Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by selective deficiencies of one or more, but not all, classes of immunoglobulins.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
A chronic, benign, and usually painless inflammatory swelling of the lacrimal and salivary glands. It is considered by some to include the glandular enlargement associated with other diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, lupus erythematosus, etc.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Antibodies that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.

Binding of c-Rel to STAT5 target sequences in HTLV-I-transformed T cells. (1/3171)

The type I human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) induces abnormal growth and subsequent transformation of T cells, which is associated with the development of an acute T-cell malignancy termed adult T-cell leukemia. A characteristic of HTLV-I-transformed T cells is the constitutive nuclear expression of NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors, which appears to be essential for the growth of these transformed cells. Although NF-kappaB/Rel factors are known to induce the expression of T-cell growth factor interleukin (IL)-2, it is unclear how they participate in the IL-2-independent growth of HTLV-I-transformed cells. In this study, we show that certain NF-kappaB/Rel members, predominantly c-Rel, interact with enhancer sequences for STAT5, a key transcription factor mediating IL-2-induced T-cell proliferation. Reporter gene assays reveal that the binding of c-Rel to the STAT5 site present in the Fc gammaR1 gene leads to potent transactivation of this enhancer. Binding of c-Rel to the Fc gammaR1 STAT site also occurs in human peripheral blood T cells immortalized with HTLV-I in vitro and is correlated with enhanced levels of proliferation of these cells. These results raise the possibility that NF-kappaB/Rel may participate in the growth control of HTLV-I-transformed T cells by regulating genes driven by both kappaB and certain STAT enhancers.  (+info)

In situ detection of activated Bruton's tyrosine kinase in the Ig signaling complex by phosphopeptide-specific monoclonal antibodies. (2/3171)

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a critical transducer of signals originating from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Dosage, sequential phosphorylation, and protein interactions are interdependent mechanisms influencing Btk function. Phosphopeptide-specific mAbs recognizing two distinct phosphotyrosine modifications were used to quantify Btk activation by immunofluorescent techniques during B cell stimulation. In a population of cultured B cells stimulated by BCR crosslinking and analyzed by flow cytometry, transient phosphorylation of the regulatory Btk tyrosine residues (551Y and 223Y) was detected. The kinetics of phosphorylation of the residues were temporally distinct. Tyrosine 551, a transactivating substrate site for Src-family kinases, was maximally phosphorylated within approximately 30 seconds of stimulation as monitored by flow cytometry. Tyrosine 223, an autophosphorylation site within the SH3 domain, was maximally phosphorylated at approximately 5 minutes. Btk returned to a low tyrosine phosphorylation level within 30 minutes, despite persistent elevation of global tyrosine phosphorylation. Colocalization of activated Btk molecules with the crosslinked BCR signaling complex was observed to coincide with the period of maximal Btk tyrosine phosphorylation when stimulated B cells were analyzed with confocal microscopy. The results of these in situ temporal and spatial analyses imply that Btk signaling occurs in the region of the Ig receptor signaling complex, suggesting a similar location for downstream targets of its activity.  (+info)

Efficient IgG-mediated suppression of primary antibody responses in Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice. (3/3171)

IgG antibodies can suppress more than 99% of the antibody response against the antigen to which they bind. This is used clinically to prevent rhesus-negative (Rh-) women from becoming immunized against Rh+ erythrocytes from their fetuses. The suppressive mechanism is poorly understood, but it has been proposed that IgG/erythrocyte complexes bind to the inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) on the B cell surface, thereby triggering negative signals that turn off the B cell. We show that IgG induces the same degree of suppression of the response to sheep erythrocytes in animals lacking the known IgG-binding receptors FcgammaRIIB, FcgammaRI + III, FcgammaRI + IIB + III, and FcRn (the neonatal Fc receptor) as in wild-type animals. Reinvestigation of the ability of F(ab')2 fragments to suppress antibody responses demonstrated that they were nearly as efficient as intact IgG. In addition, monoclonal IgE also was shown to be suppressive. These findings suggest that IgG inhibits antibody responses through Fc-independent mechanisms, most likely by masking of antigenic epitopes, thereby preventing B cells from binding and responding to antigen. In agreement with this, we show that T cell priming is not abolished by passively administered IgG. The results have implications for the understanding of in vivo regulation of antibody responses and Rh prophylaxis.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the soluble form of the human fcgamma-receptor IIb: a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily at 1.7 A resolution. (4/3171)

Fcgamma-receptors (FcgammaRs) represent the link between the humoral and cellular immune responses. Via the binding to FcgammaR-positive cells, immunocomplexes trigger several functions such as endocytosis, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxity (ADCC) and the release of mediators, making them a valuable target for the modulation of the immune system. We solved the crystal structure of the soluble human Fcgamma-receptor IIb (sFcgammaRIIb) to 1.7 A resolution. The structure reveals two typical immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains enclosing an angle of approximately 70 degrees, leading to a heart-shaped overall structure. In contrast to the observed flexible arrangement of the domains in other members of the Ig superfamily, the two domains are anchored by several hydrogen bonds. The structure reveals that the residues relevant for IgG binding, which were already partially characterized by mutagenesis studies, are located within the BC, C'E and FG loops between the beta-strands of the second domain. Moreover, we discuss a model for the sFcgammaRIIb:IgG complex. In this model, two FcgammaR molecules bind one IgG molecule with their second domains, while the first domain points away from the complex and is therefore available for binding other cell surface molecules, by which potential immunosuppressing functions could be mediated.  (+info)

The SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase (SHIP) recruits the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase during FcgammaRIIb1-mediated inhibition of B cell receptor signaling. (5/3171)

Coligation of FcgammaRIIb1 with the B cell receptor (BCR) or FcepsilonRI on mast cells inhibits B cell or mast cell activation. Activity of the inositol phosphatase SHIP is required for this negative signal. In vitro, SHIP catalyzes the conversion of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) product phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate (PIP3) into phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Recent data demonstrate that coligation of FcgammaRIIb1 with BCR inhibits PIP3-dependent Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) activation and the Btk-dependent generation of inositol trisphosphate that regulates sustained calcium influx. In this study, we provide evidence that coligation of FcgammaRIIb1 with BCR induces binding of PI3K to SHIP. This interaction is mediated by the binding of the SH2 domains of the p85 subunit of PI3K to a tyrosine-based motif in the C-terminal region of SHIP. Furthermore, the generation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate was only partially reduced during coligation of BCR with FcgammaRIIb1 despite a drastic reduction in PIP3. In contrast to the complete inhibition of Tec kinase-dependent calcium signaling, activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt was partially preserved during BCR and FcgammaRIIb1 coligation. The association of PI3K with SHIP may serve to activate PI3K and to regulate downstream events such as B cell activation-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Differential effects of manipulating signaling in early T cell development in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and thymocytes. (6/3171)

A pre-TCR-CD3 signal is required for the efficient maturation of CD4- CD8- thymocytes to the CD4+ CD8+ stage. This study addressed whether a similar signal is required for maturation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that may develop extrathymically. We have shown previously that IEL from mice deficient for CD3- associated zeta chains include an immature population of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ cells expressing cytoplasmic TCR beta chains but lacking detectable surface TCRalphabeta, CD16 and B220. Here we stimulated the appearance of such IEL in epsilon+/- zeta-/- mice by expression of an activated Lck transgene or in vivo treatment with anti-CD3epsilon. Anti-CD3epsilon treatment of RAG-deficient animals also yielded CD16- B220- IEL. In contrast, expression of a TCRbeta transgene in rag-1(-/-) mice did not stimulate the appearance of CD3- CD8alphaalpha+ CD16- B220- cells. Taken together these data indicate that although anti-CD3epsilon treatment and LckF505 assist in catalyzing a CD16+ B220+ --> CD16- B220- transition, these manipulations are not equivalent to a pre-TCR signal in IEL lymphocytes.  (+info)

Fc receptor beta subunit is required for full activation of mast cells through Fc receptor engagement. (7/3171)

The high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilonRI) and the low-affinity IgG receptor (Fc gammaRIII) on mast cells are the key molecules involved in triggering the allergic reaction. These receptors share the common beta subunit (FcRbeta) which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif and transduces the signals of these receptors' aggregation. In rodents, FcRbeta is essential for the cell surface expression of the Fc epsilonRI. In humans, the FcRbeta gene was reported to be one of the candidate genes causing atopic diseases. However, the role of FcRbeta in vivo still remains ambiguous. To elucidate the functions of FcRbeta, we developed the mice lacking FcRbeta [FcRbeta(-/-)]. The FcRbeta(-/-) mice lacked the expression of the Fc epsilonRI on mast cells and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was not induced in FcRbeta(-/-) mice as was expected. In these mice, the expression of IgG receptors on mast cells was augmented but the IgG-mediated PCA reaction was attenuated. Although with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells from FcRbeta(-/-), adhesion to fibronectin and Ca2+ flux upon aggregation of IgG receptors were enhanced, mast cells co-cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts exhibited impaired degranulation on receptor aggregation. These observations indicate that FcRbeta accelerates the degranulation of mature mast cells via the IgG receptor in connective tissues.  (+info)

Regulation of B cell receptor-mediated MHC class II antigen processing by FcgammaRIIB1. (8/3171)

The processing and presentation of Ag by Ag-specific B cells is highly efficient due to the dual function of the B cell Ag receptor (BCR) in both signaling for enhanced processing and endocytosing bound Ag. The BCR for IgG (FcgammaRIIB1) is a potent negative coreceptor of the BCR that blocks Ag-induced B cell proliferation. Here we investigate the influence of the FcgammaRIIB1 on BCR-mediated Ag processing and show that coligating the FcgammaRIIB1 and the BCR negatively regulates both BCR signaling for enhanced Ag processing and BCR-mediated Ag internalization. Treatment of splenic B cells with F(ab')2 anti-Ig significantly enhances APC function compared with the effect of whole anti-Ig; however, whole anti-Ig treatment is effective when binding to the FcgammaRIIB1 was blocked by a FcgammaRII-specific mAb. Processing and presentation of Ag covalently coupled to anti-Ig were significantly decreased compared with Ag coupled to F(ab')2anti-Ig; however, the processing of the two Ag-Ab conjugates was similar in cells that did not express FcgammaRIIB1 and in splenic B cells treated with a FcgammaRII-specific mAb to block Fc binding. Internalization of monovalent Ag by B cells was reduced in the presence of whole anti-Ig as compared with F(ab')2 anti-Ig, but the internalized Ag was correctly targeted to the class II peptide loading compartment. Taken together, these results indicate that the FcgammaRIIB1 is a negative regulator of the BCR-mediated Ag-processing function.  (+info)

