Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Differential response to different stimuli.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.
A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The motion of air currents.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.

Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (1/920)

The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.  (+info)

A spatial map of olfactory receptor expression in the Drosophila antenna. (2/920)

Insects provide an attractive system for the study of olfactory sensory perception. We have identified a novel family of seven transmembrane domain proteins, encoded by 100 to 200 genes, that is likely to represent the family of Drosophila odorant receptors. Members of this gene family are expressed in topographically defined subpopulations of olfactory sensory neurons in either the antenna or the maxillary palp. Sensory neurons express different complements of receptor genes, such that individual neurons are functionally distinct. The isolation of candidate odorant receptor genes along with a genetic analysis of olfactory-driven behavior in insects may ultimately afford a system to understand the mechanistic link between odor recognition and behavior.  (+info)

Functional identification and reconstitution of an odorant receptor in single olfactory neurons. (3/920)

The olfactory system is remarkable in its capacity to discriminate a wide range of odorants through a series of transduction events initiated in olfactory receptor neurons. Each olfactory neuron is expected to express only a single odorant receptor gene that belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family. The ligand-receptor interaction, however, has not been clearly characterized. This study demonstrates the functional identification of olfactory receptor(s) for specific odorant(s) from single olfactory neurons by a combination of Ca2+-imaging and reverse transcription-coupled PCR analysis. First, a candidate odorant receptor was cloned from a single tissue-printed olfactory neuron that displayed odorant-induced Ca2+ increase. Next, recombinant adenovirus-mediated expression of the isolated receptor gene was established in the olfactory epithelium by using green fluorescent protein as a marker. The infected neurons elicited external Ca2+ entry when exposed to the odorant that originally was used to identify the receptor gene. Experiments performed to determine ligand specificity revealed that the odorant receptor recognized specific structural motifs within odorant molecules. The odorant receptor-mediated signal transduction appears to be reconstituted by this two-step approach: the receptor screening for given odorant(s) from single neurons and the functional expression of the receptor via recombinant adenovirus. The present approach should enable us to examine not only ligand specificity of an odorant receptor but also receptor specificity and diversity for a particular odorant of interest.  (+info)

Conservation of sequence and structure flanking the mouse and human beta-globin loci: the beta-globin genes are embedded within an array of odorant receptor genes. (4/920)

In mouse and human, the beta-globin genes reside in a linear array that is associated with a positive regulatory element located 5' to the genes known as the locus control region (LCR). The sequences of the mouse and human beta-globin LCRs are homologous, indicating conservation of an essential function in beta-globin gene regulation. We have sequenced regions flanking the beta-globin locus in both mouse and human and found that homology associated with the LCR is more extensive than previously known, making up a conserved block of approximately 40 kb. In addition, we have identified DNaseI-hypersensitive sites within the newly sequenced regions in both mouse and human, and these structural features also are conserved. Finally, we have found that both mouse and human beta-globin loci are embedded within an array of odorant receptor genes that are expressed in olfactory epithelium, and we also identify an olfactory receptor gene located 3' of the beta-globin locus in chicken. The data demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved genomic organization for the beta-globin locus and suggest a possible role for the beta-globin LCR in control of expression of these odorant receptor genes and/or the presence of mechanisms to separate regulatory signals in different tissues.  (+info)

The variable and conserved interfaces of modeled olfactory receptor proteins. (5/920)

The accumulation of hundreds of olfactory receptor (OR) sequences, along with the recent availability of detailed models of other G-protein-coupled receptors, allows us to analyze the OR amino acid variability patterns in a structural context. A Fourier analysis of 197 multiply aligned olfactory receptor sequences showed an alpha-helical periodicity in the variability profile. This was particularly pronounced in the more variable transmembranal segments 3, 4, and 5. Rhodopsin-based homology modeling demonstrated that the inferred variable helical faces largely point to the interior of the receptor barrel. We propose that a set of 17 hypervariable residues, which point to the barrel interior and are more extracellularly disposed, constitute the odorant complementarity determining regions. While 12 of these residues coincide with established ligand-binding contact positions in other G-protein-coupled receptors, the rest are suggested to form an olfactory-unique aspect of the binding pocket. Highly conserved olfactory receptor-specific sequence motifs, found in the second and third intracellular loops, may comprise the G-protein recognition epitope. The prediction of olfactory receptor functional sites provides concrete suggestions of site-directed mutagenesis experiments for altering ligand and G-protein specificity.  (+info)

Odor response properties of rat olfactory receptor neurons. (6/920)

Molecular biology studies of olfaction have identified a multigene family of molecular receptors that are likely to be involved in odor transduction mechanisms. However, because previous functional data on peripheral coding were mainly collected from inferior vertebrates, it has been difficult to document the degree of specificity of odor interaction mechanisms. As a matter of fact, studies of the functional expression of olfactory receptors have not demonstrated the low or high specificity of olfactory receptors. In this study, the selectivity of olfactory receptor neurons was investigated in the rat at the cellular level under physiological conditions by unitary extracellular recordings. Individual olfactory receptor neurons were broadly responsive to qualitatively distinct odor compounds. We conclude that peripheral coding is based on activated arrays of olfactory receptor cells with overlapping tuning profiles.  (+info)

Protein kinase Cbeta and delta selectively phosphorylate odorant and metabotropic glutamate receptors. (7/920)

Recombinant protein segments from a metabotropic glutamate receptor and from an odorant receptor were used as substrates in protein kinase C phosphorylation assays. Protein kinase Cbeta and delta phosphorylated an intracellular consensus phosphorylation site in the metabotropic glutamate receptor. Only protein kinase Cdelta phosphorylated a novel extracellular consensus phosphorylation site in the odorant receptor. These results suggest differential regulation of these receptors by protein kinase C isotypes.  (+info)

Functional identification of a goldfish odorant receptor. (8/920)

The vertebrate olfactory system utilizes odorant receptors to receive and discriminate thousands of different chemical stimuli. An understanding of how these receptors encode information about an odorant's molecular structure requires a characterization of their ligand specificities. We employed an expression cloning strategy to identify a goldfish odorant receptor that is activated by amino acids-potent odorants for fish. Structure-activity analysis indicates that the receptor is preferentially tuned to recognize basic amino acids. The receptor is a member of a multigene family of G protein-coupled receptors, sharing sequence similarities with the calcium sensing, metabotropic glutamate, and V2R class of vomeronasal receptors. The ligand tuning properties of the goldfish amino acid odorant receptor provide information for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying olfactory coding.  (+info)

