *Hypergonadism *Precocious ... pituitary axes. Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency ... About half of them do not have growth hormone deficiency, and consequently benefited very little, if at all, from the hormone ...
Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the ... "Hormones and Behavior. 53 (5): 613-26. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.01.013. PMC 2706155 . PMID 18374335.. ...
... and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and are peptide hormones that signal the gonads to produce sex hormones. By suppressing ... Androgen receptor degradersEdit. Selective androgen receptor degraders (SARDs) are another new type of antiandrogen that has ... Antigonadotropins are drugs that suppress the GnRH-mediated secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland. ... Msaouel P, Diamanti E, Tzanela M, Koutsilieris M (2007). "Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone antagonists in prostate cancer ...
腎上腺素 - 維基百科，自由的百科全書
腦下垂體及下視丘（英語：Template:Pituitary and hypothalamic hormones and analogues） ... Glutamate receptor antagonist（英語：Excitatory amino acid antagonist） (NMDA（英語：NMDA receptor antagonist）) ... Cannabinoid receptor antagonist（英語：Cannabinoid receptor antagonist）. *Endocannabinoid enhancer（英語：Endocannabinoid enhancer） ( ... Glutamate receptor agonist（英語：Excitatory amino acid agonist） (AMPA（英語：Ampakine
Endorphins - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Endorphins are also involved in the release of sex hormones in the pituitary gland. Also, scientists think that acupuncture ... All of the endorphins bind to the opioid receptors in the brain. Many of the analgesic (pain killer) drugs have a similar ... They are usually in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. More endorphins are released in the pituitary gland during times of ... They are produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland. Their name has two parts: endo- and -orphin; these are ...
Media.pituitary.org. Retrieved 2011-11-26. [permanent dead link]) Schwartz, Erika T.; Holtorf, Kent (2008). "Hormones in ... Holtorf prescribes naltrexone, an opioid receptor blocker, used most often to treat opiate addiction, and buproprion ( ... Holtorf, K (2009). "The bioidentical hormone debate: Are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or ... He has been an advocate of bioidentical hormones, which has been labeled as quack medicine. He published an extensive review on ...
... the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4.. •The hypothalamic- ... In the brain, cortisol acts on two types of receptor - mineralocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid receptors, and these are ... pituitary-gonadal axis comprises hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone ... Over time, CRF receptors in the anterior pituitary will become down-regulated, producing depression and anxiety symptoms. ...
Whan a hormone binds tae the receptor, it results in the activation o a seegnal transduction pathwey that teepically activates ... hormones is eften dependent on complex sets o direct influence an feedback interactions involvin the hypothalamic-pituitary- ... Regulation o hormone synthesis o gonadal hormones, adrenocortical hormones, an thyroid ... Some hormones are completely active whan released intae the bluidstream (as is the case for insulin an growthe hormones), while ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... hormone - host - host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP ... pituitary gland - placebo - placebo controlled study - placebo effect - plasma - plasma cells - platelets - PML - Pneumocystis ... co-receptors - coccidioidomycosis - codon - cofactors - cognitive impairment - cohort - colitis - combination therapy - ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ... Exposure to stress and the stress hormone corticosterone has been shown to decrease the expression of BDNF in rats, and, if ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist
... by causing GnRH receptor downregulation) to GnRH. Pituitary desensitization reduces the secretion of LH and FSH and thus ... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... GnRH agonists acts as agonists of the GnRH receptor, the biological target of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). These ... A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ...
... the hormone regulatory centre of the brain and part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a key part of the body's stress ... activation of the D2 receptor promoter by members of the retinoic acid receptor-retinoid X receptor family". Proceedings of the ... Isotretinoin has a low affinity for retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR), but may be converted ... transcriptional activation of the dopamine D2 receptor - in addition to serotonin and glutamate receptors - is regulated by ...
... in the production of the gonadotropin hormones normally released by the anterior pituitary gland known as luteinising hormone ( ... FSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Kisspeptin and its associated receptor KISS1R are known to be involved in the regulation ... FSHR (Follicle-stimulating hormone insensitivity, XX gonadal dysgenesis). *GnRHR (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone insensitivity) ... Hormone replacement therapy. The method and dose of treatment will vary depending on the individual being treated. ...
The ubiquitin receptor Rpn13 binds to Rpn2 and completes the base cub-complex. The lid covers one half of the AAA-ATPase ... Wilk S, Orlowski M (November 1980). "Cation-sensitive neutral endopeptidase: isolation and specificity of the bovine pituitary ... and its control by ecdysteroid hormones in the insect Manduca sexta". FEBS Letters. 400 (3): 345-9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96) ... The second ubiquitin receptor identified to date, Rpn10, is positioned at the periphery of the lid, near subunits Rpn8 and Rpn9 ...
Platelet-derived growth factor
The receptor for PDGF, PDGFR is classified as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), a type of cell surface receptor. Two types of ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... Like many other growth factors that have been linked to disease, PDGF and its receptors have provided a market for receptor ... "Isolation of a novel receptor cDNA establishes the existence of two PDGF receptor genes". Science. 243 (4892): 800-4. doi: ...
Receptors. Main article: Bradykinin receptor. *The B1 receptor (also called bradykinin receptor B1) is expressed only as ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ... The kinin B1 and B2 receptors belong to G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. ... This receptor has been also described to play a role in inflammation. Most recently, it has been shown that the kinin B1 ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stimulating the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) ... TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ... tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... receptor biosynthetic process. • activation of MAPK activity. • immune response. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. • positive ...
... and of hormone-bound lutetium-177 and yttrium-90 to treat neuroendocrine tumors (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy). ... Effects on pituitary system. Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar ... adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies are the least common among people with ... Radiation-induced hypopituitarism mainly affects growth hormone and gonadal hormones. In contrast, ...
Human digestive system
A peptide hormone, gastrin, produced by G cells in the gastric glands, stimulates the production of gastric juice which ... The olfactory receptors are located on cell surfaces in the nose which bind to chemicals enabling the detection of smells. It ... Taste is a form of chemoreception that takes place in the specialised taste receptors, contained in structures called taste ... The bile is released in response to cholecystokinin (CCK) a peptide hormone released from the duodenum. The production of CCK ( ...
Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 ... "Dipeptidyl arylamidase II of the pituitary. Properties of lysylalanyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis: inhibition by cations, ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ...
Beta polipeptid luteinizirajućeg hormona
Shome B, Parlow AF (1973). "The primary structure of the hormone-specific, beta subunit of human pituitary luteinizing hormone ... Keutmann HT, Hua QX, Weiss MA (1992). "Structure of a receptor-binding fragment from human luteinizing hormone beta-subunit ... "Involvement of Gs and Gi proteins in dual coupling of the luteinizing hormone receptor to adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C ... biologically inactive luteinizing hormone: characterization of the abnormal hormone". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 52 (6): 1143- ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2
insulin receptor binding. • hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • insulin-like growth ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... IGF-2 exerts its effects by binding to the IGF-1 receptor and to the short isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A or exon 11-).[ ... together with luteinizing hormone (LH). Thus, IGF2 acts as a co-hormone together with both FSH and LH. ...
Hypothalamic-pituitary hormones. *Corticosteroids *Glucocorticoids. *Mineralocorticoids. *Sex hormones. *Thyroid hormones/ ... 5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As such, they ... NK1 receptor antagonist *Aprepitant (Emend) is a commercially available NK1 Receptor antagonist ... Mirtazapine (Remeron) is an antidepressant that also has antiemetic effects it is also a potent histamine H1 receptor ...
It blocks dopamine receptors in the anterior pituitary gland increasing release of prolactin which in turn increases lactation. ... and luteinizing hormone (LH) and resulting in hypogonadism (low sex hormone (e.g., testosterone, estradiol) levels). As ... Due to blockade of D2 receptors in the central nervous system, D2 receptor antagonists like metoclopramide can also produce a ... Domperidone is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist. It has no clinically significant interaction ...
Posttraumatic stress disorder
"Elevated plasma corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder". Stress Hormones and ... Overactivation of norepinephrine receptors in the prefrontal cortex can be connected to the flashbacks and nightmares ... these findings suggest abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. ... Liberzon I, Sripada CS (2008). "The functional neuroanatomy of PTSD: A critical review". Stress Hormones and Post Traumatic ...
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) are very important galactopoietic hormones whose ... Khong, H. K.; Kuah, M. K.; Jaya-Ram, A.; Shu-Chien, A. C. (2009). "Prolactin receptor mRNA is upregulated in discus fish ( ... Pituitary. 6 (1): 35-39. doi:10.1023/A:1026229810876. PMID 14674722. Bose, C.; D'ercole, A.; Lester, A.; Hunter, R.; Barrett, J ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), through control of ...
Photoaffinity labeling analysis of the interaction of pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) with the PACAP...
... with the PACAP type I receptor -- Cao et al. 244 (2): 400 -- FEBS Journal: YJ Cao, E Kojro, G Gimpl, M Jasionowski, F ... Photoaffinity labeling analysis of the interaction of pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) ... To identify residues and domains of the peptide hormone pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) that ... Despite its lower receptor affinity, [Bz-Phe22]-PACAP-(1-27)-peptide labeled the PACAP type I receptor in pig brain membranes ...
Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Splice Variants1
Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Splice Variants. ... "Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Splice Variants," Biology ... "Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Splice Variants," Biology ... Cloning and Expression of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor in the... Evidence for Different Gonadotropin Releasing ...
Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action | Science
Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ...
Thyroid Hormone Receptors Suppress Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Activity in Hepatoma | Cancer Research
Thyroid Hormone Receptors Suppress Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Activity in Hepatoma. Ruey-Nan Chen, Ya-Hui Huang, Chau- ... thyroid hormone receptors, TR), which belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. These receptors function as ligand- ... Thyroid Hormone Receptors Suppress Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Activity in Hepatoma ... Thyroid Hormone Receptors Suppress Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Activity in Hepatoma ...
