Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Differential response to different stimuli.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.
A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The motion of air currents.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.

Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. (1/920)

The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants and that one odorant is recognized by multiple ORs, but that different odorants are recognized by different combinations of ORs. Thus, the olfactory system uses a combinatorial receptor coding scheme to encode odor identities. Our studies also indicate that slight alterations in an odorant, or a change in its concentration, can change its "code," potentially explaining how such changes can alter perceived odor quality.  (+info)

A spatial map of olfactory receptor expression in the Drosophila antenna. (2/920)

Insects provide an attractive system for the study of olfactory sensory perception. We have identified a novel family of seven transmembrane domain proteins, encoded by 100 to 200 genes, that is likely to represent the family of Drosophila odorant receptors. Members of this gene family are expressed in topographically defined subpopulations of olfactory sensory neurons in either the antenna or the maxillary palp. Sensory neurons express different complements of receptor genes, such that individual neurons are functionally distinct. The isolation of candidate odorant receptor genes along with a genetic analysis of olfactory-driven behavior in insects may ultimately afford a system to understand the mechanistic link between odor recognition and behavior.  (+info)

Functional identification and reconstitution of an odorant receptor in single olfactory neurons. (3/920)

The olfactory system is remarkable in its capacity to discriminate a wide range of odorants through a series of transduction events initiated in olfactory receptor neurons. Each olfactory neuron is expected to express only a single odorant receptor gene that belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family. The ligand-receptor interaction, however, has not been clearly characterized. This study demonstrates the functional identification of olfactory receptor(s) for specific odorant(s) from single olfactory neurons by a combination of Ca2+-imaging and reverse transcription-coupled PCR analysis. First, a candidate odorant receptor was cloned from a single tissue-printed olfactory neuron that displayed odorant-induced Ca2+ increase. Next, recombinant adenovirus-mediated expression of the isolated receptor gene was established in the olfactory epithelium by using green fluorescent protein as a marker. The infected neurons elicited external Ca2+ entry when exposed to the odorant that originally was used to identify the receptor gene. Experiments performed to determine ligand specificity revealed that the odorant receptor recognized specific structural motifs within odorant molecules. The odorant receptor-mediated signal transduction appears to be reconstituted by this two-step approach: the receptor screening for given odorant(s) from single neurons and the functional expression of the receptor via recombinant adenovirus. The present approach should enable us to examine not only ligand specificity of an odorant receptor but also receptor specificity and diversity for a particular odorant of interest.  (+info)

Conservation of sequence and structure flanking the mouse and human beta-globin loci: the beta-globin genes are embedded within an array of odorant receptor genes. (4/920)

In mouse and human, the beta-globin genes reside in a linear array that is associated with a positive regulatory element located 5' to the genes known as the locus control region (LCR). The sequences of the mouse and human beta-globin LCRs are homologous, indicating conservation of an essential function in beta-globin gene regulation. We have sequenced regions flanking the beta-globin locus in both mouse and human and found that homology associated with the LCR is more extensive than previously known, making up a conserved block of approximately 40 kb. In addition, we have identified DNaseI-hypersensitive sites within the newly sequenced regions in both mouse and human, and these structural features also are conserved. Finally, we have found that both mouse and human beta-globin loci are embedded within an array of odorant receptor genes that are expressed in olfactory epithelium, and we also identify an olfactory receptor gene located 3' of the beta-globin locus in chicken. The data demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved genomic organization for the beta-globin locus and suggest a possible role for the beta-globin LCR in control of expression of these odorant receptor genes and/or the presence of mechanisms to separate regulatory signals in different tissues.  (+info)

The variable and conserved interfaces of modeled olfactory receptor proteins. (5/920)

The accumulation of hundreds of olfactory receptor (OR) sequences, along with the recent availability of detailed models of other G-protein-coupled receptors, allows us to analyze the OR amino acid variability patterns in a structural context. A Fourier analysis of 197 multiply aligned olfactory receptor sequences showed an alpha-helical periodicity in the variability profile. This was particularly pronounced in the more variable transmembranal segments 3, 4, and 5. Rhodopsin-based homology modeling demonstrated that the inferred variable helical faces largely point to the interior of the receptor barrel. We propose that a set of 17 hypervariable residues, which point to the barrel interior and are more extracellularly disposed, constitute the odorant complementarity determining regions. While 12 of these residues coincide with established ligand-binding contact positions in other G-protein-coupled receptors, the rest are suggested to form an olfactory-unique aspect of the binding pocket. Highly conserved olfactory receptor-specific sequence motifs, found in the second and third intracellular loops, may comprise the G-protein recognition epitope. The prediction of olfactory receptor functional sites provides concrete suggestions of site-directed mutagenesis experiments for altering ligand and G-protein specificity.  (+info)

Odor response properties of rat olfactory receptor neurons. (6/920)

Molecular biology studies of olfaction have identified a multigene family of molecular receptors that are likely to be involved in odor transduction mechanisms. However, because previous functional data on peripheral coding were mainly collected from inferior vertebrates, it has been difficult to document the degree of specificity of odor interaction mechanisms. As a matter of fact, studies of the functional expression of olfactory receptors have not demonstrated the low or high specificity of olfactory receptors. In this study, the selectivity of olfactory receptor neurons was investigated in the rat at the cellular level under physiological conditions by unitary extracellular recordings. Individual olfactory receptor neurons were broadly responsive to qualitatively distinct odor compounds. We conclude that peripheral coding is based on activated arrays of olfactory receptor cells with overlapping tuning profiles.  (+info)

Protein kinase Cbeta and delta selectively phosphorylate odorant and metabotropic glutamate receptors. (7/920)

Recombinant protein segments from a metabotropic glutamate receptor and from an odorant receptor were used as substrates in protein kinase C phosphorylation assays. Protein kinase Cbeta and delta phosphorylated an intracellular consensus phosphorylation site in the metabotropic glutamate receptor. Only protein kinase Cdelta phosphorylated a novel extracellular consensus phosphorylation site in the odorant receptor. These results suggest differential regulation of these receptors by protein kinase C isotypes.  (+info)

Functional identification of a goldfish odorant receptor. (8/920)

The vertebrate olfactory system utilizes odorant receptors to receive and discriminate thousands of different chemical stimuli. An understanding of how these receptors encode information about an odorant's molecular structure requires a characterization of their ligand specificities. We employed an expression cloning strategy to identify a goldfish odorant receptor that is activated by amino acids-potent odorants for fish. Structure-activity analysis indicates that the receptor is preferentially tuned to recognize basic amino acids. The receptor is a member of a multigene family of G protein-coupled receptors, sharing sequence similarities with the calcium sensing, metabotropic glutamate, and V2R class of vomeronasal receptors. The ligand tuning properties of the goldfish amino acid odorant receptor provide information for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying olfactory coding.  (+info)

