Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Polypeptide hormones produced in the hypothalamus which inhibit the release of pituitary hormones. Used for PHRIH in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.
A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Hormones produced in the testis.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.

Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist. (1/206)

1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis.  (+info)

alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages. (2/206)

The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.  (+info)

Regulation of basal expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme genes by PACAP. (3/206)

We have previously reported that the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is important in the gene regulation of both induction and basal expressions of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to activate the intracellular cAMP/PKA pathway. In the present study, using primary cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells, we determined whether the basal activity of the PACAP receptor might play a role in the maintenance of the basal expression of these enzyme genes via the cAMP/PKA pathway. The potent PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP (6-38) caused a reduction of TH and DBH mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner as well as their enzyme activities and TH protein level. The effects of PACAP (6-38) and the PKA inhibitor H-89 exhibited generally similar trends, and were not additive in the reduction of TH and DBH gene expression and activities, suggesting that they take a common intracellular signaling pathway. The antagonist also caused decreases in the intracellular norepinephrine and epinephrine levels similar to the effect of H-89. Taken together, the data suggests that PACAP is involved in the regulation of maintenance of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes TH and DBH by utilizing the cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

Enhanced expression of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) in normal human keratinocytes during differentiation: evidence for increased expression of POMC peptides near suprabasal layer of epidermis. (4/206)

Immunohistochemical staining of human skin specimen showed the stronger localization of proopiomelanocortin peptides near the suprabasal layer of the epidermis, where keratinocytes are mostly differentiated. To test the possibilities of whether the production of proopiomelanocortin peptides or their receptor-binding activity or both is increased during differentiation of keratinocytes, we treated the cells in culture with Ca2+ to induce their differentiation. The production of proopiomelanocortin peptides and its gene expression were not induced significantly, but the binding ability of melanocortin receptor, as well as its gene expression were stimulated by Ca2+. Ultraviolet B irradiation, an inducer of differentiation, stimulated both proopiomelanocortin production and melanocortin receptor expression. These data show that normal human keratinocytes express melanocortin receptor similar to melanocytes, and that it is induced during differentiation.  (+info)

Expression, pharmacological, and functional evidence for PACAP/VIP receptors in human lung. (5/206)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) type 1 (PAC(1)) and common PACAP/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) type 1 and 2 (VPAC(1) and VPAC(2), respectively) receptors were detected in the human lung by RT-PCR. The proteins were identified by immunoblotting at 72, 67, and 68 kDa, respectively. One class of PACAP receptors was defined from (125)I-labeled PACAP-27 binding experiments (dissociation constant = 5.2 nM; maximum binding capacity = 5.2 pmol/mg protein) with a specificity: PACAP-27 approximately VIP > helodermin approximately peptide histidine-methionine (PHM) >> secretin. Two classes of VIP receptors were established with (125)I-VIP (dissociation constants of 5.4 and 197 nM) with a specificity: VIP approximately helodermin approximately PACAP-27 >> PHM >> secretin. PACAP-27 and VIP were equipotent on adenylyl cyclase stimulation (EC(50) = 1.6 nM), whereas other peptides showed lower potency (helodermin > PHM >> secretin). PACAP/VIP antagonists supported that PACAP-27 acts in the human lung through either specific receptors or common PACAP/VIP receptors. The present results are the first demonstration of the presence of PAC(1) receptors and extend our knowledge of common PACAP/VIP receptors in the human lung.  (+info)

High-voltage-activated calcium current and its modulation by dopamine D4 and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptors in cerebellar granule cells. (6/206)

Cerebellar granule cells were a good mold for electrophysiologic studies at the single neuron level. Two distinct types of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels were present in cerebellar granule cells. These calcium channels change their expression, gating, and pharmacological properties during development, suggesting that calcium channel must be related to the processes of granule cell maturation and excitability. Dopamine inhibited L-type calcium current by activating D4 receptor, and this effect might involve another signaling system with the exception of cAMP system. The functional D4 receptor discovered in cerebellum not only gave a possibility to find other antipsychotics, but also supported the existence of a dopaminergic system in the granule cell involving the D4 receptor. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) could increase intracellular Ca2+ content by activation of Ca2+ channel and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores. The effects were also cAMP-independent. Activating Ca2+ currents might be an important and necessary role of PACAP as a neurotropic factor involved in the control of multiplication, differentiation, and migration of granule cells.  (+info)

Functional characterization of structural alterations in the sequence of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan yields a pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide type 1 receptor-specific antagonist. (7/206)

Maxadilan is a vasodilatory peptide derived from sand flies that is an agonist at the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor. Surprisingly, maxadilan does not share significant sequence homology with PACAP. To examine the relationship between structure and activity of maxadilan, several amino acid substitutions and deletions were made in the peptide. These peptides were examined in vitro for binding to crude membranes derived from rabbit brain, a tissue that expresses PACAP type 1 receptors; and induction of cAMP was determined in PC12 cells, a line that expresses these receptors. The peptides were examined in vivo for their ability to induce erythema in rabbit skin. Substitution of the individual cysteines at positions 1 and 5 or deletion of this ring structure had little effect on activity. Substitution of either cysteine at position 14 or 51 eliminated activity. Deletion of the 19 amino acids between positions 24 and 42 resulted in a peptide with binding, but no functional activity. The capacity of this deletion mutant to interact with COS cells transfected with the PACAP type 1 receptor revealed that this peptide was a specific antagonist to the PACAP type 1 receptor.  (+info)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides directly stimulate sympathetic neuron neuropeptide Y release through PAC(1) receptor isoform activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. (8/206)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAP) have potent regulatory and neurotrophic activities on superior cervical ganglion (SCG) sympathetic neurons with pharmacological profiles consistent for the PACAP-selective PAC(1) receptor. Multiple PAC(1) receptor isoforms are suggested to determine differential peptide potency and receptor coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways. The current studies examined rat SCG PAC(1) receptor splice variant expression and coupling to intracellular signaling pathways mediating PACAP-stimulated peptide release. PAC(1) receptor mRNA was localized in over 90% of SCG neurons, which correlated with the cells expressing receptor protein. The neurons expressed the PAC(1)(short)HOP1 receptor but not VIP/PACAP-nonselective VPAC(1) receptors; low VPAC(2) receptor mRNA levels were restricted to ganglionic nonneuronal cells. PACAP27 and PACAP38 potently and efficaciously stimulated both cAMP and inositol phosphate production; inhibition of phospholipase C augmented PACAP-stimulated cAMP production, but inhibition of adenylyl cyclase did not alter stimulated inositol phosphate production. Phospholipase C inhibition blunted neuron peptide release, suggesting that the phosphatidylinositol pathway was a prominent component of the secretory response. These studies demonstrate preferential sympathetic neuron expression of PACAP-selective receptor variants contributing to regulation of autonomic function.  (+info)