The Role of Pituitary Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Receptors in the Physiological Regulation of Gonadotrophin Secretion |...
An autocrine role for pituitary GABA: Activation of GABA-B receptors and regulation of growth hormone levels
... in which GABA receptors are expressed and pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells provide a source of GABA. We hypothesised that ... RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that GABA-B receptor subunits R1 and R2 are present in the whole rat pituitary. Laser ... To investigate GABA-B receptor function in somatotropes, we used rat GH3 adenoma cells, which, like pituitary GH cells, express ... Activation of GABA-B receptors and regulation of growth hormone levels. In: Neuroendocrinology, Nr. 3: S. 170-177 ...
Get PDF - Peptide receptor protein relationships steroid feedback in gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation of the steer...
Peptide receptor protein relationships steroid feedback in gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation of the steer anterior ... Pituitary receptors for gonadotropin releasing hormone in relation to changes in pituitary and plasma gonadotropins in ... pituitary regulation of cell responses and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptors by gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone regulation of g protein function in the rat anterior pituitary ...
AID 102693 - Compounds were tested for the effective dose to induce luteinizing hormone (LH) release in rat pituitary receptors...
Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding...
These findings suggested that at least 1-2 methionine residues in each subunit are involved in the hormone-receptor interaction ... Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding ... Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding ... Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding ...
Estrogen Receptor alpha, a Sex-Dependent Predictor of Aggressiveness in Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas : SSTR and Sex...
Estrogen Receptor alpha, a Sex-Dependent Predictor of Aggressiveness in Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas: SSTR and Sex Hormone ... analyses of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR5, estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), and progesterone receptor ... Context: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are fairly common and require a multidisciplinary approach. Reliable markers ... Objective: We aimed to characterize the somatostatin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor distribution for NFPAs and compare it ...
JCI Insight - Gonadotrope androgen receptor mediates pituitary responsiveness to hormones and androgen-induced subfertility
Gonadotrope androgen receptor mediates pituitary responsiveness to hormones and androgen-induced subfertility. ... Gonadotrope androgen receptor mediates pituitary responsiveness to hormones and androgen-induced subfertility. ... female mice with disruption of the androgen receptor (Ar) gene specifically in pituitary gonadotropes (PitARKO) were produced. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls reproduction. While we have demonstrated that androgen impairs ovarian ...
A growth hormone receptor mutation impairs growth hormone autofeedback signaling in pituitary tumors. - Semantic Scholar
This novel GHR mutation provides evidence for impaired hormone autofeedback in the pathogenesis of these pituitary tumors. It ... hormone excess, and histomorphologic features. Those that cause growth hormone (GH) excess and acromegaly are subdivided into ... Pharmacologic GH antagonism recapitulates the morphologic phenotype of pituitary tumors from which this mutation was identified ... This GHR mutation significantly impairs glycosylation-mediated receptor processing, maturation, ligand binding, and signaling. ...
Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells<...
Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells. Endocrinology. ... Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells. / Turgeon, ... title = "Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells", ... T1 - Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells ...
Complementar Deoxyribonucleic Acid Cloning, Gene Expression, and Ligand Selectivity of a Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone...
Receptors, Pituitary Hormone | Profiles RNS
Pituitary Hormone" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Pituitary Hormone" was a major or minor topic of ... Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous ... "Receptors, Pituitary Hormone" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Receptors, Pituitary Hormone*Receptors, Pituitary Hormone. *Receptors, Pituitary Hormones. *Pituitary Hormones Receptors ...
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis - Wikipedia
These mutations can occur in the genes coding for GnRH, LH, and FSH or their receptors. Depending on which hormone and receptor ... The anterior portion of the pituitary gland produces luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these ... Millar RP, Lu ZL, Pawson AJ, Flanagan CA, Morgan K, Maudsley SR (April 2004). "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors". ...
Differential regulation of type II corticosteroid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the rat anterior pituitary...
... mRNA in two tissues involved in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We have used a solution hybridization/ ... The present study was designed to characterize the regulation of the type II corticosteroid receptor (GR) ... Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology * Dexamethasone / pharmacology * Female * Gene Expression Regulation* / drug ... Differential regulation of type II corticosteroid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the rat anterior pituitary ...
Pituitary growth hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor genes and associations with mammographic measures and...
... one of them also associated with serum growth hormone levels. These findings suggest that the GH1 gene may also influence ... We have found associations between mammographic density and two SNPs in the pituitary growth hormone gene, ... Pituitary growth hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor genes and associations with mammographic measures and ... Pituitary growth hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor genes and associations with mammographic measures and ...
Targeted cytotoxic analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) only transiently decreases the gene expression of...
To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors ... To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors ... To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors ... To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors ...
Anterior pituitary-like hormones - definition of anterior pituitary-like hormones by The Free Dictionary
anterior pituitary-like hormones synonyms, anterior pituitary-like hormones pronunciation, anterior pituitary-like hormones ... English dictionary definition of anterior pituitary-like hormones. n. 1. a. A substance, usually a peptide or steroid, produced ... growth hormone, human growth hormone, somatotrophic hormone, somatotrophin, somatotropic hormone, somatotropin, STH - a hormone ... hormone. (redirected from anterior pituitary-like hormones). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. hor·mone. (hôr′ ...
A decline in female baboon hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity anticipates aging
... corticotropin-releasing hormone, steroid receptors, and pituitary proopiomelanocortin immunohistochemically in 14 of these ... A decline in female baboon hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity anticipates aging Aging (Albany NY). 2017 May 9;9(5): ... decreased pituitary proopiomelanocortin. Our data identify increased age-related negative feedback and local PVN cortisol ... increased PVN glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors; 3) increased PVN 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2, ...
Intrinsic and Regulated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Transcription in Mammalian Pituitary Gonadotrophs
... ... The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its receptors (GnRHRs) expressed in pituitary ... Basal transcription; Gonadotrophs; Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor; Regulated ... Intrinsic and Regulated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Transcription in Mammalian Pituitary Gonadotrophs. Front ...
Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis - Wikipedia
Resistance to thyroid hormone: Feedback loop interrupted on the level of pituitary thyroid hormone receptors. ... The pituitary gland secretes thyrotropin (TSH; Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) that stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine ( ... Thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback control over the hypothalamus as well as anterior pituitary, thus controlling the ... Both peripheral thyroid hormones (iodothyronines) inhibit thyrotropin secretion from the pituitary (negative feedback). ...
Identification of endocrine cell populations expressing the AT1B subtype of angiotensin II receptors in the anterior pituitary.
When applied directly on pituitary cells, Ang II increases both ACTH ... participates in the regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion by acting either directly on the anterior pituitary or ... 0/RNA, Messenger; 0/Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0/Receptors, Angiotensin; 9002-60-2/Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ... participates in the regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion by acting either directly on the anterior pituitary or ...
Functional Endocrinology: Understanding Hormones From the Pituitary to the Receptor Sites • Chiropractic Scientists • 915-850...
They are made in the pituitary gland that controls the the activity of the other endocrine glands in the body. ... Hormones are the chemical substances that coordinate the activities of living organism growth. ... Hormones attach themselves to proteins but they cant bind to hormone receptors. So what a hormone needs to do is to lose its ... The pituitary-stimulating hormone helps regulate hormones by secreting them to the endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is ...
Characterization of Receptors in Non-functioning Pituitary Macroadenomas - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
However, pituitary tumors that do not actively secrete hormones may still harbour receptors to various hormones. The blockage ... Pituitary tumor more than 10 mm in diameter diagnosed by MRI. *No clinical or laboratory evidence of pituitary hormone ... Characterization of Receptors in Non-functioning Pituitary Macroadenomas. Official Title Characterization of Receptors Present ... Characterization of Receptors in Non-functioning Pituitary Macroadenomas. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
Regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for corticotropin releasing hormone receptor in the pituitary during stress. -...
The increased pituitary CRH receptor mRNA after stress suggests that stress-induced CRH receptor down-regulation is due to ... In contrast, repeated immobilization or ip hypertonic saline for 8 or 14 days increased pituitary CRH receptor mRNA, and CRH ... Acute stress caused time- and stress type-dependent changes in pituitary CRH receptor expression. In situ hybridization studies ... Although in 6-day ADX rats pituitary CRH receptor mRNA levels were markedly reduced after acute immobilization, glucocorticoid ...
Biological Effects and Markers of Exposure to Xenosteroids and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) at the...
... at the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Unit. In: Kordon C., Gaillard RC., Christen Y. (eds) Hormones and the Brain. Research and ... Shupnik MA (2002) Oestrogen receptors, receptor variants and oestrogen actions in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. J ... Neonatal imprinting and regulation of estrogen receptor alpha and beta mRNA expression by estrogen in the pituitary and ... White R, Parker MG (1998) Molecular mechanisms of steroid hormone action. Endocr Relat Cancer 5:1-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Pilot Study of Using Copeptin to Predict Response to Tolvaptan - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The TSH receptor in the pituitary and its clinical relevance
5 Mouse Pituitary Folliculo-Stellate Cells Express Receptors for Many, but not All, Adenohypophyseal Hormones. ... 2 Expression of the Thyrold Stimulating Hormone Receptor in the Folliculo-Stellate Cells of the Human Anterior Pituitary. ... The TSH receptor in the pituitary and its clinical relevance. Supervisors. W.M. Wiersinga. ... 6 Functional Thyrotropin Receptor Expression in the Pituitary Folliculo-Stellate Cell Line TtT/GF. ...