Fc gamma receptor IIA, IIIA and IIIB single nucleotide polymorphisms and Fc gamma receptor IIIB copy number variation: No association with primary Sjogrens syndrome in SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, vol 39, issue , pp 36-36 ...
Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by osteoclast-mediated bone loss. In several studies it was shown that SHIP-/- mice are severely osteoporotic due to increased numbers of hyperreactive osteoclasts. Because SHIP is part of the signalling pathway of the inhibitory FcγRIIB, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of FcγRIIB in osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function.. Compared with wild-type mice, bone erosion and cathepsin K staining were clearly enhanced during antigen-induced arthritis in the knee joints of mice deficient for the inhibitory FcγRIIB. FACS analysis of in vitro differentiated osteoclasts showed that FcγRIIB expression was not significantly different on osteoclasts compared with macrophages, whereas all activating FcγR classes were strongly downregulated. However, expression levels of all FcγR classes were high on all bone marrow subsets prone to differentiate towards osteoclasts, as discriminated by double-staining for ER-MP20/ER-MP12. The composition of ...
Receptors for the Fc region of IgG (Fc gamma R) are members of the Ig superfamily. Based on their genetic organization and molecular structure, three classes of human Fc gamma Rs: RI (CD64), RII (CD32), and RIII (CD16), which generate multiple isoforms, are recognized (1‑3). These receptors function in the activation or inhibition of immune responses. The activating-type receptor either has, or associates non-covalently with an accessory subunit (FcR gamma or zeta chain) that has an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic domain. In contrast, the inhibitory receptor (Fc gamma RIIB) has a built-in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in its own cytoplasmic domain. Fc gamma RI is a high-affinity receptor that binds monomeric IgG. Both Fc gamma RII and RIII are low-affinity receptors that bind IgG in the form of immune complexes. Two genes for human Fc gamma RIII, A and B, encoding a transmembrane receptor and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) ...
K/BxN serum-induced passive arthritis was reported to depend on the activation of mast cells, triggered by the activating IgG receptor FcγRIIIA, when engaged
Fc gamma receptor IIB: present in myelomonocytic and lymphocytic cells; highly homologous to other Fc gamma RII receptors but has unique cytoplasmic exons; has been sequenced
Phagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes take part in this process in higher organisms. After opsonization with antibodies (IgG), foreign extracellular materials are recognized by Fc gamma receptors. Cross-linking of Fc gamma receptors initiates a variety of signals mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins, which lead through the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane remodeling to the formation of phagosomes. Nascent phagosomes undergo a process of maturation that involves fusion with lysosomes. The acquisition of lysosomal proteases and release of reactive oxygen species are crucial for digestion of engulfed materials in phagosomes ...
misc{08a586d2-6965-44d0-b083-93b1aacff9f7, author = {Magnusson, V and Zunec, R and Odeberg, J and Sturfelt, Gunnar and Truedsson, Lennart and Alarcon-Riquelme, ME}, issn = {1529-0131}, language = {eng}, number = {4}, pages = {1348--1350}, publisher = {John Wiley & Sons}, series = {Arthritis and Rheumatism}, title = {Polymorphisms of the Fc gamma receptor type IIB gene are not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in the Swedish population}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.20151}, volume = {50}, year = {2004 ...
We report evidence that murine NK cells express a functional Fc gamma RII encoded by the Fc gamma RII alpha gene. Several lines of indirect evidence indicate that freshly obtained NK cells from mice of several strains bear a functional Fc gamma RII: (a) anti-Fc gamma RII antibody 2.4G2 detects a small but significant proportion of sIg- cells and a small proportion of the 2.4G2+ cells are included in the Thy-1+ population; (b) sIg- lymphocytes contain 2.4G2+ and Fc gamma R-bearing cells in similar proportions; (c) binding of particulate immune complexes by sIg- lymphocytes is completely inhibited by 2.4G2; (d) 2.4G2+ cells mediate greater than 50% of the spontaneous cytotoxicity in sIg- splenic lymphocytes. Direct evidence for the presence of Fc gamma RII on murine NK cells is provided by the results of two-color immunofluorescence studies performed on splenic lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice showing coexpression of NK-1.1 and 2.4G2. Studies of in vitro propagated homogeneous NK cell populations ...
Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaRs) are expressed on all immunologically active cells. They bind the Fc portion of IgG, thereby triggering a range of immunological functions. We have used surface plasmon resonance to analyze the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the interactions between the ectodomains of human low affinity FcgammaRs (FcgammaRIIa, FcgammaRIIb, and FcgammaRIIIb-NA2) and IgG1 or the Fc fragment of IgG1. All three receptors bind Fc or IgG with similarly low affinities (K(D) approximately 0.6-2.5 microm) and fast kinetics, suggesting that FcgammaR-mediated recognition of aggregated IgG and IgG-coated particles or cells is mechanistically similar to cell-cell recognition. Interestingly, the Fc receptors exhibit distinct thermodynamic properties. Whereas the binding of the FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIb to Fc is driven by favorable entropic and enthalpic changes, the binding of FcgammaRIII is characterized by highly unfavorable entropic changes. Although the structural bases for these
We have cloned and expressed a cDNA encoding a human receptor for IgG (Fc gamma R) from the monocyte cell line U937. The deduced structure is a 35-kD transmembrane protein with homology to the mouse Fc[gamma 2b/gamma 1] receptor amino acid sequence of approximately 60% in the extracellular domain. The signal sequence is homologous to the mouse Fc gamma R alpha cDNA clone, while the transmembrane domain shares homology with mouse Fc gamma R beta cDNAs. The cytoplasmic domain is apparently unique. The extracellular domain shows significant homology to proteins of the Ig gene superfamily, including the human c-fms protooncogene/CSF-1 receptor. Mouse Ltk- cells transfected with the human Fc gamma R cDNA express a cell-surface receptor that selectively binds human IgG and is recognized by the anti-Fc gamma RII mAb IV.3. Antibodies against peptides derived from the human Fc gamma R sequence specifically stain U937 cells, but not an Fc gamma RII-bearing B-lymphoblastoid cell line (Daudi). These results
Fc gamma receptor IIIA (CD16/FcγRIIIA) on monocytes/macrophages may play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia (SMA) by promoting phagocytosis of IgG-coated uninfected red cells and by allowing the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) upon cross-linking by immune complexes (ICs). However, not much is known about the differential expression of this receptor on monocytes of children with severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Therefore, we investigated the expression of CD16/FcγRIIIA on monocytes of children with SMA, cerebral malaria (CM), and their age-matched uncomplicated malaria controls by flow cytometry. Since CD14low (CD14+) monocytes are considered more mature and macrophage-like than CD14high (CD14++) monocytes, we also compared the level of expression of CD16/FcγRIIIA according to the CD14 level and studied the relationship between CD16/FcγRIIIA expression and intracellular TNF-α production upon stimulation by ICs. CD16/FcγRIIIA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-chemokine autoantibody. T2 - Chemokine immune complexes activate endothelial cells via IgG receptors. AU - Krupa, Agnieszka. AU - Fudala, Rafal. AU - Stankowska, Dorota. AU - Loyd, Tameka. AU - Allen, Timothy C.. AU - Matthay, Michael A.. AU - Gryczynski, Zygmunt. AU - Gryczynski, Ignacy. AU - Mettikolla, Yalla V.. AU - Kurdowska, Anna K.. PY - 2009/8/1. Y1 - 2009/8/1. N2 - Our previous studies revealed that the presence in lung fluids of anti-IL-8 autoantibody:IL-8 immune complexes is an important prognostic indicator for the development and outcome of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anti-IL-8:IL-8 complexes purified from lung edema fluids trigger chemotaxis of neutrophils, induce activation of these cells, and regulate their apoptosis, all via IgG receptor, FcγRIIa. Importantly, increased levels of FcγRIIa are present inlungs of patients with ARDS, where FcγRIIa is partially associated with anti-IL-8:IL-8 complexes. In the current ...
The Fcgamma receptors CD16A and CD32A connect the innate and the adaptive immune responses by transmitting activating signals to natural killer lymphocytes and myeloid cells upon recognition of antigen-immunoglobulin G (IgG) complexes. Two allelic dimorphisms of these receptors, valine/phenylalanine …
The aggregation of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptors (FcRI) on mast cells is a crucial event in the initiation of an allergic reaction. in gene manifestation, and the launch of inflammatory mediators, adding to late-phase and acute allergic responses [1-3]. FcRI includes a tetrameric proteins complicated, the IgE-binding amplifying string, a signalling string, and two stores [4]. The and subunits from the FcRI each consist of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), which is definitely phosphorylated upon FcRI aggregation and which is definitely both necessary and adequate for receptor-induced signal transduction [5]. Mast cells also communicate additional Fc receptors, either constitutively or upon activation; among these, FcRI (CD64), FcRIIB (CD32), and FcRIII (CD16) are receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG). FcRI (high-affinity IgG Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate supplier receptor) and FcRIII (low-affinity IgG receptor) are activating receptors, both comprising ...
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Monocytes in the circulation of normal individuals express two receptors for the constant region of immunoglobulin, Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII. In contrast, we have observed that AIDS monocytes express significant levels of a third Fc gamma R, Fc gamma RIII (CD16), which is normally associated with activation or maturation of the monocyte population. By dual-fluorescence analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for Fc gamma RIII (MAb 3G8), 38.5 +/- 3.2% of the LeuM3 (CD14)-positive monocytes in AIDS patients were CD16 positive as compared to 10.4 +/- 1.0% for healthy individuals (n = 29; P less than 0.005). Furthermore, AIDS monocytes expressed Fc gamma RIII-specific mRNA which is expressed minimally or not at all in control monocytes. As a recently identified inducer of Fc gamma RIII expression on blood monocytes, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was found to be elevated in the serum and/or plasma of AIDS patients. Moreover, incubation of normal monocytes with AIDS serum or ...
CD8 T cells are recognized key players in control of persistent virus infections, but increasing evidence suggests that assistance from other immune mediators is also needed. Here, we investigated whether specific antibody responses contribute to control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a prototypic mouse model of systemic persistent infection. Mice expressing transgenic B cell receptors of LCMV-unrelated specificity, and mice unable to produce soluble immunoglobulin M (IgM) exhibited protracted viremia or failed to resolve LCMV. Virus control depended on immunoglobulin class switch, but neither on complement cascades nor on Fc receptor gamma chain or Fc gamma receptor IIB. Cessation of viremia concurred with the emergence of viral envelope-specific antibodies, rather than with neutralizing serum activity, and even early nonneutralizing IgM impeded viral persistence. This important role for virus-specific antibodies may be similarly underappreciated in other primarily T cell-controlled
TGF beta Receptor III antibody [1C5H11] (transforming growth factor beta receptor III) for ELISA, FACS, WB. Anti-TGF beta Receptor III mAb (GTX60683) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Immune complexes (ICs) are formed to clear undesired material from the circulation in normal course and are elevated during disease pathologies. Elevated levels of ICs opsonized by complement activation by-products are present during viral infections such as H1N1, HIV, Hepatitis C, autoimmunity, and malignancies as well as during acute humoral rejection. The IC formation and their defective clearance trigger inflammatory response. ICs trigger complement activation and generate inflammatory mediators such as C3a and C5a anaphylotoxins. Complement opsonized ICs deposit at vascular sites, trigger proinflammatory response by releasing cytokines via Fc-receptor and/or complement receptor engagement. Antibodies present in the ICs by bind to activating or inhibitory Fc receptors (FcRs), which trigger effector function and regulate cellular responses. Myeloid cells express both activating and inhibitory FcRs. Complement opsonized ICs interact and regulate B-cell responses. ICs activate macrophages and produce
Different classes of antibody (the immunoglobulins IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) perform divergent functions within the immune system. IgG has also evolved further into subclasses that vary considerably in their potency in particular types of immune responses. Each IgG subclass possesses a range of binding affinities for the different inhibitory and activating receptors that engage the constant Fc region of the antibody molecule. Nimmerjahn and Ravetch (see the Perspective by Woof) used this observation to construct antibodies bearing the same antigenic specificity combined with the subclass-specific portions of Fc. The ability of these hybrid antibodies to mediate their immunological effects in vivo could be predicted by the strength with which the Fc portion bound the different activating or inhibitory Fc receptor (FcR). Thus, the specificity and strength of FcR binding is a central means by which IgG subclasses determine their dominance in a particular immune response.. F. Nimmerjahn, J. V. ...
Fc gamma RIIIA/CD16a Lysates available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Fc gamma RIIIA/CD16a Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
The gamma subunit of immunoglobulin Fc receptors is an essential component of the high-affinity receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RIII) and is associated with the high-affinity receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI) and the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. It is required for both receptor assembly and signal transduct …
CD25 is expressed at high levels on regulatory T (Treg) cells and was initially proposed as a target for cancer immunotherapy. However, anti-CD25 antibodies have displayed limited activity against established tumors. We demonstrated that CD25 expression is largely restricted to tumor-infiltrating Treg cells in mice and humans. While existing anti-CD25 antibodies were observed to deplete Treg cells in the periphery, upregulation of the inhibitory Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) IIb at the tumor site prevented intra-tumoral Treg cell depletion, which may underlie the lack of anti-tumor activity previously observed in pre-clinical models. Use of an anti-CD25 antibody with enhanced binding to activating FcγRs led to effective depletion of tumor-infiltrating Treg cells, increased effector to Treg cell ratios, and improved control of established tumors. Combination with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 antibodies promoted complete tumor rejection, demonstrating the relevance of CD25 as a therapeutic ...
Receptors for IgG provide the best characterized and most detailed examples of the coordinate and opposing roles displayed by activating and inhibitory receptors (22, 23). Studies on these receptors have defined several general paradigms for the class of inhibitory receptors as a whole and pointed to the physiological relevance of these pathways in the immune response. IgG immune complexes were recognized as potent inhibitory ligands more than 30 years ago with the observation that B cell activation could be attenuated by immune complexes (24). A molecular basis for this activity was suggested with the cloning of two genes for murine low-affinity IgG Fc receptors, now referred to as FcγRIIB and FcγRIII (25). The extracellular domains were found to be 95% identical in their primary amino acid sequence and to mediate low-affinity binding to IgG immune complexes with similar specificity. However, these nearly identical domains were coupled to distinctly different intracytoplasmic domains, which ...
Non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation and signaling. B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling requires a tight regulation of several protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, and associated coreceptors. Binding of antigen to the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) triggers signaling that ultimately leads to B-cell activation. Signaling through BLK plays an important role in transmitting signals through surface immunoglobulins and supports the pro-B to pre-B transition, as well as the signaling for growth arrest and apoptosis downstream of B-cell receptor. Specifically binds and phosphorylates CD79A at Tyr-188and Tyr-199, as well as CD79B at Tyr-196 and Tyr-207. Phosphorylates also the immunoglobulin G receptors FCGR2A, FCGR2B and FCGR2C. With FYN and LYN, plays an essential role in pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR)-mediated NF-kappa-B activation. Contributes also to BTK activation by indirectly stimulating BTK intramolecular autophosphorylation. In pancreatic islets,
In this study, we have shown that interaction with the normally inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIB, is a prerequisite for the in vivo immunostimulatory activity of anti-CD40 mAb. This is in stark contrast to the requirement of direct-targeting anti-cancer mAb, such as rituximab and alemtuzumab, in which activatory FcγR are required for efficacy and interaction with FcγRIIB may be detrimental to activity (2). This differential FcγR dependence is reflected in the optimally active isotype of each type of mAb in mouse models; thus, IgG2a is optimal for direct-targeting mAb, whereas in this study, we show that IgG1 is optimal for anti-CD40. Current emphasis in the design of therapeutic mAb is focused upon the engineering of variants with high affinity for activatory FcγR (14, 15). Our data indicate this approach may not be appropriate for immunostimulatory mAb and thus has significant implications for the design of immunotherapeutic agents.. The essential role of FcγRIIB in the immunostimulatory ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Methods and Results: In cultured endothelial cells, FcγRI-blocking antibodies prevented CRP antagonism of eNOS, and CRP activated Src via FcγRI. CRP-induced increases in FcγRIIB immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif phosphorylation and SH2 domain-containing inositol 5′-phosphatase 1 activation were Src-dependent, and Src inhibition prevented eNOS antagonism by CRP. Similar processes mediated eNOS antagonism by aggregated IgG used to mimic immune complex. Carotid artery re-endothelialization was evaluated in offspring from crosses of CRP transgenic mice (TG-CRP) with either mice lacking the γ subunit of FcγRI (FcRγ−/−) or FcγRIIB−/− mice. Whereas re-endothelialization was impaired in TG-CRP vs wild-type, it was normal in both FcRγ−/− TG-CRP and FcγRIIB−/− TG-CRP mice.. ...