Photoaffinity labeling analysis of the interaction of pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) with the PACAP type I receptor -- Cao et al. 244 (2): 400 -- FEBS Journal: YJ Cao, E Kojro, G Gimpl, M Jasionowski, F Kasprzykowski, L Lankiewicz and F Fahrenholz Max-Planck-Institut fur Biophysik, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. To identify residues and domains of…
MC1R encodes the protein known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MSHR), a G protein-coupled receptor that binds to a class of pituitary peptide hormones known as the melanocortins.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) contribute to the cellular uptake of cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). However, molecular details about the contributions of GAGs in CPP internalization remain unclear. In this study, we examined the cellular uptake mechanism of the arginine-rich CPP pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). We observed that the uptake efficacy of PACAP is dependent on the expression of cell surface GAGs. As the binding of PACAP to sulfated GAGs induced a random coil-to-α-helix conformational conversion, we investigated the role of the helical formation in PACAP internalization. Whereas this secondary structure was not crucial for efficient internalization in GAGs-deficient cells, PACAP α-helix was essential for GAGs-dependent uptake.. ...
MCH-1R antibody [C3], C-term (melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1) for WB. Anti-MCH-1R pAb (GTX108185) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Supplementary Materials Appendix EMMM-12-e10889-s001. syndrome (RTT), a severe developmental disorder (Amir duplication syndrome (Vehicle Esch, 2012). Disease\causing mutations in alter the manifestation of thousands of genes (Chahrour knockout mice (KO) present lower BDNF levels, and conditional BDNF deletion in KO mice accelerates the onset of RTT\like symptoms (Chang knockout mice prospects to an improvement of particular locomotor and electrophysiological deficits (Chang (Roux KO mice. Results BDNF transport is definitely slowed in Mecp2\deficient Mouse monoclonal to CD86.CD86 also known as B7-2,is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors.It is expressed at high levels on resting peripheral monocytes and dendritic cells and at very low density on resting B and T lymphocytes. CD86 expression is rapidly upregulated by B cell specific stimuli with peak expression at 18 to 42 hours after stimulation. CD86,along with CD80/B7-1.is ...
PACAP (1-38), Human, Ovine, Rat, 10 mg. Kojro et al. observed that the PAC1 agonists PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 strongly increased the activity of ��-secretase.
PACAP (1-38), Human, Ovine, Rat, 5 mg. Kojro et al. observed that the PAC1 agonists PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 strongly increased the activity of ��-secretase.
Zurück zum Zitat Miyata A, Jiang L, Dahl RD et al (1990) Isolation of a neuropeptide corresponding to the N-terminal 27 residues of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide with 38 residues (PACAP38). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 170:643-648 CrossRefPubMed Miyata A, Jiang L, Dahl RD et al (1990) Isolation of a neuropeptide corresponding to the N-terminal 27 residues of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide with 38 residues (PACAP38). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 170:643-648 CrossRefPubMed ...
Cellular models for the study of the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) have become indispensable tools for pharmacological profiling and signaling analysis of MCH and its synthetic analogues. Although expression of MCH receptors is most abundant in the brain, MCH-R(1) is also found in different peripheral tissues. Therefore, not only cell lines derived from nervous tissue but also from peripheral tissues that naturally express MCH receptors have been used to study receptor signaling and regulation. For screening of novel compounds, however, heterologous expression of MCH-R(1) or MCH-R(2) genes in HEK293, Chinese hamster ovary, COS-7, or 3T3-L1 cells, or amplified MCH-R(1) expression/signaling in IRM23 cells transfected with the G(q) protein gene are the preferred tools because of more distinct pharmacological effects induced by MCH, which include inhibition of cAMP formation, stimulation of inositol triphosphate production, increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) and/or activation ...
A fresh marine sediment certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7306-a, for butyltin and phenyltin analysis has been prepared and certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). of analytes in sample preparations. Tropolone was used as chelating agent in all the extraction methods. Certified values are given for TBT 443?g kg?1 as Sn, DBT 51 2?g kg?1 as Sn, MBT 67 625115-55-1 manufacture 3?g kg?1 as Sn, TPhT 6.9 1.2?g kg?1 as Sn, and DPhT 3.4 1.2?g kg?1 as Sn. These levels are less than in additional sediment CRMs designed for analysis of organotin chemical substances currently. option of NaBEt4 was ready inside a glove package that was purged with N2 gas. Additional chemicals used had been of analytical reagent quality. Pure water made by usage of a Milli-Q water-purification program (resistivity 18?M cm, Nihon Millipore Kogyo, Tokyo, Japan) was used through the entire experiments. Synthesis from the ...
One of the first studies to show convincing proof of agonist-specific states was transfection studies using the type-1 pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor. The agonists (PACAP-27 and -38) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) with equal potencies, but only PACAP-38 could invoke the inositol phosphate response through phospholipase C (PLC) (Spengler et al., 1993). In subsequent work, the authors document the existence of a new splice variant of the PACAP receptor that was characterized by a 21-amino acid deletion in the N-terminal extracellular domain. They demonstrated that this domain modulates the receptor selectivity with respect to PACAP-27 and -38 binding and controls the relative potencies of the two agonists in phospholipase C stimulation (Pantaloni et al., 1996).. One of the first examples of agonist-specific states from mutational analysis was a Cys to Phe mutation in TM3 of the α1b-AR, a helix-turn below the critical Asp 125 involved in binding the ...
21 April 2017:. A new paper from CNBP researchers (lead author Wenjie Chen pictured) reports on the design of a new light-triggerable liposome. The work has just been published in the journal Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acid and is accessible online.. Journal: Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acid.. Title: Light-triggerable liposomes for enhanced endo/lysosomal escape and gene silencing in PC12 cells.. Authors: Wenjie Chen, Wei Deng, Ewa M. Goldys.. Abstract: Liposomes are an effective gene/drug delivery system, widely used in biomedical applications including gene therapy and chemotherapy. Here we designed a photo-responsive liposome (lipVP) loaded with a photosensitizer verteporfin (VP). This photosensitizer is clinically approved for photodynamic therapy (PDT). LipVP was employed as a DNA carrier for pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (PAC1R) gene knockdown in PC12 cells. This has been done by incorporating PAC1R antisense oligonucleotides inside the lipVP cavity. ...
Melanokortin 1 receptor (MC1R), takođe poznat kao melanocit-stimulišući hormon receptor (MSHR), melanin-aktivirajući peptidni receptor, ili melanotropin receptor, jeste G protein-spregnuti receptor koji vezuje klasu pituitarni peptidnih hormona koji su poznati kao melanokortini.[1] U ovu grupu hormona se ubrajaju adrenokortikotropski hormon (ACTH) i različite forme melanocit-stimulišućih hormona (MSH). MC1R je jedan od ključnih proteina koji učestvuju u regulaciji sisarske boje kože i kose. On je lociran na membrani plazme specijalizovanih ćelija koje se zovu melanociti. Te ćelije proizvode pigment melanin procesom melanogeneze. Ovaj receptor kontroliše tip proizvedenog melanina. Aktivacija ovog receptor uzrokuje da melanociti pređu sa generisanja žutog ili crvenog feomelanina na smeđi ili crni eumelanin.. ...
Come cells may end up being handy magic size systems for medication finding and modelling human being illnesses while very well while to investigate cellular relationships and molecular occasions in the early phases of advancement. In basic principle, inbuilt elements such as cell features and extrinsic components launched by developing of come cells can result in growth development and immunological reactions after come cell transplantation. Restorative study displays there are many natural queries concerning security problems of come cell medical applications. Come cell therapy is definitely a quickly improving field that requires to concentrate even more on getting a extensive technology for evaluating risk. A range of risk elements (from inbuilt to extrinsic) should end up being regarded for secure scientific control cell therapies. farming of control cells which enhances the tumorigenicity risk (23,24). The primary factors behind the high risk for growth advancement by control cell therapy ...
PACAP receptor antibody (adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-PACAP receptor pAb (GTX30026) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Anti-VPAC2 (VIPR2) (ext.) Antibody from Alomone Labs is a highly specific rabbit polyclonal Ab directed against the human protein. Applications: ICC, IFC, LCI, WB. Free samples available. Control antigen included. Lyophilized. Global shipping at room temperature. Your top supplier for VIP and PACAP receptor research!