Autor: Wicher, D. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2008; Keywords: Neurosecretory insect neurons|br/|Olfactory receptor|br/|Molecular-basis|br/|Functional expression|br/|In-vivo|br/|Camp|br/|Transduction|br/|Melanogaster|br/|Proteins|br/|Antenna|br/|Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Agricultural, Biology & Environmental Sciences Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Life Sciences Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences; Titel: Drosophila odorant receptors are both ligand-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. This olfactory receptor gene is a segregating pseudogene, where some individuals have an allele that encodes a functional olfactory receptor, while other individuals have an allele encoding a protein that is predicted to be non-functional. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
Molecular properties of odorant compounds essential for activation of the human olfactory receptor hOR17-40 were investigated using a collection of 23 variants of its cognate ligand helional. Coupling receptor activation to an optically detectable intracellular Ca(2+) ion flux allowed dose-dependent …
Olfaction is a key component of the multimodal approach used by mosquitoes to target and feed on humans, spreading various diseases. Current repellents have drawbacks, necessitating development of more effective agents. In addition to variable odorant specificity subunits, all insect odorant receptors (ORs) contain a conserved odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) subunit which is an attractive target for repellent development. Orco directed antagonists allosterically inhibit odorant activation of ORs and we previously showed that an airborne Orco antagonist could inhibit insect olfactory behavior. Here, we identify novel, volatile Orco antagonists. We functionally screened 83 structurally diverse compounds against Orco from Anopheles gambiae. Results were used for training machine learning models to rank probable activity of a library of 1280 odorant molecules. Functional testing of a representative subset of predicted active compounds revealed enrichment for Orco antagonists, many structurally distinct
Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only a single odorant receptor from a large family of genes, and this singularity is an essential feature in models of olfactory perception. We have devised a genetic strategy to examine the stability of receptor choice. We observe that immature olfactory …
Chemosensory systems play key roles in the survival and reproductive success of insects. Insect chemoreception is mediated by two large and diverse gene superfamilies, chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins (OBPs). OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants from the environment to the olfactory receptors. We identified a family of OBP-like genes in the silkworm genome and characterized their expression using oligonucleotide microarrays. A total of forty-four OBP genes were annotated, a number comparable to the 57 OBPs known from Anopheles gambiae and 51 from Drosophila melanogaster. As seen in other fully sequenced insect genomes, most silkworm OBP genes are present in large clusters. We defined six subfamilies of OBPs, each of which shows lineage-specific expansion and diversification. EST data and OBP expression profiles from multiple larvae tissues of day three fifth instars demonstrated that many OBPs are expressed in chemosensory-specific tissues although some OBPs are expressed
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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1. Lagha M, Bothma JP, Levine M (2012) Mechanisms of transcriptional precision in animal development. Trends Genet 28: 409-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2012.03.006 22513408. 2. Frankel N, Davis GK, Vargas D, Wang S, Payre F, et al. (2010) Phenotypic robustness conferred by apparently redundant transcriptional enhancers. Nature 466: 490-493. doi: 10.1038/nature09158 20512118. 3. Ebert MS, Sharp PA (2010) Emerging roles for natural microRNA sponges. Curr Biol 20: R858-861. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.08.052 20937476. 4. Couto A, Alenius M, Dickson BJ (2005) Molecular, anatomical, and functional organization of the Drosophila olfactory system. Curr Biol 15: 1535-1547. 16139208. 5. Fishilevich E, Vosshall LB (2005) Genetic and functional subdivision of the Drosophila antennal lobe. Curr Biol 15: 1548-1553. 16139209. 6. Fuss SH, Ray A (2009) Mechanisms of odorant receptor gene choice in Drosophila and vertebrates. Mol Cell Neurosci 41: 101-112. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2009.02.014 19303443. 7. Tharadra SK, Medina ...
Olfactory receptor 51B5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51B5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000242180 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: OR51B5 olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily B, member 5. Bulger M, van Doorninck JH, Saitoh N, et al. (1999). Conservation of ...
Olfactory receptor 10A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10A3 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor ENSG00000170683, ENSG00000281680 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000273953, ENSG00000170683, ENSG00000281680 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046431 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms ...
Product Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 Polyclonal Antibody From Abbkine - A polyclonal antibody for detection of Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 from Human. This Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 antibody is for WB, IF, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 at AA rangle: 30-110 Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 at AA rangle: 30-110; Applications tips:
Present in the aqueous fluid surrounding olfactory sensory dendrites and are thought to aid in the capture and transport of hydrophobic odorants into and through this fluid.
We have used a population genetics approach in conjunction with behavioral measurements to identify OBPs that recognize benzaldehyde, while at the same time gaining insights in the history of natural selection, mutation, and recombination of members of the OBP multigene family. Sequence analyses showed that not all OBPs share the same evolutionary history. While patterns of polymorphism in six OBPs do not depart from those expected under neutral mutation-random drift balance, statistical tests for deviations from neutrality identify signatures of positive selection or balancing selection for seven OBPs. These diverse evolutionary trajectories may result from the diversity of biological functions influenced by OBPs. Differential expression of OBPs has been observed in lines artificially selected for aggression (Edwards et al. 2006), alcohol sensitivity (Morozova et al. 2006), copulation latency (Mackay et al. 2005), and starvation stress resistance (Harbison et al. 2005).. Sequence analyses ...
cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of odorant binding protein OBP3 in Drepanosiphum platanoides (Homoptera: Aphididae) and testing of its adult olfactory ...
If you read the article with a critical eye (I know, thats a pain to do sometimes...) you will see two things that should make you question all the lazy pundits. First, the study was conducted on newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster), not humans (Homo sapiens). They clearly stated, functional olfactory receptor genes is different between amphibians and mammals, so we cannot rule out the expression of receptors with very high TCA sensitivity in humans. Hmmm. That changes the conclusion a bit. Human olfactory receptors could interact with TCA differently than those of newts! Additionally, the authors stated that, we cannot assume that we surveyed all possible olfactory receptors in the newt. Might there be other olfactory receptors that transduct musty odors? Humans have around 400 functional genes coding for olfactory receptors. The picture just got a bit more complicated... ...
Video articles in JoVE about olfactory receptor neurons include Whole Mount Immunolabeling of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Drosophila Antenna, Electrophysiological Recording from Drosophila Trichoid Sensilla in Response to Odorants of Low Volatility, Odorant-induced Responses Recorded from Olfactory Receptor Neurons using the Suction Pipette Technique, Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis, Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals, Perforated Patch-clamp Recording of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Intact Neuroepithelium: Functional Analysis of Neurons Expressing an Identified Odorant Receptor.
In a paper published in the February issue of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Dr. Dina Fonseca and her team identified different strains of the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus). Until now, researchers were unaware that this one species of mosquito could have consistent variations in its genetic makeup and that the geographical distribution of the mosquito variants explained the occurrence of serious diseases. The diseases include elephantiasis (a disfiguring disease), West Nile virus and other encephalitides, avian malaria and poxvirus. The surprising thing is that there is actually structure in this mosquito. Researchers had thought that all populations of this mosquito were the same, explained Fonseca, who was the first to examine the genetic makeup of this important disease transmitter ...
Semaphorins are known to play an important role in axon guidance of vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons to their targets in specific glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). However, it is not clear how semaphorin-mediated guidance contributes to a systematic hierarchy of cues that govern the organization of this system. Because of the putative role that odorant receptor molecules such as P2 could play in establishing appropriate glomerular destinations for growing olfactory axons, we have also determined the spatial organization of P2 glomeruli in semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) mutant mice. First, in the postnatal OB of control and Sema3A−/− mice, we analysed the trajectories of olfactory axons that express the Sema3A receptor, neuropilin-1 (npn-1) and the positions of npn-1+ glomeruli. Sema3A at the ventral OB midline guides npn-1+ axons to targets in the lateral and medial OB. Absence of Sema3A permits many npn-1 axons to terminate aberrantly in the rostral and ventral OB. Second, in Sema3A−/− ...
Buck and Sean join Vincent in New York, while Sylvia is with Nels in Salt Lake City to discuss the first mutant ant ever made: disruption of orco, a gene required for function of odorant receptors, causes defects in social behavior and fitness.. ...
In mammals, each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor. Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key-lock system: If the airborne molecules of a certain chemical can fit into the lock, the nerve cell will respond. There are, at present, a number of competing theories regarding the mechanism of odor coding and perception. According to the shape theory, each receptor detects a feature of the odor molecule. Weak-shape theory, known as odotope theory, suggests that different receptors detect only small pieces of molecules, and these minimal inputs are combined to form a larger olfactory perception (similar to the way visual perception is built up of smaller, information-poor sensations, combined and refined to create a detailed overall perception).[citation needed] An alternative theory, the vibration theory proposed by Luca Turin, posits that odor receptors detect the frequencies of vibrations of odor molecules in the infrared range by electron tunnelling. However, ...
While scientists have been tinkering with the genes of insects such as fruit flies for a long time, ants have proven to be a bigger challenge. In order to perform germline editing-genetic changes passed through generations-scientists have to modify the queen ant who lays the eggs. But there are some types of ants, such as clonal raiders, that reproduce asexually and without fertilization, producing clones of the mothers. Despite the trickiness, researchers at two different institutions recently succeeded in mutating ants. A study in Cell details how researchers genetically modified clonal raider ants using CRISPR, a gene-editing technique that allows for the cutting and/or pasting of gene sequences. In this study, scientists deactivated the orco gene, which facilitates the proper functioning of ants odorant receptors. When ants odorant receptors are disrupted, all of their olfactory genes suffer. Those receptors are crucial to ants social behavior-pheromones dictate how ants live and work ...
Mammals possess an olfactory system of inordinate discriminatory power. We are studying how the diversity and specificity of olfactory perception is accomplished. Analysis of the patterns of expression of the odorant receptor genes, coupled with earlier electrophysiologic experiments, have provided a logic for olfactory discrimination. Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only one of a thousand receptor genes. Neurons expressing a given receptor, although randomly distributed in domains in the epithelium, project their axons to a small number of topographically fixed loci or glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. These data support a model of olfactory coding in whichdiscrimination of odor quality would result from the detection of specific spatial patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb.. HHMI. ...
Ants exhibit cooperative behaviors and advanced forms of sociality that depend on pheromone-mediated communication. Odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) express specific odorant receptors (ORs) encoded by a dramatically expanded gene family in ants. In most eusocial insects, only the queen can transmit genetic information, restricting genetic studies. In contrast, workers in Harpegnathos saltator ants can be converted into gamergates (pseudoqueens) that can found entire colonies. This feature facilitated CRISPR-Cas9 generation of germline mutations in orco, the gene that encodes the obligate co-receptor of all ORs. orco mutations should significantly impact olfaction. We demonstrate striking functions of Orco in odorant perception, reproductive physiology, and social behavior plasticity. Surprisingly, unlike in other insects, loss of OR functionality also dramatically impairs development of the antennal lobe to which ORNs project. Therefore, the development of genetics in Harpegnathos establishes ...
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vectors of dengue viruses. Despite global efforts to reduce the prevalence of dengue using integrated vector management strategies, innovative alternatives are necessary to help prevent virus transmission. Detailed characterizations of Ae. aegypti genes and their products provide information about the biology of mosquitoes and may serve as foundations for the design of new vector control methods. We studied the Ae. aegypti gene, AAEL010714, that encodes a two-domain odorant-binding protein, AaegOBP45. The predicted gene structure and sequence were validated, although single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed. Transcriptional and translational products accumulate in the ovaries of blood fed females and are not detected or are at low abundance in other tissues. We validated the Ae. aegypti AAEL010714 gene sequence and characterized the expression profile of a two-domain OBP expressed in ovaries. We propose that AaegOBP45 function as a component of the mosquito
1. Buck L and Axel R (1991) A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell 65 (1):175-187. 2. Greer PL, Bear DM, Lassance JM, Bloom ML, Tsukahara T, Pashkovski SL, Masuda FK, Nowlan AC, Kirchner R, Hoekstra HE, and Datta SR (2016) A Family of non-GPCR chemosensors defines an alternative logic for mammalian olfaction. Cell 165 (7):1734-1748. 3. Busse D, Kudella P, Gruning NM, Gisselmann G, Stander S, Luger T, Jacobsen F, Steinstrasser L, Paus R, Gkogkolou P, Bohm M, Hatt H, and Benecke H (2014) A synthetic sandalwood odorant induces wound-healing processes in human keratinocytes via the olfactory receptor OR2AT4. J Invest Dermatol 134 (11):2823-2832. 4. Pavlath GK (2010) A new function for odorant receptors: MOR23 is necessary for normal tissue repair in skeletal muscle. Cell Adh Migr 4 (4):502-506. 5. Kang N, Kim H, Jae Y, Lee N, Ku CR, Margolis F, Lee EJ, Bahk YY, Kim MS, and Koo J (2015) Olfactory marker protein expression is an indicator of ...