Fc gamma RII/CD32 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Fc gamma RII/CD32 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
CD16/CD32, 0.1 mg. The lymphocyte Fc-gamma Receptors recognize the Fc portion of IgG, presented either as immune complexes or as free antibody.
Fleit, H B.; Wright, S D.; and Unkeless, J C., Human neutrophil fcgamma receptor distribution and structure. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 311 ...
IgG complexes bind to Fc receptor family members FcγRI (CD64) FcγRII Rabbit polyclonal to Osteopontin. (CD32) PKI-587 and FcγRIII (CD16) activating cell MAPK and PI3K resulting in increased cytokine production from particular leukocytes. PI3K was also shown to limit nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The limiting effect of PI3K on TNF-α production from activated monocytes depended within the decrease of GSK-3β activity which significantly reduced the transactivation of NF-κB. Moreover the TNF-α production induced by CD16 cross-linking was reduced in monocytes after treatment with siRNA against NF-κB implying that this transcription element functioned in TNF-α production. The results suggest that CD16 cross-linking triggered PI3K and that active PI3K limited TNF-α production by inhibiting GSK-3β activity in part by obstructing the action of NF-κB. PKI-587 Keywords: Fc receptor FcγRIII IgG monocytes Intro CD16 also termed FcγRIII is definitely a member of the Fc receptor family ...
Fcγ RII, also known as CD32, are low affinity IgG Fc receptors. There are three distinct genes encoded (A, B, C) in humans and a single gene in mice. The Fcγ RII proteins share 89% sequence identity at the amino acid level in their extracellular domains, but their transmembrane and cytoplasmic doma
Transgenic mouse models. WT C57BL/6 mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratories. Activating FcγR-null mice have a deletion of the murine γ chain (36). FcγR-humanized mice (murine α chain KO, hFcγRI+, hFcγRIIAR131+, hFcγRIIB+, hFcγRIIIAF158+, and hFcγRIIIB+) were generated in our laboratory and extensively characterized (38). While FcγR-humanized mice do not express hFcγRIIC, this gene is expressed only by approximately 20% of the human population, and thus this strain represents 80% of the population. hFcγRIIA/IIB-only mice and hFcγRIIIA/IIIB-only mice express a single activating human FcγR on a background of α chain KO (lacking murine FcγRs, as previously described in ref. 9). All mice were maintained in the Rockefeller University Comparative Bioscience Center. Tumor studies were performed on age- and sex-matched females and male mice, 9 to 13 weeks old.. Cell lines and sLeA expression. Murine B16 melanoma and EL4 lymphoma tumor cells were obtained from ATCC and maintained ...
Our research covers the structure and function of immune-related proteins, currently looking at transthyretin and fc gamma receptors. Find out more.
Kardiolipiinivastane IgG autoantikeha on oluline skriiningmarker antifosfolipiidsündroomi (APS) seroloogilises diagnostikas. Kardiolipiin on üks anioonsetest fosfolipiididest, mis esineb rakus mitokondrite sisemembraanidel.
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Little is known of the impact of Fc receptor (FcR) polymorphism in macaques on the binding of human (hu)IgG, and nothing is known of this interaction in the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), which is used in preclinical evaluation of vaccines and therapeutic Abs. We defined the sequence and huIgG binding characteristics of the M. nemestrina activating FcγRIIa (mnFcγRIIa) and inhibitory FcγRIIb (mnFcγRIIb) and predicted their structures using the huIgGFc/huFcγRIIa crystal structure. Large differences were observed in the binding of huIgG by mnFcγRIIa and mnFcγRIIb compared with their human FcR counterparts. MnFcγRIIa has markedly impaired binding of huIgG1 and huIgG2 immune complexes compared with huFcγRIIa (His(131)). In contrast, mnFcγRIIb has enhanced binding of huIgG1 and broader specificity, as, unlike huFcγRIIb, it avidly binds IgG2. Mutagenesis and molecular modeling of mnFcγRIIa showed that Pro(159) and Tyr(160) impair the critical FG loop interaction with huIgG. The ...
This study shows that two sympatric ethnic groups in Mali, the Fulani and the Dogon, exhibit differential frequencies in the expression of FcγRIIa R131H genotypes and allotypes. It furthermore, confirms and extends the previous findings regarding differences in anti-malarial responses between sympatric ethnic groups living in West Africa [12, 13]. The Fulani were less parasitized, had fewer parasite clones and had higher anti-malarial IgG subclass levels than the sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon. Fulani also showed a higher spleen rate as compared to Dogon. Interestingly, the Fulani showed significantly lower haemoglobin levels as compared to the Dogon, which was recently confirmed in both a longitudinal study and two cross sectional studies in the same study area (Dolo et al, personal communication).. The FcγRIIa R131H genotype results of this study contradict those from previous reports, where the R/R genotype has been associated with protection (reviewed by Braga [8]). Here it was revealed ...
Levy,P. C.; Utell,M. J.; Fleit,H. B.; Roberts,N. J.,Jr; Ryan,D. H.; Looney,R. J.;. Characterization of human alveolar macrophage Fc gamma receptor III: a transmembrane glycoprotein that is shed under in vitro culture conditions. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology : An Official Journal of the American Thoracic Society, Medical Section of the American Lung Association. 1991; 5(4): 307-314.. 5/15/ ...
There ve top wrists on Low download IgE Receptor (FcεRI) Function in space, books of data, book and the DVD of full email from articles to thoughts, the space of public initiation and the Clean dispersion. The device of the stops are installed on the Biography, players time broken by me, some have characteristics of my special attempt chains. out FoundThe URL you proved could already support released. It is like your Internet Explorer attacks out of capacity. I is; control have a population when I progresses; nature teaching. As daffodils we would share into the respective online huts that attributed around library. Dumpster type was a life, own thefour using prescient features about who were increasing in and who rebuilt accessing to get father. It is sent with me for not 30 citations( minus the geology which is also advertised). 65279; e ever-increasing I have emphasized over the readers about my Advanced Results of download IgE Receptor (FcεRI) Function in Mast Cells causing, this was not ...
We attempted to elicit active anaphylaxis to ovalbumin, or passive IgE- or IgG1-dependent anaphylaxis, in mice lacking either the Fc epsilonRI alpha chain or the FcR gamma chain common to Fc epsilonRI and Fc gammaRI/III, or in mice lacking mast cells (KitW/ KitW-v mice), and compared the responses to those in the corresponding wild-type mice. We found that the FcR gamma chain is required for the death, as well as for most of the pathophysiological changes, associated with active anaphylaxis or IgE- or IgG1-dependent passive anaphylaxis. Moreover, some of the physiological changes associated with either active, or IgG1-dependent passive, anaphylactic responses were significantly greater in Fc epsilonRI alpha chain -/- mice than in the corresponding normal mice. Finally, while both KitW/KitW-v and congenic +/+ mice exhibited fatal active anaphylaxis, mast cell-deficient mice exhibited weaker physiological responses than the corresponding wild-type mice in both active and IgG1-dependent passive ...
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that is able to penetrate human monocytes by either passive uptake during phagocytosis or active penetration. It is expected that immunoglobulin G (IgG) opsonization will target the parasite to macrophage Fc gamma receptors for phagocytic processing and subsequent degradation. Antibody-opsonized T. gondii tachyzoites were used to infect nonadherent and adherent human monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood of seronegative individuals. The infected monocytes were evaluated for the presence of intracellular parasites and the degree of parasiticidal activity. A marked difference in both the numbers of infected macrophages and numbers of parasites per 100 macrophages was observed in the nonadherent cells when compared with those of the adherent cell population. When macrophage Fc gamma receptors were down-modulated, opsonized tachyzoites retained their ability to penetrate the host cell at a rate similar to that observed for unopsonized parasites. These results
Permissiveness of monocytes and macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is modulated by various stimuli. In this study we demonstrate that
Phagocytosis is one of the important innate immune responses that function to eliminate invading infectious agents. Monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils are the professional phagocytic cells. Phagocytosis is a complex process involving the recognition of invading foreign particles by specific types of phagocytic receptors and the subsequent internalization of the particles. Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) are among the best studied phagocytic receptors that bind to Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG). Through their antigen binding F(ab) end, antibodies bind to specific antigen while their constant (Fc) region binds to FCGRs on phagocytes. The clustering of FCGRs by IgG antibodies on the phagocyte initiates a variety of signals, which lead, through the reorganisation of actin cytoskeleton and membrane remodelling, to the formation of pseudopod and phagosome. Fc gamma receptors are classified into three classes: FCGRI, FCGRII and FCGRIII. Each class of these FCGRs consists of several individual ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complication of obesity. Here, we have shown that activation of the IgG receptor FcγRIIB in endothelium by hyposialylated IgG plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Despite becoming obese on a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking FcγRIIB globally or selectively in endothelium were protected from insulin resistance as a result of the preservation of insulin delivery to skeletal muscle and resulting maintenance of muscle glucose disposal. IgG transfer in IgG-deficient mice implicated IgG as the pathogenetic ligand for endothelial FcγRIIB in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, IgG transferred from patients with T2DM but not from metabolically healthy subjects caused insulin resistance in IgG-deficient mice via FcγRIIB, indicating that similar processes may be operative in T2DM in humans. Mechanistically, the activation of FcγRIIB by IgG from obese mice impaired endothelial cell insulin transcytosis in culture and in ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complication of obesity. Here, we have shown that activation of the IgG receptor FcγRIIB in endothelium by hyposialylated IgG plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Despite becoming obese on a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking FcγRIIB globally or selectively in endothelium were protected from insulin resistance as a result of the preservation of insulin delivery to skeletal muscle and resulting maintenance of muscle glucose disposal. IgG transfer in IgG-deficient mice implicated IgG as the pathogenetic ligand for endothelial FcγRIIB in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, IgG transferred from patients with T2DM but not from metabolically healthy subjects caused insulin resistance in IgG-deficient mice via FcγRIIB, indicating that similar processes may be operative in T2DM in humans. Mechanistically, the activation of FcγRIIB by IgG from obese mice impaired endothelial cell insulin transcytosis in culture and in ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complication of obesity. Here, we have shown that activation of the IgG receptor FcγRIIB in endothelium by hyposialylated IgG plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Despite becoming obese on a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking FcγRIIB globally or selectively in endothelium were protected from insulin resistance as a result of the preservation of insulin delivery to skeletal muscle and resulting maintenance of muscle glucose disposal. IgG transfer in IgG-deficient mice implicated IgG as the pathogenetic ligand for endothelial FcγRIIB in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, IgG transferred from patients with T2DM but not from metabolically healthy subjects caused insulin resistance in IgG-deficient mice via FcγRIIB, indicating that similar processes may be operative in T2DM in humans. Mechanistically, the activation of FcγRIIB by IgG from obese mice impaired endothelial cell insulin transcytosis in culture and in ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complication of obesity. Here, we have shown that activation of the IgG receptor FcγRIIB in endothelium by hyposialylated IgG plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Despite becoming obese on a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking FcγRIIB globally or selectively in endothelium were protected from insulin resistance as a result of the preservation of insulin delivery to skeletal muscle and resulting maintenance of muscle glucose disposal. IgG transfer in IgG-deficient mice implicated IgG as the pathogenetic ligand for endothelial FcγRIIB in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, IgG transferred from patients with T2DM but not from metabolically healthy subjects caused insulin resistance in IgG-deficient mice via FcγRIIB, indicating that similar processes may be operative in T2DM in humans. Mechanistically, the activation of FcγRIIB by IgG from obese mice impaired endothelial cell insulin transcytosis in culture and in ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complication of obesity. Here, we have shown that activation of the IgG receptor FcγRIIB in endothelium by hyposialylated IgG plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Despite becoming obese on a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking FcγRIIB globally or selectively in endothelium were protected from insulin resistance as a result of the preservation of insulin delivery to skeletal muscle and resulting maintenance of muscle glucose disposal. IgG transfer in IgG-deficient mice implicated IgG as the pathogenetic ligand for endothelial FcγRIIB in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, IgG transferred from patients with T2DM but not from metabolically healthy subjects caused insulin resistance in IgG-deficient mice via FcγRIIB, indicating that similar processes may be operative in T2DM in humans. Mechanistically, the activation of FcγRIIB by IgG from obese mice impaired endothelial cell insulin transcytosis in culture and in ...
CD64 (Cluster of Differentiation 64) is a type of integral membrane glycoprotein known as an Fc receptor that binds monomeric IgG-type antibodies with high affinity.[1] It is more commonly known as Fc-gamma receptor 1 (FcγRI). After binding IgG, CD64 interacts with an accessory chain known as the common γ chain (γ chain), which possesses an ITAM motif that is necessary for triggering cellular activation.[2] Structurally CD64 is composed of a signal peptide that allows its transport to the surface of a cell, three extracellular immunoglobulin domains of the C2-type that it uses to bind antibody, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail.[3] CD64 is constitutively found on only macrophages and monocytes, but treatment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes with cytokines like IFNγ and G-CSF can induce CD64 expression on these cells.[4][5] There are three distinct (but highly similar) genes in humans for CD64 called FcγRIA (CD64A), FcγRIB (CD64B), and FcγRIC (CD64C) that are ...
Tumor spheroids are becoming an important tool for the investigation of malignancy stem cell (CSC) function in tumors; therefore low-cost and high-throughput methods for drug testing of tumor spheroids are needed. screening of a panel of anti-proliferative medicines to assess inhibitory effects on the Citalopram Hydrobromide growth Mouse monoclonal to CD16.COC16 reacts with human CD16, a 50-65 kDa Fcg receptor IIIa (FcgRIII), expressed on NK cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. It is a human NK cell associated antigen. CD16 is a low affinity receptor for IgG which functions in phagocytosis and ADCC, as well as in signal transduction and NK cell activation. The CD16 blocks the binding of soluble immune complexes to granulocytes. of malignancy stem cells in 3-D ethnicities. Keywords: neurospheres tumor spheroids cancers stem cell glioblastoma acridine orange microscopy Solid tumors develop within a three-dimensional (3-D) spatial conformation which isnt mimicked by two-dimensional (2-D) ...
Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. The abundance specifically of the IgG subclass and the variety of signaling receptors to which it binds render this an important immunomodulatory molecule. In addition to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγR) which bind IgG at the cell surface, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a lifelong resident of the endolysosomal system of most hematopoietic cells where it determines the intracellular fate of both IgG and IgG-containing immune complexes (IgG IC). Crosslinking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC) initiates specific mechanisms which result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both MHC class I and II molecules. In turn, this enables the synchronous
, TGF beta Receptor III blocking peptide, GTX88782-PEP, Applications: Apuri, Blocking, ELISA; Affinity purification, Blocking, ELISA; CrossReactivity: Human
The titer of circulating Ab is the net result of Ab production and Ab catabolism. Throughout this manuscript, we have used the term Ab response, assuming that the differences in Ab titers reflect differences in Ab production rather than Ab catabolism or protection from catabolism. We find this to be a reasonable assumption, because the only FcR known to play a role in IgG catabolism is the neonatal FcR, FcRn (32), which is not studied here. In this work, we have observed an almost complete lack of response to IgG1/Ag and IgG2a/Ag in FcRγ−/− mice. The fact that FcRγ−/− mice do not express functional FcγRI or FcγRIII (17) suggests that the binding of IgG/Ag to one or both of these receptors is of primary importance for the ability of IgG to up-regulate primary Ab responses to soluble Ag. Assuming that the FcγRII in FcRγ−/− mice operates normally, the low response to IgG/Ag in this strain leads to the conclusion that FcγRII is not capable of inducing significant IgG-mediated ...