Fast delivery of MCHR1 knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes of dopamine content and cell proliferation by dexamethsone via pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in PC12 cell. AU - Yang, Ting Ting. AU - Tsao, Chiung Wen. AU - Li, Jin Shiou. AU - Wu, Hung Tsung. AU - Hsu, Chao Tien. AU - Cheng, Juei Tang. PY - 2007/10/9. Y1 - 2007/10/9. N2 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide observed in adrenal gland and sympathetic ganglia to regulate catecholamine synthesis and release. Both PACAP and glucocorticoid showed the activity to elevate catecholamine level through the stimulation of biosynthesis. However, the relationship of glucocorticoid and PACAP for this action is still unclear. Thus, alterations of gene expression, dopamine (DA) content, and cell proliferation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells are employed as indicators to clarify this relationship in the present study. From the analysis of RT-PCR, the mRNA level of PACAP was observed to be raised by dexamethasone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide produces a phase shift associated with induction of mPer expression in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. AU - Minami, Y.. AU - Furuno, K.. AU - Akiyama, M.. AU - Moriya, T.. AU - Shibata, S.. PY - 2002/8/2. Y1 - 2002/8/2. N2 - The main mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Clock genes such as the mouse Period gene (mPer) play a role in this core clock mechanism in the mouse. With brief light exposure during the subjective night, the photic information, which is conveyed directly to the suprachiasmatic nucleus via the retinohypothalamic tract, results in mPer1 and mPer2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are co-stored in the retinohypothalamic tract. Recent studies have suggested that not only glutamate but also PACAP are key players in the phase shift that occurs during subject night; however, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on elevated plus maze behavior and hypothermia induced by morphine withdrawal. AU - Lipták, Nándor. AU - Dochnal, Roberta. AU - Babits, Anikó. AU - Csabafi, Krisztina. AU - Szakács, Júlia. AU - Tóth, Gábor. AU - Szabó, Gyula. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on morphine withdrawal-induced behavioral changes and hypothermia in male CFLP mice. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and jump tests were used to assess naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced behavior responses. Different doses of subcutaneous (s.c.) naloxone, (0.1 and 0.2. mg/kg, respectively) were used to precipitate the emotional and psychical aspects of withdrawal on EPM and 1. mg/kg (s.c.) was used to induce the somatic withdrawal signs such as jumping, and the changes in body temperature. In our EPM studies, naloxone ...
Article Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the regulation of hsp27 signaling during neuronal differentiation. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) i...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP): Assessment of dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation, insulin-releasing activity and antidiabetic potential. AU - Green, BD. AU - Irwin, Nigel. AU - Flatt, Peter. PY - 2006/6. Y1 - 2006/6. N2 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a member of the glucagon family of peptides. Like other members, most notably glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), PACAP is rapidly degraded by dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV). This study investigated how degradation by DPP IV affected the insulinotropic activity of PACAP, and whether PACAP exerted acute antihyperglycemic properties in normal or ob/ob mice. DPP IV degradation of PACAP(127) over 18 h led to the formation of PACAP(3-27), PACAP(5-27) and ultimately PACAP(6-27). In contrast to 1.4-1.8-fold concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion by PACAP(1-27), these peptide fragments lacked insulinotropic activity. While PACAP(1-27) and PACAP(1-38) generated significant ...
Glutamate signaling is achieved by an elaborate network involving neurons and astrocytes. Hence, it is critical to better understand how neurons and astrocytes interact to coordinate the cellular regulation of glutamate signaling. In these studies, we used rat cortical cell cultures to examine whether neurons or releasable neuronal factors were capable of regulating system xc-(Sxc), a glutamate-releasing mechanism that is expressed primarily by astrocytes and has been shown to regulate synaptic transmission. We found that astrocytes cultured with neurons or exposed to neuronal-conditioned media displayed significantly higher levels of Sxc activity. Next, we demonstrated that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) may be a neuronal factor capable of regulating astrocytes. In support, we found that PACAP expression was restricted to neurons, and that PACAP receptors were expressed in astro-cytes. Interestingly, blockade of PACAP receptors in cultures comprised of astrocytes and
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays several important roles in vasodilation, neurotransmission, neuromodulation and neurotrophy, as well as activation of the trigeminovascular system. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between altered PACAP levels in peripheral blood and different types of headache. The present study enrolled 101 outpatients with headache and 35 healthy control volunteers. Blood samples were collected from the cubital vein and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated. Total mRNA in the PBMCs was extracted and the expression of PACAP mRNA was analyzed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). There was a significant decrease in PACAP mRNA expression in the PBMCs of the migraine (M) group relative to the healthy control group. However, there were no significant differences in PACAP mRNA expression between the control group and tension-type headache (TTH), cluster headache (CH), or medication overuse headache
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays several important roles in vasodilation, neurotransmission, neuromodulation and neurotrophy, as well as activation of the trigeminovascular system. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between altered PACAP levels in peripheral blood and different types of headache. The present study enrolled 101 outpatients with headache and 35 healthy control volunteers. Blood samples were collected from the cubital vein and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated. Total mRNA in the PBMCs was extracted and the expression of PACAP mRNA was analyzed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). There was a significant decrease in PACAP mRNA expression in the PBMCs of the migraine (M) group relative to the healthy control group. However, there were no significant differences in PACAP mRNA expression between the control group and tension-type headache (TTH), cluster headache (CH), or medication overuse headache
Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons ...
PubMed journal article: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide as a neurotransmitter in the canine ileal circular muscle. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
This is a receptor for PACAP-27 and PACAP-38. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. May regulate the release of adrenocorticotropin, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, epinephrine, and catecholamine. May play a role in spermatogenesis and sperm motility. Causes smooth muscle relaxation and secretion in the gastrointestinal tract (By similarity).
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake ...
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake ...
It has been observed that pituitary-adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescued DAergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improved motor alterations induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models. Recently we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in DA-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinsons disease. The behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin), metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B) and PARK7/DJ-1 protein contents were measured before and after PACAP-treatment in both models.. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA- induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. The monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In ...
The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a peptide hormone, which binds to the pituitary adenylate cyclase type I (PAC1) receptor, and is recognized as a factor with pleiotropic physiological functions in many different organ systems. The PAC1R receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor and is part of the glucagon superfamily. The structure for the ectodomains of PAC1 receptor has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and x-ray crystallography. However, the binding pose of PACAP remains debatable as the structure from NMR shows different topology from the structure derived from x-ray crystallography. In this study, we used molecular dynamic simulations to effectively understand the most stable and reliable interaction between this neuropeptide and its receptor. The binding pocket of PAC1 and interaction between PACAP and PAC1 receptor will be used to design PAC1 receptor peptidomimetics and small molecular antagonists.
The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), which exists in two isoforms of 27 and 38 amino acids, can induce neuronal protection in vitro and in vivo following the activation of PAC1, a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). With its potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, this peptide represents a promising avenue for the development of therapeutic strategies to potentially cure or at least slow the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Beyond the canonical G protein signal effectors, GPCRs are also coupled to a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways that can be independently activated by biased ligands, thereby expanding vastly the potential for discovering new drugs. Interestingly, some studies have demonstrated distinct signaling features for the PACAP isoforms. With this observation in mind, we assessed the impact of chemical and structural modifications introduced into specific regions of the PACAP isoforms on their neuroprotective effects, and
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was originally isolated from the ovine brain in 1989 as a novel hypothalamic hormone that potently
This book offers a compilation of papers on the role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in sleep, sleep disorders and neuroendocrine functions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - γ-melanotropin and β-endorphin after dexamethasone. AU - Meador-Woodruff, James H.. AU - Silk, Kenneth R.. AU - Kronfol, Ziad. AU - Watson, Stanley J.. AU - Akil, Huda. PY - 1989/4/1. Y1 - 1989/4/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024652543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024652543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0006-3223(89)90278-3. DO - 10.1016/0006-3223(89)90278-3. M3 - Letter. C2 - 2541805. AN - SCOPUS:0024652543. VL - 25. SP - 975. EP - 976. JO - Biological Psychiatry. JF - Biological Psychiatry. SN - 0006-3223. IS - 7. ER - ...
Halaban, R and Lerner, A B., The dual effect of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (msh) on the growth of cultured mouse melanoma cells. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1167 ...
