Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE that contains insecticidal sesquiterpenoids and celastrus oil.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Characterization of the interaction between the herpes simplex virus type I Fc receptor and immunoglobulin G. (1/2162)

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) virions and HSV-1-infected cells bind to human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) via its Fc region. A complex of two surface glycoproteins encoded by HSV-1, gE and gI, is responsible for Fc binding. We have co-expressed soluble truncated forms of gE and gI in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Soluble gE-gI complexes can be purified from transfected cell supernatants using a purification scheme that is based upon the Fc receptor function of gE-gI. Using gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation, we determined that soluble gE-gI is a heterodimer composed of one molecule of gE and one molecule of gI and that gE-gI heterodimers bind hIgG with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Biosensor-based studies of the binding of wild type or mutant IgG proteins to soluble gE-gI indicate that histidine 435 at the CH2-CH3 domain interface of IgG is a critical residue for IgG binding to gE-gI. We observe many similarities between the characteristics of IgG binding by gE-gI and by rheumatoid factors and bacterial Fc receptors such as Staphylococcus aureus protein A. These observations support a model for the origin of some rheumatoid factors, in which they represent anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against antibodies to bacterial and viral Fc receptors.  (+info)

Alternative endocytic pathway for immunoglobulin A Fc receptors (CD89) depends on the lack of FcRgamma association and protects against degradation of bound ligand. (2/2162)

IgA is the most abundant immunoglobulin in mucosal areas but is only the second most common antibody isotype in serum because it is catabolized faster than IgG. IgA exists in monomeric and polymeric forms that function through receptors expressed on effector cells. Here, we show that IgA Fc receptor(s) (FcalphaR) are expressed with or without the gamma chain on monocytes and neutrophils. gamma-less FcalphaR represent a significant fraction of surface FcalphaR molecules even on cells overexpressing the gamma chain. The FcalphaR-gamma2 association is up-regulated by phorbol esters and interferon-gamma. To characterize gamma-less FcalphaR functionally, we generated mast cell transfectants expressing wild-type human FcalphaR or a receptor with a point mutation (Arg --> Leu at position 209) which was unable to associate with the gamma chain. Mutant gamma-less FcalphaR bound monomeric and polymeric human IgA1 or IgA2 but failed to induce exocytosis after receptor clustering. The two types of transfectant showed similar kinetics of FcalphaR-mediated endocytosis; however, the endocytosis pathways of the two types of receptor differed. Whereas mutant FcalphaR were localized mainly in early endosomes, those containing FcalphaR-gamma2 were found in endo-lysosomal compartments. Mutant gamma-less FcalphaR recycled the internalized IgA toward the cell surface and protected against IgA degradation. Cells expressing the two forms of FcalphaR, associated or unassociated with gamma chains, may thus have differential functions either by degrading IgA antibody complexes or by recycling serum IgA.  (+info)

Fc receptor beta subunit is required for full activation of mast cells through Fc receptor engagement. (3/2162)

The high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilonRI) and the low-affinity IgG receptor (Fc gammaRIII) on mast cells are the key molecules involved in triggering the allergic reaction. These receptors share the common beta subunit (FcRbeta) which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif and transduces the signals of these receptors' aggregation. In rodents, FcRbeta is essential for the cell surface expression of the Fc epsilonRI. In humans, the FcRbeta gene was reported to be one of the candidate genes causing atopic diseases. However, the role of FcRbeta in vivo still remains ambiguous. To elucidate the functions of FcRbeta, we developed the mice lacking FcRbeta [FcRbeta(-/-)]. The FcRbeta(-/-) mice lacked the expression of the Fc epsilonRI on mast cells and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was not induced in FcRbeta(-/-) mice as was expected. In these mice, the expression of IgG receptors on mast cells was augmented but the IgG-mediated PCA reaction was attenuated. Although with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells from FcRbeta(-/-), adhesion to fibronectin and Ca2+ flux upon aggregation of IgG receptors were enhanced, mast cells co-cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts exhibited impaired degranulation on receptor aggregation. These observations indicate that FcRbeta accelerates the degranulation of mature mast cells via the IgG receptor in connective tissues.  (+info)

Nonvectorial surface transport, endocytosis via a Di-leucine-based motif, and bidirectional transcytosis of chimera encoding the cytosolic tail of rat FcRn expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (4/2162)

Transfer of passive immunity from the mother to the fetus or newborn involves the transport of IgG across several epithelia. Depending on the species, IgG is transported prenatally across the placenta and yolk sac or is absorbed from colostrum and milk by the small intestine of the suckling newborn. In both cases apical to basolateral transepithelial transport of IgG is thought to be mediated by FcRn, an IgG Fc receptor with homology to major histocompatibility class I antigens. Here, we analyzed the intracellular routing of chimera encoding the rat FcRn tail fused to the ecto- and transmembrane domain of the macrophage FcgammaRIIb. Newly synthesized chimera were delivered in a nonvectorial manner to the apical and basolateral cell surface, from where the chimera were able to internalize and transcytose. Apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transcytosis were differently regulated. This intracellular routing of the chimera is similar to that of the native FcRn, indicating that the cytosolic tail of the receptor is necessary and sufficient to endow an unrelated FcR with the intracellular transport behavior of FcRn. Furthermore, the di-leucine motif in the cytosolic domain of FcRn was required for rapid and efficient endocytosis but not for basolateral sorting of the chimera.  (+info)

Modulation of the humoral immune response by antibody-mediated antigen targeting to complement receptors and Fc receptors. (5/2162)

During an ongoing immune response, immune complexes, composed of Ag, complement factors, and Igs, are formed that can interact with complement receptors (CRs) and IgG Fc receptors (Fc gamma R). The role of CR1/2 and Fc gamma R in the regulation of the immune response was investigated using OVA that was chemically conjugated to whole IgG of the rat anti-mouse CR1/2 mAb 7G6. FACS analysis using the murine B cell lymphoma IIA1.6 confirmed that the 7G6-OVA conjugate recognized CR1/2. Incubating IIA1.6 cells with 7G6-OVA triggered tyrosine phosphorylation and Ag presentation to OVA-specific T cells in vitro. Immunizing mice with 7G6-OVA at a minimal dose of 1 microgram i.p. per mouse markedly enhanced the anti-OVA Ig response, which was primarily of the IgG1 isotype subclass. The 7G6-OVA did not enhance the anti-OVA response in CR1/2-deficient mice. OVA coupled to an isotype control Ab induced a considerably lower anti-OVA response compared with that induced by OVA alone, suggesting inhibition by interaction between the Fc part of the Ab and the inhibitory Fc gamma RIIb on B cells. This findings was supported by the observation that IIA1.6 cells which were incubated with 7G6-OVA lost the ability to present Ag upon transfection with Fc gamma RIIb. In sum, 7G6-conjugated OVA, resembling a natural immune complex, induces an enhanced anti-OVA immune response that involves at least CR1/2-mediated stimulation and that may be partially suppressed by Fc gamma RIIb.  (+info)

Human mesangial cells in culture and in kidney sections fail to express Fc alpha receptor (CD89). (6/2162)

The mechanism of deposition of IgA in the renal mesangium in primary IgA-nephropathy is poorly understood. It has been suggested that membrane receptors for IgA on mesangial cells (MC) of the kidney may be involved. To obtain more insight in the occurrence of the myeloid receptor for IgA (CD89) on MC, both in situ and in culture, rabbit and goat polyclonal antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibody against recombinant CD89 were raised. Kidney sections from five control subjects and five patients with primary IgA-nephropathy failed to be positive for CD89 in the mesangium, using our polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Also, five primary human MC cultures assessed for CD89 expression showed no protein expression of CD89. Furthermore, reverse transcription-PCR failed to detect mRNA expression of CD89 in the cultured MC. It was demonstrated that all five human primary MC bound human IgA in a dose-dependent manner, which was not inhibitable by blocking monoclonal anti-CD89 antibody (My43). In contrast, binding of IgA to U937 cells was blocked efficiently by My43. Finally, incubation of human MC with either human or rat IgA led to increased interleukin-6 production, whereas only human IgA, but not rat IgA, was able to bind to human CD89. Therefore, it is concluded that human MC do not express CD89 (to a significant extent). These results strongly suggest that binding of IgA to human MC occurs via an IgA receptor distinct from CD89.  (+info)

B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ T cell priming in vivo. (7/2162)

The contribution of B lymphocytes as APCs for CD4+ T cell priming remains controversial, based on findings that B cells cannot provide the requisite ligating and costimulatory signals for naive T cells to be activated. In the current study, we have examined Ag-specific T:B cell collaboration under circumstances in which B cells take up Ag through Ig receptors in vivo. This results in their activation and an ability to effectively stimulate naive CD4+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this work was to establish some of the key molecular interactions, as well as kinetics, between Ag-specific T and B cells that enable this priming to take place. Our approach was to amplify the starting pools of both Ag-specific T and B cell populations in vivo to track directly the events during initial T:B cell collaborations. We show that the induction of optimal levels of T cell priming to a protein Ag requires the involvement of Ag-specific B cells. The interaction that results between Ag-specific T and B cells prevents the down-modulation of B7 costimulatory molecules usually observed in the absence of appropriate T cells. Moreover, this prevention in down-modulation is independent of CD40:CD40 ligand contact. Finally, we present data suggesting that once Ag-specific T and B cells interact, there is a rapid (1-2-h) down-regulation of antigenic complexes on the surface of the B lymphocytes, possibly to prevent them from engaging other T cells in the vicinity and therefore focus the initial interaction.  (+info)

Improving the efficacy of antibody-interleukin 2 fusion proteins by reducing their interaction with Fc receptors. (8/2162)

Fusion proteins between whole antibodies (Abs) and cytokines (immunocytokines) such as interleukin 2 have shown efficacy in several mouse tumor models despite a circulating half-life that is significantly shorter than that of the original Ab. We have examined the potential mechanisms responsible for clearance and shown that an important factor is enhanced binding to Fc receptor (FcR). Improvements in the half-lives of two different immunocytokines were made by changing the isotype of the human heavy chain C region from IgG1 or IgG3 to those with reduced binding to FcR, e.g., IgG4. The same effect could also be achieved through site-directed mutagenesis of the FcR binding site in the IgG1 H chain. In vitro studies using mouse J774 FcR-expressing cells showed increased binding of interleukin 2-based immunocytokines, relative to their corresponding Abs, and that this was reversed in those fusion proteins made with IgG4 or mutated IgG1 H chains. All of the fusion proteins showing reduced FcR binding also had reduced Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity, as measured in 4-h chromium release assays. A complete loss of complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity was seen with an IgG4-based immunocytokine derived from an IgG1 Ab with potent activity. Despite these reduced effector functions, the IgG4-based immunocytokines with extended circulating half-lives showed equivalent (in the case of severe combined immunodeficiency mouse xenograft models) or better (in the case of syngeneic models) efficacy in mouse tumor models than the original IgG1-based molecules. These novel immunocytokines may show improved efficacy in therapeutic situations where T cell- rather than natural killer- or complement-mediated antitumor mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