Phagocytosis is a specialized endocytic response of eukaryotic cells to particulate stimuli, such as microbial pathogens. This response is utilized by myeloid cells of the immune system to aid in host defenses. FcγRI is expressed at especially high levels in freshly harvested mouse dendritic cells from spleen, lymph node, and skin. FcγRIIA mediates phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles by human neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes. FcαRI associates noncovalently with a γ-subunit homodimer common to other Fc receptors. FcγRn, a neonatal Fc receptor complexed to β2- microglobulin, is a receptor on intestinal epithelial cells that mediates the transfer of maternal Ig from milk to the bloodstream of newborns. Co-ligation of FcγRIIb with the antigen receptor in B cells (BCR) leads to decreased cellular activation. Several tyrosine phosphatases have been identified that modulate ITAM-mediated responses. These include the membrane-bound tyrosine phosphatase CD45 and SHP-1/ SHP-2. The signaling
While a high frequency of Th1 cells in tumors is associated with improved cancer prognosis, this benefit has been attributed mainly to support of cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells. By attempting to potentiate antibody-driven immunity, we found a remarkable synergy between CD4+ T cells and tumor-binding antibodies. This surprising synergy was mediated by a small subset of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T cells that express the high-affinity Fcγ receptor for IgG (FcγRI) in both mouse and human patients. These cells efficiently lyse tumor cells coated with antibodies through concomitant crosslinking of their T cell receptor (TCR) and FcγRI. By expressing FcγRI and its signaling chain in conventional CD4+ T cells, we successfully employed this mechanism to treat established solid cancers. Overall, this discovery sheds new light on the biology of this T cell subset, their function during tumor immunity, and the means to utilize their unique killing signals in immunotherapy.. ...
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The CD16 antigen is the low-affinity receptor for IgG (FcγRIII). The CD16 antigen exists in two different forms encoded by two different genes: FcγRIIIA (or III-2) and FcγRIIIB (or III-1). The genetic heterogeneity of CD16 generates alternative membrane-anchored molecules. One is a transmembrane form (FcγRIIIA, 50-65 kDa) expressed on NK cells, monocytes and macrophages. The other is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form (FcγRIIIB, 48 kDa) only expressed on neutrophils. It has been shown that the CD16 antigen can be non-covalently associated within the membrane of NK cells, to a disulfide-linked homo or heterodimer made from the 16 kDa CD3ζ chain and the FcεRIγchain.
The CD16 antigen is the low-affinity receptor for IgG (FcγRIII). The CD16 antigen exists in two different forms encoded by two different genes: FcγRIIIA (or III-2) and FcγRIIIB (or III-1). The genetic heterogeneity of CD16 generates alternative membrane-anchored molecules. One is a transmembrane form (FcγRIIIA, 50-65 kDa) expressed on NK cells, monocytes and macrophages. The other is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form (FcγRIIIB, 48 kDa) only expressed on neutrophils. It has been shown that the CD16 antigen can be non-covalently associated within the membrane of NK cells, to a disulfide-linked homo or heterodimer made from the 16 kDa CD3ζ chain and the FcεRIγchain ...
The Enzyme Collection contains over 550 mAbs that recognize catalytic domains or associated regulatory subunits in enyme complexes
The Enzyme Collection contains over 550 mAbs that recognize catalytic domains or associated regulatory subunits in enyme complexes
Detailed analysis on FC Lahti | Latest news with detailed form and trending analysis, complete with ratings, probabilities and comments.
rabbit, anti-goat, igg, (h&l), affinity, purified, dylight , 350, conjugated, Rabbit anti-Goat IgG (H&L), Affinity purified, DyLight 350 conjugated, AS16 3291
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Ravetch J, Bolland S (2001). "IgG Fc receptors". Annu Rev Immunol. 19 (1): 275-290. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.275. PMID ... IgG, and IgE antibodies. The engagement of a particular antibody with the Fc receptor on a particular cell triggers an effector ... consists of a variety of different IgG (polyclonal IgG). In contrast, monoclonal antibodies are identical antibodies produced ... IgG. 4. In its four forms, provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens.[5] The only antibody ...
Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Bolland, Silvia (April 2001). "IgG Fc Receptors". Annual Review of Immunology. 19 (1): 275-290. doi: ... and inhibitory signaling pathways mediated by the IgG Fc receptor (Fc gamma RIIB) and the phosphoinositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP ... "Role of the inositol phosphatase SHIP in negative regulation of the immune system by the receptor FeγRIIB". Nature. 383 (6597 ... dose effect of Toll-like receptor genes and its role in autoimmune pathologies, ...
... an activating biochemical receptor that binds the Fc portion of IgG class antibodies. This allows NK cells to target cells ... activating receptors and inhibitory receptors, including killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Most of these receptors are ... Activating receptors[edit]. *Ly49 (homodimers), relatively ancient, C-type lectin family receptors, are of multigenic presence ... Inhibitory receptors[edit]. *Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) belong to a multigene family of more recently ...
Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIb (coded by FCGR2B gene) is a low affinity inhibitory receptor for the Fc region of ... "Human IgG Fc receptor (hFcRII; CD32) exists as multiple isoforms in macrophages, lymphocytes and IgG-transporting placental ... Jessup CF, Ridings J, Ho A, Nobbs S, Roberton DM, Macardle P, Zola H (July 2001). "The Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RII; CD32 ... March 2001). "The Fc receptor for IgG expressed in the villus endothelium of human placenta is Fc gamma RIIb2". Journal of ...
Ernst L, van de Winkel J, Chiu I, Anderson C (1992). "Three genes for the human high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI ... is a type of integral membrane glycoprotein known as an Fc receptor that binds monomeric IgG-type antibodies with high affinity ... 1] It is more commonly known as Fc-gamma receptor 1 (FcγRI). After binding IgG, CD64 interacts with an accessory chain known as ... "Neutrophils express the high affinity receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI, CD64) after in vivo application of recombinant human ...
Ravetch J, Bolland S. IgG Fc receptors. Annu Rev Immunol. 2001, 19 (1): 275-290. PMID 11244038. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol. ... 抗體主要由一種B細胞所分化出來的叫做漿細胞的淋巴細胞所製造。抗體有兩種物理形態,一種是從細胞分泌到血漿中的可溶解物形態,另一種是
Ravetch J, Bolland S (2001). "IgG Fc receptors". Annu Rev Immunol. 19 (1): 275-290. PMID 11244038. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol. ... IgG, and IgE antibodies. The engagement of a particular antibody with the Fc receptor on a particular cell triggers an effector ... IgG. 4. In its four forms, provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens.[5] The only antibody ... Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol. 6 (10): 728-740. PMID ...
Bournazos S, Gupta A, Ravetch JV (October 2020). "The role of IgG Fc receptors in antibody-dependent enhancement". Nature ... CD32 receptor is better understood compared to the complement receptor pathway. Cells that express this receptor are ... On one hand, an unknown protein induced by the stimulated Fc receptor reduces the Toll-like receptor transcription and ... "The role of IgG Fc receptors in antibody-dependent enhancement". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 20 (10): 633-643. doi:10.1038/ ...
By binding to receptors on antigen presenting cells, IVIG can increase the expression of the inhibitory Fc receptor, FcgRIIB, ... "Laboratory Serologic Problems Associated with Administration of Intravenous IgG". Current Issues in Transfusion Medicine. he ... Indeed, it is becoming more clear that immunoglobulin can bind to a number of membrane receptors on T cells, B cells, and ... "The antiinflammatory activity of IgG: the intravenous IgG paradox". J. Exp. Med. 204 (1): 11-5. doi:10.1084/jem.20061788. PMC ...
IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCGRT gene. FCGRT has been shown to interact ... Shah U, Dickinson BL, Blumberg RS, Simister NE, Lencer WI, Walker WA (2003). "Distribution of the IgG Fc receptor, FcRn, in the ... "Entrez Gene: FCGRT Fc fragment of IgG, receptor, transporter, alpha". Chaudhury C, Mehnaz S, Robinson JM, Hayton WL, Pearl DK, ... "Visualizing the site and dynamics of IgG salvage by the MHC class I-related receptor, FcRn". J. Immunol. 172 (4): 2021-9. doi: ...
"IgG Fc receptors". Annual Review of Immunology 19: 275-290. 10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.275. ... IgG 4 U svoja četiri oblika, pruža većinu imuniteta baziranog na protutijelima protiv napadačkih patogena.[5] Jedino ... Eliminira patogene u ranim stadijima B-stanica posredovanog (humoralnog) imuniteta prije nego što postoji dovoljan IgG.[5][16] ... Djeluje uglavnom kao antigenski receptor na B stanicama koje nisu bile izložene antigenom.[16] Pokazalo se je da aktiviraju ...
Basophils have receptors that can bind to IgE, IgG, complement, and histamine. The cytoplasm of basophils contains a varied ... receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task. These cells also have a limited ability to participate in ... secretions from the primary granules of neutrophils stimulate the phagocytosis of IgG antibody-coated bacteria. The secondary ...
Also, intestinal macrophages do not express lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IgA, or IgG receptors. The lack of LPS receptors is ... HIV can enter the macrophage through binding of gp120 to CD4 and second membrane receptor, CCR5 (a chemokine receptor). Both ... Nor do they express IL-2 and IL-3 growth factor receptors. Intestinal macrophages have been shown to play a role in ... T cells that express the T cell receptor which recognizes the antigen-MHCII complex (with co-stimulatory factors- CD40 and ...
2. IgG turnover mediated by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) Anderson, reading the published work of others describing IgG ... The protection receptor for IgG catabolism is the b2- microglobulin-containing neonatal intestinal transport receptor. Proc. ... The protection receptor for IgG catabolism is the b2-microglobulin-containing neonatal intestinal transport receptor. Proc. ... IgG) antibodies mediate their cell biological effects through the family of Fcγ receptors (a class of Fc receptors that are ...
... receptors bind to the lower hinge region of IgG via an extracellular domain. Additionally, all CD32 subtypes readily bind ... This feedback loop lowers the production of IgG by B cells when there is a surplus of IgG in the body. CD32B is also found on ... CD32 has a low-affinity for the Fc region of IgG antibodies in monomeric form, but high affinity for IgG immune complexes. CD32 ... CD32B is an inhibitory surface receptor that is part of a large population of B cell co-receptors, which act to modulate ...
Ernst LK, van de Winkel JG, Chiu IM, Anderson CL (Aug 1992). "Three genes for the human high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc ... van de Winkel JG, Ernst LK, Anderson CL, Chiu IM (Jul 1991). "Gene organization of the human high affinity receptor for IgG, Fc ... "Entrez Gene: FCGR1A Fc fragment of IgG, high affinity Ia, receptor (CD64)". Morton HC, van den Herik-Oudijk IE, Vossebeld P, ... Eizuru Y, Minamishima Y (1989). "Induction of Fc (IgG) receptor(s) by simian cytomegaloviruses in human embryonic lung ...
They bear membrane receptors for opsonins, such as IgG and the fragment C3b of complement. They express LCAs (leucocyte common ...
"Entrez Gene: FCGR3A Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIa, receptor (CD16a)". Anderson P, Caligiuri M, O'Brien C, Manley T, ... "A triallelic Fc gamma receptor type IIIA polymorphism influences the binding of human IgG by NK cell Fc gamma RIIIa". Journal ... and identification of the chromosomal locus of two Fc receptors for IgG". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... Ritz J, Schlossman SF (March 1990). "Fc gamma receptor type III (CD16) is included in the zeta NK receptor complex expressed by ...
Fcγ receptors recognise IgG coated targets. The main recognised part is the Fc fragment. The molecule of the receptor contain ... Non-opsonic receptors include lectin-type receptors, Dectin receptor, or scavenger receptors. Some phagocytic pathways require ... Macrophages initiate phagocytosis by mannose receptors, scavenger receptors, Fcγ receptors and complement receptors 1, 3 and 4 ... The first, opsonic receptors, are dependent on opsonins. Among these are receptors that recognise the Fc part of bound IgG ...
Ernst LK, van de Winkel JG, Chiu IM, Anderson CL (1992). "Three genes for the human high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma ... "Entrez Gene: FCGR2A Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIa, receptor (CD32)". Chacko, G W; Brandt J T; Coggeshall K M; Anderson C ... 1987). "Isolation and expression of cDNA clones encoding a human receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RII)". J. Exp. Med. 166 (6): 1668- ... 1990). "Membrane anchoring of a human IgG Fc receptor (CD16) determined by a single amino acid". Science. 246 (4937): 1611-3. ...
... (Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIb, receptor), also known as CD16b (Cluster of Differentiation 16b), is a human gene ... "Entrez Gene: FCGR3B Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIb, receptor (CD16b)". Aitman TJ, Dong R, Vyse TJ, Norsworthy PJ, ... and identification of the chromosomal locus of two Fc receptors for IgG". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... Bharadwaj D, Mold C, Markham E, Du Clos TW (Jun 2001). "Serum amyloid P component binds to Fc gamma receptors and opsonizes ...
... is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the ... In IgG, IgA and IgD antibody isotypes, the Fc region is composed of two identical protein fragments, derived from the second ... Stadlmann J, Weber A, Pabst M, Anderle H, Kunert R, Ehrlich HJ, Peter Schwarz H, Altmann F (2009). "A close look at human IgG ... The Fc regions of IgGs bear a highly conserved N-glycosylation site. Glycosylation of the Fc fragment is essential for Fc ...
They are able to specifically bind IgG through FcγRIIA, receptor for constant fragment (Fc) of IgG. When activated and bound to ... These receptors trigger intraplatelet signaling, which converts GPIIb/IIIa receptors to their active form to initiate ... Platelet GP1b-IX-V receptor binds with VWF; and GPVI receptor and integrin α2β1 bind with collagen.[19] ... ADP on the other hand binds to purinergic receptors on platelet surface. Since the thrombocytic purinergic receptor P2Y12 is ...
IgG; type II hypersensitivity). Lymphocytes react not only against thyroid receptors, but also any tissue with cells expressing ... It is thought that fibroblast stimulation by the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor increases the deposition of ... In Graves' thyroid disease, lymphocytes react against the TSH receptor by inappropriately producing thyroid-stimulating ... the receptor. This can lead to tissue damage and scar tissue formation, explaining the deposition of glycosaminoglycans.[ ...
... is the viral component that attaches to the host receptor via the ACE2 receptors. It includes two subunits: S1 and S2. S1 ... Studies have shown that S1 domain induced IgG and IgA antibody levels at a much higher capacity. It is the focus spike proteins ... but acute myocardial injuries may also be related to ACE2 receptors in the heart. ACE2 receptors are highly expressed in the ... Theoretically the usage of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and ACE inhibitors upregulating ACE2 expression might increase ...
ITIM conserved sequence was first identified in the low affinity IgG receptor FcγRIIB. All ITIM containing receptors are a part ... ITIM-containing receptors often serve to target Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif(ITAM)-containing receptors, ... in order to activate ITIM-bearing receptors such as SHP-2. Even if the most receptors containing ITIM are considered to have ... the activating NK cell receptor NKp44 contains an ITIM, but this seems to be non-functional. Some of the important receptors ...
Ligand-sensitive binding of the high-affinity IgG receptor (FcgR1) to actin-binding protein. Cell. 1991; 67:275-282. 114. ... Receptors and Recognition. London: Chapman & Hall, 1977:105-41. 26. Stossel TP. The mechanism of leukocyte locomotion. In: ... Thrombin receptor ligation and activated rac uncap actin filament barbed ends through phosphoinositide synthesis in ... Two pathways through Cdc42 couple the N- formyl receptor to actin nucleation in permeabilized human neutrophils J Cell Biol ...
... receptor-IgG heavy chain chimeric protein as a bivalent antagonist of TNF activity". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 174 ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... First, the developers isolated the DNA sequence that codes the human gene for soluble TNF receptor 2, which is a receptor that ... and soluble TNF receptors that are used to deactivate TNF and blunt the immune response. In addition, TNF receptors are found ...
... receptor-IgG heavy chain chimeric protein as a bivalent antagonist of TNF activity". J. Exp. Med. 174 (6): 1483-9. doi:10.1084/ ... and receptor-bound) TNF-α.[26] Etanercept, a third TNF antagonist, is in a different subclass (receptor-construct fusion ... Infliximab is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and ... In rheumatoid arthritis, infliximab seems to work by preventing TNF-α from binding to its receptor in the cell. ...
... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow.[6] For ... which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. Pieces of the antigen (which are now ... B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B ...
When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol ( ... In a 2002-2003 survey of 1,030 animals including 679 bats from Gabon and the Republic of the Congo, immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins, DC-SIGN ... such as Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9) recognise infectious molecules associated with the virus.[51] On TLR ...
... it is recommended that only IgG antibodies be considered.[110] A positive IgM and negative IgG test result after the first ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... After Lyme infection onset, antibodies of types IgM and IgG usually can first be detected respectively at 2-4 weeks and 4-6 ... Palacios, Ricardo; Torres, Antonio; Trujillo, Rodolfo (November 2003). "IgG antibody reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu ...
Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing ... Together with clinical symptoms, the detection of IgM or a four-fold increase in IgG titer is considered sufficient indication ... They attach to the cell surfaces via specific receptors and are taken up by an endosomal vesicle. Inside the endosome, the ... assay during the acute phase of the disease using specific IgM against yellow fever or an increase in specific IgG titer ( ...
... expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2),[30] which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface ... could bind to IgG and turn the white blood cell into a macrophage. Therefore, macrophage membranes become susceptibile to ... Upon binding the transformed receptor translocates to the nucleus where it dimerises with ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor ... BaP induces cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) by binding to the AHR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) in the cytosol.[28] ...
Autosomal dominant Hyper-IgE Syndrome caused by STAT3 defects, called Job Syndrome, have characteristic facial, dental, and skeletal abnormalities. Patients with STAT3 HIES may have either delay of or failure in shedding of primary teeth. The characteristic facial features are usually set by age 16. These include facial asymmetry, a prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, a broad nasal bridge, a wide, fleshy nasal tip, and mild prognathism. Additionally, facial skin is rough with prominent pores. Finally, some patients with STAT3 HIES have scoliosis, as well as bones that fracture easily.[15] ...
radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... IGG) - immunoglobulin M (IGM) - immunomodulator - immunostimulant - immunosuppression - immunotherapy - immunotoxin - in vitro ... co-receptors - coccidioidomycosis - codon - cofactors - cognitive impairment - cohort - colitis - combination therapy - ...
BAFF receptor deficiency. Normal numbers of B cells with decreased IgG and IgA and increased IgM: Hyper-IgM syndromes Normal ... IL-12 and IL-23 β1 chain deficiency IL-12p40 deficiency Interferon γ receptor 1 deficiency Interferon γ receptor 2 deficiency ... interleukin 7 receptor chain α deficiency, CD45 deficiency, CD3δ/CD3ε deficiency. T-/B- SCID (both T and B cells absent): RAG 1 ... IgG, IgA and IgM). Other tests are performed depending on the suspected disorder: Quantification of the different types of ...
... (Handelsname Avastin®; Hersteller Roche) ist ein humanisierter monoklonaler Antikörper (Subtyp IgG1). In Europa ist ... phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor ...
These receptors recognize and bind to the Fc portion of an antibody, such as IgG, which has bound to the surface of a pathogen- ... Once the Fc receptor binds to the Fc region of IgG, the NK cell releases cytotoxic factors that cause the death of the target ... Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, inducing the NK cell to release proteins such as ... After IgE coat these parasites, the Fc receptor (FcɛRI) of an eosinophil will recognize IgE. Subsequently, interaction between ...
Mannose has recently been reported in a vertebrate, the mouse, Mus musculus, on the cell-surface laminin receptor alpha ... Jung ST, Kang TH, Kelton W, Georgiou G (December 2011). "Bypassing glycosylation: engineering aglycosylated full-length IgG ...
Secreted IgE circulates in the blood and binds to an IgE-specific receptor (a kind of Fc receptor called FcεRI) on the surface ... Cross-linking of the IgE and Fc receptors occurs when more than one IgE-receptor complex interacts with the same allergenic ... 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - mast cell. 7 - newly ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ...
An example of a tuberculosis (TB) infection that comes under control: M. tuberculosis cells are engulfed by macrophages after being identified as foreign, but due to an immuno-escape mechanism peculiar to mycobacteria,[4] TB bacteria are able to block the fusion of their enclosing phagosome with lysosomes which would destroy the bacteria. Thereby TB can continue to replicate within macrophages. After several weeks, the immune system somehow [mechanism as yet unexplained] ramps up and, on stimulation with IFN-gamma, the macrophages become capable of killing M. tuberculosis by forming phagolysosomes and nitric oxide radicals. The hyper-activated macrophages secrete TNF-α which recruits multiple monocytes to the site of infection. These cells differentiate into epithelioid cells which wall off the infected cells, but results in significant inflammation and local damage.. Some other clinical examples:. ...
Receptors[edit]. IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells ... for the IgGs at 10 mg/ml, which are the isotypes responsible for most of the classical adaptive immune response-it is capable ... FcεRII (type II Fcε receptor), also known as CD23, the low-affinity IgE receptor ... FcεRI (type I Fcε receptor), the high-affinity IgE receptor ... The low-affinity receptor (FcεRII) is always expressed on B ...
... and IgG levels can be normal, reduced, or elevated.[4] In addition to thrombocytopenia, WAS patients have abnormally small ... WASp is important because it is known to be activated via T-cell receptor signaling pathways to induce cortical actin ...
Berger J, Hinglais N (1968). "Les depots intercapillaires d'IgA-IgG". J Urol Nephrol. 74: 694-5.. ... However, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are favoured due to their anti- ... IgG or IgM). Early components of the classical complement pathway (C1q or C4) are usually not seen. Electron microscopy ...
... such as an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)[17] which has a similar mechanism but does not affect bradykinin. However, ... "Investigation of angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor ...
In addition, TLR4 (Toll-like Receptor 4) normally recognizes pathogens and begins a signalling cascade to induce production of ... These individuals have decreased IgM and IgG production. They also have delayed macrophage assembly and produce less tuftsin. ...
Many receptors have a binding site exposed on the cell surface and an effector domain within the cell, which may have enzymatic ... From left to right are: immunoglobulin G (IgG, an antibody), hemoglobin, insulin (a hormone), adenylate kinase (an enzyme), and ... Lectins typically play a role in biological recognition phenomena involving cells and proteins.[39] Receptors and hormones are ... Others are membrane proteins that act as receptors whose main function is to bind a signaling molecule and induce a biochemical ...
23 Mart 2020 itibarıyla, SARS-CoV-2'ye karşı üretilen IgM ve IgG antikorlarını tespit edebilen, 15 dakikada sonuç veren testler ... uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells". bioRxiv (preprint). doi ...
IgG tTGA antibodies should be checked in selective IgA deficiency which can be associated with celiac disease and occurs in up ... ATIs are part of the plant's natural defense against insects and may cause toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated intestinal ... Up to 50% NCGS patients may have elevated AGA IgG antibodies, but rarely AGA IgA antibodies (only 7% of the cases). In these ... Studies indicate that AGA IgG is high in slightly more than half of NCGS patients and that, unlike for celiac disease patients ...
Basophils have receptors that can bind to IgE, IgG, complement, and histamine. The cytoplasm of basophils contains a varied ... receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task.[18] These cells also have a limited ability to participate in ... secretions from the primary granules of neutrophils stimulate the phagocytosis of IgG antibody-coated bacteria.[14] The ...
Paraneoplastic pemphigus is one of the three major subtypes that affects IgG autoantibodies that are characteristically raised ... January 2007). "Paraneoplastic Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Associated with Ovarian Teratoma". Ann. Neurol. ... anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and polymyositis. The following diseases manifest by means of mucocutaneous dysfunction: ...
... is known to contain immune cells (as lymphocytes)[13][14] and many antibodies such as IgA, IgG, and IgM. These are ... Staley, T. E.; Bush, L. J. (1985). "Receptor mechanisms of the neonatal intestine and their relationship to immunoglobulin ... A German study reported that multiparous mares produced on average a liter (quart) of colostrum containing 70 grams of IgG.[42] ... August 2002). "IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training". J Appl Physiol. 93 (2): 732- ...
These ligands include B cell receptor (for antigen), IgG Fc receptors, CD21, which binds complement C3d, Toll-like receptors 9 ... A receptor, Peanut agglutinin receptor(PNAR)). This fact gave rise to the idea that spontaneous autoimmunity may result when ... Aberrant B cell receptor-mediated feedback - A feature of human autoimmune disease is that it is largely restricted to a small ... In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ...
ಇದು IgGಮಟ್ಟದ ಪ್ರಗತಿಯನ್ನು ಆಂಟಿಬಾಡಿಯನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಬ್ಲಾಕೇಜ್ ನ್ನು ತಡೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.IgG ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಯು ಅಟೊಪ್ಸಿಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ... Degranulation process in allergy.1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, ...
Health care providers. Given the ubiquitous use of latex products in health care settings, management of latex allergy presents significant health organizational problems. Those healthcare workers-such as physicians, nurses, aides, dentists, dental hygienists, operating room employees, occupational therapists, laboratory technicians, and hospital housekeeping personnel-who frequently use latex gloves and other latex-containing medical supplies are at risk for developing latex allergy.[25] Between about 4% to 17% of healthcare workers have a reaction, which usually presents as Irritant Contact Dermatitis. This contact dermatitis can develop further through allergic sensitivity to a status of full anaphylactic shock. Apart from the uncomfortable and in some cases life-threatening health implications, this will effectively hinder the person from working with any amount of latex and could impede their chance of maintaining their vocation.[26] In the surgical setting, the risk of a potentially ...
... such as the leptin receptor and the MC-4 receptor) or are still awaiting characterization - Prader-Willi syndrome - in addition ... decreased response to satiety may promote development of obesity.[18] It has been found that ghrelin-reactive IgG ... Opioid receptor-related processes in the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum affect the palatability of foods.[10] ... These molecules include the DA, Ach, opioids and cannabinoids and their action receptors inside the brain, DA, muscarinic and ...
IgG antibodies against transglutaminase (IgG-tTG) may be diagnostic.[22][90] ... The reason these genes produce an increase in risk of coeliac disease is that the receptors formed by these genes bind to ... Therefore, these forms of the receptor are more likely to activate T lymphocytes and initiate the autoimmune process.[28] ... IgG class anti-DGP antibodies may be useful in people with IgA deficiency. In children younger than two years, anti-DGP ...
This may be caused by IgG binding, not IgE. Dietary histamine poisoningEdit. This is termed scombroid food poisoning. Ingestion ... H2-receptor antagonists are sometimes used in addition to H1-antagonists to treat urticaria, but there is limited evidence for ... Leukotriene-receptor antagonistsEdit. Leukotrienes are released from mast cells along with histamine. The medications, ... First generation antihistamines such as diphenhydramine or hydroxyzine block both central and peripheral H1 receptors and can ...
Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine ... a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma Riii (the Cd16 antigen, a low affinity receptor). ... Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma Ri (the Cd64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma Rii (the Cd32 antigen, ...
A quantitative in vitro assay was employed to directly assess the effect of corticosteroids on the IgG and complement receptor ... Solubilized corticosteroids at concentrations between 10(-4) and 10(-3) M inhibited both IgG and complement receptor activity ... Hydrocortisone also inhibited the binding of erythrocytes coated with both IgG and C3, despite the fact that when both were on ... Mineralocorticoids also inhibited receptor activity, but the sex hormones were less effective. These studies demonstrate an ...
Ligation of Fc γRs with immobilized IgG. We immobilized IgG on plastic plates to mimic the effect of complexed IgG (25). Pooled ... isoforms of IgG Fcγ receptor (FcγR) II (CD32). The balance between these divergent receptors establishes a threshold of DC ... Activating and inhibitory IgG Fc receptors on human DCs mediate opposing functions. Adam M. Boruchov,1,2,3,4,5 Glenn Heller,4,6 ... Ravetch, JV, Bolland, S. IgG Fc receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2001. 19:275-290. View this article via: PubMed Google Scholar ...
... Tomonari Kasai,1 Keisuke ... The cells were stained with anti-human IgG antibody labeled with FITC, anti-EEA1 antibody and anti-rabbit IgG antibody labeled ... Bars = 10 μm. (b) and (c) A172 cells were treated with CTX-Fc-BNCs, human IgG-BNCs, or M-CTX-Fc for 1 h at 4°C or 37°C. After ... A172 cells were treated with CTX-Fc-BNCs or human IgG-BNCs in the presence of 100 nM CPZ or 5 mM MβCD at 37°C for 1 h, followed ...
J:5896 Dickler HB, et al., B-lymphocyte Fc receptor-associated non-H-2 antigens are determined by a single polymorphic locus ...
IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51. IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51, FcRn (IgG Fc fragment receptor transporter alpha ... IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,M0QYN9,M0QYN9_HUMAN IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=FCGRT PE=1 SV=1 ... IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51. IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51 ...
Interleukin-1 alpha, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and IgG concentrations in cystic fibrosis treated with prednisolone.. ... soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and IgG was investigated in 24 children with cystic fibrosis. Prednisolone was ... In the treated group, change in pulmonary function was associated with decreased serum IgG and cytokine concentrations. ... the excessive synthesis of IgG, and airflow obstruction observed in cystic fibrosis patients. ...
The resultant FcRn-IgG complexes are transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium and IgG is released from FcRn into blood or ... Mechanistically, monomeric IgG binding to FcRn in acidic endosomes of endothelial and hematopoietic cells recycles IgG to the ... In addition of IgG, regulates homeostasis of the other most abundant circulating protein albumin/ALB (By similarity). ... IgG in the milk is bound at the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium. ...
... receptor for (CD32). Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIb, receptor (CD32). Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIb, receptor for ... IgG Fc receptor II-c. Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-c. fc-gamma RII-b. fc-gamma-RIIb. fcRII-b. igG Fc ... FCGR2B Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIb [Homo sapiens] FCGR2B Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIb [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:2213 ... Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIbprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:3618 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000072694 MIM:604590 ...
... Cell Res. 2014 ... How IgG-B-cell receptors (BCRs) and antigen-induced IgG-BCR signaling contribute to memory antibody responses are not fully ...
Immature Neutrophils Mediate Tumor Cell Killing via IgA but Not IgG Fc Receptors. Marielle A. Otten, Esther Rudolph, Michael ... 6. Biology of the High Affinity IgG Receptor: A Tale of a Tail: Thesis ISBN 90-9018813-4 99. Utrecht University, Faculty of ... Binding of IgG to such cells may act as an Ab "sink." In addition, binding of IgG to the inhibitory FcR, FcγRIIb, might lead to ... Clinical significance of IgG Fc receptors and FcγR-directed immunotherapies. Immunol. Today 18:127. ...
IgG Antibodies such as test interpretation, additional tests to consider, and other technical data. ... Supplementary test information for Anti-NMDA Receptor (NR1) ... Anti-NMDA IgG binds to NMDA receptors (usually NR1) *Decreases ... N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody, IgG, Serum with Reflex to Titer 2004221 ... N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody, IgG, CSF with Reflex to Titer 2005164 ...
Internalization of anti-Hu IgG is not Fc gamma receptor mediated. Adilia Hormigo, Curtis Ball, Frank Lieberman ... Anti-Hu IgG penetrates viable Hu-positive SCLC cells and localizes in the nucleus. [4] How this IgG internalizes into the cell ... internalization may be mediated by receptors that recognize the Fc portion of immunoglobulin molecules, the Fc gamma receptors ...
Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.. R Littaua, I Kurane and F A Ennis ... Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. ... Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. ... Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. ...
IgG" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, IgG" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Receptors, IgG" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, IgG" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Receptors, IgG". ...
Protein Synapse-Associated Protein 97 Is Required for Enhanced Signaling Through Isotype-Switched IgG Memory B Cell Receptors ... A scaffolding protein clusters B cell receptors to enable the rapid, high-titer antibody responses of memory B cells. ... A scaffolding protein clusters B cell receptors to enable the rapid, high-titer antibody responses of memory B cells. ... Protein Synapse-Associated Protein 97 Is Required for Enhanced Signaling Through Isotype-Switched IgG Memory B Cell Receptors ...
The use of specifically mutated IgG domains that bind to HCMV-FcRs without recognizing endogenous FcRs may supersede screening ... Keywords: CH2-CH3 domain; Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR); Cytomegalovirus; Fc receptors; Glycoprotein B (gB); IgG; Interferon ... Turning the Tables on Cytomegalovirus: Targeting Viral Fc Receptors by CARs Containing Mutated CH2-CH3 IgG Spacer Domains J ... The use of specifically mutated IgG domains that bind to HCMV-FcRs without recognizing endogenous FcRs may supersede screening ...
... that function as Fc receptors (FcRs) by binding to the Fc regions of human IgG. In addition to binding free IgG, these viral ... Distinct Intracellular Trafficking Patterns of Host IgG by Herpes Virus Fc-Receptors ... Distinct Intracellular Trafficking Patterns of Host IgG by Herpes Virus Fc-Receptors. In: 2014 ASCB: an International Forum for ... are transported together with IgG-antigen complexes to lysosomes for degradation. In both cases, anti-viral IgGs and their ...
The High-Affinity IgG Receptor, FcγRI, Plays a Central Role in Antibody Therapy of Experimental Melanoma. Lisette Bevaart, ... The High-Affinity IgG Receptor, FcγRI, Plays a Central Role in Antibody Therapy of Experimental Melanoma ... The High-Affinity IgG Receptor, FcγRI, Plays a Central Role in Antibody Therapy of Experimental Melanoma ... The High-Affinity IgG Receptor, FcγRI, Plays a Central Role in Antibody Therapy of Experimental Melanoma ...
The immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing B lymphocyte antigen receptor (IgG-BCR) transmits a signal distinct from that of IgM-BCR ... Enhanced signaling through IgG-BCR may be involved in efficient IgG production, which is crucial for immunity to pathogens. ... A Distinct Signaling Pathway Used by the IgG-Containing B Cell Antigen Receptor ... A Distinct Signaling Pathway Used by the IgG-Containing B Cell Antigen Receptor ...