α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH), amide stimulates melanocortin 1 receptor that results in the activation of adenylyl cyclase. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
PACAP is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin/glucagon/VIP family. PACAP functions as a hypothalamic hormone, neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, vasodilator, and neurotrophic factor. Its structure has been remarkably conserved during evolution. The PACAP receptor is G protein-coupl …
References for Abcams α-MSH (α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone) (ab120189). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine Description:. Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine is a compound that includes amino acids and lipid residue, used in cosmetics and personal care products, specifically whitening formulas, to prevent skin cells from producing melanin pigmentation. Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine inhibits melanotropin, a melanin stimulator found in the skin. Melanotropin controls tyrosinase activity (tyrosinase being an essential enzyme in the production of melanin), melanin (eumalanin) synthesis and melanosome; therefore, by preventing the production of melanotropin, the pigmentation process is reduced or halted.. INCI Name: Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine. CAS No.: 175357-18-3. Solubility: Oil soluble. Appearance: White or off white powder. Typical Application: whitens , bleaching , lighten dark spots .. ...
PACAP is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that belongs to the secreting/glucagon/VIP family. PACAP functions as a hypothalamic hormone, neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, vasodilator, and neurotrophic factor. Its structure has been remarkably conserved during evolution. The PACAP receptor is G protein-coupled with seven transmembrane domains and also belongs to the VIP receptor family. PACAP, but not VIP, binds to PAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R, whereas PACAP and VIP bind to VPAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R and VPAC,SUB,2,/SUB,-R with a similar affinity. Despite the sizable homology of the structures of PACAP and VIP and their receptors, the distribution of these peptides and receptors is quite different. At least eight subtypes of PACAP specific, or PAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R, result from alternate splicing. Each subtype is coupled with specific signaling pathways, and its expression is tissue or cell specific. Although PACAP fulfills most requirements for a physiological hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormone, it does not consistently ...
メラニン凝集ホルモン(MCH)受容体の発見 : オーファン受容体ストラテジーが解決の鍵となる [in Japanese] Finding partner for orexigenic peptide : The receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a G protein-coupled receptor [in Japanese] ...
Clinical Presentation The initial diagnosis of ACTH resistance may occur in infancy or later. In general, cases presenting in infancy will often have had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia followed after several months by the observation that the child is excessively pigmented. Occasionally, pigmentation is commented on shortly after birth. Neonatal jaundice may also be an early feature indicative in these cases of glucocorticoid deficiency. Often, an excessively severe response to comparatively minor infective illnesses will result in the investigations that establish the diagnosis. Weber A, De Vroede M, Wienker TF, Jansen M: Clinical variability and molecular genetics in a family with triple A syndrome. Horm Res 1997;48(S2):191. Robbins LS, Nadeau JH, Johnson KR, Kelly MA, Roselli-Rehfuss L, Baack E, Mountjoy KG, Cone RD: Pigmentation phenotypes of variant extension locus alleles result from point mutations that alter MSH receptor function. Cell 1993;72:827-834. Light K, Jenkins PJ, Weber A, ...
Kabra DG, Pfuhlmann K, García-Cáceres C, Schriever SC, Casquero García V, Kebede AF, Fuente-Martin E, Trivedi C, Heppner K, Uhlenhaut NH, Legutko B, Kabra UD, Gao Y, Yi CX, Quarta C, Clemmensen C, Finan B, Müller TD, Meyer CW, Paez-Pereda M, Stemmer K, Woods SC, Perez-Tilve D, Schneider R, Olson EN, Tschöp MH, Pfluger PT. Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 29; 7:10782 ...
PACAP-27 (Human, 1 - 27 Amide) PACAP27 | Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 27 (Human, 1 - 27 Amide) (Ovine, Rat)4231-v 0.5 ...
Noble, E.E., Wang, Z., Liu, C.M., Davis, E.A., Suarez, A.N., Stein, L.M., Tsan, L., Terrill, S.J., Hsu, T.M., Jung, A.H., Raycraft, L.M., Hahn, J.D.,. Darvas, M., Cortella, A.M., Schier, L.A., Johnson, A.W., Hayes, M.R., Holschneider, D.P., Kanoski, S.E. (2019). Hypothalamus-. hippocampus Circuitry Regulates Impulsivity via Melanin-concentrating Hormone. Nature Communications, 10(1):4923.. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-12895-y ...
PACAP27 (Human) Antiserum Anti PACAP27 (Human) Serum Host Animal: RabbitY050 50 µl | 455.00 EUR Please ask for special prices for two ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (pacap). A master regulator in central and peripheral stress responses.. AU - Mustafa, Tomris. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a master regulator of central and peripheral stress responses required to restore and maintain homeostasis. PACAP modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to acute psychogenic but not systemic stressors, through activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release to drive adrenal corticosterone (CORT) output. During direct high-frequency stimulation of the splanchnic nerve that is designed to mimic stress, PACAP regulates adrenomedullary catecholamine secretion. In addition to transmission, PACAP simultaneously facilitates the biosynthesis of adrenomedullary catecholamines through stimulus-secretion-synthesis coupling. During periods of chronic psychogenic stress, PACAP-mediated CORT ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents cytokine-induced cytotoxicity via inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in βTC cells. AU - Sekiya, Kayo. AU - Nagasaki, Hiroshi. AU - Ozaki, Nobuaki. AU - Suzuki, Atsushi. AU - Miura, Yoshitaka. AU - Oiso, Yutaka. PY - 2000/11/11. Y1 - 2000/11/11. N2 - Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease resulting from apoptotic destruction of pancreatic β-cells. The activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by inflammatory cytokines is considered a mediator of destruction in β-cells. Recent findings showed that the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), whose distribution was identified in pancreatic neurons, inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in cytokine-activated macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of PACAP in the cytokine-exposed mice β-cell line, βTC cells. 1 x 10 -8 M PACAP inhibited the reduction of cell ...
Looking for online definition of melanin-concentrating hormone in the Medical Dictionary? melanin-concentrating hormone explanation free. What is melanin-concentrating hormone? Meaning of melanin-concentrating hormone medical term. What does melanin-concentrating hormone mean?
Several studies suggested that the FasL/Fas-mediated pathway represents the basis for the Ca2+-independent CTL lysis reported previously (4, 5, 38, 39, 40). Once initiated, the FasL/Fas-mediated lysis is every bit as vigorous as lysis via the degranulation pathway, provided, of course, that the target cell is Fas+ (41). The FasL/Fas-mediated cytolytic activity is up-regulated in CTL effectors and clones through direct restimulation through the TCR complex (4, 41, 42, 43). Such stimulation results in an increase in CTL cytolytic activity and is accompanied by an increase in de novo FasL synthesis and surface expression. The requirement for new protein synthesis explains why the onset of the Ca2+-independent lysis is delayed with respect to Ca2+-dependent (degranulation) lysis in cloned CTL (44). In agreement with the reported FasL up-regulation following direct TCR restimulation, our study shows that anti-CD3-activated CTL lyse Fas+ targets, and that this ability is paralleled by an increase in ...
The neurotrophic actions of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-38 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Effects on differentiation were assessed through monitoring morphological changes and Western blot analysis of the expression of neuronal marker proteins. In contrast to PACAP-38, which induced a 5.5-fold increase in the number of neurite-bearing cells, LIF had no significant effect on cell morphology compared to control cells over the 4-day time course. Cells co-treated with PACAP-38+LIF showed a similar increase in neurite-bearing cells compared to those treated with PACAP-38 alone. Cell morphology was similar for PACAP-38-treated and PACAP-38+LIF-co-treated cells, with the formation of bipolar neuron-like cells with long thin neurites, topped by growth cone-like structures and varicosities. SH-SY5Y cells express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) but only low levels of the neuronal marker proteins: Bcl-2, GAP-43 and ...
Harmar AJ, Arimura A, Gozes I, Journot L, Laburthe M, Pisegna JR, Rawlings SR, Robberecht P, Said SI, Sreedaran SP, Wank SA, Waschek JA. 1998. International Union of Pharmacology. XVIII. Nomenclature of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Pharmacol Rev 50:265-270 ...
Hypothalamic slices containing the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were prepared from 6- to 8-day-old rats and maintained in stationary culture for up to 35 days in order to analyse how well the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons survived. As previously reported for other brain areas, this method yielded a long-term well-preserved organotypic organization. Light- and electron-microscopic investigations showed that differentiation continued and that synaptic contacts developed in vitro. After a period of elimination of damaged cells and fibres, most of the remaining neurons and glial cells retained a normal morphology throughout the culture period. MCH neurons, in particular, survived well as attested by the strong immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization signals still observed after several weeks. In a comparison with the day of explantation, competitive reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the remarkable stability of the level of MCH mRNA at least until the 20th