We have studied the distribution of talin in J774 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages undergoing Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. At early stages of phagocytosis, talin accumulates in the cells cortical cytoplasm adjacent to the forming phagosome and extends into pseudopods that are encircling the particle. Talin colocalizes with F-actin at these sites. After particle ingestion is completed, F-actin and talin are no longer concentrated adjacent to phagosomes. Thus, talin and F-actin undergo dynamic and coordinate changes in their cytoplasmic location during Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. ...
FcRn is highly expressed in mouse and rat during the first 3 wk after birth. In IECs it plays a major function in the passive acquisition of neonatal immunity. Following weaning, the expression of FcRn in the IECs is rapidly and profoundly diminished (1, 4). However, it is also known that FcRn expression persists into adult life in human IECs and in a limited range of other cell types in mammalian, including hepatocytes and endothelial cells (22, 23, 24). This expression beyond neonatal life is potentially relevant to other postnatal functions, including, importantly, the protection of IgG from catabolism.. This study examined the hypothesis that FcRn, an MHC class I-related Fc receptor for IgG, is functionally expressed in monocytes, tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells that are already well known to abundantly express other conventional FcRs for IgG. Our study for the first time has demonstrated that FcRn is expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The presence of FcRn ...
Protein engineering provides powerful tools to create useful proteins with desired properties. In this thesis, rational design principles have been used for development of fusion proteins that can interact with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) for potential medical applications. FcRn is widely expressed in the human body. The natural ligands of FcRn are immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum albumin (SA). FcRn can bind to both proteins in a pH dependent manner and endow them with an unusually long half-life in vivo. Protein building blocks interacting directly or indirectly with FcRn may potentially be used to either piggy-back on the FcRn-system for extension of the in vivo half-life or to saturate the system to decrease the in vivo half-life of the natural ligands. In this thesis, I have explored an FcRn binding affibody molecule (ZFcRn) and/or an albumin binding domain (ABD) for these purposes. In study I and II, the prolactin receptor was found to often be expressed in glioblastoma multiforme ...
In this study, we have demonstrated that the stability of the complex between murine or human FcRn with a human IgG1 can be increased by ,30-fold by screening libraries of randomized Fc residues. Four libraries were designed that targeted Fc residues in contact with, or in close proximity of, the α1/α2 domains of murine and human FcRn (1, 15, 16, 23). These Fc libraries introduced substitutions in three loops at the CH2-CH3 junction (strands B and E of CH2, and G of CH3) and in one region between strands C and D of CH3.. Engineering of the Fc-FcRn interaction indicates that major improvements in murine FcRn-human IgG1 and human FcRn-human IgG1 complex stability (0.6 kcal/mol ≤ ΔΔG ≤ 2.4 kcal/mol) occur on substituting residues located in a band across the Fc-FcRn interface (M252, S254, T256, H433, N434, and Y436). Substitutions of residues at the periphery (V308, L309, Q311, G385, Q386, P387, and N389) resulted in little or no increase in the free energy of complex stabilization (ΔΔG ...
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the only antibody isotype actively transferred across the placenta from around 13 weeks of gestation and increases exponentially during the third trimester such that the concentration of IgG in the newborn infant is similar to, or exceeds, that in the mother. IgG provides passive immunity to the infant in the first months of life.. The neonatal Fc receptor facilitates transcytosis of maternal IgG. IgG is transferred from maternal blood across the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta, initially by endocytosis of IgG. Within the acidic endosome, IgG binds to membrane-bound neonatal Fc receptor, which is then released on the fetal side of the syncytiotrophoblast as the pH returns to physiologic pH. Neonatal Fc receptor is then recycled back to the maternal side of the syncytiotrophoblast to bind further IgG.. There are a number of factors that may affect the efficiency of IgG transcytosis, including gestation, IgG subclass and maternal infection.1 The concentration of ...
Human monocytes cultured on surface-bound immune complexes exhibited a loss of ability to form rosettes with IgG-sensitized sheep erythrocytes (EA). This loss was not a result of inhibition of Fc receptors by solubilized complexes nor of release of soluble factors by the cells. Loss of EA rosetting was not prevented by culture of monocytes at 4 degrees C, or by treatment with colchicine, cytochalasin B, or local anethetic agents. These results suggested that the loss was not secondary to capping or interiorization of Fc receptors. The results of other studies indicated that the Fc receptors were not damaged by lysosomal enzymes or oxygen radicals. Maintenance of EA rosetting ability of monocytes cultured on surface-bound immune complexes was seen after a 3-h preincubation of the cells in 100 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2dG). A similar preincubation in ATP or in 8-bromoadenosine 3:5-cyclic monophosphoric acid plus the phosphodiesterase inhibitor methyl isobutyl xanthine led to a partial loss of EA ...
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Rozanolixizumab, a subcutaneous antibody targeting the human neonatal Fc receptor, provides clinically meaningful improvements in platelet count for patients wi
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) replicates in the liver, and is excreted from the body in feces. However, the mechanisms of HAV transport from hepatocytes to the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models. Here, we use a polarized hepatic cell line and in vivo models to demonstrate vectorial transport of HAV from hepatocytes into bile via the apical cell membrane. Although this transport is specific for HAV, the rate of fecal excretion in inefficient, accounting for less than 1% of input virus from the bloodstream per hour. However, we also found that the rate of HAV excretion was enhanced in the presence of HAV-specific IgA. Using mice lacking the polymeric IgA receptor (pIgR(-/-)), we show that a proportion of HAV:IgA complexes are transported via the pIgR demonstrating a role for specific antibody in pathogen excretion.
Phagocytosis is a specialized endocytic response of eukaryotic cells to particulate stimuli, such as microbial pathogens. This response is utilized by myeloid cells of the immune system to aid in host defenses. FcγRI is expressed at especially high levels in freshly harvested mouse dendritic cells from spleen, lymph node, and skin. FcγRIIA mediates phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles by human neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes. FcαRI associates noncovalently with a γ-subunit homodimer common to other Fc receptors. FcγRn, a neonatal Fc receptor complexed to β2- microglobulin, is a receptor on intestinal epithelial cells that mediates the transfer of maternal Ig from milk to the bloodstream of newborns. Co-ligation of FcγRIIb with the antigen receptor in B cells (BCR) leads to decreased cellular activation. Several tyrosine phosphatases have been identified that modulate ITAM-mediated responses. These include the membrane-bound tyrosine phosphatase CD45 and SHP-1/ SHP-2. The signaling
Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. The abundance specifically of the IgG subclass and the variety of signaling receptors to which it binds render this an important immunomodulatory molecule. In addition to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγR) which bind IgG at the cell surface, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a lifelong resident of the endolysosomal system of most hematopoietic cells where it determines the intracellular fate of both IgG and IgG-containing immune complexes (IgG IC). Crosslinking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC) initiates specific mechanisms which result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both MHC class I and II molecules. In turn, this enables the synchronous
FcγRI, also known as CD64 and FcR I, is a type I transmembrane protein, belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. FcγRI is an Fc receptor that binds to monomeric IgG with high affinity. Human FcγRI binds to human IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 with higher affinity, but no affinity for IgG2. However, murine
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Getting untagged builds... ...got 92180 builds Skipping build trac-0.11.4-1.fc12. Keys: [f13bd4d5, d2933660] Skipping build trac-git-plugin-0.11.0.2-4.20090511svn5396.fc12. Keys: [d2933660] Skipping build rpld-1.8-0.10.beta1.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build quagga-0.99.20-1.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build system-config-date-1.9.66-1.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build tito-0.3.3-1.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build amide-0.9.2-4.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build radvd-1.8.2-1.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build hplip-3.11.10-2.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build vdr-streamdev-0.5.1-2.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build gutenprint-5.2.7-7.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build hplip-3.11.10-3.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build strigi-0.7.6-1.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build hplip-3.11.10-4.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build recoll-1.16.1-1.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping build kdeutils-4.6.5-3.fc14. Keys: [97a1071f] Skipping ...
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Created attachment 575976 [details] Attempt for a reproducer; nothing is reproduced. Description of problem: There is kernel-3.2.x -, kernel-3.3.x regression for GDB inferior calls with float parameters. Version-Release number of selected component (if applicable): PASS: kernel-3.2.5-3.fc16.x86_64 PASS: kernel-3.2.10-3.fc16.x86_64 FAIL: kernel-3.3.0-4.fc16.x86_64 FAIL: kernel-3.3.1-3.fc16.x86_64 FAIL: kernel-3.4.0-0.rc1.git3.1.fc18.x86_64 and with maxcpus: PASS: kernel-3.3.1-3.fc16.x86_64 maxcpus=0 PASS: kernel-3.3.1-3.fc16.x86_64 maxcpus=2 FAIL: kernel-3.3.1-3.fc16.x86_64 maxcpus=4 It is on i7-920 which has 4 cores with multithreading = 8 cpuinfo entries. It is also reproducible inside KVM with host kernel-3.2.10-3.fc16.x86_64 and guest kernel-3.3.1-3.fc16.x86_64 with qemu-kvm -smp 4. How reproducible: It is racy, sometimes it is 100% reproducible, sometimes it is reproducible on 12th run of runtest etc. but it is easily reproducible in general. Steps to Reproduce: git clone ...
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به منظور تعیین روابط میان عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد گیاه کلزا پژوهش گلخانه-ای در گروه مهندسی علوم خاک دانشگاه تهران به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورها عبارتند از آبیاری در سه سطح: بدون تنش (FC75/0)، تنش متوسط (FC55/0) و تنش شدید (FC35/0( و سطوح مختلف کمپوست و ورمی کمپوست در پنج سطح شامل: عدم کاربرد کود زیستی (شاهد)، کاربرد دو و چهار درصد کمپوست زباله شهری و کاربرد دو و چهار درصد ورمی کمپوست بودند. در این تحقیق 11 صفت نظیر عملکرد دانه، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد غلاف در بوته، مقدار نیتروژن و فسفر اندام هوایی و برخی از شاخص های رشدی
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Before the pump starts? (looking for lowest level before replenishment occurs) After the pump turns off? (looking for the highest level at the end of the cycle) Some other time? As per the Pool Calculator, the FC with an SWG should be around 3. So, I see a problem with measuring 3 just after the pump stops - itll get pretty low before it comes back on the next day. In contrast, If my goal is three just before the pump comes on, it must be higher than necessary from the night before.
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Three types of Fc receptors for IgG, FcyRI (CD64), FcyRII (CD32), and FcyRIII (CD 16) are expressed differentially on blood leukocytes. In particular, CD64 and CD32 are constitutively expressed on mononuclear phagocytes of the human myeloid system. Peripheral blood dendritic cells (DC), in contrast, have been reported to express CD32, but CD64 expression has been controversial. Studies were therefore conducted that confirmed that CD33b r iCD14n esHLA-DRb r iCD83P0 S circulating blood DC express CD64, although at a lower level than CD33b r iCD14b r iHLA-DRd i mCD83n eg blood monocytes. Following 2 days in culture, neither DC nor monocytes demonstrated any decrease in either CD64 or CD32 expression Stimulation with the cytokines IFN-Y and IL-10 increased CD64 expression on both DC and monocytes following 40 h stimulation, whereas GM-CSF and IL-12 had no effect on CD64 expression with either cell type. Interestingly, IL-4 decreased CD64 expression on monocytes, but had no effect on DC CD64 ...
Receptors for the Fc region of IgG (Fc gamma R) are members of the Ig superfamily. Based on their genetic organization and molecular structure, three classes of human Fc gamma Rs: RI (CD64), RII (CD32), and RIII (CD16), which generate multiple isoforms, are recognized (1‑3). These receptors function in the activation or inhibition of immune responses. The activating-type receptor either has, or associates non-covalently with an accessory subunit (FcR gamma or zeta chain) that has an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic domain. In contrast, the inhibitory receptor (Fc gamma RIIB) has a built-in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in its own cytoplasmic domain. Fc gamma RI is a high-affinity receptor that binds monomeric IgG. Both Fc gamma RII and RIII are low-affinity receptors that bind IgG in the form of immune complexes. Two genes for human Fc gamma RIII, A and B, encoding a transmembrane receptor and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) ...