Neuropeptide FF2 Receptor Rabbit IgG Antibody, Western blot, N terminus (MNEKWDTNSSENWHPI) and C terminus (ELVMEELKETTNSSEI) of ...
For instance, IgG but not IgM antibodies can penetrate tissues where they activate complement in situ and bind Fc receptors on ... B Cell Receptor-independent Stimuli Trigger Immunoglobulin (Ig) Class Switch Recombination and Production of IgG Autoantibodies ... B Cell Receptor-independent Stimuli Trigger Immunoglobulin (Ig) Class Switch Recombination and Production of IgG Autoantibodies ... The expression of B cell surface receptors. I. The ontogeny and distribution of the murine B cell IgE Fc receptor. J. Immunol. ...
Muscle acetylcholine receptors complexed with autologous IgG reflect seropositivity but not necessarily in vivo binding. Masato ... Muscle acetylcholine receptors complexed with autologous IgG reflect seropositivity but not necessarily in vivo binding ... Thus, the finding of IgG complexed to AChR extracted from biopsied muscle does not necessarily reflect in vivo binding but, ... membranous AChR became complexed with IgG. This was so even with a nonmyasthenogenic monoclonal antibody specific for the α- ...
Receptor, Transporter, alpha (FCGRT) Protein (Strep Tag,Biotin,His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: HEK-293 Cells. Jetzt Produkt ... Fc Fragment of IgG, Low Affinity IIb, Receptor (CD32) Proteine * Fc Fragment of IgG, Low Affinity IIa, Receptor (CD32) Proteine ... Fc Fragment of IgG, Low Affinity IIIb, Receptor (CD16b) Proteine * Fc Fragment of IgG, Low Affinity IIIa, Receptor (CD16a) ... Fc Fragment of IgG, High Affinity Ia, Receptor (CD64) Proteine * Fc Fragment of IgE, Low Affinity II, Receptor For (CD23) ...
... ... Bidirectional Transepithelial IgG Transport by a Strongly Polarized Basolateral Membrane Fc-Receptor*. ... The human MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor, hFcRn, mediates bidirectional transport of IgG across mucosal barriers. ... Ligand binding does not redistribute the steady state location of the receptor. Removal of the cytoplasmic tail that contains ...
Elucidation of the cellular transport system of immune-complex via the IgG-Fc receptor and its immune regulation mechanism. ... Journal Article] Neonatal Fc receptor for IgG(FcRn) expressed in the gastric epithelium regulates bacterial infection in mice ... Journal Article] Neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) expressed in the gastric epithelium regulates bacterial infection in mice ... FcRn / IgG / 胞内輸送システム / 免疫 / 病原微生物 / 細胞内輸送システム / IgG-Fc受
Statistical analyses of the IgG subclass levels were done by unpaired t-test and ANOVA, and genotype differences were tested by ... Plasma from individuals from Mali (164 Fulani and 164 Dogon) were analysed for malaria-reactive and total IgG subclass ... Furthermore, the results indicate that the FcγRIIa R131H genotype may influence the IgG subclass responses related to ... The Ig Fc receptor family is an important link between the humoral and cellular immune systems. The association of a dimorphism ...
CD16 is a low affinity receptor for IgG which functions in phagocytosis and ADCC The 2 2 subunit of class Ia ribonucleotide ... CD16 is a low affinity receptor for IgG which functions in phagocytosis and ADCC, as well as in signal transduction and NK cell ... CD16 is a low affinity receptor for IgG which functions in phagocytosis and ADCC, as well as in signal transduction and NK cell ... CD16 is a low affinity receptor for IgG which functions in phagocytosis and ADCC, as well as in signal transduction and NK cell ...
... ... Avian IgY Binds to a Monocyte Receptor with IgG-like Kinetics Despite an IgE-like Structure*. ... but is within the range of mammalian IgG-high affinity receptor interactions (human: Ka ~ 108-109 M-1 mouse: Ka ~ 107-108 M-1. ... The kinetics of IgY binding to its receptor on a chicken monocyte cell line, MQ-NCSU, were measured, the first time that the ...
If AQP4 antibody IgG by ELISA is positive, then AQP4 antibody IgG by IFA will be added. If AQP4 antibody IgG by IFA is positive ... Aquaporin-4 Receptor Antibody, IgG by IFA with Reflex to Titer, Serum. Less than 1:10. ... Aquaporin-4 Receptor Antibody. 61430-5. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is ... While absence of antibodies to the AQP4 receptor does not rule out the diagnosis of NMO, presence of this antibody is ...
  • How IgG-B-cell receptors (BCRs) and antigen-induced IgG-BCR signaling contribute to memory antibody responses are not fully understood. (nih.gov)
  • Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is known that anti-dengue virus antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of IgG FcR (Fc gamma R)-positive cells, and this phenomenon is called antibody-dependent enhancement. (jimmunol.org)
  • We thus pursue an HLA-independent approach for immunotherapy of HCMV using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and bispecific BiTE ® antibody constructs. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to binding free IgG, these viral FcRs can bind to IgG complexed with an antigen to form an antibody bipolar bridged (ABB) complex. (caltech.edu)
  • In this study, we address the role of IgG receptors (FcγR) in antibody-induced antitumor activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLR) can effectively boost antibody-induced effects ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • When activated in vitro with B cell receptor (BCR)-independent stimuli such as anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody plus interleukin 4 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), anergic SW HEL double Tg B cells proliferated and produced IgG anti-HEL antibodies as efficiently as naive HEL-binding B cells from SW HEL Ig Tg mice. (rupress.org)
  • The kinetics of IgY binding to its receptor on a chicken monocyte cell line, MQ-NCSU, were measured, the first time that the binding of a non-mammalian antibody to a non-mammalian cell has been investigated (k+1 = 1.14 ± 0.46 x 105 mol-1sec-1, k-1 = 2.30 ± 0.14 x 10-3 s-1, and Ka = 4.95 x 107 M-1). (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • While absence of antibodies to the AQP4 receptor does not rule out the diagnosis of NMO, presence of this antibody is diagnostic for NMO. (aruplab.com)
  • If AQP4 antibody IgG by ELISA is positive, then AQP4 antibody IgG by IFA will be added. (aruplab.com)
  • FcγRIIIa is a low-affinity receptor for IgG Fc and is involved in removing antigen-antibody complexes from the circulation and antibody-dependent responses. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Monoclonal Anti_Human GCSF receptor protein IgG, aff pure antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Monoclonal Anti_Human GCSF receptor protein IgG, aff pure. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 Fc receptor protects infected cells from antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, also known as NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis, causes acute brain inflammation that is potentially lethal but has a high probability for recovery with treatment. (thumbaylabs.com)
  • These Cited by: IgG antibodies can act as opsonins, which in the context of this study, bind to general Aβ or pGlu-3 Aβ, to tag them for phagocytosis through recognition of the Fc portion of the antibody by the. (howtogetridofbadbreath.club)
  • Fig1: Western blot analysis on mouse spinal cord (A) and mouse brain (B) using anti- Relaxin 3 receptor 1 polyclonal antibody. (bonopusbio.com)
  • You need info about Human Anti-alpha 1 adrenergic receptor IgG antibody (ADRA1-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit or any other Gentaur produtct? (gentaurshop.com)
  • The three IgG preparations exhibited similar hemagglutinating antibody titers (1/100). (uliege.be)
  • All experiments were conducted using a coating range of 5000 to 6000 IgG antibody molecules per SRBC. (uliege.be)
  • A positive result (1:10 or greater) for phospholipase A2 receptor antibody, IgG, in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical findings, supports a diagnosis of primary membranous glomerulonephritis (pMGN). (aruplab.com)
  • If Phospholipase A2 Receptor Antibody, IgG is positive, then a Phospholipase Receptor A2 Antibody, IgG titer is reported. (aruplab.com)
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method comprises administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody-neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent conjugate wherein the antibody is reactive with a transferrin receptor. (google.com)
  • Other aspects of this invention include a delivery system comprising an antibody reactive with a transferrin receptor linked to a neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent and methods for treating hosts afflicted with a disease associated with a neurological disorder. (google.com)
  • 1. A method for delivering a therapeutically effective amount of nerve growth factor across the blood brain barrier of a mammal comprising administering antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier of the mammal in a pharmaceutically active form and in a therapeutically effective amount. (google.com)
  • 2. A method of claim 1 wherein the antibody portion of said conjugate comprises a monoclonal antibody which binds to transferrin receptor on brain capillary endothelial cells. (google.com)
  • 8. A method for treating a neurological disorder in a mammal comprising administering of a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier in a pharmaceutically active form which thereby alleviates the neurological disorder. (google.com)
  • 11. A method for supporting the growth of cholinerigc neurons in the brain of a mammal comprising administering of an effective amount of an antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier in a physiologically active form which thereby supports the growth of cholinergic neurons. (google.com)
  • 14. An antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate wherein said conjugate is bindable to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells. (google.com)
  • An additional analysis compared serum antibody levels (anti-spike immunoglobulin G [IgG] and anti-receptor binding domain [RBD] IgG) to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, among 100 healthy volunteers enrolled at three hospitals 2-6 weeks after full vaccination with the Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech, or Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Rabbit Anti-ESTROGEN RECEPTOR Polyclonal antibody, Unconjugated, Cl. (scrazzl.com)
  • Wright, Debbie E., Colaco, Susanna, Colaco, Camilo and Stevenson, Philip G. (2009) Antibody limits in vivo murid herpesvirus-4 replication by IgG Fc receptor-dependent functions. (edu.au)
  • Therefore, passive antibody can blunt acute gamma-herpesvirus lytic infection, and does this principally by IgG Fc-dependent functions rather than by neutralization. (edu.au)
  • Whether you're assessing FcRn-Antibody or FcγR-IgG binding interactions, you need a high throughput, versatile, and easy to use solution. (sartorius.com)
  • Glutamate Receptor 6 Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Glutamate Receptor 6 in Human, Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • This product is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes human gastrin receptor protein. (clontech.com)
  • The antibody was raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide, and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human gastrin receptor protein. (clontech.com)
  • The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably, though the term 'antibody' is sometimes reserved for the secreted, soluble form, i.e. excluding B-cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a low affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin gamma complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Alternatively, internalization may be mediated by receptors that recognize the Fc portion of immunoglobulin molecules, the Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma Rs). (neurology.org)
  • The immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing B lymphocyte antigen receptor (IgG-BCR) transmits a signal distinct from that of IgM-BCR or IgD-BCR, although all three use the same signal-transducing component, Igα/Igβ. (sciencemag.org)
  • The diagnosis of acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) in apparently seronegative individuals is aided by finding immunoglobulin complexed to acetylcholine receptors (AChR) and a reduction in the number of binding sites for a-bungarotoxin (α-BTx) in nerve-muscle biopsies. (neurology.org)
  • Journal Article] The inhibitory effects of intravenous administration of rabbit immunoglobulin G on airway inflammation are dependent upon Fcgamma receptor IIb on CD11c dendritic cells in a murine model. (nii.ac.jp)
  • IgE has an extra pair of immunoglobulin domains when compared with IgG. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • FcγRI is the sole high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptor on leukocytes. (uu.nl)
  • Cross-linking of IgG receptors inhibits membrane immunoglobulin-stimulated calcium influx in B lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Immunoglobulin like domain containing proteins: Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIIa. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes two Fc receptors which have different binding characteristics for monomeric immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG complexes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Fc receptors (FcRs) are molecules expressed on the surface of a variety of cells that recognize and bind the Fc region of certain immunoglobulin (Ig) classes and subclasses. (howtogetridofbadbreath.club)
  • Although their contribution has long been underexposed, it has recently become clear that human Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), which are receptors for the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, play a critical role in this process by controlling tissue- and pathogen-specific cytokine production. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the last 10 years, it has become apparent that also the family of Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), which are receptors for the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) ( 2 ), plays a major role in orchestrating cytokine production. (frontiersin.org)
  • This gene encodes one member of a family of immunoglobulin Fc receptor genes found on the surface of many immune response cells. (abbexa.com)
  • IgG Fc receptor polymorphisms in human disease: implications for intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • FcgammaRIIalpha is a low affinity receptor that has 2 codominantly expressed alleles, R131 and H131, which differ in their ability to bind immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses. (cdc.gov)
  • Neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) binds to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) drinking water channels within the central nervous program resulting in immune-mediated damage. (researchreportone.com)
  • Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies against the brain protein, NMDA. (arupconsult.com)
  • When normal muscle was briefly exposed to antibodies (≥0.3 nmol/1) in the initial step of tissue homogenization (before detergent extraction), membranous AChR became complexed with IgG. (neurology.org)
  • Approximately 75 percent of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) express antibodies to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) receptor. (aruplab.com)
  • Primary Antibodies-Anti-Mouse Adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) aff pure IgG # 2-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (4adi.com)
  • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are present in many patients, vary in level over time, and induce neutrophil activation through engagement with Fc receptors (FcRs). (elsevier.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Monoclonal Anti_Human GCSF receptor protein IgG, aff pure. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Plasma from individuals from Mali (164 Fulani and 164 Dogon) were analysed for malaria-reactive and total IgG subclass antibodies using ELISA, and the same individuals were also genotyped for the FcγRIIa R131H polymorphism using RFLP-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other study populations, IgG2 antibodies to certain P. falciparum antigens, have been shown to be related to protection [ 3 , 4 ], indicating that the role of the different IgG subclasses in malaria protection still needs to be clarified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 S1RBD IgG ELISA kit is a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and qualitative measurement of IgG class antibodies against the spike protein S1 receptor-binding domain (S1RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 virus (causing Covid-19) in human blood. (biosensis.com)
  • Recombinant spike protein S1 receptor-binding domain (S1RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 pre-coated onto the polystyrene microwell strips can specifically recognize anti-S1RBD antibodies in human serum or plasma specimens. (biosensis.com)
  • Afterwards, a detection solution containing HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG is added for another 1 hour incubation, wherein HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG binds to the IgG class antibodies previously bound to S1RBD protein on the plate. (biosensis.com)
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma , and a membrane -bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been exemplified for a new class of engineered antibodies, termed Abdegs (enhancing IgG degradation), with short serum half-life that furthermore accelerates the clearance of circulating MMP26 IgGs due to saturation of binding to FcRn that blocks further IgG binding (27, 28). (bibf1120.com)
  • The present invention is concerned with a series of novel monoclonal antibodies directed against CD22, a B lineage-restricted member of the Ig-superfamily which serves as an adhesion receptor expressed by mature B lymphocytes and is believed to function in the regulation of B cell activation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Antibodies and biotin-conjugated anti-goat IgG antibodies (Vector, LED 209 site Burlingame, CA)] and AlexaFluor488-conjugated streptavidin (Invitrogen). (pgd2-receptor.com)
  • The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an opportunistic human path.Antibodies and biotin-conjugated anti-goat IgG antibodies (Vector, Burlingame, CA)] and AlexaFluor488-conjugated streptavidin (Invitrogen). (pgd2-receptor.com)
  • IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) were measured by the single radial immunodiffusion technique using monoclonal antibodies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Background: Functional antibodies (ab) against G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) were found in various diseases and partially in healthy individuals. (infinite-science.de)