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A are orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitters produced primarily in the lateral hypothalamus. Because two other hypothalamic peptides, neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide, increase food intake by a mechanism that depends on activation of opioid receptors, we assessed whether MCH or orexin-A also elicits food intake via opioid receptor activation. A dose of naloxone (0.3 mg/kg, ip) that had no effect on its own reduced the acute orexigenic effect of third ventricular (i3vt) orexin-A (3 ng/rat). However, this same dose of naloxone had no effect on i3vt MCH (5 microg/rat)-induced hyperphagia. Because the opioid system has also been linked to food selection, we investigated whether MCH or orexin-A alters food choice when rats have simultaneous access to two diets differing in the relative amounts of fat and carbohydrate. Whereas i3vt MCH stimulated intake of both diets and did not alter food choice, i3vt orexin-A stimulated intake of only the high fat
Affiliation:宮崎大学,医学部,助教, Research Field:Otorhinolaryngology,Otorhinolaryngology, Keywords:パッチクランプ,Endolymph,RT-PCR,Basigin,Endocochlear potential,Cochlea,Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide,In situ hybridization,血管条,分子生物学, # of Research Projects:4, # of Research Products:6
Affiliation (based on the past Project Information):University of Miyazaki,Faculty of Medicine,Associate Professor, Research Field:Otorhinolaryngology,Otorhinolaryngology, Keywords:Endocochlear potential,Endolymph,Cochlea,Basigin,RT-PCR,In situ hybridization,血管条,Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide,EP,外有毛細胞, # of Research Projects:8, # of Research Products:44
Adrenocorticotropin/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/MSH)-like peptides modulate adenylate cyclase activity in rat brain slices: evidence for an ACTH/MSH receptor-coupled ...
Silva et al. (2009) published in the journal Nature that this same receptor, foxa2, is found in the hypothalamus (of mice) and it directly effects the hunger reflex. What they did was to take normal and genetically obese mice, fast them, and inject some of them with insulin to put them into the fed state. They then sacrificed the mice and dissected their brains, using an antibody-based stain to identify neurons that were positive for foxa2 and orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Orexin and MCH are known to be associated with feeding and, incidentally, sleep behaviour (Willie, 2001). From their results the authors concluded that the production of the neuropeptides orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were promoted by the foxa2 receptor (but only with insulin attached to it). One of the stronger pieces of evidence was that foxa2 was found in the cytoplasm of the mouse neurons when in the fasted state but in the nucleus when in the fed state. Transcription of messenger RNA ...
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic orexinogenic hypothalamic peptide originally isolated from the pituitary gland of teleost fish where it controls skin pigmentation. In mammals it is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy balance. When administered artificially, it increases food intake. It also seems to activate the stress axis. ...
The putative ACTH receptor gene has been identified on the basis of its tissue specific expression, structure, and limited expression data. We have expressed this gene in COS-7 cells and measured cAMP production in response to ACTH. An EC50 of 5.5 x 10(-9) M for ACTH (1-24) was determined. The S74I
"A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release". Science. 273 (5277): 974-77. Bibcode: ... Ghrelin receptor[edit]. The ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a (a splice-variant of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, with the ... The receptor for ghrelin, the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found on the same cells in the brain as ... Ghrelin was discovered after the ghrelin receptor (called growth hormone secretagogue type 1A receptor or GHS-R) was discovered ...
Posterior pituitary hormones. *Vasopressin receptor agonists. *Hormones of the hypothalamus. *Hormones of the pregnant female ... oxytocin receptor binding. • hormone activity. • neurohypophyseal hormone activity. • neuropeptide hormone activity. Cellular ... Its actions are mediated by specific, oxytocin receptors. The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that requires ... Cardiac effects: oxytocin and oxytocin receptors are also found in the heart in some rodents, and the hormone may play a role ...
The hormone then reacts with receptors inside of the cell.[20] The activated receptors reach the nucleus of the cells and ... These hormones travel through the blood vessels to the anterior pituitary gland of the brain.[20] At this location, ... There are two glucocorticoid receptors; one is the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and another is the glucocorticoid receptor ( ... compared to the hormones of the SAM system.[20] The effect of cortisol depends upon the type of receptor that it interacts with ...
Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 ( ... Peptide hormones *GHRH (somatocrinin) through binding to the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR)[20] ... These cells release the peptides growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin, also known as human growth hormone (hGH or HGH) in its human form, is a peptide hormone ...
Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 ( ... peptide hormones *GHRH (somatocrinin) through binding to the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR)[20] ... These cells release the peptides Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ... Lin-Su K, Wajnrajch MP (December 2002). "Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) and the GHRH Receptor". Reviews in Endocrine ...
... receptors of human pituitary gland". J. Endocrinol. Invest. 24 (1): RC1-3. doi:10.1007/bf03343800. PMID 11227737. S2CID ... Deghenghi R, Papotti M, Ghigo E, Muccioli G (2001). "Cortistatin, but not somatostatin, binds to growth hormone secretagogue ( ... Robas N, Mead E, Fidock M (2004). "MrgX2 is a high potency cortistatin receptor expressed in dorsal root ganglion". J. Biol. ... 2003). "Cortistatin rather than somatostatin as a potential endogenous ligand for somatostatin receptors in the human immune ...
... is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue acting as an agonist at pituitary GnRH receptors. Agonism of ... As of July 2018, it is in phase II clinical trials for endometriosis.[needs update] Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § ... GnRH receptors initially results in the stimulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ... pituitary GnRH receptors become desensitised after several weeks of continuous leuprorelin therapy. This protracted ...
These receptors are activated by the peptide hormone α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and antagonized by the agouti- ... It has been found that AgRP stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to release ACTH, cortisol and prolactin. ... The appetite-stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibited by the hormone leptin and activated by the hormone ghrelin. Adipocytes ... Ghrelin has receptors on NPY/AgRP neurons that stimulate the secretion of NPY and AgRP to increase appetite. AgRP is stored in ...
The pituitary synthesizes and secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH, in turn, stimulates production of the thyroid ... In Igsf1 deficient mice, the receptor for TRH is downregulated in the pituitary. This decrease could explain, at least in part ... TSH secretion is controlled by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is released by neurons in the hypothalamus of the ... How the loss of IGSF1 causes a decrease in TRH receptors is presently unknown. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000147255 - ...
"Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Receptors: GnRH receptor". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union ... G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. It is expressed on the surface of pituitary gonadotrope cells as well as lymphocytes ... This gene encodes the receptor for type 1 gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This receptor is a member of the seven-transmembrane ... Bédécarrats GY, Kaiser UB (2007). "Mutations in the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor: insights into receptor ...
They also regulate many hormones including pituitary, gonadal and hypothalamic hormones as well as insulin. They are also nerve ... The type II receptor is a serine/threonine receptor kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the Type I receptor. Each ... It can then either form a receptor complex with activin A receptor, type IB (ACVR1B) or with activin A receptor, type IC ( ... TGFβ superfamily ligands bind to a type II receptor, which recruits and phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor ...
3,5-T2 is an active thyroid hormone. It stimulates the TR-beta receptor for thyroid hormones and thus increases energy ... It has agonistic (thyromimetic) effects at myocardial tissue and pituitary, which results in 3,5-T2 suppressing TSH release. 3, ... 3,5-Diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) is an active thyroid hormone within the class of iodothyronines. It has two iodine atoms at ... This could explain why patients with low T3 syndrome don't benefit from substitution therapy with thyroid hormones. Goglia F ( ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists "Orgalutran". European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 11 May 2012. Oberyé J ... Ganirelix competitively blocks GnRH receptors on the pituitary gonadotroph, quickly resulting in the suppression of ... The drug works by blocking the action of GnRH upon the pituitary, thus rapidly suppressing the production and action of LH and ... Ganirelix has a significantly higher receptor binding affinity (Kd = 0.4 nM) than GnRH (Kd = 3.6 nM). When ganirelix is given ...
Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal axis releases the needed hormones to support the immune system. Activity of the immune system is ... Overactivation of glucocorticoid receptors can lead to health risks. Regulators of the immune system. Affect cell growth, ... Anti-inflammatory hormones that enhance the organism's response to a stressor. Prevent the overreaction of the body's own ... Release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress. CRH is a major regulator of the ...
... a neuropeptide and hormone, in the brain and periphery, resulting in increased signaling through its receptor tyrosine kinase, ... Psychological stress induces the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ... "stress hormone", cortisol, is a glucocorticoid that binds to glucocorticoid receptors. ... IGF-1 elicits its physiological effects by binding to a specific receptor tyrosine kinase, the IGF-1 receptor, to control ...