We have cloned and expressed a cDNA encoding a human receptor for IgG (Fc gamma R) from the monocyte cell line U937. The deduced structure is a 35-kD transmembrane protein with homology to the mouse Fc[gamma 2b/gamma 1] receptor amino acid sequence of approximately 60% in the extracellular domain. The signal sequence is homologous to the mouse Fc gamma R alpha cDNA clone, while the transmembrane domain shares homology with mouse Fc gamma R beta cDNAs. The cytoplasmic domain is apparently unique. The extracellular domain shows significant homology to proteins of the Ig gene superfamily, including the human c-fms protooncogene/CSF-1 receptor. Mouse Ltk- cells transfected with the human Fc gamma R cDNA express a cell-surface receptor that selectively binds human IgG and is recognized by the anti-Fc gamma RII mAb IV.3. Antibodies against peptides derived from the human Fc gamma R sequence specifically stain U937 cells, but not an Fc gamma RII-bearing B-lymphoblastoid cell line (Daudi). These results
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phagocytic signaling strategies. T2 - Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis as a model system. AU - Cox, Dianne. AU - Greenberg, Steven. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Phagocytosis is a phylogenetically ancient process by which eukaryotic cells engulf insoluble substances whose size exceeds approximately 0.5 μ m. The engulfment process requires the concerted action of several fundamental cellular pathways and is governed by multiple transmembrane signaling events. Here we focus on phagocytosis mediated by a well-studied class of phagocytic receptors that recognize the Fc portion of IgG (Fcγ Rs).. AB - Phagocytosis is a phylogenetically ancient process by which eukaryotic cells engulf insoluble substances whose size exceeds approximately 0.5 μ m. The engulfment process requires the concerted action of several fundamental cellular pathways and is governed by multiple transmembrane signaling events. Here we focus on phagocytosis mediated by a well-studied class of phagocytic ...
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The monospecific and bivalent characteristics of naturally occurring immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies depend on homodimerization of the fragment crystallizable (Fc) regions of two identical heavy chains (HCs) and the subsequent assembly of two identical light chains (LCs) via disulfide linkages between each HC and LC. Immunoglobulin Fc heterodimers have been engineered through modifications to the CH3 domain interface, with different mutations on each domain such that the engineered Fc fragments, carrying the CH3 variant pair, preferentially form heterodimers rather than homodimers. Many research groups have adopted different strategies to generate Fc heterodimers, with the goal of high heterodimerization yield, while retaining biophysical and biological properties of the wild-type Fc. Based on their ability to enforce heterodimerization between the two different HCs, the established Fc heterodimers have been extensively exploited as a scaffold to generate bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) in full-length
The distribution of T gamma lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of one group of rheumatoid patients and in the synovial fluid in a second group was determined. The results were compared to those found for peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes of normal subjects and for synovial fluid lymphocytes of osteoarthrosis and meniscitis patients. Besides recording percentage and absolute number, we also used cytofluorographic analysis to determine individual capacity of PB T gamma cells to bind heat-aggregated IgG (agg-IgG). The following results were found: 1) there is no significant difference between the percentage and absolute number of PB T gamma lymphocytes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and those of controls, 2) individual RA PB T gamma cells had a greater number and/or avidity of Fc receptor for IgG than those cells of controls, and 3) the percentage of RA T gamma lymphocytes in synovial fluid, revealed by IgG-EA ox rosetting, is significantly lower than that found in control patients. The ...
The gamma subunit of immunoglobulin Fc receptors is an essential component of the high-affinity receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RIII) and is associated with the high-affinity receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI) and the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. It is required for both receptor assembly and signal transduct …
The reticuloendothelial system is thought to play an important role in removing immune complexes and other immunologically active substances from the circulation via interaction with specific cell-surface receptors. The function of the reticuloendothelial system in humans with autoimmune diseases was studied in vivo by measuring the rate of removal of IgG-coated, radio-labeled autologous erythrocytes. Such cells are removed by phagocytic cells of the spleen, and the process depends on the presence of an intact IgG Fc fragment. Studies in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus show a profound defect in Fc-receptor-specific clearance that correlates with disease activity. Patients with other autoimmune diseases have defects in Fc receptor functional activity when their illness is characterized by tissue deposition of immune complexes. Normal patients with HLA-B8/DRw3, an HLA type associated with an increased incidence of autoimmune disease, also have an increased incidence of defective ...
BACKGROUND. Intravenous Ig (IVIg), plasma exchange, and immunoadsorption are frequently used in the management of severe autoimmune diseases mediated by pathogenic IgG autoantibodies. These approaches modulating IgG levels can, however, be associated with some severe adverse reactions and a substantial burden to patients. Targeting the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) presents an innovative and potentially more effective, safer, and more convenient alternative for clearing pathogenic IgGs. METHODS. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first-in-human study was conducted in 62 healthy volunteers to explore single and multiple ascending intravenous doses of the FcRn antagonist efgartigimod. The study objectives were to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity. The findings of this study were compared with the pharmacodynamics profile elicited by efgartigimod in cynomolgus monkeys. RESULTS. Efgartigimod treatment resulted in a rapid and specific ...
The present invention relates to the field of glycosylation engineering of proteins. More particularly, the present invention relates to nucleic acid molecules, including fusion constructs, having cat
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) regulates IgG and albumin homeostasis, mediates maternal IgG transport, takes a dynamic role in phagocytosis, and delivers antigen for presentation. FcRn staining. After that, using BAC transgenesis we produced transgenic rabbits overexpressing and holding a 110 kb rabbit genomic fragment encoding the FcRn. These transgenic rabbits C having one extra duplicate from the FcRn when hemizygous and two extra copies when homozygous - demonstrated improved IgG safety and an augmented humoral immune system response when immunized with a number of different antigens. Our leads to these transgenic rabbits demonstrate an elevated immune response, identical from what we referred to in mice, indicating that FcRn overexpression provides significant advantages of the creation of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Introduction Maintenance of antibody (Ab) levels requires continuous secretion of immunoglobulin (Ig) by plasma cells and protection from degradation. IgG is a class ...
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Masuda, T; Miyama, M; Kuribayashi, K; Yodoi, J; Takabayashi, A; and Kyoizumi, S, Immunological properties of fc receptor on lymphocytes. V. Suppressive regulation of humoral immune response by fc receptor bearing b lymphocytes. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 3145 ...
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Fc gamma receptor IIB: present in myelomonocytic and lymphocytic cells; highly homologous to other Fc gamma RII receptors but has unique cytoplasmic exons; has been sequenced
Albumin has a long serum half-life due to its unique ability to bind the cellular neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which provides protection from intracellular degradation. The interaction can be capitalized to improve the efficacy of drugs by extending their serum persistence. However, species-specific binding of albumin to FcRn challenges preclinical development. The goal of this brief review is to provide insights into how FcRn and cross-species binding differences affect the pharmacokinetics of human serum albumin (HSA) in different animal models, and gives an overview of genetically modified mice that may serve as improved models for testing of albumin-based drugs. Curr Opin Chem Eng 2018 Mar; 19:68-76.
Demonstrating the biological activity of a drug conjugate is required by regulators. The Fc portion of immunoglobulins is known for its ability to trigger complement- and/or immune cell-mediated lysis of antigen expressing cells. In the case of antibody drug conjugates, such Fc-mediated activity must be considered alongside the payload-driven activity.. Furthermore, some toxicities observed in vivo have been linked to binding of ADCs to healthy cells via their Fc domain. Consequently, assessment of binding to Fc receptor and Fc-mediated functions such as ADCC, CDC and ADCP constitute an increasingly relevant safety consideration when developing an ADC.. ...
Human-monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) have become efficient within the uptake of into individual MoDC and likened the uptake of with this of serovar Typhimurium and by individual MoDC, the efficiency from the uptake of by these phagocytes was enhanced by individual plasma strongly. MoDC within the existence or the lack of individual plasma. These outcomes support the assumption that antibodies contrary to the listerial p60 proteins may play a significant function in Fc-receptor-mediated uptake of by individual MoDC via opsonization from the bacteria. This technique might have a significant impact in preventing systemic infection in in immunocompetent humans. Dendritic cells (DC) will be the vital antigen-presenting cells in an immune system response against microbes (35, 36). DC can be found in two useful stages. Immature DC develop from hematopoeitic precursors and so are dispersed through the entire physical body in nonlymphoid organs, where they exert sentinel features. Upon ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Mc Clendon, J. F., Colloidal Properties of the surface of the living cell. Colloid Symposium monograph. Chem. Cat. Co. 4: 224 (1926).Google Scholar ...
At work, I encountered an interesting problem: While testing the Fibre Channel (FC) scalability of a storage product, we needed to create a lot of FC connections between hosts and the storage system. This would in turn require a large number of FC Initiators, each of which having a unique World-Wide Port Name (WWPN).. The easiest and cheapest method to set up a lot of initiators without actually purchasing zillions of FC HBAs would be to use N_Port ID Virtualization, a.k.a. NPIV. This method allows a single FC HBA to present itself to the FC fabric with multiple WWPNs. This, in turn, allows the creation of many connections to the target storage device from a small number of hosts.. ...
Compose started at Sat Mar 31 08:15:04 UTC 2012 Broken deps for x86_64 ---------------------------------------------------------- [PackageKit] PackageKit-zif-0.7.3-1.fc18.x86_64 requires librpmio.so.2()(64bit) PackageKit-zif-0.7.3-1.fc18.x86_64 requires librpm.so.2()(64bit) [aeolus-conductor] aeolus-conductor-0.4.0-2.fc17.noarch requires ruby(abi) = 0:1.8 [aeolus-configserver] aeolus-configserver-0.4.5-1.fc18.noarch requires ruby-nokogiri [anaconda] anaconda-18.1-1.fc18.x86_64 requires librpmio.so.2()(64bit) anaconda-18.1-1.fc18.x86_64 requires librpm.so.2()(64bit) [catfish] catfish-engines-0.3.2-4.fc17.1.noarch requires pinot [dmapd] dmapd-0.0.45-1.fc16.i686 requires libMagickWand.so.4 dmapd-0.0.45-1.fc16.i686 requires libMagickCore.so.4 dmapd-0.0.45-1.fc16.x86_64 requires libMagickWand.so.4()(64bit) dmapd-0.0.45-1.fc16.x86_64 requires libMagickCore.so.4()(64bit) [dustmite] dustmite-1-1.20111218git84c0e08.fc17.x86_64 requires libphobos2-ldc.so()(64bit) [foghorn] foghorn-0.1.6-1.fc17.x86_64 ...
Signed-off-by: Hannes Reinecke ,[email protected], Acked-by: Johannes Thumshirn ,[email protected], --- drivers/scsi/libfc/fc_rport.c , 41 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++- 1 file changed, 40 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-) diff --git a/drivers/scsi/libfc/fc_rport.c b/drivers/scsi/libfc/fc_rport.c index d2d8607..426c399 100644 --- a/drivers/scsi/libfc/fc_rport.c +++ b/drivers/scsi/libfc/fc_rport.c @@ -1268,7 +1268,7 @@ static void fc_rport_enter_prli(struct fc_rport_priv *rdata) } /** - * fc_rport_els_rtv_resp() - Handler for Request Timeout Value (RTV) responses + * fc_rport_rtv_resp() - Handler for Request Timeout Value (RTV) responses * @sp: The sequence the RTV was on * @fp: The RTV response frame * @rdata_arg: The remote port that sent the RTV response @@ -1374,6 +1374,41 @@ static void fc_rport_enter_rtv(struct fc_rport_priv *rdata) } /** + * fc_rport_recv_rtv_req() - Handler for Read Timeout Value (RTV) requests + * @rdata: The remote port that sent the RTV request + * @in_fp: The RTV ...