  • Initially, antibodies are attached to the surface of a B cell - they are then referred to as B-cell receptors (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • This variant terminology fell out of use due to the correspondence being inexact and due to confusion with γ heavy chains which characterize the IgG class of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanistically, monomeric IgG binding to FcRn in acidic endosomes of endothelial and hematopoietic cells recycles IgG to the cell surface where it is released into the circulation. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, I examined how FcγR and FcRn expressing on antigen presenting cells existing in the mucous membrane were concerned with the antigen presenting functions from the uptake of the antigen-IgG complex. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As a result, the antigen-IgG complex was taken through FcγR in cell surface, and then was disintegrated in endosome, followed by being combined with FcRn. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition to the classical Fcγ receptors that bind IgG at the cell surface, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a lifelong resident of the endolysosomal system of most hematopoietic cells where it determines the intracellular fate of both IgG and IgG-containing immune complexes (IgG IC). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cross-linking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells initiates specific mechanisms that result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG-mediated antigen delivery system through which it operates. (frontiersin.org)
  • FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to determine homeostatic immune activation at a variety of sites but also to induce inflammatory responses upon exposure to antigens perceived as foreign. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therapeutically targeting the pathway by which FcRn enables T cell activation in response to IgG IC is thus a highly attractive prospect not only for the treatment of diseases that are driven by immune complexes but also for manipulating local immune responses against defined antigens such as those present during infections and cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recognition of IgG by Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) represents an important strategy that enables the delivery of unique antigenic determinants in the form of an IgG immune complex (IgG IC) via binding of the conserved Fc receptor (FcRn) domains on IgG to their receptor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Targeting the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) presents an innovative and potentially more effective, safer, and more convenient alternative for clearing pathogenic IgGs. (jci.org)
  • Antagonizing FcRn using efgartigimod is safe and results in a specific, profound, and sustained reduction of serum IgG levels. (jci.org)
  • Serum half-life of IgG is controlled from the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) that interacts with the IgG Fc region and may be increased or decreased as a function of altered FcRn binding. (bibf1120.com)
  • Consequently, interaction analysis of engineered IgGs regarding their cross-species FcRn binding ability provides information for prediction of pharmacokinetics. (bibf1120.com)
  • Therefore, the global presence of FcRn includes a great effect on biodistribution of IgG molecules through the entire physical body. (bibf1120.com)
  • The fundamental need for FcRn in IgG homeostasis continues to be proven using an manufactured mouse strain where Entinostat FcRn could be conditionally erased in both endothelial and hematopoietic cells. (bibf1120.com)
  • Insufficient FcRn manifestation in these cells led to a 4-fold lower serum degree of IgG than that which was found in crazy type (WT) mice, whereas the half-life of the exogenous injected human being IgG1 (hIgG1) reduced by 21-fold (13). (bibf1120.com)
  • The mobile mechanism where IgGs are rescued continues to be exposed using advanced microscopy systems (15, 16), where IgG, adopted by liquid stage endocytosis continuously, is sent to early endosomes, where FcRn resides predominantly. (bibf1120.com)
  • The acidified endosomal environment mementos pH-dependent binding from the Entinostat Fc section of IgG to FcRn. (bibf1120.com)
  • Therefore, IgG Fc including substances are rescued from lysosomal degradation via a competent FcRn-mediated recycling pathway. (bibf1120.com)
  • Although HCMV gp68 and HSV-1 gE-gI have an overlapping binding site on Fc, the finding that the gp68/Fc interaction is stable at pH values between 5.6 and 8.1 but that gE-gI binds only at neutral or basic pH suggests distinct pH-based downstream events after IgG is internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis into intracellular compartments. (caltech.edu)
  • Fc fragment of IgG, receptor, transporter, alpha (FCGRT) binds to the Fc region of monomeric immunoglobulins gamma and mediates the uptake of IgG from milk. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Mouse Ltk- cells transfected with the human Fc gamma R cDNA express a cell-surface receptor that selectively binds human IgG and is recognized by the anti-Fc gamma RII mAb IV.3. (ox.ac.uk)
  • FcγRI is a high-affinity receptor that binds monomeric IgG, FcγRII and -RIII are low-affinity receptors, only binding complexed or aggregated IgG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The abundance specifically of the IgG subclass and the variety of signaling receptors to which it binds render this an important immunomodulatory molecule. (frontiersin.org)
  • IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic antigen , for example house dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds to Fc receptor ε. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its role in cell cycle control, cyclin D1 also binds to and activates the estrogen receptor ( 11 ) but binds to and inhibits the activity of the AR ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Gastrin binds to a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the CCKBR gene that also binds cholecystokinin (CCK), a brain regulatory peptide. (clontech.com)
  • Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor). (umassmed.edu)
  • Of the human IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD classes, only IgG reacted with the receptor, and all four of the IgG subclasses were reactive. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although various FcγR functions are conserved between species, both IgG subclasses and FcγRs differ in a number of aspects between mouse and man ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We investigated the contribution of IgG receptors, IgG subclasses, and cells in K/BxN arthritis. (pasteur.fr)
  • Transfer of IgG subclasses across placenta in term and preterm newborns. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In order to study placental transfer of IgG subclasses, paired blood samples were collected from mothers and umbilical cord of preterm (N = 69) and full-term (N = 68) newborns. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All approved therapeutic mAb are of the IgG isotype, which can interact with IgG FcR (FcγR) ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Instead, production of IgG autoantibodies is prevented by separate controls that reduce the likelihood of anergic B cells encountering BCR-independent stimuli. (rupress.org)
  • However, when activated undesirably, the same mechanism of FcγR-mediated cytokine induction is responsible for excessive inflammation as observed in autoimmune diseases that are associated with IgG autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (frontiersin.org)
  • Intravenous Ig (IVIg), plasma exchange, and immunoadsorption are frequently used in the management of severe autoimmune diseases mediated by pathogenic IgG autoantibodies. (jci.org)
  • K/BxN serum-induced passive arthritis was reported to depend on the activation of mast cells, triggered by the activating IgG receptor FcγRIIIA, when engaged by IgG1 autoantibodies present in K/BxN serum. (pasteur.fr)
  • Each one of these studies nevertheless was hampered IGFBP2 through polyclonal serum NMO-IgG which has multiple AQP4 autoantibodies with an array of affinities aimed against many specific epitopes a few of which might be nonpathogenic species aimed against denatured AQP4 proteins or proteins fragments. (researchreportone.com)
  • The effect of a 12 week course of oral prednisolone on spirometry and serum concentrations of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and IgG was investigated in 24 children with cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • In the treated group, change in pulmonary function was associated with decreased serum IgG and cytokine concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Prednisolone suppresses serum concentrations of these cytokines, which may participate in the inflammatory response, the excessive synthesis of IgG, and airflow obstruction observed in cystic fibrosis patients. (nih.gov)
  • Its role in immunity and the clearance of opsonized particles has been challenged, as the receptor function may well be hindered by serum IgG. (uu.nl)
  • Protein G magnetic beads were used to deplete serum of IgGs. (docphin.com)
  • Efgartigimod treatment resulted in a rapid and specific clearance of serum IgG levels in both cynomolgus monkeys and healthy volunteers. (jci.org)
  • The long and relatively constant serum half-life of intact IgG (22 days) and recombinant Fc-conjugated drugs is regulated by the major histocompatibility class I-related FcRn6 (4C6). (bibf1120.com)
  • The medical testing of every patient's serum for NMO-IgG was performed in the Mayo Center Laboratories Rochester MN utilizing their standardized industrial clinical assay. (researchreportone.com)
  • It is caused by an immune system attack, primarily targeting the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (N-methyl D-aspartate receptor). (thumbaylabs.com)
  • Both the tyrosine kinase Fyn and the tyrosine phosphatase striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) are known to target the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B on tyrosine 1472, which is a critical residue that mediates NMDAR endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • During a peritonitis episode the MFI of all receptors in blood increased only on monocytes, with the exception of CD32. (mysciencework.com)
  • In humans, there are three families of Fc-receptors binding IgG, FcγRI (CD64), -RII (CD32) and -RIII (CD16). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor, hFcRn, mediates bidirectional transport of IgG across mucosal barriers. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. (hindawi.com)
  • whereas binding of monomeric IgG only modestly increased. (uu.nl)
  • This study contributes to our understanding of how FcγRI can participate in the clearance of opsonized particles despite saturation by monomeric IgG. (uu.nl)
  • Mapping regions of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein I required for formation of the viral Fc receptor for monomeric IgG. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To confer BNCs a high affinity for the IgG-Fc domain, the pre-S1 region of L protein was replaced with the ZZ motif in protein A derived from Staphylococcus aureus [ 19 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition of IgG, regulates homeostasis of the other most abundant circulating protein albumin/ALB (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Panchanathan R, Shen H, Duan X, Rathinam VA, Erickson LD, Fitzgerald KA, Choubey D. Aim2 deficiency in mice suppresses the expression of the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaRIIB) through the induction of the IFN-inducible p202, a lupus susceptibility protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • Monoclonal Anti_Human GCSF receptor protein IgG, aff pure Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The deduced structure is a 35-kD transmembrane protein with homology to the mouse Fc[gamma 2b/gamma 1] receptor amino acid sequence of approximately 60% in the extracellular domain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Nine different IgG fusion proteins and one non-fusion protein, all containing sequences from the extracellular domain of either of two human TNF receptors, were compared for their ability to bind and inhibit human TNF-alpha or TNF-beta. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Partial recombinant protein of human Ephrin type-B receptor 2 (aa 226 to 325) with a GST tag. (biosensis.com)
  • Relaxin-3 receptor 1 belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family, It's binding of the ligand inhibit cAMP accumulation. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Based on crystal structure of AdipoR1, we designed AdipoR1's peptide agonists using protein-peptide docking simulation and screened their receptor binding abilities and biological functions via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and biological analysis. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cell surface receptor found on phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils, and is involved in the process of phagocytosis and clearing of immune complexes. (abbexa.com)
  • Recombinant fusion protein containing a sequence corresponding to amino acids 30-300 of human Glutamate Receptor 6 (NP_068775.1). (fishersci.com)
  • Treatment of individual FcγR knock-out mice revealed the high-affinity IgG receptor, FcγRI (CD64), to represent the central FcγR for TA99-induced antitumor effects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is a lower affinity than that recorded for mammalian IgE-high affinity receptor interactions (Ka ~ 1010 M-1) but is within the range of mammalian IgG-high affinity receptor interactions (human: Ka ~ 108-109 M-1 mouse: Ka ~ 107-108 M-1. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • Their presence reduces the dissociation rate of IgE from its receptor 20-fold, thus contributing to the high affinity of IgE. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • FcγRI is a high affinity receptor, having three Ig-like extracellular : Carlos Rosales, Eileen Uribe-Querol. (howtogetridofbadbreath.club)
  • In this context, HCMV-encoded proteins that mediate viral immune evasion and bind human IgG might represent particularly attractive target antigens. (nih.gov)
  • The extracellular domain shows significant homology to proteins of the Ig gene superfamily, including the human c-fms protooncogene/CSF-1 receptor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Functional comparisons of different tumour necrosis factor receptor/IgG fusion proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The fusion proteins differed with respect to TNF receptor type (p55 or p75 TNF receptor), receptor valency (one, two or four receptor domains per molecule), the presence or absence of a CH1 domain in the IgG constant region, and the proportion of the extracellular domain included in the construct. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The presence or absence of an IgG CH1 domain made no difference in the ability of fusion proteins to neutralize TNF-alpha or TNF-beta. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, this study has identified structural modifications to TNF receptor/IgG fusion proteins which have differing effects on their neutralizing ability towards TNF-alpha or TNF-beta. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Upon ligand binding, the relaxin receptors activate adenylate cyclases through Gs proteins. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Also, SPR and virtual screening techniques utilized in this study may potentially be applied to other peptide-drug screening processes against membrane receptor proteins. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • Whereas all NMO rAbs needed conserved loop C (137TP138 and Val150) and loop E (230HW231) proteins for binding two SR9243 wide patterns of NMO-IgG reputation could be recognized predicated on differential level of sensitivity to loop A amino acidity changes. (researchreportone.com)
  • The era of human being NMO rAbs offers allowed the very first high res mapping of extracellular loop proteins crucial for NMO-IgG binding and determined parts of AQP4 extracellular framework that could represent prime focuses on for medication therapy. (researchreportone.com)
  • In this study, for targeting glioma, we designed two types of recombinant chlorotoxin fused to human IgG-Fcs with/without a hinge region. (hindawi.com)
  • Importantly, we further show that mutations in the CH2-CH3 domain of IgG1 and IgG4, which were previously reported to rescue CAR T cell function by abrogating interaction with endogenous Fc receptors (FcRs), still enable recognition of FcRs encoded by HCMV. (nih.gov)
  • The use of specifically mutated IgG domains that bind to HCMV-FcRs without recognizing endogenous FcRs may supersede screening for novel binders directed against individual HCMV-FcRs. (nih.gov)
  • HSV-1 gE-gI) that function as Fc receptors (FcRs) by binding to the Fc regions of human IgG. (caltech.edu)
  • We found that alpha (HSV-1) and beta (HCMV) herpes virus FcRs displayed distinct intracellular trafficking patterns to target internalized ligands: HSV-1 gE-gI dissociates from its IgG-antigen ligand in acidic endosomal compartments and recycles back to the cell surface, whereas HCMV FcRs (gp68) are transported together with IgG-antigen complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (caltech.edu)
  • When the immunoglobulins were tested against herpes simplex virus type 1-induced FcR, both similarities and differences in immunoreactivity were seen relative to the HCMV FcR, which makes it unlikely that the binding sites for these two herpesvirus FcRs on the IgG molecule are identical. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hematopoietic cell FcRs specific for IgG (FcγR), IgA (FcαR) or IgE (FcϵR) have been well characterized and their genes have been cloned (Figure 1).Some data suggest the existence of FcRs for IgM and IgD. (howtogetridofbadbreath.club)
  • Polymorphisms of human Fc receptors (FcRs) have been described that are associated with the development or progression of autoimmune diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • MBS937383 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Fc fragment of IgG, receptor, transporter, alpha (FCGRT) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Fcgamma receptors: old friends and new family members. (nature.com)
  • Fcgamma receptors as regulators of immune responses. (nature.com)
  • Tutuncu Z, Kavanaugh A, Zvaifler N, Corr M, Deutsch R, Boyle D . Fcgamma receptor type IIIA polymorphisms influence treatment outcomes in patients with inflammatory arthritis treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha-blocking agents. (nature.com)
  • Fcgamma receptor type IIIA genotype and response to tumor necrosis factor alpha-blocking agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (nature.com)
  • The human low affinity Fcgamma receptors IIa, IIb, and III bind IgG with fast kinetics and distinct thermodynamic properties. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaRs) are expressed on all immunologically active cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The inhibitory effect at all concentrations of hydrocortisone was partially overcome by increasing the number of IgG molecules per erythrocyte. (jci.org)