receptor binding. • V1A vasopressin receptor binding. • V1B vasopressin receptor binding. • neuropeptide hormone activity. ... Pituitary gland, brain. Adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in response to stress;[23] social interpretation of olfactory ... Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin,[5] is a hormone synthesized as a ... regulation of receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • maternal aggressive behavior. • positive ...
V1 receptors are found in various sites around the body. The major points include the CNS, Liver, Anterior Pituitary, Muscle ( ... Felypressin is a non-catecholamine vasoconstrictor that is chemically related to vasopressin, the posterior pituitary hormone. ... Felypressin is a Vasopressin 1 agonist, and will thus have effects at all Arginine vasopressin receptor 1As. It will, however, ...
The anterior pituitary in turn releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH induces the release of corticosteroids and ... When a receptor within the body senses a stressor, a signal is sent to the anterior hypothalamus. At the reception of the ... Stress hormones influence the processes carried out in the hippocampus and amygdala which are also associated with emotional ... These stress hormones are also hindering the hippocampus from receiving enough energy by diverting glucose levels to ...
Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Male lactation Prolactin modulator Prolactin receptor Prolactin-releasing hormone ... The hormone acts in endocrine, autocrine and paracrine manner through the prolactin receptor and numerous cytokine receptors. ... Human prolactin receptors are insensitive to mouse prolactin. Prolactin levels may be checked as part of a sex hormone workup, ... Prolactin receptors are present in the mammillary glands, ovaries, pituitary glands, heart, lung, thymus, spleen, liver, ...
Thyroxine receptors in the pituitary gland are activated by the surplus hormone, suppressing additional release of TSH in a ... Agents that act as antagonists at thyroid stimulating hormone receptors are currently under investigation as a possible ... Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins recognize and bind to the thyrotropin receptor (TSH receptor) which stimulates the ... in which the body produces antibodies to the receptor for thyroid-stimulating hormone. (Antibodies to thyroglobulin and to the ...
Dual expression of p80 type I and p68 type II interleukin-1 receptors on anterior pituitary cells synthesizing growth hormone. ... the restoration of immune functions in aged subjects by pituitary-derived hormones, the role of hormones on susceptibility to ... Growth hormone augments superoxide anion secretion of human neutrophils by binding to the prolactin receptor. The Journal of ... showing that both isoforms of the IL-1 receptor are expressed only on pituitary cells that synthesize growth hormone as well as ...
... hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors". ... Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary stimulates and prolongs GnSAF biosynthesis in growing small ... GnSAF is involved in regulating the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary and the ovarian cycle. ... Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Estradiol on Luteinizing Hormone Biosynthesis in Cultured Rat Anterior Pituitary ...
The drug binds to receptors in the pituitary gland and stimulates secretion of gonadotropins (namely luteinzing hormone and ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists "gonadorelin analogue , Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved ... prior to down-regulation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors, thereby reducing the release of gonadotropins in the ... thus reversibly repressing expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). It is a decapeptide ( ...
... which are secreted from the pituitary); all of these peptides bind to opioid receptors and produce analgesic (and other) ... The hormones are secreted from chromaffin granules; this is where the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase catalyses the conversion of ... This desensitization and downregulation of α2 adrenergic receptors is caused by the upregulation of the enzyme Adrenal G ... and a few other hormones into the blood stream. The secreted adrenaline and noradrenaline play an important role in the ...
... dexamethasone binds to glucocorticoid receptors in the anterior pituitary gland, which lie outside the blood-brain barrier, ... ACTH as measured prior to dosing of dexamethasone Equivocal results should be followed by a corticotropin-releasing hormone ... Dexamethasone is an exogenous steroid that provides negative feedback to the pituitary gland to suppress the secretion of ... A high dose of dexamethasone exerts negative feedback on pituitary neoplastic ACTH-producing cells (Cushing's disease), but not ...
... luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, from the pituitary gland. This, in turn, results in profound suppression ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists Chrisp P, Goa KL (April 1990). "Nafarelin. A review of its pharmacodynamic ... Nafarelin is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) and works by preventing the production of sex hormones by ... It works by continuously activating the GnRH receptor, which results in profound desensitization of the receptor such that it ...
This hormone stimulates the production of FSH receptors on the follicular granulosa cells and has at the same time a negative ... The pituitary gland secrete follicle-stimulating hormones (FSHs) that stimulate follicular growth and oocyte maturation. The ... Meiotic division I goes on in the ovulated oocyte stimulated by luteinizing hormones (LHs) produced by the pituitary gland. FSH ... So taste receptors play a functional role for controlling apoptosis in male reproductive tissue. The mutation frequencies for ...
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is secreted from the anterior pituitary. FSH plays a key role in development, growth and ... Leptin receptors are also found in mammary epithelial cells and leptin has been observed as a growth factor in breast tissue. ... Notable hormone differences occur between CPP and PT patients, so studying these hormone levels is the main biochemical ... CPP is treated with lutenizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone agonists. PT can impact growth velocity and bone age slightly, ...
Gonadal hormone receptors have also been found in the basal fore-brain nuclei. Estradiol influences cognitive function, ... Estrogen receptors have been found in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, indicating the ... Sex hormone production is regulated by the gonadotropic hormones luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH ... Oxytocin is a hormone that induces contraction of the uterus and lactation in mammals and is also a characteristic hormone of ...
2011). "Chapter 17: Pancreatic hormones & diabetes mellitus". Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: ... are superior to other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs),[115] or ... pituitary axes. Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency ... "Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ...
The intestines also contain receptors that send satiety signals to the brain. The hormone cholecystokinin is secreted by the ... These include depression, food allergies, ingestion of certain chemicals, bulimia, anorexia nervosa, pituitary gland ... "MCH (Melanin Concentrating Hormone) and MCH-2 Receptor". Mice lacking Melanin-Concentrating Hormone are hypophagic and lean ... The signals from the stomach are initiated by the release of the peptide hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is a hormone that increases ...
hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of receptor activity. • G- ... Saxena BB، Rathnam P (1976). "Amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary ... Fujiki Y، Rathnam P، Saxena BB (1980). "Studies on the disulfide bonds in human pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone". ... Shome B، Parlow AF (1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone: first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the hormone- ...
Hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. *Hormones of the thyroid gland ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ... It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered ... Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).[1][4] It is used to ...
Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the ... "Hormones and Behavior. 53 (5): 613-26. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.01.013. PMC 2706155 . PMID 18374335.. ...
... and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and are peptide hormones that signal the gonads to produce sex hormones. By suppressing ... Androgen receptor degradersEdit. Selective androgen receptor degraders (SARDs) are another new type of antiandrogen that has ... Antigonadotropins are drugs that suppress the GnRH-mediated secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland.[64] ... Msaouel P, Diamanti E, Tzanela M, Koutsilieris M (2007). "Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone antagonists in prostate cancer ...
腦下垂體及下視丘(英語:Template:Pituitary and hypothalamic hormones and analogues) ... Glutamate receptor antagonist(英語:Excitatory amino acid antagonist) (NMDA(英語:NMDA receptor antagonist)) ... Cannabinoid receptor antagonist(英語:Cannabinoid receptor antagonist). *Endocannabinoid enhancer(英語:Endocannabinoid enhancer) ( ... Glutamate receptor agonist(英語:Excitatory amino acid agonist) (AMPA(英語:Ampakine
Endorphins are also involved in the release of sex hormones in the pituitary gland.[4] Also, scientists think that acupuncture ... All of the endorphins bind to the opioid receptors in the brain. Many of the analgesic (pain killer) drugs have a similar ... They are usually in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. More endorphins are released in the pituitary gland during times of ... They are produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland. Their name has two parts: endo- and -orphin; these are ...
Media.pituitary.org. Retrieved 2011-11-26. [permanent dead link]) Schwartz, Erika T.; Holtorf, Kent (2008). "Hormones in ... Holtorf prescribes naltrexone, an opioid receptor blocker, used most often to treat opiate addiction, and buproprion ( ... Holtorf, K (2009). "The bioidentical hormone debate: Are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or ... He has been an advocate of bioidentical hormones, which has been labeled as quack medicine. He published an extensive review on ...