Olfactory receptor (OR) genes were discovered more than a decade ago, when Buck and Axel observed that, in rats, certain G-protein coupled receptors are expressed exclusively in the olfactory epithelium. Subsequently, protein sequence similarity was used to identify entire OR gene repertoires of a number of mammalian species, but only in mouse were these predictions followed up by expression studies in olfactory epithelium. To rectify this, we have developed a DNA microarray that contains probes for most predicted human OR loci and used that array to examine OR gene expression profiles in olfactory epithelium tissues from three individuals. We detected expression of 437 (76%) human OR genes in these olfactory epithelia. Interestingly, we detected widespread expression of OR pseudogenes, an observation that may shed light on the mechanism of OR gene choice in the olfactory sensory neurons. To address the hypothesis that OR genes may carry out additional functions, we also characterized the expression of
Autor: Wicher, D. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2008; Keywords: Neurosecretory insect neurons|br/|Olfactory receptor|br/|Molecular-basis|br/|Functional expression|br/|In-vivo|br/|Camp|br/|Transduction|br/|Melanogaster|br/|Proteins|br/|Antenna|br/|Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Agricultural, Biology & Environmental Sciences Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Life Sciences Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences; Titel: Drosophila odorant receptors are both ligand-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. This olfactory receptor gene is a segregating pseudogene, where some individuals have an allele that encodes a functional olfactory receptor, while other individuals have an allele encoding a protein that is predicted to be non-functional. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
Molecular properties of odorant compounds essential for activation of the human olfactory receptor hOR17-40 were investigated using a collection of 23 variants of its cognate ligand helional. Coupling receptor activation to an optically detectable intracellular Ca(2+) ion flux allowed dose-dependent …
Olfaction is a key component of the multimodal approach used by mosquitoes to target and feed on humans, spreading various diseases. Current repellents have drawbacks, necessitating development of more effective agents. In addition to variable odorant specificity subunits, all insect odorant receptors (ORs) contain a conserved odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) subunit which is an attractive target for repellent development. Orco directed antagonists allosterically inhibit odorant activation of ORs and we previously showed that an airborne Orco antagonist could inhibit insect olfactory behavior. Here, we identify novel, volatile Orco antagonists. We functionally screened 83 structurally diverse compounds against Orco from Anopheles gambiae. Results were used for training machine learning models to rank probable activity of a library of 1280 odorant molecules. Functional testing of a representative subset of predicted active compounds revealed enrichment for Orco antagonists, many structurally distinct
Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only a single odorant receptor from a large family of genes, and this singularity is an essential feature in models of olfactory perception. We have devised a genetic strategy to examine the stability of receptor choice. We observe that immature olfactory …
Chemosensory systems play key roles in the survival and reproductive success of insects. Insect chemoreception is mediated by two large and diverse gene superfamilies, chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins (OBPs). OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants from the environment to the olfactory receptors. We identified a family of OBP-like genes in the silkworm genome and characterized their expression using oligonucleotide microarrays. A total of forty-four OBP genes were annotated, a number comparable to the 57 OBPs known from Anopheles gambiae and 51 from Drosophila melanogaster. As seen in other fully sequenced insect genomes, most silkworm OBP genes are present in large clusters. We defined six subfamilies of OBPs, each of which shows lineage-specific expansion and diversification. EST data and OBP expression profiles from multiple larvae tissues of day three fifth instars demonstrated that many OBPs are expressed in chemosensory-specific tissues although some OBPs are expressed
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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1. Lagha M, Bothma JP, Levine M (2012) Mechanisms of transcriptional precision in animal development. Trends Genet 28: 409-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2012.03.006 22513408. 2. Frankel N, Davis GK, Vargas D, Wang S, Payre F, et al. (2010) Phenotypic robustness conferred by apparently redundant transcriptional enhancers. Nature 466: 490-493. doi: 10.1038/nature09158 20512118. 3. Ebert MS, Sharp PA (2010) Emerging roles for natural microRNA sponges. Curr Biol 20: R858-861. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.08.052 20937476. 4. Couto A, Alenius M, Dickson BJ (2005) Molecular, anatomical, and functional organization of the Drosophila olfactory system. Curr Biol 15: 1535-1547. 16139208. 5. Fishilevich E, Vosshall LB (2005) Genetic and functional subdivision of the Drosophila antennal lobe. Curr Biol 15: 1548-1553. 16139209. 6. Fuss SH, Ray A (2009) Mechanisms of odorant receptor gene choice in Drosophila and vertebrates. Mol Cell Neurosci 41: 101-112. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2009.02.014 19303443. 7. Tharadra SK, Medina ...
Olfactory receptor 51B5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51B5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000242180 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: OR51B5 olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily B, member 5. Bulger M, van Doorninck JH, Saitoh N, et al. (1999). Conservation of ...
Olfactory receptor 10A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10A3 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor ENSG00000170683, ENSG00000281680 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000273953, ENSG00000170683, ENSG00000281680 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046431 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms ...
FUNCTION: Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Product Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 Polyclonal Antibody From Abbkine - A polyclonal antibody for detection of Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 from Human. This Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 antibody is for WB, IF, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 at AA rangle: 30-110 Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Olfactory receptor 10K1/2 at AA rangle: 30-110; Applications tips:
Present in the aqueous fluid surrounding olfactory sensory dendrites and are thought to aid in the capture and transport of hydrophobic odorants into and through this fluid.
Olfaction is a fundamental sense through which most animals perceive the external world. The olfactory system detects odors via specialized sensory organs such as the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Sensory neurons in these organs use G-protein coupled receptors to detect chemosensory stimuli. The odorant receptor (OR) family is expressed in sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium, while the adult vomeronasal organ is thought to express other types of receptors. Here, we describe Olfr692, a member of the OR gene family identified by next-generation RNA sequencing, which is highly upregulated and non-canonically expressed in the vomeronasal organ. We show that neurons expressing this gene are activated by odors emanating from pups. Surprisingly, activity in Olfr692-positive cells is sexually dimorphic, being very low in females. Our results also show that juvenile odors activate a large number of Olfr692 vomeronasal neurons in virgin males, which is correlated with the
cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of odorant binding protein OBP3 in Drepanosiphum platanoides (Homoptera: Aphididae) and testing of its adult olfactory ...
If you read the article with a critical eye (I know, thats a pain to do sometimes...) you will see two things that should make you question all the lazy pundits. First, the study was conducted on newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster), not humans (Homo sapiens). They clearly stated, functional olfactory receptor genes is different between amphibians and mammals, so we cannot rule out the expression of receptors with very high TCA sensitivity in humans. Hmmm. That changes the conclusion a bit. Human olfactory receptors could interact with TCA differently than those of newts! Additionally, the authors stated that, we cannot assume that we surveyed all possible olfactory receptors in the newt. Might there be other olfactory receptors that transduct musty odors? Humans have around 400 functional genes coding for olfactory receptors. The picture just got a bit more complicated... ...
Video articles in JoVE about olfactory receptor neurons include Whole Mount Immunolabeling of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Drosophila Antenna, Electrophysiological Recording from Drosophila Trichoid Sensilla in Response to Odorants of Low Volatility, Odorant-induced Responses Recorded from Olfactory Receptor Neurons using the Suction Pipette Technique, Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis, Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals, Perforated Patch-clamp Recording of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Intact Neuroepithelium: Functional Analysis of Neurons Expressing an Identified Odorant Receptor.
In a paper published in the February issue of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Dr. Dina Fonseca and her team identified different strains of the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus). Until now, researchers were unaware that this one species of mosquito could have consistent variations in its genetic makeup and that the geographical distribution of the mosquito variants explained the occurrence of serious diseases. The diseases include elephantiasis (a disfiguring disease), West Nile virus and other encephalitides, avian malaria and poxvirus. The surprising thing is that there is actually structure in this mosquito. Researchers had thought that all populations of this mosquito were the same, explained Fonseca, who was the first to examine the genetic makeup of this important disease transmitter ...
Semaphorins are known to play an important role in axon guidance of vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons to their targets in specific glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). However, it is not clear how semaphorin-mediated guidance contributes to a systematic hierarchy of cues that govern the organization of this system. Because of the putative role that odorant receptor molecules such as P2 could play in establishing appropriate glomerular destinations for growing olfactory axons, we have also determined the spatial organization of P2 glomeruli in semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) mutant mice. First, in the postnatal OB of control and Sema3A−/− mice, we analysed the trajectories of olfactory axons that express the Sema3A receptor, neuropilin-1 (npn-1) and the positions of npn-1+ glomeruli. Sema3A at the ventral OB midline guides npn-1+ axons to targets in the lateral and medial OB. Absence of Sema3A permits many npn-1 axons to terminate aberrantly in the rostral and ventral OB. Second, in Sema3A−/− ...