Receptors that couple to a heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein (G protein) are thought to stimulate a large number of G protein molecules. This model of signal amplification is based primarily on quantitative studies of phototransduction in vertebrate retinal cells. Bhandawat et al. have examined signal transduction by olfactory receptors in frog olfactory neurons. Quantal analysis of receptor responses to odorant ligands suggests that an activated odorant receptor, probably due to an extremely brief dwell time of odorant-receptor interaction, has a low probability of stimulating a single G protein molecule. High sensitivity to odorants might still be achieved with repetitive odorant binding and by signal convergence in the olfactory bulb.. V. Bhandawat, J. Reisert, K.-W. Yau, Elementary response of olfactory receptor neurons to odorants. Science 308, 1931-1934 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit from ELISA Genie is a pre-coated immunoassay with a sensitivity of 0.094 ng/ml and a range of 0.156-10ng/ml and has been designed to measure Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit in serum, plasma & cell culture supernatant samples. The Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit accurately measures natural Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 levels quantified versus standard curves obtained and is based on antibodies raised against a recombinant Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 peptide.
Insects sense odorants with specialized odorant receptors (ORs). Each antennal olfactory receptor neuron expresses one OR with an odorant binding site together with a conserved coreceptor called Orco
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The sense of smell allows chemicals to be perceived as diverse scents. We used single neuron RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to explore developmental mechanisms that shape this ability as nasal olfactory neurons mature in mice. Most mature neurons expressed only one of the roughly 1000 odorant receptor genes (Olfrs) available, and that at high levels. However, many immature neurons expressed low levels of multiple Olfrs. Coexpressed Olfrs localized to overlapping zones of the nasal epithelium, suggesting regional biases, but not to single genomic loci. A single immature neuron could express Olfrs from up to seven different chromosomes. The mature state in which expression of Olfr genes is restricted to one per neuron emerges over a developmental progression that appears independent of neuronal activity requiring sensory transduction molecules.. ...
DOR is a database that provides sequence and structural information on olfactory receptors (OR) of selected organisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens). Olfactory receptors are membrane proteins which help organisms to detect, encode, and process sensory stimuli. DOR provides users with olfactory receptor sequences for retrieval, predicted membrane topology, intra and inter-genomic alignments, phylogeny and identify motifs. The database contains three-dimensional structures of 100 selected ORs, modeled using bovine rhodopsin as template. The user can browse through the alignment used for comparative modeling of the olfactory receptors, structural models of the receptors, analyse the transmembrane regions marked on the model and the predicted dimer interface of every model. ...
hi there, we have had an ongoing rat problem since weve moved in to this house (here in atlanta!) there are places in the house on the carpet where rats have left their scent shall we say…. and one of these being in the room where my newborn will sleep. nice. do you have an organic spray that will neutralize the scent so they wont come back? our pest control company said that smell is so strong they come back to it… Roof Rats will definitely create and use scent trails to navigate their way around. Their vision is limited but they have an amazing sense of smell and use it to the fullest potential as explained in our ROOF RAT CONTROL ARTICLE. In fact, its clearly one of the biggest reasons why homes that get rodents once have a tendency to get them again; the lingering odors and scents are clearly an attractive nuisance and should be removed for long term rat control to truly be achieved.. If you check out our RODENT EQUIPMENT page, youll find a section on ODOR CONTROL. In this section ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neurol response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory…
Adult-Born Granule Cells Maintain Olfactory Bulb Organization. Diana M. Cummings, Jason S. Snyder, Michelle Brewer, Heather A. Cameron, and Leonardo Belluscio. (see pages 13801-13810). Olfactory sensory neurons expressing the same odorant receptor converge onto two isofunctional columns in the olfactory bulb. Paired isofunctional columns are connected by tufted cell axons, which synapse on GABAergic granule neurons. After a postnatal refinement period during which intrabulbar projections narrow to the width of a single glomerulus, the projection patterns remain relatively stable throughout life, despite the continuous addition of new granule cells in mice. In fact, this stability requires the addition of adult-born granule neurons, as shown by Cummings et al. After neuronal stem cells were ablated, intrabulbar projections broadened. Similar broadening normally occurs after olfactory deprivation, but the original pattern reemerges when sensory input is restored. Re-refinement of intrabulbar ...
Kansas City, MO - The human nose expresses nearly 400 odorant receptors, which allow us to distinguish a large number of scents. In mice the number of odour receptors is closer to 1000. Each olfactory neuron displays only a single type of receptor and all neurons with the same receptors are connected to the same…
Senses are information that is transmitted through the nervous system in the form of nerve impulses or an active potential. Mammals have five senses. Hearing, Smelling, Touching, Seeing, and Tasting. Hearing is sensed in the ears. Sound waves from the air enter into the ear and are identified as certain sounds and the ear sends impulses to the brain to identify these sounds. The sense of smell is found in the nose. The olfactory receptors are found in the upper lining of the nasal cavity and are used to send impulses to the brain notifying it of a certain smell. Touching is identified through pressure, touch, stretching, and motion. Nerves send impulses to the brain of a feeling that are identified by the brain. Sight is found in the eyes. They absorb light and the photoreceptors send impulses to the nerves to send a transmission to the brain of the light the eye saw. Tasting is found in the mouth. Taste buds are used for tasting and are located on the tongue and mouth. Impulses are sent to the ...
Predicted to have odorant binding activity and olfactory receptor activity. Predicted to be involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway and sensory perception of smell. Predicted to localize to the integral component of membrane. Orthologous to human OR8K3 (olfactory receptor family 8 subfamily K member 3 (gene/pseudogene ...
Predicted to have odorant binding activity and olfactory receptor activity. Predicted to be involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway and sensory perception of smell. Predicted to localize to the integral component of membrane. Orthologous to human OR8G1 (olfactory receptor family 8 subfamily G member 1 (gene/pseudogene ...
Olfaction system plays a critical role for survival and reproduction in many animal species. Odorant molecules in the environment are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) located in the nasal cavity.
The chromosomal deletion of vomeronasal receptor genes in these mice alters male sexual behavior and maternal aggression, and response to specific pheromonal ligands is not detected.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most important classes of proteins in living organisms that allows transmission of a wide variety of signals over the cell membrane, between cells and over long distances in the human body, thus acting as both the gatekeepers and molecular messengers of the cell. The importance of these receptors is emphasized by the Nobel prize awarded in 2004 for the discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system and in 2012 for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.. We wanted to use the Snifferomyces to address a challenge affecting several lives. Lack of diagnostic capacity has been a crucial barrier preventing an effective response to the challenges of Tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries where, standard TB diagnostic tools that need to be used in a lab setting pose major barriers for screening due to the costs and time involved in the process. We aim to address this problem by constructing a diagnosis system ...
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most important classes of proteins in living organisms that allows transmission of a wide variety of signals over the cell membrane, between cells and over long distances in the human body, thus acting as both the gatekeepers and molecular messengers of the cell. The importance of these receptors is emphasized by the Nobel prize awarded in 2004 for the discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system and in 2012 for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.. ...
Ridz Odor™ Concentrated Multi-Purpose Cleaner & Deodorizer uses built-in odor counteractants that encapsulate odor molecules to eliminate odors where they begin, not just cover them up. Will not leave soapy, slippery residue behind after cleaning. Neutral pH will not dull shiny surfaces ...
Gene target information for Or69a - Odorant receptor 69a (fruit fly). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Gene target information for Or74a - Odorant receptor 74a (fruit fly). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
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OR4K14 (olfactory receptor family 4 subfamily K member 14), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
OR52A5 (olfactory receptor family 52 subfamily A member 5), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
We are experts in pet urine and odour removal. We will apply special solutions prior to cleaning that will neutralize the odour molecule and therefore solve the problem.
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily W, member 1 (OR52W1) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
Olfactory receptor 56A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR56A4 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... January 2014). "The missense of smell: functional variability in the human odorant receptor repertoire". Nature Neuroscience. ...
Olfactory receptor 51L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51L1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Adipietro KA, Mainland JD, Matsunami H (2012). "Functional evolution of mammalian odorant receptors". PLOS Genetics. 8 (7): ...
"Deorphanization of Dresden G protein-coupled receptor for an odorant receptor". Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction ... Olfactory receptor 51E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51E1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors arising from single coding-exon ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ...
Olfactory receptor 51M1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51M1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Male odorant receptors consist of olfactory sensilla. These sensilla are small sensory organs that may protrude or lie under ... "A male-specific odorant receptor conserved through the evolution of sex pheromones in Ostrinia moth species". International ...
Olfactory receptor 2AG1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR2AG1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... Mashukova A, Spehr M, Hatt H, Neuhaus EM (2006). "Beta-arrestin2-mediated internalization of mammalian odorant receptors". J. ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ...
Olfactory receptor 7D4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR7D4 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... Keller A, Zhuang H, Chi Q, Vosshall LB, Matsunami H (September 2007). "Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters ... de March CA, Topin J, Bruguera E, Novikov G, Ikegami K, Matsunami H, Golebiowski J (April 2018). "Odorant Receptor 7D4 ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
Young, J. M., & Trask, B. J. (2002). The sense of smell: genomics of vertebrate odorant receptors. Human molecular genetics, 11 ... In Xenopus laevis, an amphibia, both class receptors are present, unlike fish or mammals. Their class I receptors are expressed ... It is generally understood that olfactory adaptation involves both receptor level and post-receptor components (peripheral and ... Odorants in water are detected in a manner that is akin to fish, in which a respiratory pump is responsible for filling their ...
A single odorant is usually recognized by many receptors. Different odorants are recognized by combinations of receptors. The ... When odorants are mixed, a habitual odorant is blocked. This depends on the strength of the odorants in the mixture, which can ... The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is a small patch of tissue at the back ... This is the detection of stimuli by receptors in the nose. The stimuli are recognized by the region of the human brain which ...
OR9G1 functions as an odorant receptor. AMPD3 functions in energy metabolism. FAM200A has no known function. Based on ... This study indicates that there is a very slight decrease in FAM71E2 expression in estrogen receptor knockdown samples. This ...
"Identification of a Testicular Odorant Receptor Mediating Human Sperm Chemotaxis". Science. 299 (5615): 2054-8. Bibcode:2003Sci ...
Wang, F; Nemes, A; Meldelson, M; Axel, R (1998). "Odorant Receptors Govern the Formation of a Precise Topographic Map". Cell. ... For example, neurons that do not express functional odorant receptors have been observed to have a significantly shorter half- ... The receptors for taste are taste buds on the tongue. The tongue contains taste receptors, as well as mechanoreceptors. ... The cutaneous receptors of the skin project in an orderly fashion to the spinal cord, and from there, via different afferent ...
"RTP family members induce functional expression of mammalian odorant receptors". Cell. 119 (5): 679-91. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Receptor expression-enhancing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the REEP1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: REEP1 receptor accessory protein 1". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial ... 2006). "Members of RTP and REEP gene families influence functional bitter taste receptor expression". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (29): ...
"RTP family members induce functional expression of mammalian odorant receptors". Cell. 119 (5): 679-91. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Receptor expression-enhancing protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the REEP5 gene. Receptor Expression Enhancing ... "Entrez Gene: REEP5 receptor accessory protein 5". "REEP5 receptor accessory protein 5 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". ... "receptor expression-enhancing protein 5 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-06-22. "SAPS < ...
Number and functionality of odorant receptors in the observer's nose. The concentration of an odor above a food is dependent on ... The odor threshold value of an odorant is influenced by the medium. Examples of substances with strong odors: (Z)-8- ...
Hallem EA, Nicole Fox A, Zwiebel LJ, Carlson JR (January 2004). "Olfaction: mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant". Nature ... It is known that there are two taste receptors at the tip of the labium which may well play a role. The female mosquito does ... Of 72 types of odor receptors on its antennae, at least 27 are tuned to detect chemicals found in perspiration. In Aedes, the ... especially for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the odor receptor gene Or4. A large part of the mosquito's sense of smell, or ...
Olfactory receptor molecules are very similar to G-protein-linked receptors and belong to the odorant receptor gene family.[12] ... Odorant[edit]. An odorant is a physiochemical molecule that binds to a specific receptor protein.[1] In mammals, each olfactory ... the specific mechanism of certain receptors binding with certain odorant molecules is not well understood.[12] Odorant receptor ... Genetic analysis shows that odorant receptor neurons express only one type of odorant receptor gene. It is hypothesized that ...
Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Vosshall LB (March 2008). "Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET ... octenol odorant receptors. Recent evidence in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quequinfasciatius mosquitoes suggest DEET reduces the ... Olfactory receptor Oct-1-en-3-one, the ketone analog that gives blood on skin its typical metallic, mushroom-like smell 1-Octen ... "Highly sensitive VOC detectors using insect olfactory receptors reconstituted into lipid bilayers",Science Advances 13 Jan 2021 ...
"Odorant and Gustatory Receptors in the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Public ...
Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Vosshall LB (March 2008). "Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET ... Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Vosshall LB (2008). "Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET". ... A type of olfactory receptor neuron in special antennal sensilla of mosquitoes that is activated by DEET, as well as other ... By reducing odor volatility, DEET functions to "mask" the ability of volatile odorants on the skin to activate olfactory ...
"Functional characterization of odorant receptors in the ponerine ant, Harpegnathos saltator , Request PDF". ResearchGate. ...
Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; de la Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S. (2014). "Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl ... A potential odorant receptor for Ιcaridin (and DEET), the CquiOR136•CquiOrco, has been suggested recently for Culex ... By reducing odor volatility, icaridin functions to "mask" the ability of volatile odorants on the skin to activate olfactory ... Recent crystal and solution studies showed that Icaridin binds to Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein 1 (AgamOBP1). The ...
... is an agonist believed to work by overloading an insect's odorant receptors. It may be 1000 times stronger than DEET and ... Jones, P. L.; Pask, G. M.; Rinker, D. C.; Zwiebel, L. J. (2011). "Functional agonism of insect odorant receptor ion channels". ... "Functional agonism of insect odorant receptor ion channel" (Press release). April 4, 2011. "VICB Article: Sulfilimine Cross- ... "Allosteric antagonism of insect odorant receptor ion channels. , Chemical Synthesis Core". medschool.vanderbilt.edu. Retrieved ...
It has recently been identified as an agonist of human trace amine-associated receptor 5. Odorant Olfactory receptor Trace ... "Human trace amine-associated receptor TAAR5 can be activated by trimethylamine". PLoS ONE. 8 (2): e54950. doi:10.1371/journal. ... amine Trace amine-associated receptor "N,N-Dimethylethylamine". Toxnet. Hazardous Substance Data Bank. Retrieved 4 May 2014. ...
Saberi M, Seyed-allaei (2016). "Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants". Scientific ... On the other side are a handful of scientists who posit that an odorant receptor detects an odor molecule's vibrational ... report that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous olfactory receptor expression system ... and its protein odorant receptor (found in the nasal epithelium), such as electrostatic and Van der Waals interactions as well ...
... which extend out into the airspace to interact with odorants. Odorant receptors bind odorants in the airspace, which are made ... Once the olfactory sensory neurons differentiate, they express odorant receptors, which transduce odorant information from the ... They are bipolar neurons and their apical poles express odorant receptors on non-motile cilia at the ends of the dendritic knob ... In order for olfactory sensory neurons to function properly, they must express odorant receptors and the proper transduction ...
When an odorant is detected by receptors, they in a sense break the odorant down, and then the brain puts the odorant back ... of the odorant, which is why the chemical nature of the odorant is important. After binding the odorant, the receptor is ... The binding of the ligand (odor molecule or odorant) to the receptor leads to an action potential in the receptor neuron, via a ... Saberi, M; Seyed-allaei, H (2016). "Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants". ...
Olfactory receptor 10C1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10C1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... 2003). "Complex transcription and splicing of odorant receptor genes". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (22): 19691-701. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Stocker RF (2006) Olfactory coding: Connecting odorant receptor expression and behavior in the Drosophila larva (Dispatch). ... melanogaster despite markedly low numbers of odorant receptor neurons". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 445 (4): 374-387 ... Stocker, Reinhard F. (2006-01-10). "Olfactory Coding: Connecting Odorant Receptor Expression and Behavior in the Drosophila ... odorant receptor expression and central connectivity. Micros. Res. Techn. 55, 284-296 44. Jefferis GSXE, Marin EC, Stocker RF, ...
Mombaerts P (2001). "The human repertoire of odorant receptor genes and pseudogenes". Annual Review of Genomics and Human ... and protein modeling in the olfactory receptor gene superfamily". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 855 (1): 182-93. ...
When odorants enter the nasal cavity, they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. These receptors ... Keller, A; Zhuang, H; Chi, Q; Vosshall, LB; Matsunami, H (2007-09-27). "Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters ... has found that people with the intact human odorant receptor OR7D4 are more sensitive to androstenone and androstadienone and ... The hyperosmic person may need to be removed from strong odorants for a period of time if the sensation becomes unbearable. ...
Linda Buck & Richard Axel (1991). "A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor ... In Drosophila, each olfactory sensory neuron generally expresses a single olfactory receptor gene,[5] and the neurons ... The interaction between the olfactory receptor neurons, local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input ... from where the sensory neurons carry the information about the odorant molecules impinging on the antenna to the antennal lobe. ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. • olfactory receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. Cellular component. • ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ...
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the دستگاه بویایی"[۷۸] ...
Kisspeptin and its associated receptor KISS1R are known to be involved in the regulation of puberty. Studies have shown there ... Checking sense of smell using odorant panel or University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Melatonergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine reuptake ... but no effect on the avoidance of the Drosophila stress odorant". Biology Letters. 13 (8): 20170369. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2017.0369 ...
Olfactory receptor 51B5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51B5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
2014), "Odor and Pheromone Molecules, Receptors, and Behavioral Responses: Odorant Dynamics and Kinetics (Chapter 2.5.2)", The ... Olfactory neurons are receptor cells in the epithelium that detect odor molecules dissolved in the mucus and transmit ... 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal Epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor cells ... causing an electrical response that spreads through the receptor cells to the olfactory nerve fibers at the back of the nasal ...
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system" [81] ... modeling of neurons have led to the development of stereochemical models that accurately predict acetylcholine receptor-based ...
These include receptor antagonists, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter reuptake, G protein-coupled receptors, G proteins, ... When a ligand activates the G protein-coupled receptor, it induces a conformational change in the receptor that allows the ... They found that when adrenaline binds to a receptor, the receptor does not stimulate enzymes (inside the cell) directly. ... Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of the cell membrane. They consist of the Gα and the tightly ...
A single odorant is usually recognized by many receptors. Different odorants are recognized by combinations of receptors. The ... When odorants are mixed, a habitual odorant is blocked. This depends on the strength of the odorants in the mixture, which can ... The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is a small patch of tissue at the back ... In Germany, the concentrations of odorants have since the 1870s been defined by Olfaktometrie, which helps to analyze the human ...
"Drosophila odorant receptors are both ligand-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels". Nature 452 (7190): 1007-11 ... "IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. http://www.iuphar-db.org ...
The odorant-protein complex binds to a receptor protein within the cell membrane of an olfactory dendrite. These receptors are ... Receptors[edit]. Main article: Sensory receptor. Sensory receptors are the cells or structures that detect sensations. Stimuli ... Functional receptor types[edit]. A third classification of receptors is by how the receptor transduces stimuli into membrane ... Structural receptor types[edit]. Location[edit]. One way to classify receptors is based on their location relative to the ...
The concentrations of odorant in Germany are defined by the "Olfaktometrie" since the 1870s. In this connection it's about the ... First, there is the physiological part; the sense of the stimulus by receptors in the nose. After that the psychological part ... In mammals, some pathway of pheromones identification are in the vomeronasal organ and some in olfactory receptors. ... are also odorants. The perception of an odor effect is a two step process. ...
Receptors of the olfactory epithelium bind odorants (olfactory receptors) and pheromones (vomeronasal receptors) ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... is a receptor that can bind with stimulative signal molecules, while inhibitory hormone receptor (Ri) is a receptor that can ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to G protein-coupled receptors.. *G-protein-coupled+receptors at the US National Library of ...
"Olfaction: Mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant"។ Nature 427 (6971): 212-213។ 2004។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1038/427212a។ អ.ស.ផ.ម. ... Of 72 types of odor receptors on its antennae, at least 27 are tuned to detect chemicals found in perspiration.[៤៤] In Aedes, ... It is known that there are two taste receptors at the tip of the labium which may well play a role.[៦១] ... especially for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the odor receptor gene Or4.[៤៣] A large part of the mosquito's sense of smell, or ...
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[95]. ...
In the olfactory system, odorant molecules in the mucus bind to G-protein receptors on olfactory cells. The G-protein activates ... A receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into an electrical signal.[1] Receptors are broadly split into two main ... Hair cells are then able to convert this movement (mechanical energy) into electrical signals (graded receptor potentials) ... Eatock, R. (2010). Auditory receptors and transduction. In E. Goldstein (Ed.), Encyclopedia of perception. (pp. 184-187). ...
Insect Odorant Receptors Are Molecular Targets of the Insect Repellent DEET. „Sciencexpress", s. 1838, 2008. DOI: 10.1126/ ...
... received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004 for their discovery of odorant receptors and the complex ...
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system" [103]. ...
When an odorant is detected by receptors, they in a sense break the odorant down, and then the brain puts the odorant back ... Receptor neuronEdit. The binding of the ligand (odor molecule or odorant) to the receptor leads to an action potential in the ... "Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants". Scientific Reports. 6: 25103. Bibcode: ... The odorant binds to receptors that recognize only a specific functional group, or feature, of the odorant, which is why the ...
These patterns may be related to sniffing or change in intensity and concentration of odorant.[3] Temporal patterns may have ... As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory ... 2003). "Vomeronasal organ detects odorants in absence of signaling through main olfactory epithelium". Nat Neurosci. 6 (5): 519 ... Mori K, Takahashi YK, Igarashi KM, Yamaguchi M (April 2006). "Maps of odorant molecular features in the Mammalian olfactory ...
37] The finding that plants which lack the receptor of karrikin receptor show several developmental phenotypes (enhanced ... Demole E, Lederer E, Mercier D (1962). "Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant ... "The karrikin receptor KAI2 promotes drought resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana". PLoS Genetics. 13 (11): e1007076. doi:10.1371 ...
Kemps E, Tiggemann M, Bettany S (June 2012). "Non-food odorants reduce chocolate cravings". Appetite. 58 (3): 1087-90. doi: ... because when glucose interacts with the opioid receptor system in the brain an addictive[4] triggering effect occurs. The ...
"Crucial role of copper in detection of metal-coordinating odorants". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109: 3492-3497. Bibcode ... for the highly sensitive detection of certain volatile thiols and related organosulfur compounds by olfactory receptors in mice ...
The preference for biting humans is dependent on expression of the odorant receptor AeegOr4.[14] ... "Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor". Nature. 515 (7526): 222-227. Bibcode:2014Natur.515 ...
odorant receptor;. RTP,. receptor transporting protein;. mOR,. mouse OR.. *© 2006 by The National Academy of Sciences of the ... Odorants are detected by a large family of odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the nose. The information provided by the ORs ... Ric-8B promotes functional expression of odorant receptors. Luiz Eduardo C. Von Dannecker, Adriana F. Mercadante, Bettina ... Ric-8B promotes functional expression of odorant receptors. Luiz Eduardo C. Von Dannecker, Adriana F. Mercadante, Bettina ...
Summary: Broad inhibition as well as activation of peripheral odorant receptor signaling decreases aggression between non- ...
... "odorant receptor co-receptor"), is an odorant receptor and the corresponding gene that encodes it. The odorant receptor Or83b ... "Orco Odorant receptor co-receptor [Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)] - Gene - NCBI". Larsson MC, Domingos AI, Jones WD, ... Jones WD, Nguyen TA, Kloss B, Lee KJ, Vosshall LB (February 2005). "Functional conservation of an insect odorant receptor gene ... One proposes are that it could interact with specific odor stimuli independently of other odorant receptors (ORs). The other ...
Ethyl acetate (the leftmost odorant shown) is a control odorant that activates the native Drosophila odorant receptor in the ... The tuning of odorant receptors to their particular odorants is crucial for better understanding of how olfactory cues mediate ... Characteristic response of an HsOR receptor to cuticular hydrocarbons by SSR. (A) Example of an odorant receptor, HsOr236, ... 2014) Facile functional analysis of insect odorant receptors expressed in the fruit fly: Validation with receptors from ...
Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters odour perception.. Keller A1, Zhuang H, Chi Q, Vosshall LB, Matsunami H. ... Here we show that a human odorant receptor, OR7D4, is selectively activated in vitro by androstenone and the related odorous ... Our results demonstrate the first link between the function of a human odorant receptor in vitro and odour perception. ... We investigated whether genetic variation in human odorant receptor genes accounts in part for variation in odour perception ...
We have devised a genetic strategy to examine the stability of receptor choice. We observe that immature olfactory … ... Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only a single odorant receptor from a large family of genes, and this singularity ... We observe that immature olfactory sensory neurons that express a given odorant receptor can switch receptor expression, albeit ... Gene switching and the stability of odorant receptor gene choice Cell. 2004 Jun 11;117(6):801-15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2004.05. ...
To achieve this, a detailed atomic structure of both the odorant... ... Providing a rationale that associates a chemical structure of an odorant to its induced perception has been sought for a long ... The mouse eugenol odorant receptor: structural and functional plasticity of a broadly tuned odorant binding pocket. ... Molecular Modelling of Odorant/Olfactory Receptor Complexes. In: Crasto C. (eds) Olfactory Receptors. Methods in Molecular ...
Most Drosophila olfactory neurons express two types of odorant receptor genes: Or83b, a broadly expressed receptor of unknown ... Or83b encodes a broadly expressed odorant receptor essential for Drosophila olfaction.. Larsson MC1, Domingos AI, Jones WD, ... While the conventional odorant receptors are highly divergent, Or83b is remarkably conserved between insect species. Two models ... Dendritic localization of conventional odorant receptors is abolished in Or83b mutants. Consistent with this cellular defect, ...
A special property of this receptor type is the capability to adjust sensitivity of odor detection according to previous odor ... A special property of this receptor type is the capability to adjust sensitivity of odor detection according to previous odor ... Among the insect olfactory receptors the odorant receptors (ORs) evolved in parallel to the onset of insect flight. ... Among the insect olfactory receptors the odorant receptors (ORs) evolved in parallel to the onset of insect flight. ...
G protein-coupled receptor activity, G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity, neurotransmitter receptor activity, ... G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second ... Odorant receptorImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,Q62007,Q62007_MOUSE Odorant receptor OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Olfr16 PE=2 SV=1 ...
... olfactory receptor activity, G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, sensory perception of smell ... Odorant receptor M37Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>, ... G protein-coupled receptor activity Source: UniProtKB-KW. *olfactory receptor activity Source: MGI ,p>Inferred from Direct ... "In vivo identification of eugenol-responsive and muscone-responsive mouse odorant receptors.". McClintock T.S., Adipietro K., ...