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
These mutations can occur in the genes coding for GnRH, LH, and FSH or their receptors. Depending on which hormone and receptor ... The anterior portion of the pituitary gland produces luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPG axis) refers to the effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads ... Haasl RJ, Ahmadi MR, Meethal SV, Gleason CE, Johnson SC, Asthana S, Bowen RL, Atwood CS (2008). A luteinizing hormone receptor ...
SecretionGlandHypothalamusProlactinTumorsGnRHGeneAdenomasRegulationACTHAxisTumorEndocrinologyGonadotropesMRNA levelsCellsExpressionMetabolismAbstractRegulatesPosteriorAdenomaStimulatesEstrogenReproductiveAntidiuretic HormonePolypeptideNeuronsProteinsSecreteThyroid hormone receptorsPhysiologicalGonadotropinDopamine receptorsAdenylate cyclaseSitu HybridizationGlucocorticoidsLuteinizingGlucocorticoidProtein-coupledEndocrine glandsGrowthLutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptorMechanismSerumRatsCorticotropin-ReleasiMembraneBindsPeptidesThyrotropin releasiSecretesPhysiology
- In all vertebrates, GnRH regulates gonadotropin secretion through binding to a specific receptor on the surface of pituitary gonadotropes. (bioone.org)
- The prolonged in vivo inhibition of pituitary GnRH receptor binding and luteinizing hormone secretion by the GnRH antagonist may be mediated by the slower dissociation rate of the antagonist from its specific pituitary membrane receptor site. (sciencemag.org)
- DHT treated control mice with intact pituitary Ar (Con-DHT) exhibit disrupted estrous cyclicity and fertility with reduced pituitary responsiveness to GnRH at the level of both calcium signaling and LH secretion. (jci.org)
- The aims of this study were to determine 1) whether the GnRH self-priming response and acute progesterone augmentation of secretagogue-stimulated LH secretion are present in cultured wild-type (WT) mouse pituitary cells, and 2) whether the PR is essential for self-priming by comparing the responses in PR knockout (PRKO) cells. (elsevier.com)
- Turgeon, JL & Waring, DW 2001, ' Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells ', Endocrinology , vol. 142, no. 7, pp. 3108-3115. (elsevier.com)
- In addition, leptin and insulin have stimulatory effects and ghrelin has inhibitory effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus . (wikipedia.org)
- Both peripheral thyroid hormones ( iodothyronines ) inhibit thyrotropin secretion from the pituitary ( negative feedback ). (wikipedia.org)
- TSH secretion is also controlled by thyrotropin releasing hormone (thyroliberin, TRH), whose secretion itself is again suppressed by plasma T4 and T3 in CSF ( long feedback , Fekete-Lechan loop). (wikipedia.org)
- primary hyperthyroidism: Inappropriate secretion of thyroid hormones, e.g. in case of Graves' disease . (wikipedia.org)
- To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors and LH secretion in ovariectomized female and normal male rats after treatment with the maximum tolerated dose of AN-207. (elsevier.com)
- The effect of AN-207 on the gene expression of the pituitary GH-RH-receptors and GH secretion was also assessed in male rats. (elsevier.com)
- Angiotensin II (Ang II) participates in the regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion by acting either directly on the anterior pituitary or indirectly on the hypothalamus. (biomedsearch.com)
- When applied directly on pituitary cells, Ang II increases both ACTH and PRL secretion and has also been reported to affect GH secretion. (biomedsearch.com)
- The most characteristic-presenting features of pituitary adenomas include inappropriate pituitary hormone secretion and visual field deficits. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- The data suggest that increased hypothalamic secretion of CRH and VP mediates the delayed up-regulatory effect of stress on CRH receptor mRNA, and that resting levels of glucocorticoids are required for this effect. (semanticscholar.org)
- The hormones are transported through the pituitary stalk and, following secretion, travel freely in the blood. (brighthub.com)
- Hazum, E., 1982, Receptor regulation by hormones: Relevance to secretion and other biological functions. (springer.com)
- Tumor damage to the pituitary stalk may cause hyperprolactinemia due to loss of inhibitory regulation of prolactin secretion by the hypothalamus. (medscape.com)
- AIP mutations are rare in sporadic pituitary adenomas in the German population and occur independently from a hormone secretion of the adenoma. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, the present data show that the marked changes of LH responsiveness to LHRH are not always accompanied by parallel changes of pituitary LHRH receptor levels, thus suggesting that postreceptor events are also important sites for the control of gonadotropin secretion. (elsevier.com)
- pituitary hormone secretion. (novapublishers.com)
- Although PACAP fulfills most requirements for a physiological hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormone, it does not consistently stimulate secretion of the adenohypophysial hormones, except for stimulation of IL-6 release from the FS cells of the pituitary. (nii.ac.jp)
- Human RFRP-3 has recently been shown to be a potent inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion in cultured sheep pituitary cells by inhibiting Ca 2+ mobilization. (plos.org)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin secretion - . (plos.org)
- The GnIH neurons project to the median eminence, providing neuroanatomical infrastructure to allow secretion into the hypophysial portal system and thus regulate pituitary function - . (plos.org)
- Alterations in pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes result in differential synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins LH and FSH and changes in the expression of their respective hormone subunit genes. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we used in vivo amperometric recordings in freely behaving mice to investigate how tuberoinfundibular neurons release dopamine (DA) at the median eminence (ME) to control pituitary prolactin secretion. (pnas.org)
- Here, we show that the temporal organization of dopamine (DA) release events in freely behaving animals relies on a set of characteristic features that are adapted to the dynamic dopaminergic control of pituitary prolactin secretion, a key reproductive hormone. (pnas.org)
- Thus, a hierarchical combination of time-scaled neuroendocrine signals displays local-global integration to connect brain-pituitary rhythms and pace hormone secretion. (pnas.org)
- Antagonism of D 2 receptors in the anterior pituitary prevents dopamine-mediated inhibition of prolactin secretion, leading to risk of hyperprolactinaemia. (mhra.gov.uk)
- Another possibility is that high CRH levels lead to increased mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) levels and this up-regulation of MR is responsible for the low cortisol secretion seen in PTSD. (bioportfolio.com)
- Fundamental mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are presented to provide the reader with an in-depth understanding of mechanisms subserving both normal and disordered pituitary hormone secretion and action. (elsevier.com)
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis ( HPG axis ) refers to the hypothalamus , pituitary gland , and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. (wikipedia.org)
- Fluctuations in this axis cause changes in the hormones produced by each gland and have various local and systemic effects on the body. (wikipedia.org)
- The anterior portion of the pituitary gland produces luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the gonads produce estrogen and testosterone . (wikipedia.org)
- A lot of hormones are produced in glands known as endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland, pancreas, and ovaries, and travel from there through the bloodstream before arriving at their target sites of action. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Growth hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland, controls growth of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Fortunately, these diseases can usually be treated, either with hormones made artificially in laboratories or by operating on the affected gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
- As its name suggests, it depends upon the hypothalamus , the pituitary gland , and the thyroid gland . (wikipedia.org)
- Thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback control over the hypothalamus as well as anterior pituitary, thus controlling the release of both TRH from hypothalamus and TSH from anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
- The pituitary gland in the brain is the master hormonal gland and is surrounded by important nerves and blood vessels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The pituitary gland can develop various types of tumors, some which do not produce any hormones and are called non-functioning pituitary adenomas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In neuroendocrinology, an endocrine gland can't make a hormone without activation from a pituitary-stimulating hormone. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The pituitary gland is known as the "master gland" since it controls the activity of the other endocrine glands and it consists of 3 parts known as the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The anterior pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica and is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The anterior pituitary gland produces 6 hormones that circulate to their respective targets in the body. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- It synthesizes within the pituitary gland, the central nervous system, the immune system, and the uterus. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- Drug therapy is usually used to treat pituitary gland tumours that make too many hormones (functioning tumours). (cancer.ca)
- Which drugs are used for pituitary gland tumours depend mainly on the type of tumour and hormone levels in the body. (cancer.ca)
- It normally slows or stops the pituitary gland from making prolactin until it is needed. (cancer.ca)
- Somatostatin analogues are drugs that lower the amount of hormones made and released by certain functioning pituitary gland tumours. (cancer.ca)
- Hormone replacement is usually needed when the pituitary gland is not making enough of any of its hormones (called hypopituitarism). (cancer.ca)
- This can happen if part or all of the pituitary gland has been removed during surgery or a tumour has damaged the pituitary gland. (cancer.ca)
- Infundibulum connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus. (scribd.com)
- Receptors at set locations monitor plasma hormonal levels and inform the gland responsible for producing that hormone if levels are too high or too low for a particular time of day, month, or other life period. (encyclopedia.com)
- Posterior Pituitary Hormones: How Does the Pituitary Gland Affect You? (brighthub.com)
- The "master gland", the pituitary, controls the function of all other glands, though, it itself is under the control of the hypothalamus. (brighthub.com)
- The posterior pituitary hormones are, however, produced in the hypothalamus, though they are stored and secreted by the pituitary gland. (brighthub.com)
- The hormones FSH, LH and TSH are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland [ PMID: 6267989 , PMID: 1445230 ], while the choriogonadotropins are secreted by the placenta [ PMID: 19171054 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Thalamus Pituitary gland. (scribd.com)
- The pituitary gland produces thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that goes into the blood stream to activate thyroid cells, which then secrete T3 and T4 into the peripheral tissues. (cdc.gov)
- The synthesis of these signals controls GnRH1 production in the brain and its release to the pituitary gland. (pnas.org)
- Benign tumours in the pituitary gland that cause increased production of the hormone prolactin (prolactinomas). (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Prolactin is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Cabergoline decreases the production of prolactin from the pituitary gland by acting on dopamine receptors found on the pituitary gland. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- A further use of cabergoline is to reduce prolactin production from a type of tumour of the pituitary gland, called a prolactinoma. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The pituitary gland may secrete excess prolactin due to a malfunction in the gland, or due to the presence of pituitary tumours (eg prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma or macroadenoma). (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Tumors of the pituitary gland. (pituitary.org)