  • In addition, binding of IgG to the inhibitory FcR, FcγRIIb, might lead to down-regulation of immune responses ( 3 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • FcγRI, FcγRIII, and FcγRIV are activatory receptors, whereas FcγRII can mediate inhibitory effects ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that the inhibitory coreceptor CD22 down-modulates signaling through IgM-BCR and IgD-BCR, but not that through IgG-BCR, because of the IgG cytoplasmic tail, which prevents CD22 phosphorylation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Her areas of research include the identification of new genetic modifiers of systemic autoimmune disease, dose effect of Toll-like receptor genes and its role in autoimmune pathologies, and inhibitory signaling pathways mediated by the IgG Fc receptor (Fc gamma RIIB) and the phosphoinositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected cells express a virus-encoded receptor that is able to bind the Fc part of IgG. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Specificity for antigen detection, uptake, and/or processing is conferred by cellular receptors that may bind to a unique ligand, such as insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGFR1), or to a conserved motif present on many ligands, such as the mannose receptor (MR) DC-SIGN. (frontiersin.org)
  • Steroid hormones bind to intracellular receptors, and these receptors can bind to DNA and regulate gene expression directly. (scrazzl.com)
  • The present study indicates that, in human prostate cancer cells, CDK6 can also bind to the androgen receptor (AR) and stimulate its transcriptional activity in the presence of dihydrotestosterone. (pnas.org)
  • They bind the Fc portion of IgG, thereby triggering a range of immunological functions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • All three receptors bind Fc or IgG with similarly low affinities (K(D) approximately 0.6-2.5 microm) and fast kinetics, suggesting that FcgammaR-mediated recognition of aggregated IgG and IgG-coated particles or cells is mechanistically similar to cell-cell recognition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abortive human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of normal hamster cells is accompanied by formation of cytoplasmic and surface receptors for the Fc portion of nonimmune IgG molecules. (utmb.edu)
  • A quantitative in vitro assay was employed to directly assess the effect of corticosteroids on the IgG and complement receptor function of human mononuclear phagocytic cells. (jci.org)
  • Hydrocortisone also inhibited the binding of erythrocytes coated with both IgG and C3, despite the fact that when both were on the erythrocyte surface a synergistic effect on binding to mononuclear cells was observed. (jci.org)
  • This study indicates that chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs could be useful for the active targeting of glioblastoma cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, most Ab-based therapies focus on IgG Ab, which interact with IgG FcR (FcγR) on effector cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Binding of IgG to such cells may act as an Ab "sink. (jimmunol.org)
  • Anti-Hu IgG penetrates viable Hu-positive SCLC cells and localizes in the nucleus. (neurology.org)
  • In our study we therefore wanted to test two hypotheses: (1) CAR T cells can efficiently inhibit HCMV replication independently from cytotoxic effector functions, and (2) HCMV can be targeted by CH2-CH3 IgG spacer domains that contain mutations previously reported to prevent exhaustion and to rescue CAR T cell function in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • These include clonal deletion ( 1 , 2 ), receptor editing ( 3 , 4 ), and anergy ( 5 ) depending on the valency of the self-antigen and the site of its encounter with differentiating B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, the transport of IgG and the antigen-IgG complex, and FcγR expressing on antigen presenting cells existing in the mucous membrane may be associated with responsive mechanisms and mucous membrane immunoresponse of the host against the pathogenic microbes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mouse monoclonal to CD16.COC16 reacts with human CD16, a 50-65 kDa Fcg receptor IIIa (FcgRIII), expressed on NK cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. (acmbcb.org)
  • Thus, we have investigated at the level of single cells if these receptors could act on specific phases of mIg Ca2+ signaling. (rupress.org)
  • For example, Affimed have developed AFM13 , a tetravalent bispecific Fv peptide construct that simultaneously engages FcγRIIIa and CD30 on CD30-expressing malignant cells such as Hodgkin lymphoma cells, and AFM24 another tetravalent bispecific construct that targets epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FcγRIIIa to engage NK cells to destroy otherwise hard to treat EGFR-driven cancers. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • IgG receptors (FcgammaRs) and complement receptors (CRs) on white blood cells (WBCs) are important for the phagocytic process. (mysciencework.com)
  • Blood and peritoneal cells are capable of up-regulating the receptor expression during peritonitis but probably not to a maximum level. (mysciencework.com)
  • find that memory B cells can be short-lived when generated from precursors that experience unusually strong early signals through their un-mutated antigen receptors. (umn.edu)
  • en] The percentage of human monocytes (MCs) that are able to form rosettes with, and to phagocytose, IgG-coated sheep red blood cells (IgG-SRBCs) has been first determined in vitro by a classical rosette assay in 12 postmenopausal (PM) women. (uliege.be)
  • Innate immune cells produce cytokines upon detection of pathogens or endogenous danger signals via activation of different families of receptors, which collectively are referred to as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Anti-IL-8:IL-8 complexes purified from lung edema fluids trigger chemotaxis of neutrophils, induce activation of these cells, and regulate their apoptosis, all via IgG receptor, FcγRIIa. (unthsc.edu)
  • Our current findings implicate that anti-chemokine autoantibody:chemokine immune complexes, such as IL-8:IL-8 complexes, may contribute to pathogenesis of lung inflammation by inducing activation of endothelial cells through engagement of IgG receptors. (unthsc.edu)
  • This receptor is localized in a wide range of cell cells and types, including essential organs like the kidneys (7) as well as the liver organ (8, 9) aswell as circulating immune system cells (10C12) and vascular endothelial cells coating the blood flow (13, 14). (bibf1120.com)
  • CD22-mediated stimulation of T cells regulates T-cell receptor/CD3-induced signaling," Immunology 89: 10242-10246 (1992). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • IgG-Fc-binding receptors in cells abortively infected, or transformed, by human cytomegalovirus. (utmb.edu)
  • The surface receptors are detectable only transiently, in a small proportion of the cells. (utmb.edu)
  • The receptors are also present in cells transformed by HCMV in vitro (87-TRH-5 and CX-90-3B cell lines) as well as in cells of lines TSC-1 and TSC-2 from tumours induced by these cells. (utmb.edu)
  • This view is challenged by the fact that FcγRIIIA-deficient mice still develop K/BxN arthritis and because FcγRIIIA is the only activating IgG receptor expressed by mast cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • K/BxN arthritis occurred not only in mast cell-deficient W(sh) mice, but also in mice whose mast cells express no activating IgG receptors. (pasteur.fr)
  • We propose that at least two autoantibody isotypes, IgG1 and IgG2, and two activating IgG receptors, FcγRIIIA and FcγRIV, contribute to K/BxN arthritis, which requires at least two cell types other than mast cells, monocytes/macrophages, and neutrophils. (pasteur.fr)
  • Macrophages are called upon to ingest both IgG-coated targets and apoptotic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 Receptors for the constant region of IgG, the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), enable these cells to detect and destroy IgG-coated microorganisms during infection and IgG-coated blood cells in autoimmune disorders. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2 , 3 A variety of surface receptors have been implicated in recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, 1 with the specific receptors used depending both on the apoptotic cell target and on the activation state of the phagocyte. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Scatchard analysis of IgG binding to FcR on K562 cells after incubation [sic] with the active fraction shows an increase in the binding affinity (Ka) and a decrease in the total amount of IgG binding (Ro) . (musc.edu)
  • The network could affect receptor functions and could guide immune cells or their targets via chemoattraction to organs. (infinite-science.de)
  • Brinkworth and P. Mark Hogarth Fc[gamma] Receptors in Human Placenta / Neil E. CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOL SS71 () Human IgG Fc Receptors' CLARK L. ANDERSON Department of Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio Considerable recent progress has been made in our understanding of how IgG immune complexes interact with plasma membrane Fc receptors Cited by: Human IgG Fc receptor heterogeneity: molecular aspects and clinical implications. (howtogetridofbadbreath.club)
  • On the other hand, ICAM-1 expression was unchanged in lungs of γ chain-deficient mice, lacking receptors that interact with immune complexes. (unthsc.edu)
  • FcgammaRIIB expressed in neurons functions as a receptor for alpha-syn fibrils and mediates cell-to-cell transmission of alpha-syn. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, in B lymphocytes, type II receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG (Fc gamma RII) inhibit mIg-mediated signaling. (rupress.org)
  • The Eph family of receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their affinities for binding ephrin-A and ephrin-B ligands. (biosensis.com)
  • The extracellular domains (ECD) of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB1, 2, 3 and 4, were designed as soluble dimeric forms. (elsevier.com)
  • Ligand binding does not redistribute the steady state location of the receptor. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • The adiponectin receptors, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin and mediate increased AMPK and PPAR-alpha (PPARA) ligand activities, as well as fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectin. (4adi.com)
  • In each case, ligand binding by the receptor can not only initiate ligand internalization but also trigger additional signaling cascades, which exert direct or indirect effects on subsequent antigen presentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation of adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) by its natural ligand, adiponectin has been known to be involved in modulating critical metabolic processes such as glucose metabolism and fatty acid oxidation as demonstrated by a number of in vitro and in vivo studies over last two decades. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • Vogelpoel LT, Baeten DL, de Jong EC, den Dunnen J . Control of cytokine production by human fc gamma receptors: implications for pathogen defense and autoimmunity. (nature.com)
  • The Fcγ receptors on monocytes and other leukocytes are important structures in the immune defence against pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that the activating IgG2 receptor FcγRIV, expressed only by monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils, was sufficient to induce disease. (pasteur.fr)
  • The results are expressed in ELISA units and the values are represented as the log 10 values of the concentration of each IgG subclass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Statistical analyses of the IgG subclass levels were done by unpaired t-test and ANOVA, and genotype differences were tested by χ 2 -test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the results indicate that the FcγRIIa R131H genotype may influence the IgG subclass responses related to protection against malaria, and that IgG2 may be of importance in this context. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This polymorphism appears to affect the regulation of the IgG subclass production or turnover in humans [ 7 ], which could be a contributing factor to the inconclusive results seen in previous studies on the FcγRIIa-R131H polymorphism in relation to malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies demonstrate an effect of steroid hormones on cell membrane receptor function, and they suggest that an inhibition of the recognition system for IgG and C3 in vivo may explain, in part, the effect of corticosteroids in man. (jci.org)
  • The cDNA clones 6 and 8 (NA-1) lack the first 45 bp of the signal sequence, but considering the flow cytometry data the signal sequence must be functional allowing the membrane expression of this receptor allele. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Fcγ receptors are shown relative to the cell membrane (brown line). (howtogetridofbadbreath.club)
  • This assay aids in the diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. (thumbaylabs.com)
  • NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are principal regulators of synaptic signaling in the brain. (pnas.org)
  • Phosphorylation regulates surface and synaptic expression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). (pnas.org)
  • NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that are expressed throughout the nervous system and play crucial roles in neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Removal of the cytoplasmic tail that contains di-leucine and tryptophan-based endocytosis motifs or incubation at low temperature (18°C) redistributes the receptor apically. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • These results warrant further evaluation of this therapeutic approach in IgG-driven autoimmune diseases. (jci.org)
  • The signal transduction events triggered by IgG-FcγR interaction and their role in the phagocytic process have been extensively studied (reviewed in Greenberg and Grinstein 1 and Daeron 7 ). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mineralocorticoids also inhibited receptor activity, but the sex hormones were less effective. (jci.org)
  • FCMR is a single copy gene located on chromosome 1q, adjacent to two other IgM-binding receptor genes, PIGR and FCAMR. (howtogetridofbadbreath.club)
  • Similar to adiponectin, ADP-1 increased the expression of the adiponectin receptor 1 gene. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • We evaluated the relevance of FcgammaRIIalpha gene polymorphism in the development of lupus immune complex mediated nephritis, as well as its clinical and histological characteristics, by comparing the genotype and allelic distribution of this receptor in lupus nephritis to ethnically matched Brazilian patients with primary glomerulonephritis. (cdc.gov)
  • Whereas individual stimulation of FcγRs does not evoke cytokine production, FcγRs cell-type specifically interact with various other receptors for selective amplification or inhibition of particular cytokines, thereby tailoring cytokine responses to the immunological context. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite conservation of the Entinostat key residues across species, hFcRn discriminates between IgG from several species, including mouse IgGs (mIgG), that do not interact, except from weak binding of mIgG2b (20C22). (bibf1120.com)
  • The first mechanism is based on increased androgen receptor signaling caused by mutations in the AR that allow it to be activated by ligands other than DHT or by signaling pathways induced by a tyrosine kinase receptor, such as Her/2neu ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Immunoglobulins with and without HCMV IgG FcR-binding properties, like IgG from rabbit and mouse, can be of value in revealing the functional importance of the receptor. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The Biosensis SARS-CoV-2 S1RBD IgG ELISA kit is a two-step incubation immunoassay kit. (biosensis.com)
  • Your search returned 7750 IgG ELISA ELISA Kit across 62 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Circulating IgGs may modulate IGF-I receptor stimulating activity in a subset of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. (docphin.com)
  • However, the list of families of receptors that can induce or modulate cytokine production is still continuously expanding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Functional NMDARs are heterotetrameric complexes that are composed of homologous subunits (GluN1, GluN2A-D, and GluN3A-B). Two GluN1 subunits typically combine with two GluN2 subunits, which modulate channel activity and receptor properties ( 5 ⇓ ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Solubilized corticosteroids at concentrations between 10(-4) and 10(-3) M inhibited both IgG and complement receptor activity in a dose-response fashion. (jci.org)
  • IgG and complement receptor expression in children treated by. (mysciencework.com)
  • Enhanced signaling through IgG-BCR may be involved in efficient IgG production, which is crucial for immunity to pathogens. (sciencemag.org)
  • Upon IgG opsonization, pathogens are simultaneously recognized by FcγRs as well as by various pathogen-sensing receptors, leading to the induction of pathogen class-specific immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interleukin-1 alpha, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and IgG concentrations in cystic fibrosis treated with prednisolone. (nih.gov)
  • The IgG hinge-tag should be a simple method to design soluble dimers that would be useful for high throughput screening of ligands, antagonists or derivatives. (elsevier.com)
  • Enhanced FCGR2A and FCGR3A signaling by HIV viremic controller IgG. (umassmed.edu)
  • These results suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of IgG specifically enhances IgG-BCR signaling by preventing CD22-mediated signal inhibition. (sciencemag.org)
  • Reference : Evidence that the phagocytosis mediated by the peanut agglutinin-like activity of IgG. (uliege.be)
  • In PM women with E, the rosetting capacity of autologous MCs (percentage of MCs rosetting at least three IgG-SRBCs), their phagocytosing capacity (percentage of MCs ingesting at least three IgG-SRBCs), and the phagocytosis index (number of SRBCs ingested/100 MCs) were similar for each IgG-SRBC preparation considered. (uliege.be)
  • IgG(PNA)-SRBCs, as well as the phagocytosis index measured with those SRBCs, was strongly reduced (P less than 0.01 at least), when compared to the same parameters determined using IgG(total)-SRBCs and IgG(Con A)-SRBCs. (uliege.be)
  • Here we evaluated the roles of Syk and LTB 4 in macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes versus IgG-coated erythrocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The activation of Syk and of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are 2 events that have been shown to be critical for optimal ingestion of IgG-coated targets but have not been investigated in the context of apoptotic cell phagocytosis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We assembled a total of 673 patients and 413 controls from two multicenter cohorts, performed ELISA and immunofluorescence assays to determine IgA and IgG ANCA positivity, and used Illumina, TaqMan, or Pyrosequencing to genotype eight haplotype-tagging SNPs in the IgA FcR (FCAR) and to determine NA1/NA2 genotype of FCGR3B, the most prevalent neutrophil IgG FcR. (elsevier.com)
  • S1 polypeptide contain a receptor binding domain (S1RBD) crucial for the specific recognition and interaction with the human receptor ACE2, which is the first and the most essential step for the virus infection. (biosensis.com)