Odorant Receptor Polymorphisms and Natural Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Stephanie M. Rollmann, ... Odorant Receptor Polymorphisms and Natural Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Stephanie M. Rollmann, ... Odorant Receptor Polymorphisms and Natural Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Stephanie M. Rollmann, ... Odorant Receptor Polymorphisms and Natural Variation in Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster ...
... receptors, GABAB receptors, and T1R taste receptors (Parmentier et al., 2002; Pin et al., 2003). A hallmark of this receptor ... 2). The reason for this difference may lie in the biological function of receptor 5.24 as an odorant receptor. Unlike glutamate ... Our analysis of the receptor 5.24 binding pocket provides an explanation for how this odorant receptor has evolved to recognize ... Zebrafish receptor ZO6 is a glutamate receptor and can be rationally retuned by the K386M mutation. A, View of the receptor ZO6 ...
... odorant transduction is mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, which are encoded by a family of ∼1000 odorant receptor (OR) ... Odorant Receptor Expression Defines Functional Units in the Mouse Olfactory System. Thomas Bozza, Paul Feinstein, Chen Zheng, ... Odorant Receptor Expression Defines Functional Units in the Mouse Olfactory System. Thomas Bozza, Paul Feinstein, Chen Zheng, ... Odorant Receptor Expression Defines Functional Units in the Mouse Olfactory System Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Design and enantioselective synthesis of new Cashmeran odorants. When a perfume is said to include Cashmere Wood, it means the ... These odorant blends act like biochemical uniforms, identifying individual ants by caste, colony and species. ... ... typical smell of the odorant Cashmeran. As described in the journal Angewandte Chemie, scientists from Switzerland and Germany ...
However, mammalian GPCR odorant receptors (ORs), when heterologously expressed in cells, are poorly expressed on the cell ... to the cell surface membrane is critical in order for the receptors to recognize their ligands. ... RTP family members induce functional expression of mammalian odorant receptors Cell. 2004 Nov 24;119(5):679-91. doi: 10.1016/j. ... However, mammalian GPCR odorant receptors (ORs), when heterologously expressed in cells, are poorly expressed on the cell ...
In addition to variable odorant specificity subunits, all insect odorant receptors (ORs) contain a conserved odorant receptor ... Results were used for training machine learning models to rank probable activity of a library of 1280 odorant molecules. ... Orco directed antagonists allosterically inhibit odorant activation of ORs and we previously showed that an airborne Orco ... Novel Orco antagonist 2-tert-butyl-6-methylphenol (BMP) inhibited odorant responses in electroantennogram and single sensillum ...
Activation State of the M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulates Mammalian Odorant Receptor Signaling ... Activation State of the M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulates Mammalian Odorant Receptor Signaling ... Activation State of the M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulates Mammalian Odorant Receptor Signaling ... Activation State of the M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulates Mammalian Odorant Receptor Signaling ...
These neurons expressed olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their ... Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by ... were selected to study the activation profile of endogenous olfactory receptors when exposed to compounds from the same odorant ... One important class of molecules in the fragrance industry are sandalwood odorants. Sandalwood oil and four synthetic ...
R. M. Costanzo, M. Kobayashi, Age-Related Changes in P2 Odorant Receptor Mapping in the Olfactory Bulb, Chemical Senses, 2010, ... Semaphorin 3A-mediated axon guidance regulates convergence and targeting of P2 odorant receptor axons. Authors. *. Gerald A. ... Furthermore, Sema3A plays a key role in the convergence of axons expressing the odorant receptor P2 onto their appropriate ... Because of the putative role that odorant receptor molecules such as P2 could play in establishing appropriate glomerular ...
... Sanchez, Gonzalo Manuel Linköping ... We demonstrate that this is achieved by regulating odorant receptor (OR) transport to and within the primary cilium in OSN ... These findings expand our knowledge of Hh signaling to encompass chemosensory modulation and receptor trafficking. ...
Linalool decreased the intensity and shortened the response of receptor neurons to pulses. High contrast (,10 dB) in firing ... at high pulse rates the concentration of the odorant did not return to base level during inter-pulse intervals. ... background odor on behavior and coding of temporal parameters of pheromone pulse trains in the pheromone olfactory receptor ... used by male moths to find a female appears as a train of discontinuous pulses separated by gaps among a complex odorant ...
Highly developed antennae containing different types of olfactory receptors allow insects to use minute amounts of odors for ... Receptor system Or22a-Orco. Insect odorant receptors form a receptor system that consists of the actual receptor protein and an ... Right: The odorant receptors studied are protein dimers consisting of the odorant receptor Or22a and the co-receptor Orco; they ... The combination of odorant receptor and co-receptor Orco can be compared to a transistor, Wicher continues: A weak basic ...
Predicting Ligand Selectivity of Mammalian Odorant Receptors  Jiang, Yue (2015). The mammalian olfactory system uses a large ... family of odorant receptors to detect and discriminate amongst a myriad of volatile odor molecules. The odorant receptors are ... Browsing Masters Theses by Subject "odorant receptor". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ...
... a gene required for function of odorant receptors, causes defects in social behavior and fitness. ...
protein_class:Odorant/olfactory and gustatory receptors AND is_premium:yes. Search. Fields ». ... G-protein coupled receptors. Mapped to UniProt SWISS-PROT. Nuclear receptors. Plasma proteins. Potential drug targets. ...
protein_class:Odorant/olfactory and gustatory receptors AND if_reliability:Supportive. Search. Fields ». ... G-protein coupled receptors. Mapped to UniProt SWISS-PROT. Nuclear receptors. Plasma proteins. Potential drug targets. ...
Evolution of the Gr family of gustatory and odorant receptors in mosquitoes. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... Of the receptors involved in chemoperception, the gustatory receptor (Gr) protein family comprises most of the diversity in the ... Evolution of the Gr family of gustatory and odorant receptors in mosquitoes. Kent, Lauren ... Evolution of the Gr family of gustatory and odorant receptors in mosquitoes. ...
Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, comprised of at least one common subunit (the odorant receptor co-receptor subunit, ... including the OR family of olfactory receptors, making these receptors appealing targets for the control of insects. ... Each of the many ORs of an insect species is activated or inhibited by an unique set of odorants that interact with the ... Importantly, we show that Orco antagonists inhibit odorant activation of ORs from several insect species. Detailed examination ...
Genetic Variation of an Odourant Receptor and Sensory Perception of Cooked Meat Containing Androstenone. Markets Product ... Genetic variation of an odorant receptor OR7D4 and sensory perception of cooked meat containing androstenone. PLoS ONE 7(5): ... Although odour perception impacts food preferences, the effect of genotypic variation of odourant receptors (ORs) on the ... The receptor responds to androstenone, and genotypic variation in OR7D4 predicts variation in the perception of androstenone. ...
  • The OR genes appear to be a single lineage nested within the gustatory receptor (GR) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In light of the massive OR expansion in ants (∼400 genes per species), a representative survey based on phylogenetic and transcriptomic criteria was carried out across discrete odorant receptor subfamilies. (pnas.org)
  • We investigated whether genetic variation in human odorant receptor genes accounts in part for variation in odour perception between individuals. (nih.gov)
  • Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only a single odorant receptor from a large family of genes, and this singularity is an essential feature in models of olfactory perception. (nih.gov)
  • Most Drosophila olfactory neurons express two types of odorant receptor genes: Or83b, a broadly expressed receptor of unknown function, and one or more members of a family of 61 selectively expressed receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report the analysis of odorant response properties from genetically identified OSNs that express particular OR genes and that send convergent axonal projections to defined glomeruli. (jneurosci.org)
  • Addgene: Differential impact of Lhx2 deficiency on expression of class I and class II odorant receptor genes in mouse. (addgene.org)
  • Codon analysis of genes in lineage-specific expansion clades revealed signatures of positive selection on the candidate cuticular hydrocarbon receptor genes (9-exon subfamily) of Cerapachys biroi , Camponotus floridanus , Acromyrmex echinatior and Atta cephalotes . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Newly duplicated genes particularly in the candidate cuticular hydrocarbon receptor clade that have evolved under positive selection may contribute to the highly sophisticated lineage-specific chemical communication in each ant species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mammalian genome consists of ~1500 OR genes;these genes belong to the seven-transmembrane receptor superfamily. (grantome.com)
  • Recently, genes coding for odorant receptors (ORs) OR6, OR14, OR15 and OR16 have been genetically associated with species-specific male response to female pheromone blends in Heliothis virescens (Hv) and Heliothis subflexa (Hs). (elsevier.com)
  • The lack of higher expression of any of the receptor genes in H. subflexa antennae suggests that interspecific sequence differences, rather than gene regulation differences, underly the species-specific male response to pheromone components. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemosensory genes encode proteins involved directly in the detection of odorants. (frontiersin.org)
  • We identified more than 1,200 odorant receptor cDNAs representing more than 400 genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of these genes were previously annotated as olfactory receptors based solely on sequence similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the assignment of most of these genes as olfactory receptors is based solely on similarity to one of a relatively small number of experimentally confirmed mouse olfactory receptors or, worse, on similarity to a gene that in turn was defined as an olfactory receptor solely by similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A developmental program of epigenetic repression prepares each mammalian olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) to strongly express one allele from just one of hundreds of odorant receptor (OR) genes, but what completes this process of OR gene choice by driving the expression of this allele is incompletely understood. (eneuro.org)
  • 1000 and therefore comprise the largest family of mammalian genes, are G-protein-coupled receptors that evolved to transduce the binding of odorant molecules into intracellular signals ( DeMaria and Ngai, 2010 ). (eneuro.org)
  • This work will exploit advanced next-generation sequencing, novel "trans vivo" gene targeting, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, in vivo calcium imaging, and access to human biopsy and post-mortem tissue samples, to study the expression, function, and topographical mapping of human odorant receptor genes. (northwestern.edu)
  • Specific experiments will (1) measure the expression and determine the structure of chemosensory genes including olfactory receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) in the human olfactory epithelium, (2) characterize the odor response profiles of human odorant receptors when expressed in mouse olfactory sensory neurons, and (3) define the spatial distribution of receptor-specific projections of human olfactory sensory neurons from the epithelium to the olfactory bulb. (northwestern.edu)
  • Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemosensory genes were described: overall, 77 odorant binding proteins (OBP), 82 odorant receptors (OR), 60 ionotropic receptors (IR) and 30 gustatory receptors (GR) were identified by comparative genomics and transcriptomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Drosophila olfactory genes OS-E and OS-F are members of a family of genes that encode insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). (genetics.org)
  • The recent discovery of a large family of olfactory receptor genes in Drosophila raises new questions about the function, diversity, regulation, and evolution of the OBP family. (genetics.org)
  • The large number of receptor genes, their restricted expression in subsets of olfactory neurons, and their high degree of sequence divergence raise questions about their relationship to OBPs. (genetics.org)
  • B) Each OSN of the main olfactory epithelium expresses only one odorant receptor gene (OR A, OR B, OR C, etc.) out of a repertoire of over 1,000 genes. (rupress.org)
  • Richard Axel and Linda Buck published their fundamental paper in 1991, in which they described the genes coding for a large family of odorant receptors. (nobelprize.org)
  • An excess of SNP-level similarity was observed in class I of the MHC, and in a locus on chromosome 9 near eight consecutive functional odorant receptor genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The olfactory receptors form a multigene family consisting of around 800 genes in humans and 1400 genes in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. (genecards.org)
  • The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. (genecards.org)
  • Man O, Gilad Y, Lancet D (2004) Prediction of the odorant binding site of olfactory receptor proteins by human-mouse comparisons. (springer.com)
  • The performance of membrane proteins such as ion channels or receptors is dynamically adjusted according to changing physiological requirements. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three types of receptor proteins detect volatile chemical information in insects. (frontiersin.org)
  • These proteins are associated with OR proteins and enhance the OR responses to odorants. (nih.gov)
  • They focused their attention on odorant receptor proteins in the antenna, the insects' nose. (phys.org)
  • The studies were concentrated on odorant binding proteins (AgOBPs) and odorant receptors (AgORs). (ijbs.com)
  • Odor-detection in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae involves large families of diverse proteins, including multiple odorant binding proteins (AgOBPs) and olfactory receptors (AgORs). (ijbs.com)
  • In this study, we have explored the expression of these olfactory proteins, as well as the ubiquitous odorant receptor heteromerization partner AgOR7, in the thirteen flagellomeres (segments) of female and male antenna. (ijbs.com)
  • Putative unigenes encoding 27 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), five chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 70 odorant receptors (ORs), 25 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 10 gustatory receptors (GRs) and two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. (frontiersin.org)
  • When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Odorant receptors are sensor proteins for food aromas and other volatile stimuli in our environment. (mendeley.com)
  • These receptors are integral membrane proteins, which are typically expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons of our nose. (mendeley.com)
  • OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants through the aqueous fluid within olfactory sensilla to the underlying receptor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • These studies highlight potential regions of functional significance in the OS-E and OS-F proteins, which may include a region required for interaction with receptor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • INSECT odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small, soluble proteins found in the aqueous lymph that fills the olfactory sensilla on the antenna ( P elosi and M aida 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • The aqueous solubility of hydrophobic odorants is thought to be greatly enhanced via odorant binding proteins which exist in the extracellular fluid surrounding the odorant receptors [ PMID: 2010751 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This superfamily is composed of pheromone binding proteins (PBP), which are male-specific and associate with pheromone-sensitive neurons and general-odorant binding proteins (GOBP). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • All odorant receptors are related proteins and differ only in some amino acid residues (indicated in green, blue and red). (nobelprize.org)