- Regions of low density in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland: normal and pathologic processes. (pituitary.org)
- 8. Chong BW, Kucharczyk W, Singer W, George S. Pituitary gland MR: a comparative study of healthy volunteers and patients with microadenomas. (pituitary.org)
- A parallel study of the roentgen anatomy of the sella turcica and the histopathology of the pituitary gland in 205 autopsy specimens. (pituitary.org)
- Subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland. (pituitary.org)
- chemicals called _________________, or _____________________are secretions of the hypothalamus, and they control the anterior pituitary gland. (studystack.com)
- Hyperprolactinemia may occur by itself or in association with a tumor (prolactinoma) in the pituitary gland. (wholehealthmd.com)
- The new edition has been extensively revised to reflect new knowledge derived from advances in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, diagnostics, and therapeutics as they apply to the pituitary gland. (elsevier.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus by GnRH-expressing neurons . (wikipedia.org)
- In oviparous organisms (e.g. fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds), the HPG axis is commonly referred to as the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis (HPGL-axis) in females. (wikipedia.org)
- The HPA , HPG, and HPT axes are three pathways in which the hypothalamus and pituitary direct neuroendocrine function. (wikipedia.org)
- When the egg is released, the empty follicle sac begins to produce progesterone to inhibit the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary thus stopping the estrogen-LH positive feedback loop. (wikipedia.org)
- The hypothalamus senses low circulating levels of thyroid hormone (Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4)) and responds by releasing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). (wikipedia.org)
- We have previously demonstrated that only AT1A receptors are present in the hypothalamus while anterior pituitary cells express predominantly the AT1B subtype. (biomedsearch.com)
- The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wikia.com)
- This hormone is involved by coordinating the signal regulation of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the thyroid. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- The entire structure is pea sized and hangs from the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk-a short length of neural axons. (brighthub.com)
- From the hypothalamus, the hormones are paired with a protein molecule called neurophysins. (brighthub.com)
- Oxytocin is also a nonapeptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus. (brighthub.com)
- Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), a deca-peptide pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly NH 2 is synthesized and released by the hypothalamus. (springer.com)
- The THRB gene encodes two main isoforms, TR β1 which is widely distributed, and TR β2, whose expression is limited to the cochlea, retina, hypothalamus, and pituitary. (biomedcentral.com)
- A neuropeptide named gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, SIKPSAYLPLRF-NH 2 ) which directly inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release from the pituitary was recently identified in quail hypothalamus. (plos.org)
- RT-PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing of the PCR products identified human GnIH receptor (GPR147) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus as well as in the pituitary. (plos.org)
- The identification of two forms of GnIH (RFRP-1 and RFRP-3) in the human hypothalamus which targets human GnRH neurons and gonadotropes and potently inhibit gonadotropin in sheep models provides a new paradigm for the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in man and a novel means for manipulating reproductive functions. (plos.org)
- The hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad endocrine axis that controls reproductive development and function relies on control through rhythmic stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
- The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide called Thyroid Releasing Hormone. (cdc.gov)
- Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide produced in the lateral hypothalamus. (aspetjournals.org)
- This structure receives 'releasing or inhibiting factors' from the Hypothalamus to regulate release of its hormones. (sporcle.com)
- The Hypothalamus releases several 'releasing & inhibiting hormones' into the Anterior Pituitary via the Hypophyseal Portal System. (sporcle.com)
- Vasopressin, at pressor doses, also causes smooth muscle contraction in the GI tract by stimulating muscular V1 receptors and release of prolactin and ACTH via AVPR1b (or V3) receptors. (drugs.com)
- The Pit-1-regulated hormones, such as prolactin (PRL), thyrotropin (TSH), GH, and their receptors were also found to be expressed. (nii.ac.jp)
- Prolactin-releasing hormone, also known as PRLH, is a hypothetical human hormone or hormone releasing factor. (wikipedia.org)
- Existence of this factor has been hypothesized as prolactin is the only currently known hormone for which almost exclusively negative regulating factors are known (such as dopamine, leukemia inhibitory factor, some prostaglandins) but few stimulating factors. (wikipedia.org)
- While many prolactin stimulating and enhancing factors are well known (such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone, oxytocin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and estrogen) those have primary functions other than stimulating prolactin release and the search for hypothetical releasing factor or factors continues. (wikipedia.org)
- Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Lin, S. H. (2008). (wikipedia.org)
- The epithelial-like GH3 clone generates growth hormone at a greater rate than the GH1 cells and also produces prolactin. (atcc.org)
- Studies on the control of the production of these protein hormones by the GH3 cells have shown that hydrocortisone stimulates the production of growth hormone and inhibits prolactin production. (atcc.org)
- Disorders caused by over-production of the hormone prolactin, such as irregular or missing menstrual periods , stopping of ovulation resulting in infertility , or abnormal production of breast milk in men or women (galactorrhoea). (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Cabergoline is mainly used to treat disorders that result from high levels of the hormone prolactin in the blood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Quinagolide decreases the production of prolactin from the pituitary by stimulating dopamine receptors in the brain. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The anterior lobe is composed of five different endocrine cell types, luteinising hormone (LH)- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-producing cells (gonadotrophs), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing cells (thyrotrophs), growth hormone (GH)-producing cells (somatotrophs), prolactin (PRL)-producing cells (mammotrophs) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-producing cells (corticotrophs). (biomedsearch.com)
- To treat hyperprolactinemia, a disorder caused by overproduction of the hormone prolactin. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Bromocriptine blocks the pituitary from releasing the hormone prolactin, which is involved in the regulation of the menstrual cycle, reproduction, and milk production. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is expressed in most tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- A growth hormone receptor mutation impairs growth hormone autofeedback signaling in pituitary tumors. (semanticscholar.org)
- Pituitary tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms that are classified based on clinical manifestations, hormone excess, and histomorphologic features. (semanticscholar.org)
- To correlate the clinical, hormonal and radiological characteristics of the patients with pituitary tumors with the hormonal receptors status. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- However, pituitary tumors that do not actively secrete hormones may still harbour receptors to various hormones. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- So far there is very little information in the literature about the type of receptors present in these tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Pituitary tumors represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- 5 ] Carcinomas account for 0.1% to 0.2% of all pituitary tumors. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- More recently he has been examining the association of peroxisome prolilerator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg) with more aggressive thyroid cancer and has shown that its depletion slows the growth of thyroid tumors in an orthotopic mouse model of thyroid cancer. (ucdenver.edu)
- Growth arrest of thyrotropic tumors by thyroid hormone is correlated with novel changes in Wnt 10a. (ucdenver.edu)
- mAbs capable of down-modulating the receptor expression are known to reverse the transformed phenotype and inhibit the growth of experimental tumors ( 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
- There are positive effects these can do, but you've got to wonder whether these people using growth hormones as anti-aging are going to have higher risk of diabetes or tumors,' said Salvatori, who is not associated with the Ecuadorian study. (cnn.com)
- 2. Asa SL, Ezzat S. The pathogenesis of pituitary tumors. (pituitary.org)
- At least two forms of GnRH exist within a single species, and several corresponding GnRH receptors (GNRHRs) have been isolated with one form being pituitary specific. (bioone.org)
- Administration of a potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist [Nac-L-Ala1,pCl-D-Phe2,D-Trp3,u>GnRH as a single subcutaneous injection to castrated adult male rats reduced, by more than 90 percent, both serum luteinizing hormone concentrations and specific pituitary GnRH receptor binding. (sciencemag.org)
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor protein (GnRH.cntdot.RP) purified to homogeneity has several binding sites for its effector hormone, as evidenced from the concentration dependence binding curve. (eurekamag.com)
- Pituitary cells from ovariectomized WT or PRKO mice cultured ± 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) for 3 days were challenged with hourly pulses of 1 nM GnRH or 54 mM K + . A background of E 2 had no effect on the initial LH secretory response for either WT or PRKO cells. (elsevier.com)
- Pituitary cells from ovariectomized WT or PRKO mice cultured ± 17β-estradiol (E2) for 3 days were challenged with hourly pulses of 1 nM GnRH or 54 mM K+. (elsevier.com)
- GnRH travels down the anterior portion of the pituitary via the hypophyseal portal system and binds to receptors on the secretory cells of the adenohypophysis . (wikipedia.org)
- Inhibin acts to inhibit activin , which is a peripherally produced hormone that positively stimulates GnRH-producing cells. (wikipedia.org)
- In males, the production of GnRH, LH, and FSH are similar, but the effects of these hormones are different. (wikipedia.org)
- The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its receptors (GnRHRs) expressed in pituitary gonadotrophs, represents a critical molecule in control of reproductive functions in all vertebrate species. (ac.rs)
- GnRH-activated receptors regulate synthesis of gonadotropins in a frequency-dependent manner. (ac.rs)
- The requirement to amplify signals arising from activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor and to rapidly quench the resultant signal to preserve an adaptive response suggests the need for rapid activation and feedback control operating at the level of intracellular signaling. (frontiersin.org)
- Emerging data suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can fulfill this role in the GnRH receptor signaling through activation of MAP kinase signaling cascades, control of negative feedback, and participation in the secretory process. (frontiersin.org)