Buck and Sean join Vincent in New York, while Sylvia is with Nels in Salt Lake City to discuss the first mutant ant ever made: disruption of orco, a gene required for function of odorant receptors, causes defects in social behavior and fitness.. ...
In mammals, each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor. Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key-lock system: If the airborne molecules of a certain chemical can fit into the lock, the nerve cell will respond. There are, at present, a number of competing theories regarding the mechanism of odor coding and perception. According to the shape theory, each receptor detects a feature of the odor molecule. Weak-shape theory, known as odotope theory, suggests that different receptors detect only small pieces of molecules, and these minimal inputs are combined to form a larger olfactory perception (similar to the way visual perception is built up of smaller, information-poor sensations, combined and refined to create a detailed overall perception).[citation needed] An alternative theory, the vibration theory proposed by Luca Turin, posits that odor receptors detect the frequencies of vibrations of odor molecules in the infrared range by electron tunnelling. However, ...
While scientists have been tinkering with the genes of insects such as fruit flies for a long time, ants have proven to be a bigger challenge. In order to perform germline editing-genetic changes passed through generations-scientists have to modify the queen ant who lays the eggs. But there are some types of ants, such as clonal raiders, that reproduce asexually and without fertilization, producing clones of the mothers. Despite the trickiness, researchers at two different institutions recently succeeded in mutating ants. A study in Cell details how researchers genetically modified clonal raider ants using CRISPR, a gene-editing technique that allows for the cutting and/or pasting of gene sequences. In this study, scientists deactivated the orco gene, which facilitates the proper functioning of ants odorant receptors. When ants odorant receptors are disrupted, all of their olfactory genes suffer. Those receptors are crucial to ants social behavior-pheromones dictate how ants live and work ...
Mammals possess an olfactory system of inordinate discriminatory power. We are studying how the diversity and specificity of olfactory perception is accomplished. Analysis of the patterns of expression of the odorant receptor genes, coupled with earlier electrophysiologic experiments, have provided a logic for olfactory discrimination. Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only one of a thousand receptor genes. Neurons expressing a given receptor, although randomly distributed in domains in the epithelium, project their axons to a small number of topographically fixed loci or glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. These data support a model of olfactory coding in whichdiscrimination of odor quality would result from the detection of specific spatial patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb.. HHMI. ...
Ants exhibit cooperative behaviors and advanced forms of sociality that depend on pheromone-mediated communication. Odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) express specific odorant receptors (ORs) encoded by a dramatically expanded gene family in ants. In most eusocial insects, only the queen can transmit genetic information, restricting genetic studies. In contrast, workers in Harpegnathos saltator ants can be converted into gamergates (pseudoqueens) that can found entire colonies. This feature facilitated CRISPR-Cas9 generation of germline mutations in orco, the gene that encodes the obligate co-receptor of all ORs. orco mutations should significantly impact olfaction. We demonstrate striking functions of Orco in odorant perception, reproductive physiology, and social behavior plasticity. Surprisingly, unlike in other insects, loss of OR functionality also dramatically impairs development of the antennal lobe to which ORNs project. Therefore, the development of genetics in Harpegnathos establishes ...
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vectors of dengue viruses. Despite global efforts to reduce the prevalence of dengue using integrated vector management strategies, innovative alternatives are necessary to help prevent virus transmission. Detailed characterizations of Ae. aegypti genes and their products provide information about the biology of mosquitoes and may serve as foundations for the design of new vector control methods. We studied the Ae. aegypti gene, AAEL010714, that encodes a two-domain odorant-binding protein, AaegOBP45. The predicted gene structure and sequence were validated, although single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed. Transcriptional and translational products accumulate in the ovaries of blood fed females and are not detected or are at low abundance in other tissues. We validated the Ae. aegypti AAEL010714 gene sequence and characterized the expression profile of a two-domain OBP expressed in ovaries. We propose that AaegOBP45 function as a component of the mosquito
1. Buck L and Axel R (1991) A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell 65 (1):175-187. 2. Greer PL, Bear DM, Lassance JM, Bloom ML, Tsukahara T, Pashkovski SL, Masuda FK, Nowlan AC, Kirchner R, Hoekstra HE, and Datta SR (2016) A Family of non-GPCR chemosensors defines an alternative logic for mammalian olfaction. Cell 165 (7):1734-1748. 3. Busse D, Kudella P, Gruning NM, Gisselmann G, Stander S, Luger T, Jacobsen F, Steinstrasser L, Paus R, Gkogkolou P, Bohm M, Hatt H, and Benecke H (2014) A synthetic sandalwood odorant induces wound-healing processes in human keratinocytes via the olfactory receptor OR2AT4. J Invest Dermatol 134 (11):2823-2832. 4. Pavlath GK (2010) A new function for odorant receptors: MOR23 is necessary for normal tissue repair in skeletal muscle. Cell Adh Migr 4 (4):502-506. 5. Kang N, Kim H, Jae Y, Lee N, Ku CR, Margolis F, Lee EJ, Bahk YY, Kim MS, and Koo J (2015) Olfactory marker protein expression is an indicator of ...
Receptors that couple to a heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein (G protein) are thought to stimulate a large number of G protein molecules. This model of signal amplification is based primarily on quantitative studies of phototransduction in vertebrate retinal cells. Bhandawat et al. have examined signal transduction by olfactory receptors in frog olfactory neurons. Quantal analysis of receptor responses to odorant ligands suggests that an activated odorant receptor, probably due to an extremely brief dwell time of odorant-receptor interaction, has a low probability of stimulating a single G protein molecule. High sensitivity to odorants might still be achieved with repetitive odorant binding and by signal convergence in the olfactory bulb.. V. Bhandawat, J. Reisert, K.-W. Yau, Elementary response of olfactory receptor neurons to odorants. Science 308, 1931-1934 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit from ELISA Genie is a pre-coated immunoassay with a sensitivity of 0.094 ng/ml and a range of 0.156-10ng/ml and has been designed to measure Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit in serum, plasma & cell culture supernatant samples. The Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 ELISA Kit accurately measures natural Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 levels quantified versus standard curves obtained and is based on antibodies raised against a recombinant Human OR51E2 / Olfactory receptor 51E2 peptide.
Insects sense odorants with specialized odorant receptors (ORs). Each antennal olfactory receptor neuron expresses one OR with an odorant binding site together with a conserved coreceptor called Orco
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The sense of smell allows chemicals to be perceived as diverse scents. We used single neuron RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to explore developmental mechanisms that shape this ability as nasal olfactory neurons mature in mice. Most mature neurons expressed only one of the roughly 1000 odorant receptor genes (Olfrs) available, and that at high levels. However, many immature neurons expressed low levels of multiple Olfrs. Coexpressed Olfrs localized to overlapping zones of the nasal epithelium, suggesting regional biases, but not to single genomic loci. A single immature neuron could express Olfrs from up to seven different chromosomes. The mature state in which expression of Olfr genes is restricted to one per neuron emerges over a developmental progression that appears independent of neuronal activity requiring sensory transduction molecules.. ...
DOR is a database that provides sequence and structural information on olfactory receptors (OR) of selected organisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens). Olfactory receptors are membrane proteins which help organisms to detect, encode, and process sensory stimuli. DOR provides users with olfactory receptor sequences for retrieval, predicted membrane topology, intra and inter-genomic alignments, phylogeny and identify motifs. The database contains three-dimensional structures of 100 selected ORs, modeled using bovine rhodopsin as template. The user can browse through the alignment used for comparative modeling of the olfactory receptors, structural models of the receptors, analyse the transmembrane regions marked on the model and the predicted dimer interface of every model. ...
hi there, we have had an ongoing rat problem since weve moved in to this house (here in atlanta!) there are places in the house on the carpet where rats have left their scent shall we say…. and one of these being in the room where my newborn will sleep. nice. do you have an organic spray that will neutralize the scent so they wont come back? our pest control company said that smell is so strong they come back to it… Roof Rats will definitely create and use scent trails to navigate their way around. Their vision is limited but they have an amazing sense of smell and use it to the fullest potential as explained in our ROOF RAT CONTROL ARTICLE. In fact, its clearly one of the biggest reasons why homes that get rodents once have a tendency to get them again; the lingering odors and scents are clearly an attractive nuisance and should be removed for long term rat control to truly be achieved.. If you check out our RODENT EQUIPMENT page, youll find a section on ODOR CONTROL. In this section ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neurol response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory…
Adult-Born Granule Cells Maintain Olfactory Bulb Organization. Diana M. Cummings, Jason S. Snyder, Michelle Brewer, Heather A. Cameron, and Leonardo Belluscio. (see pages 13801-13810). Olfactory sensory neurons expressing the same odorant receptor converge onto two isofunctional columns in the olfactory bulb. Paired isofunctional columns are connected by tufted cell axons, which synapse on GABAergic granule neurons. After a postnatal refinement period during which intrabulbar projections narrow to the width of a single glomerulus, the projection patterns remain relatively stable throughout life, despite the continuous addition of new granule cells in mice. In fact, this stability requires the addition of adult-born granule neurons, as shown by Cummings et al. After neuronal stem cells were ablated, intrabulbar projections broadened. Similar broadening normally occurs after olfactory deprivation, but the original pattern reemerges when sensory input is restored. Re-refinement of intrabulbar ...