  • Accessory proteins, such as the chaperone RTP1S, or Ric8b, have improved the surface expression of at least a portion of odorant receptors. (jbmethods.org)
  • Molecular features underlying the chemoreception of odorant binding proteins and olfactory receptors. (univ-cotedazur.fr)
  • Chemosensory receptors, which are all G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), come in four types: odorant receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors, trace-amine associated receptors and formyl peptide receptor-like proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The formyl peptide receptor-like proteins that are found in the vomeronasal organs in mammals have an olfactory function associated with the identification of pathogenic states. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The primary sequences of thousands of olfactory receptors are known from the genomes of more than a dozen organisms: they are seven-helix transmembrane proteins, but there are (as of May 2016) no known structures of any OR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry and diversity of insect odorant-binding proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Subsequently, mature ORN proteins including those essential for transducing odorant signals are induced as immature ORNs differentiate into functional neurons. (biologists.org)
  • When mutating the Or83b gene, larval Drosophila do not travel towards an area of ethyl acetate which is an important odorant related to rotting fruit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel Orco antagonist 2- tert -butyl-6-methylphenol (BMP) inhibited odorant responses in electroantennogram and single sensillum recordings in adult Drosophila melanogaster and inhibited OR-mediated olfactory behavior in D. melanogaster larvae. (nature.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis reveals the conservation of carbon dioxide, sugar and several orphan receptors in these two mosquitoes and Drosophila flies. (illinois.edu)
  • 2017) that Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the co-receptor Orco scale their gain inversely with mean odor intensity according to Weber-Fechner's law. (elifesciences.org)
  • DEET inhibits behavioral attraction to food odors in Drosophila, and this inhibition requires the highly conserved olfactory co-receptor OR83b. (harvard.edu)
  • This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptor repertoire. (nature.com)
  • The olfactory system of Drosophila has a repertoire of approximately 60 odorant receptors. (panjora.com)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, ORN responses are determined by three different receptor families, the odorant (Or), ionotropic-like (IR) and gustatory (Gr) receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • 240,000 potential volatiles for several Odorant receptors (Ors) in the Drosophila antenna. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, much of what we know about this process has come from studying the fruit fly, Drosophila , which detects odors using receptors located mainly on its antennae. (elifesciences.org)
  • have used a computational approach to study in depth the interactions between a subset of 24 odorant receptors in Drosophila antennae and 109 odorants. (elifesciences.org)
  • We observe that immature olfactory sensory neurons that express a given odorant receptor can switch receptor expression, albeit at low frequency. (nih.gov)
  • Neurons that express a mutant receptor gene switch receptor transcription with significantly greater probability, suggesting that the expression of a functional odorant receptor elicits a feedback signal that terminates switching. (nih.gov)
  • Breer H (1994) Odor recognition and second messenger signalling in olfactory receptor neurons. (springer.com)
  • Odorant receptors (ORs) mediate the interaction of odorous compounds with olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and influence the guidance of OSN axons to synaptic targets in the olfactory bulb (OB). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we applied calcium imaging to characterize the odorant response properties of single neurons from gene-targeted mice in which the green fluorescent protein is coexpressed with a particular OR. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that the odorants acetophenone and benzaldehyde are agonists for the M71 OR and that M71-expressing neurons are functionally similar in their response properties across concentration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chemical properties of odorants are represented as spatiotemporal patterns of activity across olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the olfactory epithelium. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results reveal consistent odorant response profiles in neurons expressing a defined OR. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by monitoring fluxes in the internal calcium concentration. (ovid.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons were identified that were specifically stimulated by sandalwood compounds. (ovid.com)
  • These neurons expressed olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their molecular structures. (ovid.com)
  • This is the first study in which an important class of perfume compounds was analyzed for its ability to activate endogenous olfactory receptors in olfactory receptor neurons. (ovid.com)
  • We demonstrate that this is achieved by regulating odorant receptor (OR) transport to and within the primary cilium in OSN neurons. (diva-portal.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Olfactory receptor neurons" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Much is known about olfactory responses to pulses and steps, but it remains unclear how olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) detect the intensity and timing of natural stimuli, where the absence of scale in the signal makes detection a formidable olfactory task. (elifesciences.org)
  • Neurons that share an expressed receptor make a functional class. (prolekare.cz)
  • The ability of insects to navigate toward odor sources is based on the activities of their first-order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Orco functions as a non-selective cation channel and is expressed in the majority of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). (vanderbilt.edu)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This study aims to understand the regulatory mechanism that controls the identity of olfactory sensory neurons in their odorant receptor choice and their expression of adhesion molecules for axon targeting. (elsevier.com)
  • Together, the results indicate that the blunt type trichoid sensilla contain a characteristic binding protein, plus-C AgOBP47, in the sensillum lymph and two sensory neurons, one cell which express the odorant receptor AgOR11 and a second cell which express the receptor types AgOR13 and AgOR55. (ijbs.com)
  • The detection and discrimination of behavioral relevant odorants in the environment of females is mediated by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) housed in hair-like sensilla on different appendices of the body [ 4 - 6 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • you have 5,000 neurons, express one type of receptor. (coursera.org)
  • few of these kinds of receptor neurons, during the recording if we isolate them. (coursera.org)
  • In female mosquitoes, AgOR1-expressing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) were almost exclusively segregated in segments 3 to 9, whereas AgOR2-expressing ORNs were distributed over flagellomeres 2 to 13. (ijbs.com)
  • Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ability to identify odors by humans is dependent on odorant receptors within olfactory neurons that line the nasal epithelium. (grantome.com)
  • Odorant receptors (ORs) are clonally expressed in immature olfactory neurons. (grantome.com)
  • Olfactory neurons govern this odor recognition process through careful expression of odorant receptors. (grantome.com)
  • Then the organization of the system can be any of these three A, B, C. The first one, A, is actually the receptor, those neurons express the same receptor. (coursera.org)
  • those neurons express the same receptor. (coursera.org)
  • In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are at the front end of the olfactory system. (panjora.com)
  • The olfactory systems of insects are fundamental to all aspects of their behaviour, and insect olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) exhibit exquisite specificity and sensitivity to a wide range of environmental cues. (elsevier.com)
  • We may speculate that an individual 'zip-coding' of odorant receptors with C-terminal motifs, that control their surface expression and intracellular signaling, may be instructive for a specific wiring of olfactory sensory neurons to class-I or class-II odorant receptor-related brain areas. (mendeley.com)
  • Interestingly, the odorant receptors are also involved in a number of developmental decisions, including the regulation of their own expression and the patterning of the olfactory sensory neurons' synaptic connections in the brain. (rupress.org)
  • The first step of this process involves the primary sensory neurons, which detect physical stimuli through a variety of highly specialized receptors. (rupress.org)
  • The perception of a smell begins with the activation of receptors expressed by the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which reside in the main olfactory epithelium lining the nasal cavity ( Fig. 1 A ). Each OSN extends a single dendrite to the lumenal surface of the epithelium, from which immotile cilia extend to catch inhaled odorants from the air. (rupress.org)
  • Each glomerulus thus receives innervation from sensory neurons expressing a single odorant receptor, providing the anatomical basis of the olfactory sensory map. (rupress.org)
  • Vogt RG, Prestwich GD, Lerner MR. Odorant-binding-protein subfamilies associate with distinct classes of olfactory receptor neurons in insects. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The ORs, located on the surface of dendrites of sensory neurons on the olfactory epithelia, are the most important chemosensory receptors in the detection and perception of common odorants in the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sensory neurons in these organs use G-protein coupled receptors to detect chemosensory stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The odorant receptor (OR) family is expressed in sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium, while the adult vomeronasal organ is thought to express other types of receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main olfactory epithelium (MOE), regarded as the site of detection for volatile odorants, harbors olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (for example, compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the olfactory receptors are located in both the cilia and synapses of the olfactory sensory neurons and in the epithelium of the human airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do they lack receptors or neurons or both? (scienceblog.com)
  • Within this mucous layer lie the nonmotile cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The potential strategy involved would be to create small molecules that mimic the Or83b mutation and inhibit the receptor and disperse them, since it would be impractical to mutate the gene for the receptor in an entire population of disease-spreading insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results were used for training machine learning models to rank probable activity of a library of 1280 odorant molecules. (nature.com)
  • One important class of molecules in the fragrance industry are sandalwood odorants. (ovid.com)
  • Sandalwood oil and four synthetic sandalwood molecules were selected to study the activation profile of endogenous olfactory receptors when exposed to compounds from the same odorant family. (ovid.com)
  • Because of the putative role that odorant receptor molecules such as P2 could play in establishing appropriate glomerular destinations for growing olfactory axons, we have also determined the spatial organization of P2 glomeruli in semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) mutant mice. (wiley.com)
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, have now used mutant flies and for the first time provided experimental proof that the extremely sensitive olfactory system of fruit flies − they are able to detect a few thousand odor molecules per milliliter of air, whereas humans need hundreds of millions − is based on self-regulation of odorant receptors. (phys.org)
  • Even fewer molecules below the response threshold are sufficient to amplify the sensitivity of the receptors, and binding of molecules shortly afterwards triggers the opening of an ion channel that controls the fly's reaction and flight behavior . (phys.org)
  • Apart from functioning as so-called ionotropic receptors, which enable ion flow through membranes after binding of odor molecules , odorant receptors also elicit intracellular signals. (phys.org)
  • The mammalian olfactory system uses a large family of odorant receptors to detect and discriminate amongst a myriad of volatile odor molecules. (duke.edu)
  • Odorant receptors comprise the largest multigene family identified to date, enabling the olfactory system to respond to an enormous pool of potential odorant molecules. (lsu.edu)
  • Molecules bind to odorant receptors with different affinities and activate them with different efficacies, thus providing a combinatorial code that identifies odorants. (panjora.com)
  • The differences in the volumes and structural flexibilities of different odorant receptor binding sites may explain the difference in the scents of similar molecules with different sizes. (panjora.com)
  • Unlike many other receptors that are activated by only one specific ligand, such as a neurotransmitter or a hormone, an OR can be triggered by many odorant molecules. (panjora.com)
  • These are made up of molecules called odorants, each of which activates a specific subset of odorant receptors in the nose. (elifesciences.org)
  • The subtle differences in the protein chains explain why the receptors are triggered by different odorant molecules. (nobelprize.org)
  • Rather than binding specific ligands, olfactory receptors display affinity for a range of odor molecules, and conversely a single odorant molecule may bind to a number of olfactory receptors with varying affinities, which depend on physio-chemical properties of molecules like their molecular volumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a highly conserved sequence in roughly three quarters of all ORs that is a tripodal metal ion binding site, and Suslick has proposed that the ORs are in fact metalloproteins (mostly likely with zinc, copper and possibly manganese ions) that serve as a Lewis acid site for binding of many odorant molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only could the flies distinguish between the deuterated and non-deuterated forms of an odorant, they could generalise the property of "deuteratedness" to other novel molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such isotope effects are exceedingly common, and so it is well known that deuterium substitution will indeed change the binding constants of molecules to protein receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am interested in the molecular architecture of these receptors and how they bind odorant molecules. (scienceblog.com)
  • Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. (genecards.org)
  • The odorant molecules interact with the odor receptors on these cilia in a way that continues to defy scientists. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The exact number of odorant molecules that can be detected is not known but one often hears estimates of 10,000. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • What are the molecular determinants underlying the selectivity of individual odorant receptors for their cognate ligands? (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, predictions regarding binding pocket structure allowed us to alter, in a predictable manner, the receptor preferences for different ligands. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results reveal how this class of odorant receptor has evolved to accommodate ligands of varying chemical structure and further illuminate the molecular principles underlying ligand recognition and selectivity in this family of chemosensory receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • The identification of the activating ligands for receptor 5.24 provides a means to understand the principles governing the molecular receptive field properties of a vertebrate odorant receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • What aspects of the ligand-receptor interaction allow for the broad tuning profiles for certain ligands within a class of compounds (e.g., different types of amino acids)? (jneurosci.org)
  • Transport of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the cell surface membrane is critical in order for the receptors to recognize their ligands. (nih.gov)
  • We have used this approach to identify active odorant ligands for ORs, providing a platform for screening the chemical selectivity of the large OR family. (nih.gov)