- The fundamental role of pulsatile stimulation of gonadotropes by the hypothalamic neuropeptide GnRH, or GnRH-I in maintaining function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis is one of the earliest principal findings after discovery of the hormone ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The hypothalamic neuropeptide GnRH and its receptor GnRHR are the prototypic members of a superfamily that has evolutionary roots reaching to the emergence of the bilateria ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Competes with naturally-occurring GnRH for binding on receptors of the pituitary. (drugs.com)
- The pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is a multifunctional gene encoding a 23-kDa, 202-amino acid protein that induces cell transformation in NIH3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- To understand how elevated androgens might act on pituitary gonadotropes to influence reproductive function, female mice with disruption of the androgen receptor (Ar) gene specifically in pituitary gonadotropes (PitARKO) were produced. (jci.org)
- Classical phenotype of Laron syndrome in a girl with a heterozygous mutation and heterozygous polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor gene. (semanticscholar.org)
- We have found associations between mammographic density and two SNPs in the pituitary growth hormone gene, one of them also associated with serum growth hormone levels. (cdc.gov)
- Our results demonstrate that cytotoxic LH-RH analogue AN-207, at the maximum tolerated dose causes only a transient decrease in the gene expression of the pituitary LH-RH receptors, and the levels of mRNA for LH-RH receptor fully recover within 7 days. (elsevier.com)
- Harrington WR, Sheng S, Barnett DH, Petz LN, Katzenellenbogen JA, Katzenellenbogen BS (2003) Activities of estrogen receptor alpha-and beta-selective ligands at diverse estrogen responsive gene sites mediating transactivation or transrepression. (springer.com)
- The syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor β gene ( THRB ). (biomedcentral.com)
- We thus hypothesized that polymorphisms in the human homologous region could modulate the pituitary expression of the mutated gene contributing to the clinical presentation of RTH. (biomedcentral.com)
- Screening and in vitro characterization of polymorphisms of the intron enhancer region of the THRB gene in the index case of pituitary-selective RTH. (biomedcentral.com)
- The index case of pituitary-selective resistance is characterized by the missense R338W exon 9 mutation in cis with two common SNPs, rs2596623T and rs2596622C, located in the intron enhancer region of the THRB gene. (biomedcentral.com)
- Reporter gene assay experiments in GH3 pituitary-derived cells indicate that rs2596623T generates an increased pituitary cell-specific activity of the TR β2 promoter suggesting that rs2596623T leads to pituitary over-expression of the mutant allele. (biomedcentral.com)
- Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene (AIP) mutations are rare in patients with hormone secreting or non-secreting pituitary adenomas. (cdc.gov)
- Recent data suggest that mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene (AIP) are associated with pituitary adenomas. (cdc.gov)
- The major regulatory role of PACAP in pituitary cells appears to be the regulation of gene expression of pituitary hormones and/or regulatory proteins that control growth and differentiation of the pituitary glandular cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- In rodents, when normal somatotrophs are deprived of the RET ligand, GDNF (Glial Cell Derived Neurotrophic Factor), RET is processed intracellularly to induce overexpression of Pit1 [Transcription factor (gene : POUF1) essential for transcription of Pituitary hormones GH, PRL and TSHb], which in turn leads to p19Arf/p53-dependent apoptosis. (cancerindex.org)
- Dr. Wood's research interests lie in the area of pituitary gene expression and regulation and thyroid cancer. (ucdenver.edu)
- He has also been defining the role of an upstream regulatory region in the pituitary cell type dependent activation and repression of the alpha subunit gene. (ucdenver.edu)
- Regulation of pituitary gene expression. (ucdenver.edu)
- Early gene expression changes preceding thyroid hormone induced involution of a thyrotrope tumor. (ucdenver.edu)
- An upstream regulator of the glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene mediates pituitary cell type activation and repression by different mechanisms. (ucdenver.edu)
- The gene for the LHCGR is found on chromosome 2 p21 in humans, close to the FSH receptor gene. (thefullwiki.org)
- [ 1 ] The gene is similar to the gene for the FSH receptor and the TSH receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
- The severely short Ecuadorians in the study have a specific mutation in their growth hormone receptor gene. (cnn.com)
- 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3, calcitriol] binds to a corresponding intranuclear receptor and interacts with various cell cycle regulators identified in numerous genes involved in cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and invasion by tumor cells such as the human p21/WAF1, cyclin A and cyclin E, human c-fos and c-myc, and the human retinoblastoma gene [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is encoded by a large gene located on chromosome 12q13-14 and forms a heterodimer with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and both VDR and RXRs are the members of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Context: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are fairly common and require a multidisciplinary approach. (diva-portal.org)
- Immune Cell Infiltrates in Pituitary Adenomas: More Macrophages in Larger Adenomas and More T Cells in Growth Hormone Adenomas. (semanticscholar.org)
- The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review. (semanticscholar.org)
- 4 ] Invasive adenomas, which account for approximately 35% of all pituitary neoplasms, may invade the dura mater, cranial bone, or sphenoid sinus. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- In addition to cell-type specific presentations, pituitary apoplexy (i.e., pituitary adenoma apoplexy) represents another important clinical presentation of pituitary adenomas. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Somatotropinomas, but not nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, maintain a functional apoptotic RET/Pit1/ARF/p53 pathway that is blocked by excess GDNF. (cancerindex.org)
- Our purpose was to ascertain whether human ACROs maintain the RET/Pit1/p14ARF/p53/apoptosis pathway, relative to nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). (cancerindex.org)
- Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in normal human volunteers: occult adenomas in the general population. (pituitary.org)
- Incidental pituitary adenomas. (pituitary.org)
- 15. Tomita T, Gates E. Pituitary adenomas and granular cellt umors: incidence, cell type, and location of tumor in 100 pituitary glands at autopsy. (pituitary.org)
- 16. McComb DJ, Ryan N, Horvath E, Kovacs K. Subclinical adenomas of the human pituitary. (pituitary.org)
- Localization of pituitary adenomas by using intraoperative ultrasound in patients with Cushing's disease and no demonstrable pituitary tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. (pituitary.org)
- Acromegaly disease is almost always caused by pituitary GH overexpressing adenomas [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- PRINCIPLES: Pituitary adenomas are common intracranial neoplasms that generate symptoms as a result of either mass effect or the increased production of pituitary hormones. (uzh.ch)
- CONCLUSIONS: This study validates MIB-1 (Ki-67) as a reliable marker of tumour recurrence in pituitary adenomas. (uzh.ch)
- The present study was designed to characterize the regulation of the type II corticosteroid receptor (GR) mRNA in two tissues involved in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (nih.gov)
- In summary, these data have demonstrated tissue-specific regulation of GR mRNA in the hippocampus and anterior pituitary, which is dependent on both the dose and length of treatment and, in addition, on the glucocorticoid itself. (nih.gov)
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis ( HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a critical part in the development and regulation of a number of the body's systems, such as the reproductive and immune systems. (wikia.com)
- Regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for corticotropin releasing hormone receptor in the pituitary during stress. (semanticscholar.org)
- The role of glucocorticoids on CRH receptor regulation was studied by analysis of the effects of stress on CRH receptor mRNA and CRH binding in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats with and without corticosterone replacement in the drinking water. (semanticscholar.org)
- The increased pituitary CRH receptor mRNA after stress suggests that stress-induced CRH receptor down-regulation is due to increased receptor occupancy and internalization rather than to a decrease in receptor synthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
- In addition, increased VP levels are permissive for the down-regulation of CRH binding induced by chronic pituitary exposure to stress levels of CRH. (semanticscholar.org)
- Impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its feedback regulation in serotonin transporter knockout mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- The hypothalamic- pituitary (HP) unit is highly sensitive to the actions of estrogen, although several aspects of estrogen effects upon the development and regulation of the HP unit remain partially unknown. (springer.com)
- He has worked on the molecular determinants governing thyrotrope expression and thyroid hormone (TH) regulation of the thyrotropin subunit genes. (ucdenver.edu)
- In related studies he has been investigating the regulation of pituitary cell growth by TH. (ucdenver.edu)
- Antipsychotics can antagonise the D 2 receptors in the hypothalamic temperature regulation system, leading to problems with temperature control. (mhra.gov.uk)
- In the processes of pituitary organogenesis, these endocrine cells are terminally differentiated under control of numerous signalling factors and transcription factors whose expression and function are coordinated under spatial-temporal regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
- The thyroid produces hormones (T3 and T4) that have many actions including metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and the regulation of many other important hormones. (hindawi.com)
- These results indicate that in adult male rats, Ang II, which has been shown to be synthesized in gonadotropes, can directly stimulate PRL and ACTH release from lactotropes and corticotropes through activation of AT1B receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
- Cortisol or stress hormones stimulates the release of ACTH, while the adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoids to the body's metabolism. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- They may also be used to treat tumours that make too much thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (cancer.ca)
- These five receptors are activated by the hormone ACTH and have a variety of different functions in cells, including helping an organism recover from a chronic stress event. (du.edu)
- Three more groups underwent pretreatment with corticosterone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), or corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mirroring the glucocorticoid response of the hypoglycemic group. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Condition likely caused by a 'pituitary tumor' causing hyperadrenocorticism mediated by excess ACTH. (sporcle.com)
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls reproduction. (jci.org)
- Our data identify increased age-related negative feedback and local PVN cortisol production as potential mechanisms decreasing PVN drive to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity that result in the age-related circulating cortisol fall. (nih.gov)
- Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is heritable and associated with blood levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in pituitary growth hormone (GH1) and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) genes for an association with mammographic density, hormones of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis, and anthropometric variables. (cdc.gov)