Kansas City, MO - The human nose expresses nearly 400 odorant receptors, which allow us to distinguish a large number of scents. In mice the number of odour receptors is closer to 1000. Each olfactory neuron displays only a single type of receptor and all neurons with the same receptors are connected to the same…
Senses are information that is transmitted through the nervous system in the form of nerve impulses or an active potential. Mammals have five senses. Hearing, Smelling, Touching, Seeing, and Tasting. Hearing is sensed in the ears. Sound waves from the air enter into the ear and are identified as certain sounds and the ear sends impulses to the brain to identify these sounds. The sense of smell is found in the nose. The olfactory receptors are found in the upper lining of the nasal cavity and are used to send impulses to the brain notifying it of a certain smell. Touching is identified through pressure, touch, stretching, and motion. Nerves send impulses to the brain of a feeling that are identified by the brain. Sight is found in the eyes. They absorb light and the photoreceptors send impulses to the nerves to send a transmission to the brain of the light the eye saw. Tasting is found in the mouth. Taste buds are used for tasting and are located on the tongue and mouth. Impulses are sent to the ...
Predicted to have odorant binding activity and olfactory receptor activity. Predicted to be involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway and sensory perception of smell. Predicted to localize to the integral component of membrane. Orthologous to human OR8K3 (olfactory receptor family 8 subfamily K member 3 (gene/pseudogene ...
Predicted to have odorant binding activity and olfactory receptor activity. Predicted to be involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway and sensory perception of smell. Predicted to localize to the integral component of membrane. Orthologous to human OR8G1 (olfactory receptor family 8 subfamily G member 1 (gene/pseudogene ...
Olfaction system plays a critical role for survival and reproduction in many animal species. Odorant molecules in the environment are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) located in the nasal cavity.
The chromosomal deletion of vomeronasal receptor genes in these mice alters male sexual behavior and maternal aggression, and response to specific pheromonal ligands is not detected.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most important classes of proteins in living organisms that allows transmission of a wide variety of signals over the cell membrane, between cells and over long distances in the human body, thus acting as both the gatekeepers and molecular messengers of the cell. The importance of these receptors is emphasized by the Nobel prize awarded in 2004 for the discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system and in 2012 for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.. We wanted to use the Snifferomyces to address a challenge affecting several lives. Lack of diagnostic capacity has been a crucial barrier preventing an effective response to the challenges of Tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries where, standard TB diagnostic tools that need to be used in a lab setting pose major barriers for screening due to the costs and time involved in the process. We aim to address this problem by constructing a diagnosis system ...
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most important classes of proteins in living organisms that allows transmission of a wide variety of signals over the cell membrane, between cells and over long distances in the human body, thus acting as both the gatekeepers and molecular messengers of the cell. The importance of these receptors is emphasized by the Nobel prize awarded in 2004 for the discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system and in 2012 for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.. ...
Ridz Odor™ Concentrated Multi-Purpose Cleaner & Deodorizer uses built-in odor counteractants that encapsulate odor molecules to eliminate odors where they begin, not just cover them up. Will not leave soapy, slippery residue behind after cleaning. Neutral pH will not dull shiny surfaces ...
Gene target information for Or69a - Odorant receptor 69a (fruit fly). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Gene target information for Or74a - Odorant receptor 74a (fruit fly). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
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OR4K14 (olfactory receptor family 4 subfamily K member 14), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
OR4C12 (olfactory receptor family 4 subfamily C member 12), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
We are experts in pet urine and odour removal. We will apply special solutions prior to cleaning that will neutralize the odour molecule and therefore solve the problem.
Olfactory receptor 56A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR56A4 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... January 2014). "The missense of smell: functional variability in the human odorant receptor repertoire". Nature Neuroscience. ...
Olfactory receptor 51L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51L1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Adipietro KA, Mainland JD, Matsunami H (2012). "Functional evolution of mammalian odorant receptors". PLOS Genetics. 8 (7): ...
"Deorphanization of Dresden G protein-coupled receptor for an odorant receptor". Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction ... Olfactory receptor 51E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51E1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors arising from single coding-exon ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ...
Olfactory receptor 51M1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51M1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Male odorant receptors consist of olfactory sensilla. These sensilla are small sensory organs that may protrude or lie under ... "A male-specific odorant receptor conserved through the evolution of sex pheromones in Ostrinia moth species". International ...
Olfactory receptor 2AG1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR2AG1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... Mashukova A, Spehr M, Hatt H, Neuhaus EM (2006). "Beta-arrestin2-mediated internalization of mammalian odorant receptors". J. ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ...
Olfactory receptor 7D4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR7D4 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... Keller A, Zhuang H, Chi Q, Vosshall LB, Matsunami H (September 2007). "Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters ... de March CA, Topin J, Bruguera E, Novikov G, Ikegami K, Matsunami H, Golebiowski J (April 2018). "Odorant Receptor 7D4 ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
Young, J. M., & Trask, B. J. (2002). "The sense of smell: genomics of vertebrate odorant receptors". Human Molecular Genetics, ... In Xenopus laevis, an amphibia, both class receptors are present, unlike fish or mammals. Their class I receptors are expressed ... It is generally understood that olfactory adaptation involves both receptor level and post-receptor components (peripheral and ... Odorants in water are detected in a manner that is akin to fish, in which a respiratory pump is responsible for filling their ...
A single odorant is usually recognized by many receptors. Different odorants are recognized by combinations of receptors. The ... When odorants are mixed, a habitual odorant is blocked. This depends on the strength of the odorants in the mixture, which can ... The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is a small patch of tissue at the back ... This is the detection of stimuli by receptors in the nose. The stimuli are recognized by the region of the human brain which ...
OR9G1 functions as an odorant receptor. AMPD3 functions in energy metabolism. FAM200A has no known function. Based on ... This study indicates that there is a very slight decrease in FAM71E2 expression in estrogen receptor knockdown samples. This ...
Wang, F; Nemes, A; Meldelson, M; Axel, R (1998). "Odorant Receptors Govern the Formation of a Precise Topographic Map". Cell. ... For example, neurons that do not express functional odorant receptors have been observed to have a significantly shorter half- ... The receptors for taste are taste buds on the tongue. The tongue contains taste receptors, as well as mechanoreceptors. ... The cutaneous receptors of the skin project in an orderly fashion to the spinal cord, and from there, via different afferent ...
"RTP family members induce functional expression of mammalian odorant receptors". Cell. 119 (5): 679-91. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Receptor expression-enhancing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the REEP1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: REEP1 receptor accessory protein 1". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial ... 2006). "Members of RTP and REEP gene families influence functional bitter taste receptor expression". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (29): ...
"RTP family members induce functional expression of mammalian odorant receptors". Cell. 119 (5): 679-91. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Receptor expression-enhancing protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the REEP5 gene. Receptor Expression Enhancing ... "Entrez Gene: REEP5 receptor accessory protein 5". "REEP5 receptor accessory protein 5 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". ... "receptor expression-enhancing protein 5 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-06-22. "SAPS < ...
Number and functionality of odorant receptors in the observer's nose. The concentration of an odor above a food is dependent on ... The odor threshold value of an odorant is influenced by the medium. Examples of substances with strong odors: (Z)-8- ...
"RTP Family Members Induce Functional Expression of Mammalian Odorant Receptors". Cell. 119 (5): 679-691. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Receptor expression-enhancing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the REEP2 gene. The protein encoded by REEP2 ... including possible enhancement of G protein-coupled receptors. The REEP2 protein shows a restricted mode of expression in human ... REEPs Are Membrane Shaping Adapter Proteins That Modulate Specific G Protein-Coupled Receptor Trafficking by Affecting ER Cargo ...
A vomeronasal receptor, V1R, exhibits allelic exclusion. When a V1R receptor gene is expressed, an odorant receptor gives ... June 2004). "Gene switching and the stability of odorant receptor gene choice". Cell. 117 (6): 801-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... In mice vomeronasal sensory neurons, an odorant receptor coding sequence's exogenous transcription from a V1R promoter can stop ... Lewcock JW, Reed RR (January 2004). "A feedback mechanism regulates monoallelic odorant receptor expression". Proceedings of ...
Hallem EA, Nicole Fox A, Zwiebel LJ, Carlson JR (January 2004). "Olfaction: mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant". Nature ...