  • Although other G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) recognize biogenic ligands mainly with ionic or hydrogen bonding interactions, ORs recognize odorants mostly via hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions. (caltech.edu)
  • Olfactory signal transduction is initiated by binding of odorous ligands to G protein-coupled odorant receptors, resulting in the activation of G protein and second messengers that culminates in the generation of action potentials to relay this signal to the brain for odor recognition. (lsu.edu)
  • Establishing a link between receptors and ligands will allo for the development of receptor agonists and antagonists to be used in direct therapeutic interventions. (grantome.com)
  • The interaction of olfactory (or odorant) receptors with their odorant ligands is the first step in a signal transduction pathway that results in the perception of smell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From worm to man, many odorant signals are perceived by the binding of volatile ligands to odorant receptors(1) that belong to the G- protein- coupled receptor ( GPCR) family(2). (mpg.de)
  • Regardless of the signal transduction pathway utilized, all ORs have the same function: they have a binding pocket (also known as a binding cavity or a binding site), where odorants (also known as ligands) bind. (panjora.com)
  • Using a computational approach, we first identify shared structural features from known ligands of individual receptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the identification of new ligands for odorant receptors in cell-based assays has been challenging, due to their individual and rather sub-optimal plasma membrane expression, as compared with other G protein-coupled receptors. (jbmethods.org)
  • Here, we used a bi-functional N-terminal tag, called 'IL-6-HaloTag®', with IL-6 facilitating functional cell surface expression of recombinant odorant receptors, and the HaloTag® protein, serving as a highly specific acceptor for cell-impermeant or cell-permeant, fluorophore-coupled ligands, which enable the quantification of odorant receptor expression by live-cell flow cytometry. (jbmethods.org)
  • IL-6, being a secreted cytokine, facilitates functional cell surface expression of recombinant HaloTag ® -odorant receptors, and the HaloTag ® protein serves as a highly specific acceptor for cell-impermeant or cell-permeant, fluorophore-coupled ligands, which enable the quantification of odorant receptor expression by antibody-independent, chemical live-cell staining and flow cytometry. (jbmethods.org)
  • Crabtree, in 1978, had previously suggested that Cu(I) is "the most likely candidate for a metallo-receptor site in olfaction" for strong-smelling volatiles which are also good metal-coordinating ligands, such as thiols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Or83b mutation disrupts behavioral and electrophysiological responses to many odorants, which supports the second model that OR plays a general rather than specific role in olfaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Or83b therefore encodes an atypical odorant receptor that plays an essential general role in olfaction. (nih.gov)
  • This animation shows how insect olfaction works at the level of odorant receptors. (phys.org)
  • Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This conclusion demonstrates that the receptors, and perhaps other components of vertebrate olfaction, evolved at least 550 million years ago. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The homology of receptor 5.24 to other C family GPCRs allows us to address these questions. (jneurosci.org)
  • A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prior to 1991, experiments from several other labs suggested that odorant receptors were seven transmembrane (TM) domain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), so Buck and Axel used PCR with degenerate primers designed from available GPCR sequences to query cDNA isolated from rat olfactory epithelium tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large multigene family of olfactory-specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) was initially identified in the rat ( Buck and Axel, 1991 ) and belongs to what is now referred to as the OR family of odorant receptors ( Mombaerts, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • The predicted structure of these receptors exhibits a seven-transmembrane domain topology, and their sequences place them in the rhodopsin class of GPCRs. (rupress.org)
  • Odorant receptors (ORs) are seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) [ 1 ], and are activated by small volatile compounds [ 2 , 3 ]. (jbmethods.org)
  • These receptors are members of the class A rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Golebiowski, Ma and Matsunami showed that the mechanism of ligand recognition, although similar to other non-olfactory class A GPCRs, involves residues specific to olfactory receptors, notably in the sixth helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Or83b responds not to specific odors but to odors in general the Or83b receptor must respond to a feature of other ORs that it has coevolved with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two models could account for Or83b function: it could interact with specific odor stimuli independent of conventional odorant receptors, or it could act in concert with these receptors to mediate responses to all odors. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory receptors have to detect odors in a wide range of concentrations, from faint filaments at larger distance from the source to high concentrated and permanent presence near the source. (frontiersin.org)
  • Highly developed antennae containing different types of olfactory receptors allow insects to use minute amounts of odors for orientation towards resources like food, oviposition sites or mates. (phys.org)
  • Most odors are detected via a family of odorant receptors (ORs), which form heteromeric complexes consisting of a well-conserved OR co-receptor (Orco) ion channel and a non-conserved tuning OR that provides coding specificity to each complex. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Hallem, E. A. & Carlson, J. R. Coding of odors by a receptor repertoire. (nature.com)
  • The receptors AgOR1 and AgOR2, as well as the binding protein AgOBP1, have been implicated in the recognition of human host odors. (ijbs.com)
  • The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase I project will be to develop odorant receptor function bioassays to provide services for companies that develop and formulate odors used in many kinds of commercial products. (sbir.gov)
  • [1] [3] The olfactory bulb itself affects how odors come to be encoded through its temporal structure and firing rate, which in turn influences the likelihood of an odorant being remembered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coding of information in the peripheral olfactory system depends on two fundamental factors: interaction of individual odors with subsets of the odorant receptor repertoire and mode of signaling that an individual receptor-odor interaction elicits, activation or inhibition. (elifesciences.org)
  • Conditional deletion experiments in mice demonstrate that Lhx2 is necessary for normal expression frequencies of nearly all ORs and all trace amine-associated receptors, irrespective of whether the deletion of Lhx2 is initiated in immature or mature OSNs. (eneuro.org)
  • At a molecular level, insects utilize members of several highly divergent and unrelated families of cell-surface chemosensory receptors for detection of volatile odorants. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Single sensillum recordings from A. gambiae antenna have shown that the sharp sensilla trichodea respond to distinct but partly overlapping spectra of volatile compounds [ 6 ] whereas odorants which activate blunt type trichoid sensilla are still unknown. (ijbs.com)
  • used this information to perform a computational (in silico) screen of more than 240,000 different odorant-like volatile compounds. (elifesciences.org)
  • Each volatile chemical in the environment is thought to interact with a specific subset of odorant receptors depending upon odor structure and binding sites on the receptor. (elifesciences.org)
  • The present review focuses on the main olfactory epithelium and the multiple roles that the "OR" family of odorant receptors play, not only as detectors of volatile chemicals in the environment, but also as regulators of key developmental decisions made by differentiating OSNs. (rupress.org)
  • Each odorant molecule must be small enough to be volatile. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Or83b, also known as Orco (short for "odorant receptor co-receptor"), is an odorant receptor and the corresponding gene that encodes it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to variable odorant specificity subunits, all insect odorant receptors (ORs) contain a conserved odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) subunit which is an attractive target for repellent development. (nature.com)
  • Orco directed antagonists allosterically inhibit odorant activation of ORs and we previously showed that an airborne Orco antagonist could inhibit insect olfactory behavior. (nature.com)
  • This mechanism was recently described in the receptor system Or22a-Orco (Wicher et al. (phys.org)
  • These stimulate the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates an ion flow through the co-receptor Orco. (phys.org)
  • As a control, they used genetically modified fruit flies where the co-receptor Orco had been inactivated. (phys.org)
  • The combination of odorant receptor and co-receptor Orco can be compared to a transistor, Wicher continues: A weak basic current is sufficient to release the main electric current that activates the neuron. (phys.org)
  • Buck and Sean join Vincent in New York, while Sylvia is with Nels in Salt Lake City to discuss the first mutant ant ever made: disruption of orco, a gene required for function of odorant receptors, causes defects in social behavior and fitness. (microbe.tv)
  • While many natural and synthetic odorants have been shown to agonize Orco/Or complexes, only a single direct Orco modulator, VUAA1, has been described. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • We have described and characterized the first Orco antagonist, that is capable of non-competitively inhibiting odorant-evoked activation of OR complexes, thereby providing additional insight into the structure/function of this unique family of ligand-gated ion channels. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • May form a complex with Orco to form odorant-sensing units, providing sensitive and prolonged odorant signaling and calcium permeability. (cusabio.com)
  • RT-PCR and RACE performed on total RNA isolated from catfish olfactory epithelium produced a cDNA that is very similar to metabotropic glutamate receptors and putative pheromone receptors from multiple species. (lsu.edu)
  • We therefore screened a mouse olfactory epithelium cDNA library to obtain olfactory receptor expressed sequence tags, providing evidence of olfactory function for many additional olfactory receptors, as well as identifying gene structure and putative promoter regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which chemoreceptors regulate social behaviors, we investigated the roles of a critical class of chemoreceptors, the odorant receptors (ORs), from the ponerine ant Harpegnathos saltator in detecting cuticular hydrocarbon pheromones. (pnas.org)
  • To address this question, we performed molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis on the ligand-binding region of two orthologous amino acid odorant receptors belonging to the "C family" of G-protein-coupled receptors in goldfish and zebrafish. (jneurosci.org)
  • To address the molecular basis of odor discrimination by the mammalian OR superfamily, we performed functional analysis on a series of site-directed mutants and performed ligand docking simulation studies to define the odorant-binding site of a mouse OR. (caltech.edu)
  • The current study reveals the molecular environment of the odorant-binding site, and it further advances the understanding of GPCR pharmacology. (caltech.edu)
  • Recent advances in genomic studies have led to the identification of large odorant receptor ( Or ) gene repertoires from ant genomes providing fruitful materials for molecular evolution analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The maximum affinity can be attained when the molecular volume of an odorant matches the volume of the binding pocket. (panjora.com)
  • To investigate the molecular mechanisms of human olfactory perception at the receptor level, cell-based bioassays are required that can cope with (1) complexity of odorant/receptor interactions [ 8 ], and (2) individually different and sub-optimal cell surface expression of ORs [ 9 - 11 ]. (jbmethods.org)
  • Here, we used a combination of next-generation sequencing, molecular biology, and histochemical analyses to show that a gene coding for a receptor in the OR family is highly expressed in a defined and non-canonical subpopulation of adult VNO cells, characterized by the expression of a unique set of molecular markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The questions are: How do we recognize this vast array of molecular structures with a limited repertoire of odorant receptors? (scienceblog.com)
  • Olfactory receptors constitute the molecular basis for the sense of smell. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the olfactory system, the identity of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is a result of the expression of a single odorant receptor (OR) from a large receptor gene repertoire in the genome. (prolekare.cz)
  • 1000 different subtypes of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), each defined by the expression of a single odorant receptor (OR) gene. (eneuro.org)
  • One proposes are that it could interact with specific odor stimuli independently of other odorant receptors (ORs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications in behavior analyses arise due to different volatilities of odorants that activate individual ORNs, multiple ORNs activated by single odorants, and the difficulty in replicating naturally observed temporal variations in olfactory stimuli using conventional odor-delivery methods in the laboratory. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The odorant receptor repertoire encodes a large collection of odor stimuli that vary widely in identity, intensity, and duration. (cusabio.com)
  • As the outermost barrier of the body, the skin is exposed to multiple environmental factors, including temperature, humidity, mechanical stress, and chemical stimuli such as odorants that are often used in cosmetic articles. (elsevier.com)
  • Keratinocytes, the major cell type of the epidermal layer, express a variety of different sensory receptors that enable them to react to various environmental stimuli and process information in the skin. (elsevier.com)
  • We also show that cells expressing this receptor gene, though not responsive to most known intra- and interspecies VNO stimuli, are activated by scents from pups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "Effects of odorants on a delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in newt olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were investigated using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The odorant receptor Or83b is not exclusively expressed in insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are odorant receptors (ORs) which are restricted to insects, specific gustatory receptors (GRs) detecting carbon dioxide and receptors related to ionotropic glutamate receptors, called ionotropic receptors (IRs). (frontiersin.org)
  • The fact that these mutants are no more able to respond to cAMP or the inhibition/activation of the involved key enzymes, such as protein kinase C and phospholipase C, shows that the highly sensitive olfactory system in insects is regulated intracellularly by their own odorant receptors," says Dieter Wicher, the leader of the research group. (phys.org)
  • Insects find food and mates by navigating odorant plumes that can be highly intermittent, with intensities and durations that vary rapidly over orders of magnitude. (elifesciences.org)
  • The odorant receptors (ORs) of insects are crucial for host and mate recognition. (lu.se)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs) are important for insects to recognize and discriminate odorants in the environment and are mainly expressed in olfactory and gustatory organs. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Mixture and odorant processing in the olfactory systems of Insects: a comparative perspective. (washington.edu)
  • In insects, olfactory receptors are located on the antennae and other chemosensory organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zozulya S, Echeverri F, Nguyen T (2001) The human olfactory receptor repertoire. (springer.com)
  • The high regulatory demands placed on the nervous system are typified by the olfactory sensory system, in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses only one olfactory receptor (OR) gene from its genomic repertoire of one hundred to one thousand ORs [ 4 - 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here we functionally characterize the Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOr) repertoire. (nature.com)
  • Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the transmission of malaria. (nature.com)
  • Further, the exogenous promoter is inhibited by an OR transgene that similarly suppresses the endogenous receptor repertoire. (qscience.com)
  • Co-activation of few receptors, in defined combinations, gives rise to a large olfactory repertoire. (scienceblog.com)
  • Although humans have a significantly diminished olfactory receptor repertoire relative to other mammals, the oft-ignored importance of the sense of smell is undeniable. (scienceblog.com)
  • Responses were observed to both cuticular hydrocarbon components, some of which are known pheromones, and "general odorants," demonstrating broad coverage of these odor spaces across several subfamilies of receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Responses to several classes of semiochemicals are described, including cuticular hydrocarbons and mandibular gland components that act as H. saltator pheromones, and a range of more traditional general odorants. (pnas.org)
  • When viewed through the prism of caste-specific OR enrichment and distinctive OR subfamily odorant response profiles, our findings suggest that whereas individual HsOr s appear to be narrowly tuned, there is no apparent segregation of tuning responses within any discrete HsOr subfamily. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this cellular defect, the Or83b mutation disrupts behavioral and electrophysiological responses to many odorants. (nih.gov)
  • While a considerable amount of information has been generated regarding ORN responses to odorants, the role of specific ORNs in driving behavioral responses remains poorly understood. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Some of these receptors are narrowly tuned, and some salient odorants elicit strong responses from only one or a few receptors, suggesting a central role for specific transmission channels in human host-seeking behaviour. (nature.com)
  • Mutations in dATP8B severely attenuate sensitivity of odorant detection specifically in Or-expressing ORNs, but do not affect responses mediated by IR or Gr receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • For example, it is of great interest to elucidate what features of the receptor molecule are responsible for determining ligand specificity. (jneurosci.org)
  • After binding of an odor molecule, receptor protein and ion channel trigger the neural electrical response. (phys.org)
  • An amyl acetate puff completely suppressed I(K) induced by the first step pulse of repetitive depolarizations, suggesting that binding of an odorant molecule to the open channel is not required to block the channel. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • An odorant is a physiochemical molecule that binds to a specific receptor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] In mammals , each olfactory receptor protein has one type of molecule that it responds to, known as the one-olfactory-one-neuron rule, and approximately one thousand kinds of which have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a recent but highly controversial interpretation, it has also been speculated that olfactory receptors might really sense various vibrational energy-levels of a molecule rather than structural motifs via quantum coherence mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This appears to be the size limit for a molecule to have sufficient volatility to be detected by the nasal receptors. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Odor receptor nerve cells may function like a multiple lock and key system so that when any part of a specific molecule (a key) can fit into the receptor (lock), the nerve cell will be triggered and a specific odor will be perceived. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The combination of receptor types that are triggered produces an odor perception specific to that molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The related gustatory receptor family and the unrelated ionotropic receptor family also play roles in chemoreception, both for taste and smell [ 18 , 19 ], however the scope of this work is limited to investigation of the odorant receptor gene family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, a functional internalization event was identified specifically upon odorant stimulation in isolated catfish ORNs. (lsu.edu)
  • Broad inhibition as well as activation of peripheral odorant receptor signaling decreases aggression between non-nestmate ants consistent with a 'lock-and-key' model that requires OR-based detection of unambiguous non-nestmate chemical labels. (biologists.org)
  • A special property of this receptor type is the capability to adjust sensitivity of odor detection according to previous odor contacts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Schymura D, Forstner M, Schultze A, Kröber T, Swevers L, Iatrou K, Krieger J. Antennal expression pattern of two olfactory receptors and an odorant binding protein implicated in host odor detection by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae . (ijbs.com)
  • Each OSN functions as a specialized sensor for the detection of diverse odorants in the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Odorants are detected by a large family of odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the nose. (pnas.org)
  • We identified the critical ligand-receptor interactions that afford ligand binding as well as selectivity for different amino acids. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, a comparison of goldfish receptor 5.24 with its zebrafish ortholog highlights the importance of specific binding pocket sites as determinants of ligand selectivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • From this analysis, we propose a general model of ligand recognition for amino acid odorant receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, we succeeded in rational receptor design, inserting point mutations in the odorant-binding site that resulted in predicted changes in ligand specificity and antagonist activity. (caltech.edu)
  • This ability to rationally design the receptor validated the binding site structure that was deduced with our mutational and ligand docking studies. (caltech.edu)
  • DEET inhibits odor-evoked currents mediated by the insect odorant receptor complex, comprising a ligand-binding subunit and OR83b. (harvard.edu)
  • We further show that the evolution of preference for human odour in domestic mosquitoes is tightly linked to increases in the expression and ligand-sensitivity of the odorant receptor AaegOr4, which we found recognizes a compound present at high levels in human odour. (princeton.edu)
  • Key components of the internalization pathway involve phosphorylation of the odorant receptor by GRKs, binding of arrestin to the receptor-ligand complex, and targeting of this moiety to clathrin-coated pits. (lsu.edu)
  • Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ability to discriminate odorants in the environment depends on OR-ligand interactions and signaling capacity within the OSNs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of potent agonists of odorant receptors (ORs), a major class of Gprotein-coupled receptors, remains challenging due to complex receptor-ligand interactions. (dgist.ac.kr)
  • Beets, M. G. J. and Theimer, E. T. (1970) Odour Similarity Between Structurally Unrelated Odorants, in Ciba Foundation Symposium - Taste and Smell in Vertebrates (eds G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. (wiley.com)
  • Vertebrates can distinguish numerous odorants in the environment using chemosensory receptors that are expressed in the olfactory epithelium [ 1 - 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, mammalian GPCR odorant receptors (ORs), when heterologously expressed in cells, are poorly expressed on the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • ORs are members of a large subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). (elsevier.com)
  • OSNs expressing the same OR send convergent axonal projections to defined glomeruli in the OB and are thought to share the same odorant response properties. (jneurosci.org)
  • The glomerular convergence of afferents that express a given OR strongly suggests that glomeruli integrate inputs from OSNs that share similar odorant response profiles ( Kauer, 1987 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • OR4M1 (Olfactory Receptor Family 4 Subfamily M Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • OR6B3 (Olfactory Receptor Family 6 Subfamily B Member 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Of the receptors involved in chemoperception, the gustatory receptor (Gr) protein family comprises most of the diversity in the insect chemoreceptor superfamily, including within it not only taste receptors, but select olfactory receptors as well. (illinois.edu)
  • Most moth sex pheromones are C 10 -C 18 acetates, alcohols, and aldehydes (Type I pheromones), and most pheromone receptors (PRs) characterized to date are from higher Lepidoptera (Ditrysia), responding to these types of compounds. (lu.se)
  • acetates, alcohols, and aldehydes (Type I pheromones), and most pheromone receptors (PRs) characterized to date are from higher Lepidoptera (Ditrysia), responding to these types of compounds. (lu.se)
  • Importantly, it provides methods to screen for compounds that could modulate an odorant receptor's activity and, in turn, olfactory sensation and sexual response. (duke.edu)
  • They then tested their predictions for a subset of the receptors by performing experiments in living flies, and found that roughly 71% of predicted compounds did indeed activate or inhibit their receptors, compared to only 10% of a control sample. (elifesciences.org)
  • The ORs are the most important chemosensory receptors in detecting environmental chemicals in daily life, and they detect a wide range of compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Typically, recombinant odorant receptors carry N-terminal tags, which proved helpful for their functional membrane expression. (jbmethods.org)
  • The functional cell surface expression of recombinant odorant receptors typically has been investigated by expressing N-terminally extended, "tagged" receptors in test cell systems, using antibody-based immunocytochemistry or flow cytometry, and by measuring odorant/receptor-induced cAMP signaling, mostly by an odorant/receptor-induced and cAMP signaling-dependent transcriptional activation of a luciferase-based luminescence assay. (jbmethods.org)
  • Studying odorant receptor gene expression will give insights into how the olfactory system is put together and maintained throughout adulthood. (grantome.com)
  • Staged conditional expression experiments reveal that the receptor locus becomes fully repressed over time and that this repression does not require the receptor's open reading frame. (qscience.com)
  • In the research proposed here, we use next-generation sequencing techniques, heterologous expression systems, and human psychophysics to understand the links between receptor genotype, receptor function and olfactory perception. (grantome.com)
  • Using real-time PCR to confirm expression level differences suggested by our screen, we find that transcript levels in the olfactory epithelium can differ between olfactory receptors by up to 300-fold. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our finding that different olfactory receptors have different expression levels is intriguing given the one-neuron, one-gene expression regime of olfactory receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To establish an in vitro system to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of odorant receptor expression and function, we first extensively validated our primary OSN culture system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research on odorant receptors is typically done in test cell systems, which requires their expression at the cell surface. (mendeley.com)
  • These motifs had a differential impact on cell surface expression and odorant-induced cAMP signaling of individual recombinant receptors in a test cell system. (mendeley.com)
  • Our experiments revealed on average an about four-fold increased surface expression, a four-fold higher signaling amplitude, and a significant higher potency of odorant-induced cAMP signaling of six different human IL-6-HaloTag®-odorant receptors across five different receptor families in NxG 108CC15 cells, as compared to their Rho-tag-HaloTag® constructs. (jbmethods.org)
  • Here, we describe how to measure the cell surface expression of recombinant IL-6-HaloTag ® -odorant receptors in HEK-293 cells or NxG 108CC15 cells, by live-cell staining and flow cytometry, and how to measure an odorant-induced activation of these receptors by the fast, real-time, luminescence-based GloSensor ® cAMP assay. (jbmethods.org)
  • To clone and identify olfactory receptor odorant receptor 7 (OR7) gene of Aedes albopictus and analyze its expression profile and calcium regulation function. (bvsalud.org)
  • While the conventional odorant receptors are highly divergent, Or83b is remarkably conserved between insect species. (nih.gov)
  • These odorant blends act like biochemical uniforms, identifying individual ants by caste, colony and species. (phys.org)
  • Hence, our definition of the monophyletic lepidopteran PR-clade includes these receptors from a non-ditrysian species, based on functional support. (lu.se)
  • Odorant receptors are involved in this response, mediating interactions between an individual and its environment, as well as between individuals of the same or different species. (ub.edu)
  • We find that odorants are differentially encoded by the two species in ways consistent with their ecological needs. (nature.com)
  • Here we identified highly conserved C-terminal amino acid motifs, which discriminate between class-II and the majority of phylogenetic older class-I odorant receptors, by investigating 4808 receptors across eight species. (mendeley.com)
  • Each cell expresses only one olfactory receptor and the estimated number of odorants is much larger than the number of odorant receptors in any species (about 10,000 different scents vs about 350 human olfactory receptors). (scienceblog.com)
  • We demonstrate combinations of distinct C-terminal motifs to be necessary and instructive for the cell surface targeting and intracellular signaling of odorant receptors. (mendeley.com)
  • Most recently, we introduced an alternative, luminescence-based, fast online assay, where a genetically modified, cAMP-binding luciferase [ 16 ] (GloSensor ® , Promega) detects odorant/OR-induced changes in intracellular cAMP, enabling a robust luminescence readout within minutes upon stimulation with odorants [ 12 ]. (jbmethods.org)
  • Here, the activity of 258 chemicals on the human G protein-coupled odorant receptor (OR)51E1, also known as prostate-specific G protein-coupled receptor 2 (PSGR2) was virtually screened by machine learning using 4884 chemical descriptors as input. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • When a perfume is said to include Cashmere Wood, it means the typical smell of the odorant Cashmeran. (phys.org)
  • Crosstalk between neurotransmitter signaling and odorant signaling may enhance the sense of smell. (sciencemag.org)
  • To meet this task, the system utilizes a large family of G protein-coupled receptors-the odorant receptors-which are the chemical sensors underlying the perception of smell. (rupress.org)
  • some anosmias are caused by defective, inactive receptors(e.g. to isovaleric acid), yes, however, since the perception of smell also depends on the processing in the brain, there could be some failure there too. (scienceblog.com)
  • Each olfactory sensory neuron in the mammalian nose selects just a single member of the large odorant receptor (OR) gene family. (qscience.com)
  • Predicting the activity of chemicals for a given odorant receptor is a longstanding challenge. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The olfactory receptor gene family is one of the largest in the mammalian genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If individual OBPs interact with specific receptors, has the OBP gene family evolved in concert with the receptor gene family? (genetics.org)
  • The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. (genecards.org)
  • The olfactory receptors of terrestrial animals exist in an aqueous environment, yet detect odorants that are primarily hydrophobic. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Providing a rationale that associates a chemical structure of an odorant to its induced perception has been sought for a long time. (springer.com)
  • The identification of the chemical structure of an odorant by the vertebrate olfactory system is thought to occur through the combinatorial activity from multiple receptors, each tuned to recognize different chemical features. (jneurosci.org)
  • In mice, the superfamily includes ∼1000 members, and they recognize overlapping sets of odorants with distinct affinities and specificities. (caltech.edu)
  • There's 1000 type of receptors. (coursera.org)
  • In this study, we describe an analysis of the residues involved in the interactions between receptor 5.24 and amino acid agonists. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we designed and synthesized novel synthetic dehydroacetic acid analogues as agonists of odorant receptor 895 (Olfr895) expressed in bladder. (dgist.ac.kr)