- Hormonal Control of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis", K.W. McKerns and Z. Naor, eds. (springer.com)
- We have explored the role of individual elements of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis on the pathogenesis of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure. (diabetesjournals.org)
- this action is not mediated via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has a critical role in coordinating the integrative response to a variety of stressful stimuli, including hypoglycemia ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- It is equally possible, however, that other hormones in the HPA axis may be important in modifying this response. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Central to this axis is the pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes by hypothalamic neurons through episodic release of the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (frontiersin.org)
- Studies in nonhuman primates demonstrated the requirement for pulsatile stimulation of the pituitary to maintain the reproductive axis ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The hypothalamo-pituitary axis controls a wide range of homeostatic processes, including growth, stress, and reproduction. (pnas.org)
- Reproduction in all vertebrates is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. (pnas.org)
- hypothalamic -pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. (bioportfolio.com)
- This study will evaluate the function of cortisol receptors to determine their roles in maintaining PTSD HPA axis dysregulation. (bioportfolio.com)
- One possibility is that patients with PTSD have an increased number of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and/or increased GR sensitivity, causing hyper-suppression of HPA axis. (bioportfolio.com)
- CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. (hindawi.com)
- Objective: We aimed to characterize the somatostatin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor distribution for NFPAs and compare it with factors of tumor aggressiveness. (diva-portal.org)
- Design: Tumor samples for immunohistochemistry (n = 145) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (n = 106) analyses of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR5, estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunoreactive score (IRS) andmessenger RNA relative quantity and retrospectively compared with variables of aggressiveness. (diva-portal.org)
- The blockage of these receptors by various medications may enable us to stop the tumor from growing or recurring after surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Also correlating the receptor status with the clinical, hormonal and radiological profile of the patients may help to develop improved treatment strategies in the future and help us to predict the possibility of tumor regrowth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Pituitary insufficiency, which is due to compression of the pituitary stalk or destruction of normal pituitary tissue by the tumor, and predominantly manifests as secondary hypogonadism. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- from a pituitary tumor carried in a 7-month-old female Wistar-Furth rat. (atcc.org)
- The branch of medicine that studies endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete is called endocrinology. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology convened a consensus conference to review the clinical use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
- Semiquantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of full-length chicken GNRHR2 in the pituitary correlate with the reproductive status of birds, with maximum levels observed during the peak of lay and 4 wk postphotostimulation in females and males, respectively. (bioone.org)
- We have used a solution hybridization/S1 nuclease protection assay to quantitate GR mRNA levels in the rat hippocampus and anterior pituitary after CRF, dexamethasone (DEX), or corticosterone (CORT) treatment. (nih.gov)
- In marked contrast to Gr mRNA in the hippocampus, ADX did not alter anterior pituitary GR mRNA expression, and glucocorticoid treatment led to an increase in GR mRNA levels. (nih.gov)
- Seven days after treatment with AN-207, the mRNA levels for the LH-RH receptors and the serum LH concentration were back to normal in both sexes. (elsevier.com)
- Although in 6-day ADX rats pituitary CRH receptor mRNA levels were markedly reduced after acute immobilization, glucocorticoid replacement restored the stimulatory effect of stress to levels observed in intact rats. (semanticscholar.org)
- Examples of such functions are documented in the pancreas, but recent results suggest that GABA may act in a similar way in the pituitary, in which GABA receptors are expressed and pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells provide a source of GABA. (uni-muenchen.de)
- To test this hypothesis we first examined the nature of GABA receptors expressed by GH cells. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Laser microdissection of immunostained GH cells, followed by RT-PCR as well as immunoelectron microscopy, showed that GABA-B receptors are expressed on somatotropes. (uni-muenchen.de)
- To investigate GABA-B receptor function in somatotropes, we used rat GH3 adenoma cells, which, like pituitary GH cells, express GABA-B R1 and R2 (as assessed by RT-PCR and immunoelectron microscopy) and produce GABA (checked by high performance liquid chromatography). (uni-muenchen.de)
- We conclude that in GH-producing cells, GABA acts as an autocrine factor via GABA-B receptors to control GH levels. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. (uchicago.edu)
- Specialized cells of the nervous system also produce hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In vitro, a continuous perfusion of pituitary cells with 10 nM AN-207 did not affect the hormone-releasing function of the targeted LH cells or the nontargeted GH cells. (elsevier.com)
- Expression of AT1B receptor mRNA was present in 33.9 +/- 1.0% of anterior pituitary cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Dual labeling for leptin proteins and growth hormone (GH) or gonadotropins, showed that the rise in leptin protein-bearing cells from diestrus to proestrus was mainly in GH cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- All pituitary hormones bind to membrane receptors on target cells and use cAMP as a second messenger. (scribd.com)
- Chief cells produce parathyroid hormone. (scribd.com)
- These receptors exist on target cells and organs. (encyclopedia.com)
- The intermediate lobe is just a thin layer of cells separating the anterior and posterior lobes, but it does produce and secrete a single hormone. (brighthub.com)
- We also report that in the index case of PRTH a common SNP in the ICR stimulates over-activation of the TR β2 promoter in pituitary cells in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
- Pro-opiomelanocortin, a common precursor of melanocortin peptides and other peptide hormones, was expressed in the neural retinas as well as in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- There is a family of biological receptors on cells called the melanocortin receptors (MCRs). (du.edu)
- Human and rodent somatotroph cells express the RET receptor. (cancerindex.org)
- A Rexinoid Antagonist Increases TSHβ mRNA in Thyrotrope Cells and Increases the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Set Point in Mice. (ucdenver.edu)
- Thyroid hormone receptor beta 2 promoter activity in pituitary cells is regulated by Pit-1. (ucdenver.edu)
- The thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback on cells that produce TSH, causing them to shut down production. (cdc.gov)
- The iodine is what the cells need to make the thyroid hormone. (cdc.gov)
- The iodine hormone exerts its action on receptors on the nucleus in cells. (cdc.gov)
- It regulates the receptor for cholesterol, takes it out of the blood stream and puts it into the cells. (cdc.gov)
- Control of growth hormone production by a clonal strain of rat pituitary cells. (atcc.org)
- Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by granulosa cells of developing follicles and plays an inhibiting role in the cyclic process of follicular recruitment by determining follicle-stimulating h. (bioportfolio.com)
- Significant quantitative and qualitative transition in pituitary stem / progenitor cells occurs during the postnatal development of the rat anterior pituitary. (biomedsearch.com)
- We reported recently that a pituitary-specific transcription factor PROP1 is present in SOX2-positive cells and disappears at the early stage of the transition from progenitor cell to committed cell during the embryonic development of the rat pituitary. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the present study, we examined the localisation and identification of SOX2-positive and PROP1/SOX2-positive cells in the neonatal and postnatal rat pituitaries by immunohistochemistry. (biomedsearch.com)
- Quantitative analysis of immunoreactive cells demonstrated that SOX2-positive pituitary stem/progenitor cells are not only predominantly localised in the marginal cell layer, but also are scattered in the parenchyma of the adult anterior lobe. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the marginal cell layer, the number of PROP1/SOX2-positive cells significantly decreased after postnatal day 15, indicating that a significant quantitative transition is triggered in the marginal cell layer during the first postnatal growth wave of the anterior pituitary. (biomedsearch.com)
- By contrast, other phenotypes of SOX2-positive stem/progenitor cells that express S100β appeared in the postnatal anterior pituitary. (biomedsearch.com)
- After being released by neurosecretory cells of the brain, the thoracotropic hormone is carried by the blood to the prothoracic glands, where it stimulates the release of ecdysone in insects or crustecdysone in crustaceans, steroid h. (britannica.com)
- We use a number of model systems (pituitary cells, cell lines, transgenic animals) to study signal pathways for a hypothalamic peptide hormone, TRH, which acts via a G protein coupled receptor to increase cytoplasmic calcium and protein kinase C activity. (rochester.edu)
- The drug activates certain chemical receptor sites in brain cells to reduce Parkinson's symptoms. (wholehealthmd.com)
- The molecular cell biology of anterior pituitary cells 3. (bookdepository.com)
- The biology of pituitary stem cells 5. (bookdepository.com)
- Question 2 of 60 1.67/ 1.667 Points Hormones that bind to receptors inside of target cells are usually A. proteins. (bartleby.com)
- The objectives of this study were to isolate a chicken pituitary-specific GNRHR and to determine its expression pattern during a reproductive cycle. (bioone.org)
- Five hours after a single i.v. injection of AN-207 at 175 nmol/kg, there was a 39-51% decrease in mRNA expression for the pituitary LH-RH-receptors in male and female rats. (elsevier.com)
- The carrier, at an equimolar dose, caused a similar reduction (37-39%), whereas the cytotoxic radical AN-201, at an equitoxic dose (110 nmol/kg), produced only a 12-24% decrease (NS) in the mRNA expression of LH-RH-receptors. (elsevier.com)
- AN-207, the carrier, and AN-201 had no significant effect on the expression of mRNA for GH-RH-receptors in the pituitary. (elsevier.com)
- Ontogeny of estrogen receptor-beta expression in rat testis. (biomedsearch.com)
- To determine the expression of hormonal receptors in clinically non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas by RT - PCR and immunohistochemistry. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study was designed to learn more about the changes in expression of rat anterior pituitary (AP) leptin during the estrous cycle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Acute stress caused time- and stress type-dependent changes in pituitary CRH receptor expression. (semanticscholar.org)
- Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Expression in the Pituitary of Fetal Sheep after Lesion of the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus1. (semanticscholar.org)
- Recent data demonstrated that in mice an intron enhancer region plays a critical role in the pituitary expression of the β2 isoform of the receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
- The major aim of the present study was to examine their expression and other pituitary hormones at transcriptional level. (nii.ac.jp)