CD4+ T cells provide help to B cells that produce antibodies. Several subsets of activated effector CD4+ T cells are observed in disease pathology. Earlier studies summarized by Sanders and Lynch in 1993 suggested critical roles for FcRs in CD4+ T cell mediated immune responses and proposed the formation of a joint signaling complex among FcRs and TCR on the cell surface.[37][38][39][40] Chauhan and coworkers reported the colocalization of the labeled ICs with the CD3 complex on activated CD4+ T cell surface, which thus suggest the coexistence of FcRs together with TCR complex.[41] Both of these receptors are observed forming an apical structure on the membrane of activated CD4+ T cells, suggesting the lateral movement of these receptors.[42] Co-migration of FcRs with TCR and BCR complex is observed on the cells surface and T:B cell cytoconjugates show this coexistence at the point of contact.[43] An earlier review suggested that the expression of FcRs on CD4+ T cells is an open question.[44] ...
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Hi All, So Ive been pondering the difference between the recommended FC level for SWG/non-SWG pools at a given CYA. Im curious if anyone has an explanation for why the FC requirement of a SWG would be less? I could see two possible theories: 1) Does the NaCl in some way make the FC more effective? Seems unlikely -- but Im happy to hear other opinions (or better yet facts =] ). 2) Perhaps SWG result in a more consistent FC level, and thus a lower level is needed. Thoughts?
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OSGE abolishes 148.Fc microsphere attachment to CHO-P or -E monolayers. (A) 148.Fc microspheres were incubated with buffer (a and c) or OSGE (b and d) at 37°C
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In particular, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binds to the Fc region of IgG antibodies to transport it across the placenta, ... Those cells that recognize coated pathogens have Fc receptors, which, as the name suggests, interact with the Fc region of IgA ... bind via their Fc receptors (FcR) to the Fc region of an antibody, while the complement system is activated by binding the C1q ... and Fc regions and the role of N-glycosylation on Fcα receptor interactions". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (4): ...
... and inhibitory signaling pathways mediated by the IgG Fc receptor (Fc gamma RIIB) and the phosphoinositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP ... Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Bolland, Silvia (April 2001). "IgG Fc Receptors". Annual Review of Immunology. 19 (1): 275-290. doi: ... Bolland, Silvia; Ravetch, Jeffrey V (August 2000). "Spontaneous Autoimmune Disease in FcγRIIB-Deficient Mice Results from ... "Role of the inositol phosphatase SHIP in negative regulation of the immune system by the receptor FeγRIIB". Nature. 383 (6597 ...
The Fcγ Receptor (FcγR) family of molecules. Anderson's early work on identifying and characterizing the high affinity FcγRI ... antibodies mediate their cell biological effects through the family of Fcγ receptors (a class of Fc receptors that are members ... The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, as a target for drug delivery and therapy. Adv drug Deliv Rev 91: 109-124. Chaudhury, C., S. ... Human IgG Fc receptors. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1989 Nov;53(2 Pt 2):S63-71. Review. PMID 2529071 Anderson CL, Guyre PM, ...
Early to recognise a circulating subset of T-cells co-optable through Fc-receptors to become killer cells. Defined secondary ... Mixed lymphocyte reaction T-cell receptors. Phagocyte function. First to fully describe IgA deficiency. IgM deficiency ... Density and inducibility of T-cell receptors in relation to the age of the lymphocyte donor and the conditions of culture. ...
The most common of these Fc receptors on the surface of an NK cell is CD16 or FcγRIII. Once the Fc receptor binds to the Fc ... the Fc receptor (FcɛRI) of an eosinophil will recognize IgE. Subsequently, interaction between FcεRI and the Fc portion of ... A NK cell expresses Fcγ receptors. These receptors recognize and bind to the reciprocal portion of an antibody, such as IgG, ... Next, the NK cells which have reciprocal Fcγ receptors will bind to that antibody, inducing the NK cell to release proteins ...
Cambier JC (Oct 1995). "Antigen and Fc receptor signaling. The awesome power of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation ... "Ig beta tyrosine residues contribute to the control of B cell receptor signaling by regulating receptor internalization". The ... Engels N, Wollscheid B, Wienands J (Jul 2001). "Association of SLP-65/BLNK with the B cell antigen receptor through a non-ITAM ... Patterson HC, Kraus M, Kim YM, Ploegh H, Rajewsky K (Jul 2006). "The B cell receptor promotes B cell activation and ...
Like many neuronal receptors, Dscam proteins have multiple functions, with repulsive and attractive roles that are dependent on ... Christophides, GK; Vlachou D; Kafatos FC (2004). "Comparative and functional genomics of the innate immune system in the ... Akira, S; Takeda K (2004). "Toll-like receptor signalling". Nat Rev Immunol. 4 (7): 499-511. doi:10.1038/nri1391. PMID 15229469 ... Dong, YM; Taylor HE; Dimopoulos G (2006). "AgDscam, a hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor of the Anopheles ...
Fc receptors, CD14, Toll-like receptors (TLRs; e.g., TLR4), and cytokine receptors. TREM-1 amplifies toll-like receptors ... Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TREM1 gene. TREM-1 is a ... sTREM-1 acts as a decoy receptor by competing for the unknown TREM-1 ligand. Therefore it provides a negative feedback loop for ... Jung YS, Park JJ, Kim SW, Hong SP, Kim TI, Kim WH, Cheon JH (November 2012). "Correlation between soluble triggering receptor ...
FCGR2A FCGR2B FCGR2C Fc-gamma receptors PDB: 2FCB​; Sondermann P, Huber R, Jacob U (March 1999). "Crystal structure of the ... Lisi S, Sisto M, Lofrumento DD, D'Amore S, D'Amore M (March 2011). "Advances in the understanding of the Fc gamma receptors- ... CD32 (cluster of differentiation 32), also known as FcγRII or FCGR2, is a surface receptor glycoprotein belonging to the Ig ... CD32B is an inhibitory surface receptor that is part of a large population of B cell co-receptors, which act to modulate ...
KIR: short for Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor, is a receptor for MHC Class I molecules on Natural Killer cells. ... The American biotechnology company MacroGenics is working on MGA271 is an Fc-optimized monoclonal antibody that targets B7-H3. ... B7-H3's receptors have not yet been identified. B7-H4: also called VTCN1, is expressed by tumor cells and tumor-associated ... PD-1: short for Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) receptor, has two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. This checkpoint is the target of Merck & ...
Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIb (coded by FCGR2B gene) is a low affinity inhibitory receptor for the Fc region of ... March 2001). "The Fc receptor for IgG expressed in the villus endothelium of human placenta is Fc gamma RIIb2". Journal of ... Jessup CF, Ridings J, Ho A, Nobbs S, Roberton DM, Macardle P, Zola H (July 2001). "The Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RII; CD32 ... "Activation-dependent expression of low affinity IgG receptors Fc gamma RII(CD32) and Fc gamma RIII(CD16) in subpopulations of ...
G-protein coupled receptor-associated sorting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPRASP1 gene. GPRASP1 ( ... Heydorn A, Søndergaard BP, Ersbøll B, Holst B, Nielsen FC, Haft CR, Whistler J, Schwartz TW (December 2004). "A library of 7TM ... "Entrez Gene: GPRASP1 G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 1". Whistler JL, Enquist J, Marley A, Fong J, ... "Dopamine responsiveness is regulated by targeted sorting of D2 receptors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
Glycosylation of the Fc fragment is essential for Fc receptor-mediated activity. The N-glycans attached to this site are ... The Fc region is, therefore, sometimes incorrectly termed the "fragment constant region". Fc binds to various cell receptors ... is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the ... IgM and IgE Fc regions contain three heavy chain constant domains (CH domains 2-4) in each polypeptide chain. The Fc regions of ...
ITIM conserved sequence was first identified in the low affinity IgG receptor FcγRIIB. All ITIM containing receptors are a part ... Several ITIM-bearing receptors bind SHIP, including FcγRIIB. SHIP is a 5' inositol phosphatase that is expressed in most ... A genetically engineered molecule consisting of a human IgG1 Fc fragment fused to a human IgE Fc fragment was first reported to ... ITIM-containing receptors often serve to target Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif(ITAM)-containing receptors, ...
"IgA and the IgA Fc receptor". Trends in Immunology. 22 (4): 205-211. doi:10.1016/s1471-4906(01)01873-7. ISSN 1471-4906. PMID ... role in resistance of mice to parasitic infections but this may reflect the fact that mice eosinophils lack the IgA receptor. ... of appetite are a consequence of repair processes triggered by the binding of epithelial growth factor in saliva to receptors ...
It is also known to be an entry co-receptor for HIV-1. This gene and seven other chemokine receptor genes form a chemokine ... Marone G, Florio G, Petraroli A, de Paulis A (2001). "Dysregulation of the IgE/Fc epsilon RI network in HIV-1 infection". J. ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR3". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... It belongs to family 1 of the G protein-coupled receptors. This receptor binds and responds to a variety of chemokines, ...
They also express the Fc receptors, CD16, CD23 and CD32; the complement receptors CD21 and CD35 and complement components. The ... Lymphocytes have receptors for such chemokines. For example, Naive T cells express the CCR7 receptor for the chemokine CCL21. ... and dendritic cells express a surface CCR7 receptor. This type of receptor interacts with the chemokine CCL21, produced by ... In mouse lymph nodes the HECs also express the chemokine CCL21 which will bind its receptor CCR7 on the naive T-cell and ...
Clynes, RA; Towers, TL; Presta, LG; Ravetch, JV (2000). "Inhibitory Fc receptors modulate in vivo cytoxicity against tumor ... The EGF pathway includes the receptors HER1 (EGFR), HER2, HER3, and HER4; the binding of ligands (e.g. EGF etc.) to HER ... It is specifically used for cancer that is HER2 receptor positive. It may be used by itself or together with other chemotherapy ... Trastuzumab works by binding to the HER2 receptor and slowing down cell duplication. Trastuzumab was approved for medical use ...
It is designed to bind less to Fc gamma receptors. It is being developed by BeiGene (after a period with Celgene Corp). ...
On one hand, an unknown protein induced by the stimulated Fc receptor reduces the Toll-like receptor transcription and ... but the virus-antibody complex also binds to the Fc-region antibody receptor (FcγR) on the immune cell. The cell internalizes ... the antibody interacts with Fc or complement receptors expressed on certain immune cells. These receptors promote virus- ... CD32 receptor is better understood compared to the complement receptor pathway. Cells that express this receptor are ...
Fc receptors, CD14 and Toll-like receptors (e.g., TLR4), and cytokine receptors (e.g., IFNGR1). Engagement of these receptors ... Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 also known as TREM-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TREM2 gene ... Myeloid cells express receptors belonging to the Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, such as TREM2, or to the C-type lectin ... "Entrez Gene: TREM2 triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2". Xing J, Titus AR, Humphrey MB (2015). "The TREM2-DAP12 ...
Gerber, JS; Mosser, DM (Jun 1, 2001). "Reversing lipopolysaccharide toxicity by ligating the macrophage Fc gamma receptors". ... Mreg population was firstly described after FcγR ligation by IgG complexes in occurrence of pathogen-associated molecular ... Its activation combined with FcγR ligation mediates chromatin remodeling at the il-10 locus, to make the promoter more ... patterns (e. g. lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid) acting through Toll-like receptors. This stimulation specifically ...
"Entrez Gene: FCRL1 Fc receptor-like 1". Taylor AI, Gould HJ, Sutton BJ, Calvert RA (2007). "The first avian Ig-like Fc receptor ... Fc receptor-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCRL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Davis RS, Wang YH, Kubagawa H, Cooper MD (Aug 2001). "Identification of a family of Fc receptor homologs with preferential B ... a new family of immunoglobulinlike receptors differentially expressed in B cells". Blood. 99 (8): 2662-2669. doi:10.1182/blood. ...
Fc receptor-like protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCRL5 gene. FCRL5 has also been designated as CD307 ( ... "Entrez Gene: FCRL5 Fc receptor-like 5". Nakayama Y, Weissman SM, Bothwell AL (2001). "BXMAS1 identifies a cluster of homologous ... Davis RS, Wang YH, Kubagawa H, Cooper MD (2001). "Identification of a family of Fc receptor homologs with preferential B cell ... Taylor AI, Gould HJ, Sutton BJ, Calvert RA (2007). "The first avian Ig-like Fc receptor family member combines features of ...
Fc fragment of IgM receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCMR gene. Fc receptors specifically bind to the Fc ... "Entrez Gene: Fc fragment of IgM receptor". Retrieved 2016-03-24. Sigruener A, Buechler C, Bared SM, Grandl M, Aslanidis C, ... FAIM3 encodes an Fc receptor for IgM (see MIM 147020) (Kubagawa et al., 2009 [PubMed 19858324]; Shima et al., 2010 [PubMed ...
"Entrez Gene: FCRL4 Fc receptor-like 4". Taylor AI, Gould HJ, Sutton BJ, Calvert RA (2007). "The first avian Ig-like Fc receptor ... Fc receptor-like protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCRL4 gene. FCRL4 is an inhibitory receptor expressed ... Davis RS, Wang YH, Kubagawa H, Cooper MD (Aug 2001). "Identification of a family of Fc receptor homologs with preferential B ... 2004). "Expression of the IRTA1 receptor identifies intraepithelial and subepithelial marginal zone B cells of the mucosa- ...