... the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4.. •The hypothalamic- ... In the brain, cortisol acts on two types of receptor - mineralocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid receptors, and these are ... pituitary-gonadal axis comprises hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone ... Over time, CRF receptors in the anterior pituitary will become down-regulated, producing depression and anxiety symptoms.[33] ...
選擇性雌激素受體調節物(SERM)是一種人工合成或是從植物提煉的藥物,可以 選擇性的成為雌激素受体(英语:estrogen receptor)的激动剂或拮抗剂,進行調節作用。最常見的有雷洛昔芬(英语:raloxifene)及諾瓦得士。雷洛昔芬在骨骼和脂质 ... 對於更
Whan a hormone binds tae the receptor, it results in the activation o a seegnal transduction pathwey that teepically activates ... hormones is eften dependent on complex sets o direct influence an feedback interactions involvin the hypothalamic-pituitary- ... Regulation o hormone synthesis o gonadal hormones, adrenocortical hormones, an thyroid ... Some hormones are completely active whan released intae the bluidstream (as is the case for insulin an growthe hormones), while ...
radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... hormone - host - host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP ... pituitary gland - placebo - placebo controlled study - placebo effect - plasma - plasma cells - platelets - PML - Pneumocystis ... co-receptors - coccidioidomycosis - codon - cofactors - cognitive impairment - cohort - colitis - combination therapy - ...
The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ... Exposure to stress and the stress hormone corticosterone has been shown to decrease the expression of BDNF in rats, and, if ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ...
... by causing GnRH receptor downregulation) to GnRH. Pituitary desensitization reduces the secretion of LH and FSH and thus ... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... GnRH agonists acts as agonists of the GnRH receptor, the biological target of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). These ... A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ...
... the hormone regulatory centre of the brain and part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a key part of the body's stress ... activation of the D2 receptor promoter by members of the retinoic acid receptor-retinoid X receptor family". Proceedings of the ... Isotretinoin has a low affinity for retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR), but may be converted ... transcriptional activation of the dopamine D2 receptor - in addition to serotonin and glutamate receptors - is regulated by ...
... in the production of the gonadotropin hormones normally released by the anterior pituitary gland known as luteinising hormone ( ... FSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Kisspeptin and its associated receptor KISS1R are known to be involved in the regulation ... FSHR (Follicle-stimulating hormone insensitivity, XX gonadal dysgenesis). *GnRHR (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone insensitivity) ... Hormone replacement therapy[edit]. The method and dose of treatment will vary depending on the individual being treated. ...
The ubiquitin receptor Rpn13 binds to Rpn2 and completes the base cub-complex. The lid covers one half of the AAA-ATPase ... Wilk S, Orlowski M (November 1980). "Cation-sensitive neutral endopeptidase: isolation and specificity of the bovine pituitary ... and its control by ecdysteroid hormones in the insect Manduca sexta". FEBS Letters. 400 (3): 345-9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96) ... The second ubiquitin receptor identified to date, Rpn10, is positioned at the periphery of the lid, near subunits Rpn8 and Rpn9 ...
Because the ANS, specifically the sympathetic division, exerts direct control over the chromaffin cells, the hormone release ... and receptors for catecholamines are widely distributed throughout the body. ... Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones.[1] ... Pituitary gland. Anterior. *Pars intermedia. *Pars tuberalis. *Pars distalis. *Acidophil cell *Somatotropic cell ...
The receptor for PDGF, PDGFR is classified as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), a type of cell surface receptor. Two types of ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... Like many other growth factors that have been linked to disease, PDGF and its receptors have provided a market for receptor ... "Isolation of a novel receptor cDNA establishes the existence of two PDGF receptor genes". Science. 243 (4892): 800-4. doi: ...
Receptors[edit]. Main article: Bradykinin receptor. *The B1 receptor (also called bradykinin receptor B1) is expressed only as ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ... The kinin B1 and B2 receptors belong to G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. ... This receptor has been also described to play a role in inflammation.[10] Most recently, it has been shown that the kinin B1 ...
Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stimulating the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) ... TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ... tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... receptor biosynthetic process. • activation of MAPK activity. • immune response. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. • positive ...
... and of hormone-bound lutetium-177 and yttrium-90 to treat neuroendocrine tumors (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy). ... Effects on pituitary system[edit]. Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar ... adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies are the least common among people with ... Radiation-induced hypopituitarism mainly affects growth hormone and gonadal hormones.[28] In contrast, ...
A peptide hormone, gastrin, produced by G cells in the gastric glands, stimulates the production of gastric juice which ... The olfactory receptors are located on cell surfaces in the nose which bind to chemicals enabling the detection of smells. It ... Taste is a form of chemoreception that takes place in the specialised taste receptors, contained in structures called taste ... The bile is released in response to cholecystokinin (CCK) a peptide hormone released from the duodenum. The production of CCK ( ...
Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 ... "Dipeptidyl arylamidase II of the pituitary. Properties of lysylalanyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis: inhibition by cations, ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were considerably elevated (30-33 mIU/mL and 34-37 mIU/mL, ... which is caused by a defective estrogen receptor (ER) - specifically, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) - that results in an ... Impaired negative feedback by estrogen on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis would account for the elevated ... follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were 6.7-19.1 mIU/mL and 5.8-13.2 mIU/mL, respectively), and ...
Shome B, Parlow AF (1973). "The primary structure of the hormone-specific, beta subunit of human pituitary luteinizing hormone ... Keutmann HT, Hua QX, Weiss MA (1992). "Structure of a receptor-binding fragment from human luteinizing hormone beta-subunit ... "Involvement of Gs and Gi proteins in dual coupling of the luteinizing hormone receptor to adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C ... biologically inactive luteinizing hormone: characterization of the abnormal hormone". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 52 (6): 1143- ...
insulin receptor binding. • hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • insulin-like growth ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... IGF-2 exerts its effects by binding to the IGF-1 receptor and to the short isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A or exon 11-).[ ... together with luteinizing hormone (LH). Thus, IGF2 acts as a co-hormone together with both FSH and LH.[10] ...
Hypothalamic-pituitary hormones. *Corticosteroids *Glucocorticoids. *Mineralocorticoids. *Sex hormones. *Thyroid hormones/ ... 5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As such, they ... NK1 receptor antagonist *Aprepitant (Emend) is a commercially available NK1 Receptor antagonist ... Mirtazapine (Remeron) is an antidepressant that also has antiemetic effects[4][5] it is also a potent histamine H1 receptor ...
It blocks dopamine receptors in the anterior pituitary gland increasing release of prolactin which in turn increases lactation. ... and luteinizing hormone (LH) and resulting in hypogonadism (low sex hormone (e.g., testosterone, estradiol) levels).[36] As ... Due to blockade of D2 receptors in the central nervous system, D2 receptor antagonists like metoclopramide can also produce a ... Domperidone is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist.[7] It has no clinically significant interaction ...
Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Splice Variants. ... "Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Splice Variants," Biology ... "Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Splice Variants," Biology ... Cloning and Expression of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor in the... Evidence for Different Gonadotropin Releasing ...
Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ...
Thyroid Hormone Receptors Suppress Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Activity in Hepatoma. Ruey-Nan Chen, Ya-Hui Huang, Chau- ... thyroid hormone receptors, TR), which belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. These receptors function as ligand- ... Thyroid Hormone Receptors Suppress Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Activity in Hepatoma ... Thyroid Hormone Receptors Suppress Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Activity in Hepatoma ...
Pituitary Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor Genes and Associations with Mammographic Measures and ... Pituitary Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor Genes and Associations with Mammographic Measures and ... Pituitary Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor Genes and Associations with Mammographic Measures and ... Pituitary Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor Genes and Associations with Mammographic Measures and ...
The Role of Pituitary Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Receptors in the Physiological Regulation of Gonadotrophin Secretion ... Richard N. Clayton; The Role of Pituitary Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Receptors in the Physiological Regulation of ...