Hallem EA, Nicole Fox A, Zwiebel LJ, Carlson JR (January 2004). "Olfaction: mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant". Nature ... It is known that there are two taste receptors at the tip of the labium which may well play a role. The female mosquito does ... Of 72 types of odor receptors on its antennae, at least 27 are tuned to detect chemicals found in perspiration. In Aedes, the ... the antennae of the males in comparison to the females are noticeably bushier and contain auditory receptors to detect the ...
Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Vosshall LB (March 2008). "Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET ... octenol odorant receptors. Octenol is produced by several plants and fungi, including edible mushrooms and lemon balm. Octenol ... Olfactory receptor Oct-1-en-3-one, the ketone analog that gives blood on skin its typical metallic, mushroom-like smell 1-Octen ...
"Odorant and Gustatory Receptors in the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Public ...
... is suspected to affect two pathways in mosquitos: it affects odorant receptors at a distance, and it affects ... Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Vosshall LB (2008). "Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET". ...
"Functional characterization of odorant receptors in the ponerine ant, Harpegnathos saltator , Request PDF". ResearchGate. ...
Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; De La Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S. (2014-11-18). "Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl ... Leal and his collaborators identified mosquito ORNs sensitive to DEET and subsequently identified an odorant receptor, ... They also demonstrated that CO2 per se, not bicarbonate, activates these receptors. Leal is the author and co-author of more ... Leal laboratory fully identified the first odorant-degrading enzymes from moths and scarab beetles. In 2005, Leal coined the ...
Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; de la Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S. (2014). "Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl ... A potential odorant receptor for icaridin (and DEET), the CquiOR136•CquiOrco, has been suggested recently for Culex ... By reducing odor volatility, icaridin functions to "mask" the ability of volatile odorants on the skin to activate olfactory ... Recent crystal and solution studies showed that icaridin binds to Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein 1 (AgamOBP1). The ...
... is an agonist believed to work by overloading an insect's odorant receptors. It may be 1000 times stronger than DEET and ... Jones, P. L.; Pask, G. M.; Rinker, D. C.; Zwiebel, L. J. (2011). "Functional agonism of insect odorant receptor ion channels". ... "Functional agonism of insect odorant receptor ion channel" (Press release). April 4, 2011. "VICB Article: Sulfilimine Cross- ... "Allosteric antagonism of insect odorant receptor ion channels. , Chemical Synthesis Core". medschool.vanderbilt.edu. Retrieved ...
... express a characteristic set of odorant receptor genes in their antennae. Fallon, C. (1 July 2022). "Lucidota ... Svistunov, Victor (2022). What's That Smell? Expression of Odorant Receptors in Lucidota atra, the Black Firefly (BSc thesis). ...
When an odorant is detected by receptors, they in a sense break the odorant down, and then the brain puts the odorant back ... of the odorant, which is why the chemical nature of the odorant is important. After binding the odorant, the receptor is ... The binding of the ligand (odor molecule or odorant) to the receptor leads to an action potential in the receptor neuron, via a ... Saberi, M; Seyed-allaei, H (2016). "Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants". ...
Odorant Olfactory receptor Trace amine Trace amine-associated receptor "N,N-Dimethylethylamine". Toxnet. Hazardous Substance ...
Saberi M, Seyed-allaei (2016). "Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants". Scientific ... On the other side are a handful of scientists who posit that an odorant receptor detects an odor molecule's vibrational ... report that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous olfactory receptor expression system ... and its protein odorant receptor (found in the nasal epithelium), such as electrostatic and Van der Waals interactions as well ...
... which extend out into the airspace to interact with odorants. Odorant receptors bind odorants in the airspace, which are made ... Once the olfactory sensory neurons differentiate, they express odorant receptors, which transduce odorant information from the ... They are bipolar neurons and their apical poles express odorant receptors on non-motile cilia at the ends of the dendritic knob ... In order for olfactory sensory neurons to function properly, they must express odorant receptors and the proper transduction ...
These include receptor antagonists, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter reuptake, G protein-coupled receptors, G proteins, ... When a ligand activates the G protein-coupled receptor, it induces a conformational change in the receptor that allows the ... They found that when adrenaline binds to a receptor, the receptor does not stimulate enzymes (inside the cell) directly. ... Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of the cell membrane. They consist of the Gα and the tightly ...
Novotny MV (February 2003). "Pheromones, binding proteins and receptor responses in rodents". Biochemical Society Transactions ... odorant binding protein (OBP); human pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha-2 globulin (PAEP); probasin (PB), a prostatic ...
"Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell". Nature. 385 (6618): 725-729. doi:10.1038/385725a0. ISSN 0028- ... Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms ... The mechanoreception of sound requires a specific set of receptor cells called hair cells that allow for gradient signals to ... Antidepressant drugs, such as those that cause down regulation of β-adrenergic receptors, can cause rapid neural adaptations in ...
Olfactory receptor 6B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR6B1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Fan, Jinhong; Ngai, John (2001). "Onset of Odorant Receptor Gene Expression during Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration". ... Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ... Bieri, S.; Monastyrskaia, K; Schilling, B (2004). "Olfactory Receptor Neuron Profiling using Sandalwood Odorants". Chemical ... The surface of the cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. ...
Olfactory receptor 8A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR8A1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 7C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR7C2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 7G2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR7G2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 10R2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10R2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 7A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR7A5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Keller, A; Zhuang, H; Chi, Q; Vosshall, LB; Matsunami, H (2007-09-27). "Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters ... has found that people with the intact human odorant receptor OR7D4 are more sensitive to androstenone and androstadienone and ... The hyperosmic person may need to be removed from strong odorants for a period of time if the sensation becomes unbearable. ... This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and ...
Each olfactory sensory neuron expresses a single odorant receptor type and targets the same glomeruli as other olfactory ... Linda Buck & Richard Axel (1991). "A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor ... The interaction between the olfactory receptor neurons, local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input ... such that each glomeruli houses all or the majority of sensory neurons of a given receptor type. The number and identities of ...
Olfactory receptor 1G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1G1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... 2014). "Identification of odorant-receptor interactions by global mapping of the human odorome". PLOS ONE. 9 (4): e93037. ... October 2002). "Porcine odorant-binding protein selectively binds to a human olfactory receptor". Chemical Senses. 27 (8): 691- ... Sanz G, Schlegel C, Pernollet JC, Briand L (January 2005). "Comparison of odorant specificity of two human olfactory receptors ...
Olfactory receptor 1S2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1S2 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 52E5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR52E5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
... odorant receptor - olfaction - olfactory receptor neuron - oligopeptide - oncogene - oncogene protein - oncogene proteins V-abl ... interleukin receptor - interleukin-1 receptor - interleukin-2 receptor - interleukin-3 - interleukin-3 receptor - intermediate ... G protein-coupled receptor - G3P - GABA - GABA receptor - GABA-A receptor - gag-onc fusion protein - galanin - gamete - gamma- ... IgE receptor - IGF type 1 receptor - IGF type 2 receptor - IgG - IgM - immediate-early protein - immune cell - immune system - ...
"Identification of a Testicular Odorant Receptor Mediating Human Sperm Chemotaxis". Science. 299 (5615): 2054-8. Bibcode:2003Sci ...
Olfactory receptor 4N5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR4N5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor. Nature 515, 222-227 (2014). Bushdid, C. et al. ... and finding variations in odorant receptors that determine individuals' abilities to detect odors. Leslie Vosshall was born in ... "Or83b Encodes a Broadly Expressed Odorant Receptor Essential for Drosophila Olfaction". Neuron. 43 (5): 703-714. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor". Nature. 515 (7526): 222-227. Bibcode:2014Natur.515 ...
Olfactory receptor 1Q1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1Q1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 1C1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR1C1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
... of a population of native aldehyde receptors. Phantosmia Receptor Trace amine-associated receptor Odorant Pseudogenes Gene ... Once the odorant has bound to the odor receptor, the receptor undergoes structural changes and it binds and activates the ... Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are chemoreceptors expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory ... In 2006, it was shown that another class of odorant receptors - known as trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) - exist for ...
"Computational genome-wide survey of odorant receptors from two solitary bees Dufourea novaeangliae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) ...
... "odorant receptor co-receptor"), is an odorant receptor and the corresponding gene that encodes it. The odorant receptor Or83b ... "Orco Odorant receptor co-receptor [Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)] - Gene - NCBI". Larsson MC, Domingos AI, Jones WD, ... Jones WD, Nguyen TA, Kloss B, Lee KJ, Vosshall LB (February 2005). "Functional conservation of an insect odorant receptor gene ... One proposes are that it could interact with specific odor stimuli independently of other odorant receptors (ORs). The other ...