... Fc receptor-like 2". Davis RS, Wang YH, Kubagawa H, Cooper MD (2001). "Identification of a family of Fc receptor homologs ... Fc receptor-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCRL2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Taylor AI, Gould HJ, Sutton BJ, Calvert RA (2007). "The first avian Ig-like Fc receptor family member combines features of ... Xu MJ, Zhao R, Zhao ZJ (Feb 2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of SPAP1, an inhibitory receptor". Biochem Biophys ...
Davis RS, Dennis G Jr, Kubagawa H, Cooper MD (May 2002). "Fc receptor homologs (FcRH1-5) extend the Fc receptor family". The ... This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin receptor superfamily and is one of several Fc receptor-like glycoproteins ... "Entrez Gene: FCRL3 Fc receptor-like 3". Xu, Ming-jiang; Zhao Runxiang; Cao Hongxi; Zhao Zhizhuang Joe (May 2002). "SPAP2, an Ig ... Fc receptor-like protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCRL3 gene. ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Hugues, FC; Julien, D; Bors, V; Mougeot, G; Marche, J (1980). "Determination ...
"Fcγ receptors and toll-like receptor 9 synergize to drive immune complex-induced dendritic cell maturation". Cellular ... can induce the FcγR's signaling cascade. When compared to single antibodies binding to FcγRs, immune complexes binding to FcγRs ... Type I FcγRs, another type of IgG constant region receptor, can bind to IgG immune complexes and lead to the elimination of the ... B cells also express FcγRIIb, low affinity receptors specific to the constant region of IgG, on their surfaces. IgG immune ...
Fc)[54] with enhanced binding to Fc gamma receptors, which increase ADCC (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This ... to induce ADCC takes advantage of the fact that the displayed Fc glycan controls the antibody's affinity for Fc receptors.[56] ... The Fc portion of rituximab mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC ... "Fc-structure". Archived from the original on 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2007-12-03.. ...
Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc). PDGF. *Agonists: Becaplermin. *Platelet-derived growth factor (A, B, C, D) ... It is mainly used to treat cases of NSCLC that harbour mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.[5] ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ...
Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, Newman SA (August 2007). "Hidden in plain sight: Borrelia burgdorferi and the extracellular matrix". ... Yoshinari NH, Oyafuso LK, Monteiro FG, de Barros PJ, da Cruz FC, Ferreira LG, Bonasser F, Baggio D, Cossermelli W, et al. (1993 ... which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which may account for the fatigue and malaise observed with Lyme ...
Arnett FC, Hirsch TJ, Bias WB, Nishikai M, Reichlin M (1981). "The Jo-1 antibody system in myositis: relationships to clinical ... Later the level of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in disease were found to correlate with B8::DR3.[15] Later it was ... Hirsch TJ, Enlow RW, Bias WB, Arnett FC (October 1981). "HLA-D related (DR) antigens in various kinds of myositis". Hum. ... Goldberg MA, Arnett FC, Bias WB, Shulman LE (1976). "Histocompatibility antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus". Arthritis ...
... expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2),[30] which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface ... a member of the Fc family of immunoreceptors) could bind to IgG and turn the white blood cell into a macrophage. Therefore, ... Upon binding the transformed receptor translocates to the nucleus where it dimerises with ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor ... BaP induces cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) by binding to the AHR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) in the cytosol.[28] ...
... which causes calcium-induced calcium release from the ER Stores via ryanodine receptors. It depolarizes at -30mV and helps ...
Cruz FC, Javier Rubio F, Hope BT (December 2015). "Using c-fos to study neuronal ensembles in corticostriatal circuitry of ... The nociceptin/nociceptin opioid receptor system is involved in the reinforcing or conditioning effects of alcohol.[110] ... methylation of the lysine in position 4 of histone 3 located at the promoters of the c-fos and the C-C chemokine receptor 2 ( ...
... toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated and killer inhibitor receptors (KARs and KIRs), complement receptors, Fc receptors ... GABA receptors: GABA-A, GABA-C. GABA. Cl− , HCO−3 [11]. Glutamate receptors: NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, and Kainate receptor ... receptors, G protein-linked (metabotropic) hormone receptors, and enzyme-linked hormone receptors.[1] Intracellular receptors ... The insulin receptor is an example.. *Type 4: Nuclear receptors - While they are called nuclear receptors, they are actually ...
Mastociti imajo izražene receptorje FcεRI z visoko afiniteto do regije Fc imunoglobulinov E. IgE so sicer najbolj redki ... Vezava IgE na ta receptor je nepovratna in tako se površina mastocita obda z nase vezanimi IgE. IgE so proizvod plazmatk in so ... Aktivacija poteče preko znotrajceličih domen površinskih receptorjev za regijo Fc. Podoben mehanizem naj bi veljal tudi pri ...
The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ... regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity. • neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. • ... NMDA receptor activity[edit]. NMDA receptor activation is essential to producing the activity-dependent molecular changes ...
Yung LY, Tsim KW, Pei G, Wong YH (2000). „Immunoglobulin G1 Fc fragment-tagged human opioid receptor-like receptor retains the ... Nociceptinski receptor (NOP, orfaninski FQ receptor, kapa tip 3 opioidni receptor) je protein koji je kod čoveka kodiran OPRL1 ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ... Opioid Receptors: NOP". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
Luft FC (October 2000). "Hypertensive nephrosclerosis-a cause of end-stage renal disease?". Nephrol Dial Transplant. 15 (10): ... ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors and aldosterone antagonists, are pharmacological ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Erythropoietin-Fc. *Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA/Mircera). *Peginesatide. *Pegol sihematide (EPO-018B) ... This receptor is expressed by activated, but not by resting, T and B cells. TRAF2 and TRAF5 can interact with this receptor, ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity. • nerve growth factor binding. ...
Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc). PDGF. *Agonists: Becaplermin. *Platelet-derived growth factor (A, B, C, D) ...
The receptor for PDGF, PDGFR is classified as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), a type of cell surface receptor. Two types of ... Like many other growth factors that have been linked to disease, PDGF and its receptors have provided a market for receptor ... Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc). PDGF. *Agonists: Becaplermin. *Platelet-derived growth factor (A, B, C, D) ... "Isolation of a novel receptor cDNA establishes the existence of two PDGF receptor genes". Science. 243 (4892): 800-4. doi: ...
TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ... Victor FC, Gottlieb AB (2002). "TNF-alpha and apoptosis: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis". J Drugs ... tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... receptor biosynthetic process. • activation of MAPK activity. • immune response. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. • positive ...
1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin); 5 - ... Fc ընկալիչների տեսակ, որը կոչվում է FcεRI), որոնք առկա են իմոն համակարգի մի շարք բջիջների մակերեսներին (բազոֆիլներ, պարարտ ...
Hoffman M, Church FC (Aug 1993). "Response of blood leukocytes to thrombin receptor peptides". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 54 ... Proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) also known as Protease-activated receptor 1 or coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor ... Howell DC, Laurent GJ, Chambers RC (Apr 2002). "Role of thrombin and its major cellular receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 ... "Molecular cloning of a functional thrombin receptor reveals a novel proteolytic mechanism of receptor activation". Cell. 64 (6 ...
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis. • protein complex assembly. • actin filament organization. • ... T cell receptor signaling pathway. • T cell activation. • regulation of catalytic activity. • Rho protein signal transduction. ... proteins and the Arp2/3 complex link T cell receptor (TCR) signaling to the actin cytoskeleton". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... mediated actin polymerization to T cell antigen receptor endocytosis". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 194 (12): 1777-87 ...
Fc). The two subunits of TCR are twisted together. Whereas the antibody uses its Fc region to bind to Fc Receptors on ... The TCR receptor complex is an octomeric complex of variable TCR receptor α and β chains with three dimeric signaling modules ... The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes,[1] that is responsible for ... TCR co-receptors[edit]. The signal from the T-cell complex is enhanced by simultaneous binding of the MHC molecules by a ...
IGF-2 exerts its effects by binding to the IGF-1 receptor and to the short isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A or exon 11-).[ ... Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc). PDGF. *Agonists: Becaplermin. *Platelet-derived growth factor (A, B, C, D) ... 8] IGF2 may also bind to the IGF-2 receptor (also called the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor), which acts as a ... insulin receptor binding. • hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • insulin-like growth ...
Secreted IgE circulates in the blood and binds to an IgE-specific receptor (a kind of Fc receptor called FcεRI) on the surface ... Cross-linking of the IgE and Fc receptors occurs when more than one IgE-receptor complex interacts with the same allergenic ... 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - mast cell. 7 - newly ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ...
... type I Fcε receptor), the high-affinity IgE receptor. *FcεRII (type II Fcε receptor), also known as CD23, the low-affinity IgE ... Receptors[edit]. IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells ... Fc receptors are also found on eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages and platelets in humans. There are two types of Fcε ... IgE can upregulate the expression of both types of Fcε receptors. FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen- ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Erythropoietin-Fc. *Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA/Mircera). *Peginesatide. *Pegol sihematide (EPO-018B) ...
... the androgen receptor, and the vitamin D receptor.[26] TMPRSS2-ETS gene family fusion, specifically TMPRSS2-ERG or TMPRSS2-ETV1 ... Hamdy FC, Dearnaley DP, Muir KR, Smith C, Bagnato M, Ardern-Jones AT, Hall AL, O'Brien LT, Gehr-Swain BN, Wilkinson RA, Cox A, ... GnRH receptor agonists, such as leuprolide and goserelin, were subsequently developed and used to treat prostate cancer.[171][ ... The androgen receptor helps prostate cancer cells to survive and is a target for many anti cancer research studies; so far, ...
ALT-803 is an IL-15 superagonist complex that includes an IL-15 mutant (IL-15N72D) fused to an IL-15 receptor α/IgG1 Fc fusion ... A hematopoietin receptor, the IL-15 receptor, that binds IL-15 propagates its function. Some subunits of the IL-15 receptor are ... Schluns KS, Stoklasek T, Lefrançois L (August 2005). "The roles of interleukin-15 receptor alpha: trans-presentation, receptor ... cytokine receptor binding. • cytokine activity. Cellular component. • cell nucleus. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ...
transmembrane-ephrin receptor activity. • protein binding. • ephrin receptor binding. Cellular component. • anchored component ... The ephrins and EPH-related receptors comprise the largest subfamily of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases and have been ... Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc). PDGF. *Agonists: Becaplermin. *Platelet-derived growth factor (A, B, C, D) ... Zhou R (1998). "The Eph family receptors and ligands". Pharmacol. Ther. 77 (3): 151-81. doi:10.1016/S0163-7258(97)00112-5. PMID ...
... due to the presence of immune receptors called Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes ... Apostólico Jde, S; Lunardelli, VA; Coirada, FC; Boscardin, SB; Rosa, DS (2016). "Adjuvants: Classification, Modus Operandi, and ... Toll-like receptors[edit]. The ability of the immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in ... Takeda K, Akira S (January 2005). "Toll-like receptors in innate immunity". International Immunology. 17 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1093 ...
Helwig FC, Schutz CB (1932). "A liver kidney syndrome. Clinical pathological and experimental studies". Surg Gynecol Obstet. 55 ... which acts on mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal convoluted tubule.[8][12] This is believed to be a key step in the ...
Fc receptors (FcRs) are cell surface molecules that mediate interactions between cells and immunoglobulins. Phagocytic cells, ... Kurosaki, T., Gander, I., and Ravetch, J. V., 1991, A subunit common to an IgG Fc receptor and the T-cell receptor mediates ... and n chains of T-cell receptor and the chain of Fc receptors, Nature (London) 347: 189-191.Google Scholar ... Ratio of complement receptor over Fc-receptor III expression: A sensitive parameter to monitor granulocyte-macrophage colony- ...