... in which GABA receptors are expressed and pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells provide a source of GABA. We hypothesised that ... RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that GABA-B receptor subunits R1 and R2 are present in the whole rat pituitary. Laser ... To investigate GABA-B receptor function in somatotropes, we used rat GH3 adenoma cells, which, like pituitary GH cells, express ... Activation of GABA-B receptors and regulation of growth hormone levels. In: Neuroendocrinology, Nr. 3: S. 170-177 ...
Peptide receptor protein relationships steroid feedback in gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation of the steer anterior ... Pituitary receptors for gonadotropin releasing hormone in relation to changes in pituitary and plasma gonadotropins in ... pituitary regulation of cell responses and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptors by gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone regulation of g protein function in the rat anterior pituitary ...
Compounds were tested for the effective dose to induce luteinizing hormone (LH) release in rat pituitary receptors. ...
These findings suggested that at least 1-2 methionine residues in each subunit are involved in the hormone-receptor interaction ... Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding ... Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding ... Carboxymethylation of methionine residues in bovine pituitary luteinizing hormone and its subunits. Effects on the binding ...
Estrogen Receptor alpha, a Sex-Dependent Predictor of Aggressiveness in Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas: SSTR and Sex Hormone ... analyses of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR5, estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), and progesterone receptor ... Context: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are fairly common and require a multidisciplinary approach. Reliable markers ... Objective: We aimed to characterize the somatostatin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor distribution for NFPAs and compare it ...
Gonadotrope androgen receptor mediates pituitary responsiveness to hormones and androgen-induced subfertility. ... Gonadotrope androgen receptor mediates pituitary responsiveness to hormones and androgen-induced subfertility. ... female mice with disruption of the androgen receptor (Ar) gene specifically in pituitary gonadotropes (PitARKO) were produced. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls reproduction. While we have demonstrated that androgen impairs ovarian ...
This novel GHR mutation provides evidence for impaired hormone autofeedback in the pathogenesis of these pituitary tumors. It ... hormone excess, and histomorphologic features. Those that cause growth hormone (GH) excess and acromegaly are subdivided into ... Pharmacologic GH antagonism recapitulates the morphologic phenotype of pituitary tumors from which this mutation was identified ... This GHR mutation significantly impairs glycosylation-mediated receptor processing, maturation, ligand binding, and signaling. ...
Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells. Endocrinology. ... Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells. / Turgeon, ... title = "Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells", ... T1 - Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells ...
... and Ligand Selectivity of a Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Expressed in the Pituitary and Midbrain of ,I,Xenopus ...
Pituitary Hormone" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Pituitary Hormone" was a major or minor topic of ... Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous ... "Receptors, Pituitary Hormone" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Receptors, Pituitary Hormone*Receptors, Pituitary Hormone. *Receptors, Pituitary Hormones. *Pituitary Hormones Receptors ...
These mutations can occur in the genes coding for GnRH, LH, and FSH or their receptors. Depending on which hormone and receptor ... The anterior portion of the pituitary gland produces luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these ... Millar RP, Lu ZL, Pawson AJ, Flanagan CA, Morgan K, Maudsley SR (April 2004). "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors". ...
Desensitization and internalization of human and Xenoplus Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors expressed in aT4 pituitary ... Desensitization and internalization of human and Xenoplus Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors expressed in aT4 pituitary ... Desensitization and internalization of human and Xenoplus Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors expressed in aT4 pituitary ... Desensitization and internalization of human and Xenoplus Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors expressed in aT4 pituitary ...
... one of them also associated with serum growth hormone levels. These findings suggest that the GH1 gene may also influence ... We have found associations between mammographic density and two SNPs in the pituitary growth hormone gene, ... Pituitary growth hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor genes and associations with mammographic measures and ... Pituitary growth hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor genes and associations with mammographic measures and ...
To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors ... To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors ... To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors ... To determine its possible side-effects on the pituitary gland, we investigated the gene expression of pituitary LH-RH-receptors ...
... ... The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its receptors (GnRHRs) expressed in pituitary ... Basal transcription; Gonadotrophs; Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor; Regulated ... Intrinsic and Regulated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Transcription in Mammalian Pituitary Gonadotrophs. Front ...
... mRNA in two tissues involved in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We have used a solution hybridization/ ... The present study was designed to characterize the regulation of the type II corticosteroid receptor (GR) ... Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology * Dexamethasone / pharmacology * Female * Gene Expression Regulation* / drug ... Differential regulation of type II corticosteroid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the rat anterior pituitary ...
anterior pituitary-like hormones synonyms, anterior pituitary-like hormones pronunciation, anterior pituitary-like hormones ... English dictionary definition of anterior pituitary-like hormones. n. 1. a. A substance, usually a peptide or steroid, produced ... growth hormone, human growth hormone, somatotrophic hormone, somatotrophin, somatotropic hormone, somatotropin, STH - a hormone ... hormone. (redirected from anterior pituitary-like hormones). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. hor·mone. (hôr′ ...
... axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can ... axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can ... Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis, Glucocorticoids, and Glucocorticoid Receptor. The HPA axis consists of three ... The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a member of the steroid/thyroid/nuclear receptor superfamily, acts as a tissue receptor for ...
They are made in the pituitary gland that controls the the activity of the other endocrine glands in the body. ... Hormones are the chemical substances that coordinate the activities of living organism growth. ... Hormones attach themselves to proteins but they cant bind to hormone receptors. So what a hormone needs to do is to lose its ... The pituitary-stimulating hormone helps regulate hormones by secreting them to the endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is ...
... receptor was isolated from a human pituitary cDNA library. The cDNA encoded a polypeptide consisting of 525 amino acids with ... A functional cDNA clone for a human pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) ... Receptors, Pituitary Hormone / biosynthesis* * Receptors, Pituitary Hormone / genetics * Receptors, Pituitary Hormone / ... Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide * Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, ...
The increased pituitary CRH receptor mRNA after stress suggests that stress-induced CRH receptor down-regulation is due to ... In contrast, repeated immobilization or ip hypertonic saline for 8 or 14 days increased pituitary CRH receptor mRNA, and CRH ... Acute stress caused time- and stress type-dependent changes in pituitary CRH receptor expression. In situ hybridization studies ... Although in 6-day ADX rats pituitary CRH receptor mRNA levels were markedly reduced after acute immobilization, glucocorticoid ...
... receptor (CRHR-2) in the brain in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, we conducted experiments using ... and in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas sustained increases in arginine vasopressin (AVP) hnRNA and c-fos ... min prior to agonist injection attenuated the stimulatory effects of urocortin-2 on the above-mentioned hypothalamic-pituitary- ... In an attempt to clarify the role of the type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ...
Abbreviations: ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; COX, cyclooxygenase; DA, dopamine; HPA, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal; i.c.v ... Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 controls impulsive behavior under stress. Yoko Matsuoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Kiyofumi Yamada, ... Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 controls impulsive behavior under stress. Yoko Matsuoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Kiyofumi Yamada, ... Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 controls impulsive behavior under stress Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Resistance to thyroid hormone: Feedback loop interrupted on the level of pituitary thyroid hormone receptors. ... The pituitary gland secretes thyrotropin (TSH; Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) that stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine ( ... Thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback control over the hypothalamus as well as anterior pituitary, thus controlling the ... Both peripheral thyroid hormones (iodothyronines) inhibit thyrotropin secretion from the pituitary (negative feedback). ...
Pituitary Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Tolvaptan. Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of ... a drug that blocks the action of the water retaining hormone vasopressin. The study will enroll stable outpatients with CHF ...

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