... has been shown to bind to human trace amine-associated receptor 1 (hTAAR1) as an agonist. β-PEA is also an ... odorant binding TAAR4 in mice thought to mediate predator avoidance. By oral route, phenethylamine's half-life is 5-10 minutes ... Pei Y, Asif-Malik A, Canales JJ (April 2016). "Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, ... Berry MD (2007). "The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases". Rev ...
Olfactory receptor 13C9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR13C9 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 4A15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR4A15 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
Olfactory receptor 51B6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51B6 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ...
In the olfactory system, odorant molecules in the mucus bind to G-protein receptors on olfactory cells. The G-protein activates ... A receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into an electrical signal. Receptors are broadly split into two main ... In physiology, transduction is the translation of arriving stimulus into an action potential by a sensory receptor. It begins ... Hair cells are then able to convert this movement (mechanical energy) into electrical signals (graded receptor potentials) ...
... Nature. 2004 Jan 15;427(6971):212-3. doi: 10.1038/427212a. ... Here we show that the Anopheles gambiae protein AgOr1, a female-specific member of a family of putative odorant receptors, ... Compounds designed to activate or block receptors of this type could function as attractants for trapping mosquitoes or as ...
Retrieved from "http://www.scholarpedia.org/w/index.php?title=Odorant_receptors&oldid=62229" ...
Odorant Binding Proteins (OBPs) and Odorant Receptors (ORs) of Anopheles stephensi: Identification and comparative insights. ... odorants detected by the same odorant receptor are differentially affected by the loss of the OBPs, revealing an odorant- ... Odorant Binding Proteins (OBPs) and Odorant Receptors (ORs) of Anopheles stephensi: Identification and comparative insights A ... Odorant binding proteins (Obps) transport volatile odorants to chemosensory receptors, but their effects on behaviors remain ...
... an expert in synthetic insect odorant receptors (iORs). ... Scentian is an expert in synthetic insect odorant receptors ( ... Cardea Bio Partners with Scentian Bio to Power Insect Odorant Receptor-Enabled Flavor Profiling Product * Scentian Bios "Bio- ... The combination of Cardeas technology with our insect odorant receptors enables us to translate the language of chemical ... Cardea Bio has signed a commercial partnership with Scentian Bio, an expert in synthetic insect odorant receptors (iORs). ...
1991) A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odorant recognition. Cell 65:175-187. ... receptors (Reed, 1992; Shepherd, 1994; Buck, 1996;Hildebrand and Shepherd, 1997). A multigene family encoding odorant receptors ... 1998) Odorant receptors govern the formation of a precise topographic map. Cell 93:47-60. ... 1996) Asynchronous onset of odorant receptor expression in the developing zebrafish olfactory system. Neuron 16:23-34. ...
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To evaluate the influence of common genetic variation of the odorant receptor OR7D4 on the rating of partner odor, the variant ... and genetic variation in odorant receptor OR7D4; Elsevier Science; Biological Psychology; 86; 3; 3-2011; 153-157. ... Odor perception between heterosexual partners: Its association with depression, anxiety, and genetic variation in odorant ...
Heterologous functional expression system for odorant receptors. Hiroshi Hamana; Li Shou-xin; Laure Breuils; Junzo Hirono; ... Odorant receptor; Heterologous functional expression; HEK293; Calcium imaging; Galpha; RTP; OR-S6 ...
odorant binds Odorant Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNGT1 (Homo sapiens) * odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [plasma ... odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [plasma membrane] (Bos taurus) odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [ ... odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [plasma membrane] (Danio rerio) odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [ ... odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [plasma membrane] (Sus scrofa) odorant:Olfactory Receptor:GNAL:GDP:GNB1:GNG13 [ ...
We then tested these models by recording in vivo receptor neuron responses to a new set of odorants and successfully predicted ... implying that each receptor neuron detects a different aspect of chemical space. Finally, we demonstrate that receptor ... Assuming that these receptors have evolved to cope with this task, the analysis of their coding strategy promises to yield ... The molecular descriptors that are best-suited for response prediction vary for different receptor neurons, ...
Structured Odorant Response Patterns across a Complete Olfactory Receptor Neuron Population. *Guangwei Si, ... Odorant molecules are detected through the combinatorial activation of ensembles of olfactory sensory neurons. By capitalizing ... and their receptors and the approach of chemoconnectomics to trace neural circuitry anatomically and functionally. ... separated representations of odor features and shine light on the mechanism of molecular recognition by olfactory receptors. ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and ... 7tm_1; 7 transmembrane receptor (rhodopsin family). cl21561. Location:39 → 308. 7tm_4; Olfactory receptor. ...
Odorant receptor gene choice and axonal projection in the mouse olfactory system. / Imai, T.; Sakano, H. ... Imai T, Sakano H. Odorant receptor gene choice and axonal projection in the mouse olfactory system. In Meyerhof W, Korsching S ... Imai, T & Sakano, H 2009, Odorant receptor gene choice and axonal projection in the mouse olfactory system. in W Meyerhof & S ... Imai, T., & Sakano, H. (2009). Odorant receptor gene choice and axonal projection in the mouse olfactory system. In W. Meyerhof ...
The cilia express the olfactory receptors that interact with odorants. The family of odor receptor proteins are G-protein ... Odorants diffuse into the mucous and are transported to the olfactory receptor. [7] Important determinants of an odors ... Once an odorant binds to its receptor, a signaling cascade depolarizes the neuron, which sends the signal along its axon, which ... Extrasensory perception: Odorant and taste receptors beyond the nose and mouth. Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Nov 23. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ...
Extracellular loop 2 of G protein-coupled olfactory receptors is critical for odorant recognition. Journal of Biological ... G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) enable us to detect innumerous odorants. They are also ectopically expressed in ... The CX3CL1 intracellular domain exhibits neuroprotection via insulin receptor/insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. ... One protein that appears to contribute to α-synuclein pathology is the innate immune pathogen recognition receptor, toll-like ...
Insect specific olfactory receptors are not an adaptation to a terrestrial insect lifestyle, but evolved later in insect ... and odorant/tuning receptor-dependent activation of the insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) PLOS ONE 8:e70218. ... 2011) Phosphorylation via PKC regulates the function of the Drosophila odorant co-receptor Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 5 ... 2006) A typical membrane topology and heteromeric function of Drosophila odorant receptors in vivo PLOS Biology 4:e20. ...
The cilia express the olfactory receptors that interact with odorants. The family of odor receptor proteins are G-protein ... Odorants diffuse into the mucous and are transported to the olfactory receptor. [7] Important determinants of an odors ... Once an odorant binds to its receptor, a signaling cascade depolarizes the neuron, which sends the signal along its axon, which ... Extrasensory perception: Odorant and taste receptors beyond the nose and mouth. Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Nov 23. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ...
Analysis of odorant receptor protein function in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti (Book / Chapter) (14-Oct-12) ... Selectivity of odorant receptors in insects (Peer Reviewed Journal) (26-Jun-12) ... Construction and analysis of cDNA libraries from the antennae of Batocera horsfieldi and expression pattern of putative odorant ...
"Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell". Nature. 385 (6618): 725-729. doi:10.1038/385725a0. ISSN 0028- ... Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms ... The mechanoreception of sound requires a specific set of receptor cells called hair cells that allow for gradient signals to ... Antidepressant drugs, such as those that cause down regulation of β-adrenergic receptors, can cause rapid neural adaptations in ...
Release odorants through a high stack causing dilution of the odorants before receptors are exposed. The use of minimum ... Absorb odorants into a liquid solvent. Similar to incineration and typically used in a stack, this technology is commonly used ... Add additional odorants or substances into the atmosphere to change the perceived intensity or character of an odor. An odor ... Use afterburners or catalysts placed in the process line or stack to destroy odorants prior to release. These technologies are ...
Olfactory Receptor Neurons. Olfaction Disorders. Olfactory Bulb. Receptors, Odorant. Sensation. Transcription, Genetic. Ice. ...
Identification of odorant-receptor interactions by global mapping of the human odorome. Research output: Contribution to ...
... is endogenously produced upon receptor activation. We characterized the effects of receptor activation on metabolism using a ... is endogenously produced upon receptor activation. We characterized the effects of receptor activation on metabolism using a ... These findings reveal a new role for OR51E2 and establish this G-protein coupled receptor as a novel therapeutic target in the ... These findings reveal a new role for OR51E2 and establish this G-protein coupled receptor as a novel therapeutic target in the ...
Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2014;18(46): 16592-7. pmid:25349401 * View Article ... It deters mosquitoes from landing on a treated surface by interfering with odorant receptors on antennae that respond to host ...
Wicher, D.; Miazzi, F.: Functional properties of insect olfactory receptors: ionotropic receptors and odorant receptors. Cell ... Mukunda, L.; Miazzi, F.; Kaltofen, S.; Hansson, B. S.; Wicher, D.: Calmodulin modulates insect odorant receptor function. Cell ... Mukunda, L.; Lavista Llanos, S.; Hansson, B. S.; Wicher, D.: Dimerisation of the Drosophila odorant co-receptor Orco. Frontiers ... Wicher, D.: Tuning insect odorant receptors. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 12, 94 (2018) ...
Olfactory receptor OR51E2 of 320 aas and 7 TMSs. This olfactory receptor (Jovancevic et al. 2017) is activated by the odorant, ... and there appears to be an expansion in the gene copt number of olfactory receptors (Neuhaus et al. 2009). Its activity is ... and there appears to be an expansion in the gene copt number of olfactory receptors (Low et al. 2022).. ...
Identification of odorant-receptor interactions by global mapping of the human odorome. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › ...