Fc receptor biology.. Daëron M1.. Author information. 1. Laboratoire dImmunologie Cellulaire et Clinique, INSERM U.255, ... This review deals with membrane Fc receptors (FcR) of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It is focused on the mechanisms by which ... The fate of internalized receptor-ligand complexes depends on defined sequences in the intracytoplasmic domain of the receptors ... The coaggregation of antigen receptors or of FcR having ITAMs with FcR having immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs ( ...
Receptors for the Fc region of immunoglobulins (Igs) play a central role during an immune response as they link humoral ... In humans, five major Fc receptor classes are known, FcγR for IgG, FcαR for IgA, FcɛR for IgE, FcμR for IgM and FcδR for IgD. ... Fc engagement of Fc receptors. Given their vital role in maintaining balanced immunity, dysregulation of Fc receptor function ... FcγRIIa and FcγRIIc) or on the associated γ chain (FcγRI, FcγRIIIa, FcɛRI and FcαRI). Next to its role in signalling, the γ ...
FcγRIB) and low-affinity (CD32 FcγRIIA; CD16a, FcγRIIIA; CD16b, FcγRIIIB) Fc receptors, similar to HEK293s (Fig. 5B). In ... Cytosolic Fc receptor TRIM21 inhibits seeded tau aggregation. William A. McEwan, Benjamin Falcon, Marina Vaysburd, Dean Clift, ... TRIM21 is the only protective Fc receptor in SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma cells. (A) Levels of seeding in SHSY-5Y cells treated as ... 2013) Intracellular antibody-bound pathogens stimulate immune signaling via the Fc receptor TRIM21. Nat Immunol 14(4):327-336. ...
Fc-alpha receptorsEdit. Only one Fc receptor belongs to the FcαR subgroup, which is called FcαRI (or CD89).[10] FcαRI is found ... FcγR), those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR ... Fc-gamma receptorsEdit. All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are the most important Fc ... FcγRI (CD64), FcγRIIA (CD32), FcγRIIB (CD32), FcγRIIIA (CD16a), FcγRIIIB (CD16b), which differ in their antibody affinities due ...
FcγR), those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR ... Only one Fc receptor belongs to the FcαR subgroup, which is called FcαRI (or CD89). FcαRI is found on the surface of ... All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are the most important Fc receptors for inducing ... This family includes several members, FcγRI (CD64), FcγRIIA (CD32), FcγRIIB (CD32), FcγRIIIA (CD16a), FcγRIIIB (CD16b), which ...
Lymphocytes bearing Fc receptors for IgE. I. Presence of human and rat T lymphocytes with Fce receptors, J. Immunol. 122: 2577. ... Biochemical signal transmitted by Fc receptors: Phospholipase A2 activity of Fc 2b receptor of murine macrophage cell line ... Yodoi, J., and Ishizaka, K., 1979b, Lymphocytes bearing receptors for IgE. III. Transition of Fc R (+) cells to FceR (+) cells ... cyclic monophosphate mediated by Fcγ2a and Fcγ2b receptors of a murine macrophage-like cell line (P388D1), J. Immunol. 129: ...
Each Fc receptor is able to attach itself to an Fc... ... A Fc receptor is a type of component of immune system cells ... Fab regions attach to antigens while the Fc region binds to Fc receptors on the surface of a cell. An Fc receptor-like molecule ... Each Fc receptor is able to attach itself to what is called the Fc region on an antibody. Antibodies are special proteins ... This means that different Fc receptors also exist, each able to bind to an antibody at its Fc region. Antibodies are also known ...
Our in vivo results are consistent with in vitro assays indicating that interaction of Fc-receptor-bearing effector cells with ... but also on its interaction with Fc receptors on effector cells, which may act to reduce virus yield from infected cells. This ... dramatic decrease in the ability of a broadly neutralizing antibody to protect macaques against SHIV challenge when Fc receptor ... the role of antibody Fc-mediated effector functions is unclear. Here we report that there is a ...
Complement receptors and Fc receptors, expressed on effector cells, have a synergistic role in antibody‐mediated immune ... Complement System and Fc Receptors: Genetics. Anja Roos, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands Leendert A ... Davis RS, Yui‐Hsi Wang Y‐H, Kubagawa H and Cooper MD (2001) Identification of a family of Fc receptor homologs with ... Ravetch JV and Clynes RA (1998) Divergent roles for Fc receptors and complement in vivo. Annual Reviews in Immunology 16: 421- ...
Fc receptor-like molecules (FCRLs) are a class of proteins that resemble Fc receptors. They have been characterized in a number ... FCRLB Fc receptor Davis RS (2007). "Fc receptor-like molecules". Annual Review of Immunology. 25: 525-60. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Unlike the classical Fc receptors, there is no strong evidence that suggests that FCRLs bind to the Fc portion of antibodies. ... "Immunoregulatory Roles for Fc Receptor-Like Molecules". In Ahmed R, Honjo T (eds.). Negative Co-Receptors and Ligands. Current ...
Users should recognize that it is essential to use a monomeric Fc receptor, as this type of receptor represents its natural ... Key Features of Fc Receptor Proteins. High Purity. ACROBiosystems production team performs both SDS-PAGE and HPLC analyses to ... However, evaluating the Fc receptor interaction is typically achieved by SPR.. This method preference can be attributed to the ... The formation of oligomers during the production of Fc receptors can result in an artificially-enhanced binding interaction as ...
Cross-linking of Fc gamma receptor I (Fc gamma RI) and receptor II(Fc gamma RII) on monocytic cells activates a signal ... Inhibition of Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis by a nonphagocytic Fcγ receptor HUNTER S ... Chimeric receptors composed of phosphoinositide 3-kinase domains and Fcγ receptor ligand-binding domains mediate phagocytosis ... The inositol 3-phosphatase PTEN negatively regulates Fcγ receptor signaling, but supports Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in ...
Receptors for the Fc region of IgG from neonatal rat intestinal brush borders were solubilized using 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) ... Isolation and characterization of an Fc receptor from neonatal rat small intestine.. Simister NE, Rees AR. ...
Associates with the Fc epsilon RI gamma 2 receptor inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of gamma 2. UniProt ... Binds to the Fc region of immunoglobulins alpha. Mediates several functions including cytokine production. UniProt ...
Compare Anti-Fc receptor like 1 Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... Anti-Fc receptor like 1 Antibody Products. Anti-Fc receptor like 1 antibodies are available from several suppliers. In humans, ... The protein may also be known as CD307a, FCRH1, IFGP1, IRTA5, Fc receptor-like protein 1, and IFGP family protein 1. The ... Your search returned 139 Fc receptor like 1 Antibodies across 24 suppliers. ...
For the purpose of this study, other Fc receptors such as FcαR, FcεR or FcRn are not discussed extensively, as IgG-based ... Communication of IgG antibodies with the immune system is controlled and mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), membrane-bound ... Keywords: glycosylation, IgG, Fc gamma receptor, therapeutic monoclonal antibody ... In addition, FcγRs as therapeutics and therapeutic targets are discussed, and insight into and comment on the therapeutic ...
In many cases this process occurs via cellular receptors for IgG on immune cells, the Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). These ... Chapter 7: Inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis by IVIg is independent of IgG-Fc sialylation and FcγRIIb in human ... Chapter 2: Fc-gamma receptor polymorphisms differentially influence susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus ... A field guide to human Fc-gamma receptors. Subtitle. Genetics, cellular expression and interaction with immunoglobulins. ...
... Nature. 2007 Sep 6;449(7158):101-4. doi ... Our in vivo results are consistent with in vitro assays indicating that interaction of Fc-receptor-bearing effector cells with ... dramatic decrease in the ability of a broadly neutralizing antibody to protect macaques against SHIV challenge when Fc receptor ... the role of antibody Fc-mediated effector functions is unclear. Here we report that there is a ...
The results showed that M-CTX-Fc had a higher affinity than D-CTX-Fc and that 100 nM of M-CTX-Fc saturated the binding (Figure ... To evaluate the internalization of CTX-Fc-BNCs, the cells were incubated with M-CTX-Fc, human IgG-BNCs, or CTX-Fc-BNCs at 37°C ... M: M-CTX-Fc; D: D-CTX-Fc. Bars = 10 μm. (b) The binding ability of M/D-CTX-Fcs was evaluated by EIA. A172 cells were fixed on ... Preparation of CTX-Fc-BNCs. We mixed 2 nM (10 μg/mL) ZZ-tagged bionanocapsules (ZZ-BNCs) [19] with M-CTX-Fc or human IgG (Sigma ...
This review summarises our current understanding of TRIM21s role as a cytosolic Fc receptor and briefly discusses pathological ... that traffic surface-bound antibodies into the cell during infection recruit TRIM21 via a high affinity interaction between Fc ... TRIM21 has emerged as an atypical Fc receptor that is broadly conserved and widely expressed in the cytoplasm of mammalian ... TRIM21 has emerged as an atypical Fc receptor that is broadly conserved and widely expressed in the cytoplasm of mammalian ...
Targeting the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) presents an innovative and potentially more effective, safer, and more convenient ... Neonatal Fc receptor antagonist efgartigimod safely and sustainably reduces IgGs in humans. ... Neonatal Fc receptor antagonist efgartigimod safely and sustainably reduces IgGs in humans. ...
... requires that the Fc portion of a mAb ligate activating IgG Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), e.g., FcγRI (CD64), FcγRIIa (CD32a), FcγRIIc ... isoforms of IgG Fcγ receptor (FcγR) II (CD32). The balance between these divergent receptors establishes a threshold of DC ... FcγR, Fcγ receptor; [3H]TdR, methyl-[3H]thymidine; IVIG, intravenous Ig; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity; moDC, monocyte- ... Amigorena, S. Fc gamma receptors and cross-presentation in dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 2002. 195:F1-F3. View this article via ...
Binding of IgA-opsonized particles (e.g., bacteria, viruses) to Fc alpha R may trigger a plethora of cell-mediated immune ... Receptors for the Fc region of IgA are expressed by many human cell types, especially phagocytes located in mucosal areas, ... Evidence exists in support of receptors for IgA (distinct from Fc alpha RI) on human T and B cells. IgA Fc receptors may, ... Genetic characterization showed Fc alpha RI to be a more distantly related member of the Ig receptor gene family. Recently, Fc ...
Fc-receptor explanation free. What is Fc-receptor? Meaning of Fc-receptor medical term. What does Fc-receptor mean? ... Looking for online definition of Fc-receptor in the Medical Dictionary? ... Fc receptor. (redirected from Fc-receptor) Fc re·cep·tor. receptors present on a variety of cells for the Fc fragment of ... Fc-receptor , definition of Fc-receptor by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Fc-receptor ...
... which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules. ... Fc Receptor. Known as: Receptors, Fc, Fc Receptors, FcR Expand. Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B- ... Receptors for the Fc domain of IgG (Fc gamma R) provide a critical link between specific humoral responses and the cellular… ... In the past year, significant progress in the area of Fc receptor biology has been made in three areas: identification of the… ...
Fcγ receptors bind IgG and may be activatory (FcγRI, IIa, IIIa, IIIb, and IV) or inhibitory (FcγRIIb) (1). FcγRIIb inhibits ... A polymorphism of the gene encoding the activatory Fcγ receptor FcγRIIa, which leads to a histidine or arginine within the ... Peripheral blood from FcγRIIbI/I232, FcγRIIbI/T232, and FcγRIIbT/T232 volunteers was subjected to Ficoll-Hypaque density ... Peripheral blood from FcγRIIbI/I232, FcγRIIbI/T232, and FcγRIIbT/T232 volunteers was subjected to Ficoll-Hypaque density ...
What is Fc receptor? Meaning of Fc receptor as a legal term. What does Fc receptor mean in law? ... Definition of Fc receptor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Fc receptor legal definition of Fc receptor https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Fc+receptor ... receptor. (redirected from Fc receptor). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to Fc ...
Both features are solely due to its interaction with a cellular receptor named the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), also known as ... the Brambell receptor. FcRn resides within endosomal compartments. It directs IgG taken up by pinocytosis back out of cells to ... Both features are solely due to its interaction with a cellular receptor named the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), also known as ... FcRn is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related receptor, and knowledge of how FcRn binds both its ligands and ...
Antibody-enhanced infection by HIV-1 via Fc receptor-mediated entry Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... express the CD4 molecule and Fc receptors (FcR) for immunoglobulin G (IgG). To explore the possibility that FcR mediate HIV-1 ...
  • Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the classical Fc receptors, there is no strong evidence that suggests that FCRLs bind to the Fc portion of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that when misfolded tau assemblies enter the cell, they can be detected and neutralized via a danger response mediated by tau-associated antibodies and the cytosolic Fc receptor tripartite motif protein 21 (TRIM21). (pnas.org)
  • An Fc receptor-like molecule has also been detected on immune cells known as B lymphocytes , but its function is not fully understood and it does not appear to bind to Fc regions on antibodies. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, the mechanism(s) by which neutralizing antibodies afford protection against HIV is not understood and, in particular, the role of antibody Fc-mediated effector functions is unclear. (nature.com)