- Since their expression levels in the neural retinas were very low when compared with those in the pituitary, it is possible that they act as local mediators to regulate ocular development. (nii.ac.jp)
- The protein regulates expression of several genes involved in pituitary development and hormone expression. (cancerindex.org)
- In addition, Abs induced by a combination of two vaccines, MVF HER-2 316-339 and MVF HER-2 628-647 down-modulated receptor expression and activated IFN-γ release better than the individual vaccines. (jimmunol.org)
- Expression of the human thyroid-specific proteins, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) and thyroglobulin (TG) in non-thyroid tissue is well-documented. (springer.com)
- Bockmann J, Winter C, Wittkowski W, Kreutz MR, Bockers TM (1997) Cloning and expression of a brain-derived TSH-receptor. (springer.com)
- METHODS: Tumour tissue from 25 patients was evaluated for immunohistochemical expression of somatostatin receptors 1‒5, von Willebrand-factor (vWF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), kinesin spindle protein (Eg5) and MIB-1 (Ki-67), and its relationship with clinical features was analysed. (uzh.ch)
- Of note, 67% of all relapses were associated with tumours showing luteinising hormone expression. (uzh.ch)
- Considering the consistently increased expression of Eg5, IL-8, VEGFR-2, somatostatin receptors and vWF in these tumours, further investigation as potential therapeutic targets is warranted. (uzh.ch)
- Hormones regulate many biological processes, including growth and metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of cell metabolism and affect many other processes, including reproduction. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It secretes a quantity of peptides and glycoprotein hormones that help regulate the growth, metabolism, reproduction and stress response. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- This hormone helps regulate the body's growth, metabolism, and composition. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- Altered corticosteroid metabolism differentially affects pituitary corticotropin response. (semanticscholar.org)
- The thyroid hormone regulates energy and fat metabolism and protein synthesis by regulating different enzymes that are involved in those processes. (cdc.gov)
- Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. (hindawi.com)
- Thyroid hormone (T 3 ) regulates growth, development, and differentiation in vertebrates. (aacrjournals.org)
- This hormone is a tropic hormone as it regulates cortisol and androgen production to the adrenal cortex. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- For females, FSH helps produce estrogen , which is a group of sex hormones that help promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics in the human body, For males, FSH helps produce spermatogenesis and regulates sperm function in the male body. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- These hormones are central to the complex endocrine system that regulates normal growth, sexual development, and reproductive function [ PMID: 6177696 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Each of these two posterior pituitary hormones have primary physiological effects, as well as secondary effects. (brighthub.com)
- When the concentration of water falls, the posterior pituitary releases ADH. (brighthub.com)
- AntiDiuretic Hormone is transported to the Posterior Pituitary via what tract? (sporcle.com)
- The TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). (wikipedia.org)
- The TSH, in turn, stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormone until levels in the blood return to normal. (wikipedia.org)
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) that stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine (T4) and, to a lesser degree, triiodothyronine (T3). (wikipedia.org)
- Vasopressin stimulates a family of arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptors, oxytocin receptors, and purinergic receptors (Russell 2011). (drugs.com)
- It is the hormone that stimulates the production of breast milk. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- In females, the positive feedback loop between estrogen and luteinizing hormone help to prepare the follicle in the ovary and the uterus for ovulation and implantation. (wikipedia.org)
- Too little insulin causes diabetes, too little estrogen weakens the bones of older women, and too much growth hormone causes people to grow without stopping. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These molecules, collectively named selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), are provided with obvious pharmacological applications, but they may also serve in the characterization of the complex mode of action of estrogen in different physiological systems. (springer.com)
- Similarly, estrogen receptor (ER)-selective ligands have been recently identified or engineered, thus providing an experimental tool to dissect out the contribution of each of the two major ER isoforms (ERot and ERP) in signaling the plethora of estrogen effects in multiple target tissues. (springer.com)
- Frasor J, Barnett DH, Danes JM, Hess R, Parlow AF, Katzenellengogen BS (2003) Response-specific and ligand dose-dependent modulation of estrogen receptor (ER) α activity by ERβ in the uterus. (springer.com)
- Harris HA, Katzenellenbogen JA, Katzenellenbogen BS (2002) Characterization of the biological roles of estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, in estrogen target tissues in vivo through the use of an ERα-selective ligand. (springer.com)
- Kuiper GGJM, Shughrue PJ, Merchenthaler I, Gustafsson J-A (1998) The estrogen receptor β subtype: A novel mediator of estrogen actions in neuroendocrine systems. (springer.com)
- Meyers MJ, Sun J, Carlson KE, Marriner GA, Katzenellenbogen BS, Katzenellenbogen JA (2001) Estrogen receptor-β potency-selective ligands: structure-activity relationship studies of diarylpropionitriles and their acetylene and polar analogues. (springer.com)
- Black cohosh root also seems to have some effects similar to the female hormone, estrogen. (webmd.com)
- These rats show losses in both the growth hormone (GH) and the reproductive system axes and are morbidly obese. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This hormone plays an important part in the reproductive system and is responsible for ovarian follicles. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- Findings in the field of neuroendocrinology, which explores the functional relationships between hormones and the brain, have indicated that the release of testicular (androgens) and ovarian (estrogens) hormones during critical periods of brain development exert a profound effect on the genesis and survival of neurons in specific brain areas, resulting in sex differences in reproductive behaviors. (encyclopedia.com)
- Do serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) change in women of reproductive age following dietary and surgery-induced weight loss? (bioportfolio.com)
- Human type I pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor (ADCYAP1R): localization to chromosome band 7p14 and integration into the cytogenetic, physical, and genetic map of chromosome 7. (uchicago.edu)
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, but not activins, contributes to the regulated transcription utilizing the protein kinase A signaling pathway, whereas a mechanisms by which steroid hormones modulate Gnrhr transcription has not been well characterized. (ac.rs)
- Here we report that gradients of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a neuropeptide widely expressed in the developing nervous system, induce marked attraction of Xenopus growth cones in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
- Quantification of Müllerian Inhibiting Substance/Anti-Müllerian Hormone polypeptide by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (bioportfolio.com)
- Hormone polypeptide by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (bioportfolio.com)
- Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system. (uchicago.edu)
- Reduced activity of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in transgenic mice with impaired glucocorticoid receptor function. (semanticscholar.org)
- This factor, named gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), is synthesized in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in birds - . (plos.org)
- Small assemblies of hypothalamic "parvocellular" neurons release their neuroendocrine signals at the median eminence (ME) to control long-lasting pituitary hormone rhythms essential for homeostasis. (pnas.org)
- The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. (uniprot.org)
- The action of hormones are transduced by regulating the synthesis of proteins (5% of proteins in the body are regulated by thyroid hormone). (cdc.gov)
- In addition, we use biochemical and genetic approaches to identify proteins that interact with the receptor during biosynthesis, signaling and desensitization. (rochester.edu)
- The endocrine system is the human body ' s group of specialized organs and tissues that produce, store, and secrete chemical hormones. (encyclopedia.com)
- Each of these glands secrete hormones (chemical messengers) into the blood stream. (encyclopedia.com)
- Although some ancient cultures noted biological observations grounded in endocrine function, modern understanding of endocrine glands and how they secrete hormones has evolved only in the last 300 years. (encyclopedia.com)
- Secrete hormones which influence other glands & body function 3. (scribd.com)
Thyroid hormone receptors3
- Triiodothyronine binds to specific receptors (thyroid hormone receptors, TR), which belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Feedback loop interrupted on the level of pituitary thyroid hormone receptors. (wikipedia.org)
- 1. Thyroid hormone receptors and their role in cell proliferation and cancer' 2. (bookdepository.com)
- This hormone has many functions in a diverse physiological role. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- Once a target site is bound by a particular hormone, a cascade of cellular events follows that culminates in the physiological response to a particular hormone. (encyclopedia.com)
- Therefore the presence of pituitary plasma membrane-bound LHRH-degrading enzymes may be of potential physiological significance. (springer.com)
- These results provide a broad physiological mechanism for the dialogue that occurs between the brain and pituitary to dictate hormone rhythms over multiple timescales, from ultradian to seasonal. (pnas.org)
- These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD). (hindawi.com)
- They may also be used to treat thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing tumours and gonadotropin-producing tumours. (cancer.ca)
- Glycoprotein hormones (or gonadotropins) are protein hormones, that includes the mammalian hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, also known as follitropin), luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, also known as thyrotropin) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (ebi.ac.uk)
- In mammals the LH receptor is also the receptor for the placental hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), so is denominated as a lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor (LHCG receptor). (ebi.ac.uk)
- The recent identification of an avian hypothalamic dodecapeptide that inhibits pituitary gonadotropin release implies that such a factor might exist in vertebrates . (plos.org)
- The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of a temporary ovarian suppression obtained by administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist during alkylating agents co. (bioportfolio.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs revolutionized the treatment of central precocious puberty. (aappublications.org)
- Other key areas, such as the psychosocial effects of central precocious puberty and their alteration by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, need additional study. (aappublications.org)
- Few controlled prospective studies have been performed with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children, and many conclusions rely in part on collective expert opinion. (aappublications.org)
- The conference did not endorse commonly voiced concerns regarding the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, such as promotion of weight gain or long-term diminution of bone mineral density. (aappublications.org)
- Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs for conditions other than central precocious puberty requires additional investigation and cannot be suggested routinely. (aappublications.org)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas) are standard of care for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP). (aappublications.org)
- Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. (biochemj.org)
- The effect of sex steroids on pituitary luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor number and affinity was studied in adult castrated male and female rats treated for 2 weeks with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone (T), 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or progesterone (P) alone or in combination. (elsevier.com)
- Treatment for 2 weeks with T, DHT or Buserelin completely abolishes the luteinizing hormone (LH) response to 200 ng LHRh while there is a tendency for increased responsiveness after E 2 treatment and no change after administration of P alone. (elsevier.com)
- The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor ( LHCGR ), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor ( LCGR ) or luteinizing hormone receptor ( LHR ) is a transmembrane receptor found in ovary, testis and extragonodal organs like uterus, that receptor interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropins (such as hCG in humans) and represents a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (thefullwiki.org)
- It has also been called luteinizing hormone receptor ( LHR ). (bionity.com)
- This delays luteinizing hormone surge, preventing ovulation until the follicles are of adequate size. (drugs.com)
- Inhibits premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. (drugs.com)
- PACAP exerted its chemoattractive effects through PAC1, a PACAP-selective G-protein-coupled receptor (GPRC) expressed at the growth cone. (jneurosci.org)
- Glycoprotein hormone receptors are members the rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Their action is mediated through the binding to specific G-protein-coupled membrane receptors. (novapublishers.com)
- The PACAP receptor is G protein-coupled with seven transmembrane domains and also belongs to the VIP receptor family. (nii.ac.jp)
- The cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for GnIH was also identified in the quail pituitary and GnIH was shown to act on the pituitary to suppress synthesis and release of gonadotropins . (plos.org)
- Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Novel Neuropeptides. (wikipedia.org)
- siRNA screen identifies the phosphatase acting on the G protein-coupled thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (rochester.edu)
- Paroxetine is a direct inhibitor of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and increases myocardial contractility. (rochester.edu)
- Those that cause growth hormone (GH) excess and acromegaly are subdivided into morphologic variants that have not yet been shown to have pathogenetic significance or predictive value for therapy and outcome. (semanticscholar.org)
- Janus kinase 2 influences growth hormone receptor metalloproteolysis. (semanticscholar.org)
- Targeting N-cadherin through fibroblast growth factor receptor-4: distinct pathogenetic and therapeutic implications. (semanticscholar.org)
- Janus kinase 2 enhances the stability of the mature growth hormone receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
- A conformationally sensitive GHR [growth hormone (GH) receptor] antibody: impact on GH signaling and GHR proteolysis. (semanticscholar.org)
- GH1 -75A homozygotes had 3.4 more percent density than subjects with at least one G allele (P = 0.04) and also had 32% higher serum growth hormone levels (P = 0.02). (cdc.gov)
- Hormones are the chemical substances that coordinate the activities of living organism growth. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- They are mainly used after surgery to treat tumours that make too much growth hormone and lead to increased growth of the skull and the bones of the face, jaw, hands and feet (a condition called acromegaly). (cancer.ca)
- Growth hormone receptor antagonists are drugs that block growth hormone from working properly. (cancer.ca)
- They are used to control acromegaly caused by growth hormone-producing tumours. (cancer.ca)
- Pegvisomant (Somavert) is the growth hormone receptor antagonist used. (cancer.ca)
- To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the endocrine treatment of hypothalamic-pituitary and growth disorders in survivors of childhood cancer. (medscape.com)
- The following guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of hypothalamic-pituitary and growth disorders commonly encountered in childhood cancer survivors. (medscape.com)
- Although the cellular mechanisms underlying directional sensing and steering of the growth cone remain to be elucidated, extracellular cues likely activate growth cone surface receptors in an asymmetric manner to elicit localized intracellular signaling events, which ultimately control cytoskeletal activities to steer the growth cone. (jneurosci.org)
- We have demonstrated previously that immunoreactive α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and growth hormone (GH) are expressed in developing chicken retinas with developmentally regulated patterns. (nii.ac.jp)
- Other research endeavors involve the role of somatostatin receptor (sst) subtypes, specifically sst 5 and 1, in thyrotrope growth arrest by TH and the interface of TRs via sst5 with the cell cycle apparatus. (ucdenver.edu)
- Control of thyrotrope cell growth by thyroid hormone. (ucdenver.edu)
- To develop a multiepitope vaccine, 12 high ranking B cell epitopes were identified from the extracellular domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) oncoprotein by computer-aided analysis. (jimmunol.org)
- Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), 3 a member of epidermal growth factor receptor family, is overexpressed at high levels in a wide variety of human cancers, including breast, ovarian, colon, gastric, prostate, and lung malignancies ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Although their pituitary glands produce enough growth hormones, their receptors are missing. (cnn.com)
- That inability to bind to receptors means another growth hormone, called insulin-like growth factor-1 is not well-produced. (cnn.com)
- The findings from this study raise questions about the relationship between growth hormones and diseases. (cnn.com)
- We treat adults who become growth hormone deficient with growth hormones. (cnn.com)
- In the West, growth hormones have been used illegally as anti-aging treatments. (cnn.com)
- Growth hormone treatments have been known to improve skin, wrinkles, water muscle retention and help with fat burning, Salvatori said. (cnn.com)
- The people in the Ecuador study have never had growth hormones since birth. (cnn.com)
- There are degrees of growth hormone deficiency. (cnn.com)
- In some cases bromocriptine may be used to treat acromegaly (overproduction of growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, jawbone, and internal organs). (wholehealthmd.com)
- Similarly, it blocks the pituitary from releasing growth hormone. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Epigenetics and pituitary cell growth 8. (bookdepository.com)
- Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized with elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Condition caused by 'hypersecretion of pituitary Growth Hormone (GRH) after maturity' causing enlargement of extremities of skeleton. (sporcle.com)
Lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor1
- Our data implicated upregulation of GEM (a voltage-dependent calcium channel inhibitor) in the pituitary as a potential mechanism for androgen's pathological effects. (jci.org)
- The mechanism regulating pituitary CRH receptors during stress was studied by analysis of the changes in CRH receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) and CRH binding after acute and repeated stress and CRH and vasopressin (VP) administration in intact and adrenalectomized rats. (semanticscholar.org)
- These peptidases may be involved in the mechanism of action of LHRH, by regulating the amount and the duration of action of the decapeptide at its receptor site. (springer.com)
- In a feedback mechanism , these activated kinases phosphorylate the receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
- These data suggested that quantitative and qualitative transition occurs by acquisition of a novel mechanism in terminal differentiation in the postnatal development of the anterior pituitary. (biomedsearch.com)
- Treatment with an anti-LHRH serum leads to an almost complete loss of pituitary LHRH receptors measured 24 h after injection of the antiserum. (elsevier.com)
- The aim was to evaluate the association between serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) level and cumulative live birth rates (LBR) in patients undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatmen. (bioportfolio.com)
- Predictive value of antral follicle count and serum anti-Müllerian hormone: Which is better for live birth prediction in patients aged over 40 with their first IVF treatment? (bioportfolio.com)
- Seminal plasma anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B and serum inhibin B in predicting the outcome of routine IVF fertilization. (bioportfolio.com)
- To analyze the correlations of seminal plasma (sp) anti-Müllerian hormone (spAMH) and inhibin B (spINHB) and serum INHB (serINHB) with semen parameters in oligoasthenospermia patients and explore the. (bioportfolio.com)
- This study aims to measure the relationship between antimüllerian hormone serum level (AMH), as measured by a. (bioportfolio.com)
- To determine the role of hypothalamic CRH and VP on these stress-induced changes, rats were injected for 14 days with CRH, VP, or their combination at doses mimicking stress levels in pituitary portal circulation (1 microgram/day sc). (semanticscholar.org)
- Daily treatment of intact male rats for 2 weeks with Buserelin (200 ng) increased pituitary LHRH receptor concentration while the same treatment in castrated animals reversed by 60% the elevated levels found after orchidectomy. (elsevier.com)
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was infused intracerebroventricularly into rats for 7 d via a miniosmotic pump (1 μg · μl −1 · hr −1 ). (jneurosci.org)
- We also quantified hypothalamic paraventricular nuclear (PVN) arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing hormone, steroid receptors, and pituitary proopiomelanocortin immunohistochemically in 14 of these females at 6-13 years. (nih.gov)
- Inhibition of corticotropin releasing hormone type-1 receptor translation by an upstream AUG triplet in the 5' untranslated region. (semanticscholar.org)
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is widely distributed throughout the brain and acts as a putative neurotransmitter/modulator within the CNS. (jneurosci.org)
- The dissociation rate of the antagonist from pituitary membrane homogenates was fourfold slower than the dissociation rate of a potent agonist. (sciencemag.org)
- A close correlation is found between the number of LHRH binding sites and the total surface area of gonadotrophs, thus suggesting that the changes of receptor number induced by chronic sex steroid or LHRH agonist treatment are associated with parallel changes of surface membrane area rather than to changes of the density of LHRH receptors. (elsevier.com)
- These receptors can trigger a fluxuation in the rate of cytosolic second messenger generation (cAMP or Ca2+), activation of specific protein kinases or changes in membrane potential. (novapublishers.com)
- Like other GPCRs the LHCG receptor possess seven membrane-spanning domains or transmembrane helices . (thefullwiki.org)
- Upon binding of LH to the external part of the membrane spanning receptor, a transduction of the signal takes place that activates the G protein that is bound to the receptor internally. (thefullwiki.org)
- Altering aberrant intracellular trafficking of cell surface membrane receptors by pharmacological chaperones 22. (bookdepository.com)
- The body secretes and circulates 50 different hormones to different organs in the body. (chiropracticscientist.com)
- All of the hormones which it secretes enter the bloodstream directly, without ducts. (brighthub.com)
- The neurohypophysis secretes only two hormones in contrast to the several secreted by the adenohypophysis. (brighthub.com)
- The thyroid secretes thyroxine (T4), & triiodothyronine (T3) that exert effects on peripheral tissues exerting the actions of thyroid hormone. (cdc.gov)