Oh, E. H. et al. Coupling of olfactory receptor and ion channel for rapid and sensitive visualization of odorant response. Acta ... In contrast to sight or taste composed of a rather limited kinds of receptors, there are about 400 different kinds of receptors ... Inkjet coating of receptor materials onto MSS. STNPs, SiO2-C16TA+, PMMA, and a series of Tenax TA were deposited onto the ... Each receptor material was dissolved or dispersed in selected solvents as presented in Table S4. For the preparation of STNPs ...
You have distinct receptors for different compounds (each receptor picks up a collection of similar odorant molecules). ... Fine, but smells dont generate a waveform at nose receptors//. May not be right at the receptor, but later along the line to ... How does this work? Smell works by odorant molecules binding to receptors in the nose. How do you anti that?. ... Wont work, as just about anything binding to the receptor will stimulate it in the same way as the odour molecule.). ...
Several studies have demonstrated that the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) occurs in various tissues. These findings have ... Deep Sequencing of the Human Retinae Reveals the Expression of Odorant Receptors ...
  • Olfactory receptors work at the interface between the chemical world of volatile molecules and the perception of scent in the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have developed a model that uses a distinct set of physicochemical parameters to describe the structure of odor molecules and predict their activity at Drosophila receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To stimulate the olfactory receptors, airborne molecules must pass through the nasal cavity with relatively turbulent air currents and contact the receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. (nih.gov)
  • Odorant molecules are detected through the combinatorial activation of ensembles of olfactory sensory neurons. (cell.com)
  • Insects detect volatile molecules using olfactory (OR) or ionotropic receptors (IR) and in some cases gustatory receptors (GRs). (elifesciences.org)
  • According to this idea, olfactory receptors evolved because these ancestors needed to be able to detect odor molecules floating in the air rather than dissolved in water. (elifesciences.org)
  • The gas molecules of an odorant are captured on a solid surface. (cdc.gov)
  • Smell works by odorant molecules binding to receptors in the nose. (halfbakery.com)
  • You have distinct receptors for different compounds (each receptor picks up a collection of similar odorant molecules). (halfbakery.com)
  • Estimates for different types of odorant molecules vary, but there are most likely more than tens of thousands of them. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. (bvsalud.org)
  • The general objective of the NutriMind team is to understand how food-derived molecules including nutrients, micronutrients, odorant molecules and bioactive metabolites from the gut microbiota influence neuroimmune interactions and neuronal networks and affect cognitive, emotional and feeding behaviors. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • to understand how nutrients/odorant molecules contribute to the regulation of the neurobiology of food intake. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES . (nih.gov)
  • The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. (nih.gov)
  • The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. (nih.gov)
  • Detecting chemical cues can be a matter of life or death for insects, and many employ three families of receptor proteins to detect a broad range of odors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Low Ca 2+ levels in the culture media support the heterologous expression of insect odorant receptor proteins in HEK cells. (mpg.de)
  • Accessory proteins RTP1S and SNMP1 support the expression of the insect co-receptor Orco in mammalian culture cells (invited article summary about: Halty-deLeon L, Miazzi F, Kaltofen S, Hansson BS, Wicher D. (2016)) The mouse receptor transporting protein RTP1S and the fly SNMP1 support the functional expression of the Drosophila odorant coreceptor Orco in mammalian culture cells. (mpg.de)
  • There are proteins found in the antennae responsible for odor detection - odorant receptors and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). (soci.org)
  • If my work is successful in determining the role of these proteins, and we can use this knowledge to test novel odorants or develop sensor technologies that can determine the presence of aphids. (soci.org)
  • This role in life's processes is played mainly by proteins and has been understood in terms of lock-and-key relationships, such as enzyme and substrate, signal molecule and receptor, and antigen and antibody. (gr.jp)
  • however, the M1, M3, and M5 receptor subtypes signal preferentially through the Gαq/11 subset of G proteins, whereas the M2 and M4 receptor subtypes signal through the Gαi/o subset of G proteins, resulting in very different intracellular signaling cascades and physiological effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via retronasal olfaction. (medscape.com)
  • The identity of receptors involved in olfaction in the evolutionarily more ancient apterygote insects (Archaeognatha, Zygentoma) and paleopteran insects (Odonata and Ephemeroptera) is thus completely unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • 2019) report the generation of a new set of tools to manipulate the entire set of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neuropeptides, and their receptors-the "chemoconnectome"-in Drosophila . (cell.com)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger CALX controls the Ca 2+ level in olfactory sensory neurons at rest and after odorant receptor activation. (mpg.de)
  • The Drosophila carbon dioxide receptor as key regulator of odor valence. (mpg.de)
  • The mouse receptor transporting protein RTP1S and the fly SNMP1 support the functional expression of the Drosophila odorant coreceptor Orco in mammalian culture cells. (mpg.de)
  • Calmodulin affects sensitization of Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptors. (mpg.de)
  • Dimerisation of the Drosophila odorant co-receptor Orco. (mpg.de)
  • Spletter ML , Luo L . A new family of odorant receptors in Drosophila. (academictree.org)
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors IR64a and IR8a form a functional odorant receptor complex in vivo in Drosophila. (neurotree.org)
  • In mammals, as many as 1000 heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (or G protein)-coupled receptors are considered to be employed in olfactory discrimination ( Buck and Axel, 1991 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we show that the Anopheles gambiae protein AgOr1, a female-specific member of a family of putative odorant receptors, responds to a component of human sweat. (nih.gov)
  • This situation is similar to that observed for clustered putative odorant receptor genes, where closely linked, chemosensory-specific genes are expressed in different olfactory organs (Galindo, 2001). (sdbonline.org)
  • Odorants diffuse into the mucous and are transported to the olfactory receptor. (medscape.com)
  • We have characterized two separate odorant receptor (OR) gene clusters to examine how olfactory neurons expressing closely linked and homologous OR genes project their axons to the olfactory bulb. (jneurosci.org)
  • We then tested these models by recording in vivo receptor neuron responses to a new set of odorants and successfully predicted the responses of five out of seven receptor neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular descriptors that are best-suited for response prediction vary for different receptor neurons, implying that each receptor neuron detects a different aspect of chemical space. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, high concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde were repellent, and activated more olfactory receptor neurons on the An. (researchsquare.com)
  • Overall, these studies can help inform mosquito repellent choice by species, guide decisions on effective repellent blends, and could ultimately identify the olfactory neurons and receptors in mosquitoes that mediate repellency. (researchsquare.com)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons that express a single common odorant receptor project to one glomerulus in the OB. (uthsc.edu)
  • By restoring the protein back into the olfactory neurons, we could give the cell the ability to regrow and extend cilia off the dendrite knob, which is what the olfactory neuron needs to detect odorants. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Functional properties of insect olfactory receptors: ionotropic receptors and odorant receptors. (mpg.de)
  • The gene family of ORs consists of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and was first described for rats [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as important factors in tumor growth and metastasis ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Several GPCRs, such as the 5HT1c serotonin receptor ( 2 ), the M1, M3, and M5 muscarinic receptors ( 3 ), and the α1B-ADR adrenergic receptor ( 4 ), can function as oncogenes when persistently activated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest family of GPCRs present in the olfactory epithelium but are also found in various ectopic or non-olfactory locations such as prostate, heart, placenta, embryo, erythroid cells, spleen, kidney, gut, tongue, and carotid body ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Sensory GPCRs such as olfactory receptors (ORs), taste receptors (TRs), and opsins (OPNs) are now known to play important physiological roles beyond their traditional sensory organs. (elsevier.com)
  • The neurotransmitter molecule acetylcholine is capable of activating five muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, M1 through M5, which belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (mdpi.com)
  • The sense of smell is mediated through stimulation of the olfactory receptor cells by volatile chemicals. (medscape.com)
  • Which means this Anti-smell will generate opposite electrical waveform at receptors at nose. (halfbakery.com)
  • Hypothetically, one way could be this : Using oscilloscopes, analyse the wave form at nose receptors, which a given smell generates. (halfbakery.com)
  • In contrast to sight or taste composed of a rather limited kinds of receptors, there are about 400 different kinds of receptors known for the sense of smell with complex cross selectivity between them for human beings. (nature.com)
  • Chemicals from the jellybean are inhaled through the mouth and exhaled through the nose, where they interact with special receptor cells providing information about smell. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These odorants then interact with the receptor cells and initiate a series of events that are interpreted by the brain as a smell. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In a new study, co-authored by University at Albany distinguished professor of chemistry Eric Block, researchers have not only determined which of our olfactory receptors (ORs) is responsible for this nasty smell, but also the effects metals such as copper have on our sensitivity to the stench. (phys.org)
  • Obviously it is essential for everyone to be able to detect gas leaks by recognizing the smell of the sulfur odorant," Block said. (phys.org)