  • The ACROBiosystems' Quality Control (QC) team utilizes the Biacore platform to test all Fc receptors against reference antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • Anti-Fc receptor like 1 antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 139 Fc receptor like 1 Antibodies across 24 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Communication of IgG antibodies with the immune system is controlled and mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), membrane-bound proteins, which relay the information sensed and gathered by antibodies to the immune system. (dovepress.com)
  • Recent information suggests that this receptor glycan modification is also important for the interaction with antibodies and downstream immune response. (dovepress.com)
  • For the purpose of this study, other Fc receptors such as FcαR, FcεR or FcRn are not discussed extensively, as IgG-based antibodies are currently the only therapeutic antibody-based products on the market. (dovepress.com)
  • For instance, auto-antibodies directed against a patient's own blood cells cause destruction of these cells via FcγRs on macrophages in the spleen. (uva.nl)
  • Viruses that traffic surface-bound antibodies into the cell during infection recruit TRIM21 via a high affinity interaction between Fc and TRIM21 PRYSPRY domain. (mdpi.com)
  • This review summarises our current understanding of TRIM21's role as a cytosolic Fc receptor and briefly discusses pathological circumstances where intracellular antibodies have been described, or are hypothesized to occur, and may benefit from further investigations of the role of TRIM21. (mdpi.com)
  • Immunoglobulin superfamily receptor translocation associated 2 protein on lymphoma cell lines and hairy cell leukemia cells detected by novel monoclonal antibodies. (wikigenes.org)
  • They include tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), T cell checkpoint blockade, and TAA-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) T cell-based immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibodies specific for bovine type II collagen (CII) and Fcγ receptors play a major role in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (dovepress.com)
  • Studies of FcγR function have been aided by the use of bispecific antibodies to link cells or pathogens to specific host cell molecules, including FcγR. (springer.com)
  • Anderson CL, Guyre PM, Whitin JC, Ryan DH, Looney RJ, Fanger MW: Monoclonal antibodies to Fc receptors for IgG on human mononuclear phagocytes. (springer.com)
  • Guyre PM, Graziano RF, Vance BA, Morganelli PM, Fanger MW: Monoclonal antibodies that bind to distinct epitopes on FcγRI are able to trigger receptor function. (springer.com)
  • Although their contribution has long been underexposed, it has recently become clear that human Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), which are receptors for the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, play a critical role in this process by controlling tissue- and pathogen-specific cytokine production. (frontiersin.org)
  • In particular, agonistic antibodies that target tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members have shown dependence on expression of the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIB. (rupress.org)
  • It remains unclear if engagement of FcγRIIB also extends to the activities of antibodies targeting immunoregulatory TNFRs expressed by T cells. (rupress.org)
  • We found that although FcγRIIB was dispensable for the in vivo efficacy of anti-GITR antibodies, in contrast, activating FcγRs were essential. (rupress.org)
  • We define a common mechanism that correlated with tumor efficacy, whereby antibodies that coengaged activating FcγRs expressed by tumor-associated leukocytes facilitated the selective elimination of intratumoral T cell populations, particularly T reg cells. (rupress.org)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to nucleic acid molecules, including fusion constructs, having catalytic activity and the use of same in glycosylation engineering of host cells to generate polypeptides with improved therapeutic properties, including antibodies with increased Fc receptor binding and increased effector function. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We describe microneutralization assays that used automated 96-well enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-SPOT) readout instrumentation to measure human anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in CV-1 cells that were stably transfected to express human FcγRIIA (CD32) using conventional Vero cells as a comparator. (ajtmh.org)
  • IgG antibodies can activate immune effector function through formation of IC and their interaction with Fc? (soton.ac.uk)
  • Objective To investigate the association of FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIA polymorphisms with the response to rituximab treatment in a cohort of patients with polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy (PNP-IgM) with and without antimyelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
  • The polymorphism in FcγRIIIa receptor was assessed in HIV-infected Indian individuals with or without HIV-specific ADCC antibodies and its influence on the magnitude of HIV-specific ADCC responses was analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This polymorphism is in the exon 4 and is reported to alter the protein confirmation and thus influences binding affinity of FcγRIIIa and Fc region of antibodies involved in ADCC [ 14 , 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FcγRs play an important role in determining the therapeutic activity of monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs) by their ability to activate the cytotoxic activity of FcγR-positive cells such as NK cells, monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils and by increasing antigen presentation by DC when ligated by the Fc portion of therapeutic antibodies. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • In addition, recent studies have examined the interaction between FcRn and the Fc portion of IgG with the aim of either improving the serum half-life of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies or reducing the half-life of pathogenic antibodies. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • Fc receptors (FcR) are expressed on immune cells and bind to the Fc tail portion of antibodies. (uio.no)
  • Dr. Leusen is the head of the Immunotherapy group at the Laboratory for Translational Immunology, and her research is focused on the working mechanisms of therapeutic antibodies and Fc receptors in cancer, autoimmune disease, and infection. (uio.no)
  • All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are the most important Fc receptors for inducing phagocytosis of opsonized (marked) microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chapter addresses exclusively receptor-mediated phagocytosis. (springer.com)
  • When an Fc receptor on an immune cell binds to an antibody and its attached antigen , this can trigger phagocytosis, where the antibody-coated antigen is consumed. (wisegeek.com)
  • The most important of these modifications is glycosylation, the addition of conserved glycans to the antibody Fc region, which is critical for its interaction with the immune system and induction of effector activities such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, complement activation and phagocytosis. (dovepress.com)
  • In vitro , the human lupus associated FcγRIIb polymorphism enhances phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes. (pnas.org)
  • FcγRIIb inhibits many features of the immune response, including FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, proinflammatory cytokine production, antigen presentation, and antibody responses ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • CD64 is the high affinity receptor for IgG and is involved in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), phagocytosis, and regulation of cytokine production. (fishersci.com)
  • FcγR trigger such diverse functions as immune complex clearance, phagocytosis of opsonized pathogens, reactive oxygen intermediate and enzyme secretion, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (springer.com)
  • Internalization correlated strongly with FcγRIIb expression on normal and malignant B cells, and resulted in reduced macrophage phagocytosis of mAb-coated targets. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Sera obtained from humans in P. falciparum -endemic regions and from P. vivax -infected Saimiri sciureus were assayed for their ability to inhibit Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Equally cross-reactive Fc receptor-mediated functional activities, including ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activities, were present with both immune sera and isolated MAbs, confirming the induction of nonneutralizing functional hMAbs by the DNA prime-protein boost vaccination. (asm.org)
  • Fc-gamma receptor-IIb (FcγRIIb) and its ligand are reported to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (mdpi.com)
  • Shu T, Song X, Cui X, Ge W, Gao R, Wang J. Fc Gamma Receptor IIb Expressed in Hepatocytes Promotes Lipid Accumulation and Gluconeogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • CD64 is a high-affinity Fc-gamma receptor and is one of three related gene family members located on chromosome 1. (fishersci.com)
  • Simmons D, Seed B: The Fc gamma receptor of natural killer cells is a phospholipid-linked membrane protein. (drugbank.ca)
  • Bux J, Stein EL, Bierling P, Fromont P, Clay M, Stroncek D, Santoso S: Characterization of a new alloantigen (SH) on the human neutrophil Fc gamma receptor IIIb. (drugbank.ca)
  • In this study, four Fc gamma receptor single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one copy number variation (CNV) were studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • Swedish and Norwegian pSS patients (N = 527) and controls (N = 528) were genotyped for the Fc gamma receptor gene variant FCGR2A H131R (rs1801274) by the Illumina GoldenGate assay. (diva-portal.org)
  • The lack of association of pSS with Fc gamma receptor gene variants indicates that defective immune complex clearance may not be as important in pSS pathogenesis as in SLE, and may point to important differences between SLE and pSS. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Fc-gamma receptors differ in their affinity for IgG and likewise the different IgG subclasses have unique affinities for each of the Fc gamma receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, by creating steric hindrance, fucose containing CH2-84.4 glycans reduce IgG affinity for FcγRIIIA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, G0 glycans, which lack galactose and terminate instead with GlcNAc moieties, have increased affinity for FcγRIIIA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another receptor can also bind IgA, although it has higher affinity for another antibody called IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of FcεR are known: the high-affinity receptor FcεRI is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (it has two Ig-like domains). (wikipedia.org)
  • the low-affinity receptor FcεRII (CD23) is a C-type lectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside‐out regulation of Fc receptors influences their affinity for immunoglobulin ligands. (els.net)
  • This method preference can be attributed to the fact that traditional ELISA techniques are not appropriate for low-affinity receptors (such as CD16 and CD32). (news-medical.net)
  • Receptors for the Fc region of IgG from neonatal rat intestinal brush borders were solubilized using 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propane sulfonate and purified by affinity chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • To confer BNCs a high affinity for the IgG-Fc domain, the pre-S1 region of L protein was replaced with the ZZ motif in protein A derived from Staphylococcus aureus [ 19 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The IgA receptor present on myeloid cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes (Fc alpha RI or CD89) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that binds both IgA isotypes with similar affinity. (nih.gov)
  • Besides high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), human basophils express activating (FcγRIIA) and inhibitory (FcγRIIB) low-affinity IgG receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • They express high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) that are associated with the two ITAM-containing subunits, FcRγ and FcRβ. (jimmunol.org)
  • IgG were long ago reported to bind to human basophils ( 18 ) on which two low-affinity IgG receptors were subsequently identified: FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB ( 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Human basophils also express minute amounts of the GPI-anchored low-affinity IgG receptor FcγRIIIB ( 22 ), whose biological properties are unclear. (jimmunol.org)
  • Low affinity receptor. (drugbank.ca)
  • Gessner JE, Grussenmeyer T, Kolanus W, Schmidt RE: The human low affinity immunoglobulin G Fc receptor III-A and III-B genes. (drugbank.ca)
  • In contrast, internalized receptors bound to a monovalent ligand, the high affinity Fab fragment of the antireceptor mAb 2.4G2, escape degradation by rapidly recycling to the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • Fc-hDectin-1a is expressed in CHO cells and purified by protein G affinity chromatography. (invivogen.com)
  • The analysis of the human high affinity IgE receptor Fc epsilon Ri alpha from multiple crystal forms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have solved the structure of the human high affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI alpha, in six different crystal forms, showing the structure in 15 different chemical environments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This antibody recognizes CD16 (FcgammaRIII), the low-affinity receptor for IgG with an apparent molecular weight of 50-80 kDa. (biotium.com)
  • We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFc\(\epsilon\)RI), the high affinity receptor for IgE. (harvard.edu)