  • When loss of smell occurs, receptors the connect odorants are restrained on the cilia, resulting the loss of cilia, and the loss of sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Humans have more than 350 unique receptors, with which an almost infinite number of odors and odor mixtures can be identified. (phys.org)
  • Despite this, to date, there are only a few cases of odorant receptor variants that encode differences in the perception of odors: receptors for androstenone (musky), isovaleric acid (cheesy), cis -3-hexen-1-ol (grassy), and the urinary metabolites of asparagus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compounds designed to activate or block receptors of this type could function as attractants for trapping mosquitoes or as insect repellents in helping to control Anopheles and other insect pests. (nih.gov)
  • Scentian is an expert in synthetic insect odorant receptors (iORs), one of nature's most powerful ways of detecting and interpreting smells. (businesswire.com)
  • The combination of Cardea's technology with our insect odorant receptors enables us to translate the language of chemical compounds into digital signals to analyze food components, detect airborne and liquid-based toxins, and diagnose disease in almost real-time on a massive scale. (businesswire.com)
  • It is fascinating to see the world class team at Scentian make synthetic insect odor receptors and integrate them with our technology, so that together, we can link smells and tastes up to the digital world. (businesswire.com)
  • Previous research on insect olfactory receptors has focused on insects with wings. (elifesciences.org)
  • All data on insect olfactory receptors are based on studies investigating the neopteran insects (overview of insect order relationship is given in Figure 1 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Optimization of insect odorant receptor trafficking and functional expression via transient transfection in HEK293 cells. (mpg.de)
  • Tuning insect odorant receptors. (mpg.de)
  • Calmodulin modulates insect odorant receptor function. (mpg.de)
  • Most of the genes identified to date encode receptors responsible for detecting tastes or odorants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We list these genes and describe their characteristics, beginning with the best-studied case, that of differences in phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) detection, encoded by variants of the bitter taste receptor gene TAS2R38 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • A genome-wide study also implicates genes other than olfactory receptors for some individual differences in perception. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To evaluate the influence of common genetic variation of the odorant receptor OR7D4 on the rating of partner odor, the variant rs8109935 was genotyped in the whole sample. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Genetic variation of an odorant receptor OR7D4 and sensory perception of cooked meat containing androstenone. (cdc.gov)
  • The evolution of this specialized receptor system is clearly indicated in the transition of an odor receptor from food odor detection to social odor detection in primates, including humans. (rna-mediated.com)
  • We followed a classic approach to derive Structure-Activity-Relationships (SARs) by calculating molecular descriptors and training Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), as it has been applied in other studies to characterize ligand affinity to specific receptors [ 10 - 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yes, obviously, devise a non-smelly molecule that binds to and blocks those specific receptors. (halfbakery.com)
  • The protostome leucokinin (LK) signaling system, including LK peptides and their G protein-coupled receptors, has been characterized in several species. (jbc.org)
  • The uncleaved receptor can also be activated by the N-terminal peptide present on the activated THROMBIN RECEPTOR and by small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal sequence. (musc.edu)
  • Most of the odor receptors in your nose employ QM effects to identify odorants. (uncommondescent.com)
  • From these sources, chemicals (termed odorants) are carried on the wind, perhaps for tens of miles, and enter the nose during an inhalation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Although the repertoire of receptors involved in taste perception is relatively small, with 25 bitter and only a few sweet and umami receptors, the number of odorant receptors is much larger, with about 400 functional receptors and another 600 potential odorant receptors predicted to be non-functional. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Experience is a potent modifier of chemosensory perception, and persistent exposure to an odorant is enough to change sensitivity [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This idea is illustrated by bitter perception and bitter receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the bitter receptor gene copy number is a source of biological variation and may affect perception, although this prospect has not yet been established empirically. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first demonstration that genetic variants contribute to person-to-person differences in human taste perception was for the bitter receptor TAS2R38 (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A genome-wide study on the perception of the odorants androstenone and galaxolide. (cdc.gov)
  • Although there is a striking evolutionary convergence towards a conserved organization of signaling pathways in vertebrate and invertebrate olfactory systems ( Hildebrand and Shepherd, 1997 ), the involved receptor gene families evolved independently. (elifesciences.org)
  • The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement. (bvsalud.org)
  • Smelling Sulfur: Copper and Silver Regulate the Response of Human Odorant Receptor OR2T11 to Low-Molecular-Weight Thiols, Journal of the American Chemical Society (2016). (phys.org)
  • Cadmium exposure differentially alters odorant-driven behaviors and expression of olfactory receptors in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that receptor responses themselves can be used as descriptors in a predictive model of neuron activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, it is possible to predict receptor neuron activation from chemical structure using machine-learning techniques, although this is still complicated by a lack of training data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the mouse olfactory system, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses a single type of odorant receptor (OR) out of approximately 1,000 in a monoallelic manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell is a primary sensory bipolar neuron. (medscape.com)
  • Each regenerating receptor cell extends its axon (CN I) into the CNS as a first-order olfactory neuron and forms synapses with target mitral and tufted cells in the olfactory bulb. (medscape.com)
  • Some key players in several neural systems include Ca 2+ ions (see Calcium in biology ) that send negative feedback in second messenger pathways that allow the neural receptor cells to close or open channels in response to the changes of ion flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of odorant receptors expressed in mammalian testes. (genscript.com)
  • In addition, we suggest that quantifying the molecular properties relevant for activating olfactory receptors reveals how chemical space is encoded by the receptor repertoire of a specific organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of Complete Repertoire of Apis florea Odorant Receptors Reveals Complex Orthologous Relationships with Apis mellifera. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Molecular and functional characterization of a conserved odorant receptor from Aedes albopictus. (xenbase.org)
  • Each person lives in a unique flavor world, and part of this difference lies in our genetic composition, especially within our sensory receptors [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zhou FW, Dong HW, Ennis M. Activation of β-noradrenergic receptors enhances rhythmic bursting in mouse olfactory bulb external tufted cells. (uthsc.edu)
  • Members of one of these receptor families, the olfactory receptors, form a complex with another protein, the olfactory coreceptor that is essential for both positioning and stabilizing the receptor, as well as the actual function. (elifesciences.org)
  • This indicates that the main olfactory receptors evolved independently of the coreceptor long after the migration of insects from water to land. (elifesciences.org)
  • These findings reveal a new role for OR51E2 and establish this G-protein coupled receptor as a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of prostate cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS . (nih.gov)
  • Assuming that these receptors have evolved to cope with this task, the analysis of their coding strategy promises to yield valuable insight in how to encode chemical information in an efficient way. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory Receptors (ORs) encode chemical stimuli in neuronal activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Global Survey of Variation in a Human Olfactory Receptor Gene Reveals Signatures of Non-Neutral Evolution. (cdc.gov)
  • The idea of electronic noses that are based on biological receptors has been dreamed and theorized for generations, but now we have them running in our labs thanks to this innovation partnership, which we are truly thankful and happy about. (businesswire.com)
  • Identification and characterization of the bombykal receptor in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. (mpg.de)
  • Scentian's platform will house 40-50 receptors and will be able to detect thousands of chemical signals at the push of a button. (businesswire.com)
  • Though odorless in its normal state, utility companies add sulfur-containing odorants - called mercaptans or thiols - to the gas so it's easy to detect a leak. (phys.org)
  • Won't work, as just about anything binding to the receptor will stimulate it in the same way as the odour molecule. (halfbakery.com)
  • Several studies have demonstrated that the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) occurs in various tissues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms to sense vital changes in their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the anesthetized mouse, NO micro-sensors inserted into the granule cell layer detected NO transients averaging 55 nM in amplitude and peaking at 3.4 s after onset of a 5 s odorant stimulation. (princeton.edu)
  • The research team identified OR2T11 as the receptor that responds most strongly to natural gas odorants. (phys.org)
  • In fact, without the metals, OR2T11 only weakly responds to the gas odorants. (phys.org)
  • Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. (nih.gov)
  • The olfactory system of mammals can recognize a large number of different odorants. (jneurosci.org)
  • By contrast, we restricted our study to modeling receptor responses, because these are more likely to be dominated by physicochemical properties of the odorants, assuming OR activation is the result of ligand-receptor binding through intermolecular interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new N-terminal peptide is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. (musc.edu)
  • We are also investigating how sweet and fatty components of mother's milk produces profound opiate receptor-dependent analgesic and calming effects in newborn rats and humans. (uthsc.edu)