  • Treatment of individual FcγR knock-out mice revealed the high-affinity IgG receptor, FcγRI (CD64), to represent the central FcγR for TA99-induced antitumor effects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gel filtration and biosensor binding experiments revealed that, unlike host FcγRs but similar to the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) Fc receptor gE-gI, gp68 binds to the C H 2-C H 3 interdomain interface of the Fcγ dimer with a nanomolar affinity and a 2:1 stoichiometry. (asm.org)
  • In basophils, mast cells, and the RBL-2H3 tumor mast cell line, cross-linking the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (Fc epsilon R1) stimulates a series of responses, particularly the activation of phospholipase C (PLC), that lead to allergic and other immediate hypersensitivity reactions. (asm.org)
  • Calcium influx is thought to be required for the secretion of inflammatory mediators, activation of transcription factors, and the elaboration of cytokines by rat mast cells stimulated through the high affinity receptor (FcεRI) for IgE. (rupress.org)
  • Background: The role of the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in IgE-mediated immune responses of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is poorly understood. (harvard.edu)
  • They include the IgG receptors (FcγR), high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεR), IgA receptor (FcαR) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor for IgA and IgM. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • The pronounced differences in affinity for the HSV-1 Fc receptor between immunoglobulins from, for example, mouse and rabbit may influence the interpretation of animal studies with this virus. (lu.se)
  • The classes of FcR's are also distinguished by the cells that express them (macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, T and B cells) and the signalling properties of each receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • FcαRI is found on the surface of neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, some macrophages (including Kupffer cells), and some dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fc receptors are found on a number of cells in the immune system including phagocytes like macrophages and monocytes, granulocytes like neutrophils and eosinophils, and lymphocytes of the innate immune system (natural killer cells) or adaptive immune system (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phagocytes, types of cells with IgG-binding Fc receptors on their surface, include white blood cells known as macrophages and neutrophils. (wisegeek.com)
  • Furthermore, we studied cellular expression of the FcγRs on immune cells in relation to FCGR genetic variation, including an analysis of human splenic macrophages, which had not been characterized in detail before. (uva.nl)
  • A receptor on phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages) that binds Fc fragments of immunoglobulins G and E. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, polygenic murine SLE models have a deletion in the FcγRIIb promoter associated with reduced receptor expression on macrophages and activated B cells ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • TNFa is released by activated inflammatory white blood cells (macrophages) and we have demonstrated that activation of the Fc receptor triggers this release. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Monocytes and macrophages, which may play a central role in the pathogenesis of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), express the CD4 molecule and Fc receptors (FcR) for immunoglobulin G (IgG). (sciencemag.org)
  • There are no systematic studies examining the role of Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs) and macrophages in anti-ganglioside Ab-mediated nodal and axonal injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • FcγRII/III targeted CII-peptide complexes bound to marginal zone macrophages and dendritic cells, and significantly elevated the synthesis of peptide-specific IgG2a. (dovepress.com)
  • The inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIB, functions to modulate activating FcγR-mediated effector mechanisms in immune cells that coexpress both FcγR classes, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. (rupress.org)
  • Methods and expected results: Immunoglobulin molecules can modulate the inflammatory response by binding to specific receptors on the surface of macrophages and other immune cells. (wingsforlife.com)
  • This study aims to test the hypothesis that IC formed in the retina induce an inflammatory response following interaction with activating Fc?Rs expressed on microglia and/or macrophages, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Although less macrophages were detected within the synovium, no differences were found in the number of mature osteoclasts present at locations of bone erosion (32±13 osteoclasts/section in FcγRI, II, II, IV -/- versus 28±9 osteoclasts/section in WT), suggesting that mainly the activity of osteoclasts was affected in the KO animals. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions FcγRs promote bone erosion in AIA by enhancing influx of macrophages within the synovium and release of factors such as IL-1β and S100A8 able to stimulate osteoclast activity. (bmj.com)
  • FACS analysis of in vitro differentiated osteoclasts showed that FcγRIIB expression was not significantly different on osteoclasts compared with macrophages, whereas all activating FcγR classes were strongly downregulated. (bmj.com)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) enhances Fc receptor (FcR) expression on isolated rat brain microglia and peritoneal macrophages but has little effect on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression. (open.ac.uk)
  • An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells, and are detected on many types of hematopoietic cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, and NK cells. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • Recent studies in Fc receptor-deficient nude mice show that the anti-tumor effects of mAbs such as those directed at-CD20 (Rituximab) and HER2 (Herceptin) require the presence of the signal transducing Fcγ chain that is involved in the activation of FcγRI and FcγRIII receptors that are expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • FcεRI is also expressed on antigen-presenting cells, and controls the production of important immune mediators called cytokines that promote inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FcRs bind the Fc regions of immunoglobulins, thus establishing contact between the cell that carries FcRs on its surface and the antigen bound to the Fab region of the immunoglobulin. (springer.com)
  • The coaggregation of antigen receptors or of FcR having ITAMs with FcR having immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) negatively regulates cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • Complement receptors and Fc receptors, expressed on effector cells, have a synergistic role in antibody‐mediated immune modulation and antigen clearance. (els.net)
  • The chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are molecules capable of redirecting cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on the surface of malignant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mouse macrophage Fc receptors specific for IgG1/IgG2b mediate the binding and pinocytic uptake of soluble IgG-containing antibody-antigen complexes. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, it is likely that the down-regulation and degradation of Fc receptors which occurs during the endocytosis of antibody-antigen complexes is due to the transport of internalized receptors to lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • FcγRs have long been known to mediate a large variety of functions, such as antigen or pathogen uptake, degranulation, antigen presentation, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) [reviewed by Nimmerjahn and Ravetch ( 3 ) and Guilliams et al. (frontiersin.org)
  • After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface Fc\(\epsilon\)RI, we detect sFc\(\epsilon\)RI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. (harvard.edu)
  • In this study we investigated the role of FcγRs in osteoclast-mediated bone erosion comparing development of immune complex mediated antigen induced arthritis (AIA) between mice lacking all FcγRs (FcγRI, II, III, IV -/- ) and their wild type controls. (bmj.com)
  • Immune complex-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis: role for the inhibitory Fc γ receptor IIB in bone erosion in antigen-induced arthritis? (bmj.com)
  • Compared with wild-type mice, bone erosion and cathepsin K staining were clearly enhanced during antigen-induced arthritis in the knee joints of mice deficient for the inhibitory FcγRIIB. (bmj.com)
  • Studies with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have shown that simultaneous binding of human anti-HSV IgG to both an HSV antigen with its Fab arms and to gE-gI with its Fcγ region, a phenomenon referred to as antibody bipolar bridging, protects the virus and infected cells from IgG-mediated immune responses ( 14 , 16 , 36 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • gE-gI-mediated endocytosis of anti-HSV IgG/HSV antigen complexes followed by degradation of anti-HSV IgG has also been proposed based on the finding that gE-gI binds Fcγ at pH 7.4 but does not bind at pH 6.0 ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • The ADCC is mediated primarily by natural killer cell activated through the binding of FcγRIIIa receptor to the Fc portion of antibody bound to the antigen expressed on the infected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tyrosine-phosphorylated 33-kDa beta subunit and 9- to 11-kDa gamma subunit of the Fc epsilon R1 are additionally phosphorylated on serine and theonine residues, respectively, and are found as complexes with other phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in antigen-stimulated cells. (asm.org)
  • These data provide new evidence that CRAC channels are a major route for Fcε receptor I-triggered Ca 2+ influx, and they suggest that ARF may modulate the induction of I CRAC by antigen. (rupress.org)
  • For instance, FcγRI binds to IgG more strongly than FcγRII or FcγRIII does. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another FcR is expressed on multiple cell types and is similar in structure to MHC class I. This receptor also binds IgG and is involved in preservation of this antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008) Protein 4.1G binds to a unique motif within the Fc gamma RI cytoplasmic tail. (els.net)
  • Fab regions attach to antigens while the Fc region binds to Fc receptors on the surface of a cell. (wisegeek.com)
  • An Fc receptor which binds to a different antibody, IgE, is found on the surface of mast cells, which respond to antigens such as pollen by releasing substances that cause inflammation . (wisegeek.com)
  • Binds to the Fc region of immunoglobulins alpha. (rcsb.org)
  • FcRn is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related receptor, and knowledge of how FcRn binds both its ligands and ligand variants is of great importance. (frontiersin.org)
  • They are activated upon FcεRI aggregation, when specific Ag binds to receptor-bound IgE Abs ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To determine if this interaction is key to IVIG's effectiveness, we will treat SCI mice with just the specific portion of the immunoglobulin molecule that binds these receptors (i.e. the Fc domain). (wingsforlife.com)
  • The Mar-1 monoclonal antibody binds to the Fc ε Receptor I α subunit (FceR1a), which is a transmembrane glycoprotein from the immunoglobulin superfamily. (peprotech.com)
  • Although HCMV gp68 and HSV-1 gE-gI have an overlapping binding site on Fc, the finding that the gp68/Fc interaction is stable at pH values between 5.6 and 8.1 but that gE-gI binds only at neutral or basic pH suggests distinct pH-based downstream events after IgG is internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis into intracellular compartments. (caltech.edu)
  • Unlike gE-gI, which binds Fcγ at the slightly basic pH of the extracellular milieu but not at the acidic pH of endosomes, the gp68/Fcγ complex is stable at pH values from 5.6 to pH 8.1. (asm.org)
  • Thus, each vFcγR likely binds the Fc region of IgG by a different set of interactions. (asm.org)
  • Sprague, Elizabeth R. and Reinhard, Henrike and Cheung, Evelyn J. and Farley, Alexander H. and Deis Trujillo, Robin and Hengel, Helmut and Bjorkman, Pamela J. (2008) The Human Cytomegalovirus Fc Receptor gp68 Binds the Fc CH2-CH3 Interface of Immunoglobulin G. Journal of Virology, 82 (7). (caltech.edu)
  • Fc fragment of IgG, receptor, transporter, alpha (FCGRT) binds to the Fc region of monomeric immunoglobulins gamma and mediates the uptake of IgG from milk. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Of the four human IgG subclasses, the HSV-1 Fc receptor, like staphylococcal protein A, binds to all except IgG3. (lu.se)
  • This property allows FcγRI to bind a sole IgG molecule (or monomer), but all Fcγ receptors must bind multiple IgG molecules within an immune complex to be activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is composed of two extracellular Ig-like domains, and is a member of both the immunoglobulin superfamily and the multi-chain immune recognition receptor (MIRR) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors for the Fc region of immunoglobulins (Igs) play a central role during an immune response as they link humoral responses to cellular activities. (els.net)
  • Fc receptors link the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system. (els.net)
  • However, whereas microbial pathogens can be recognized as nonself by immune receptors, misfolded protein assemblies evade detection, as they are host-derived. (pnas.org)
  • Fc receptors are found on immune system cells known as phagocytes, which are able to consume harmful substances, or antigens. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cells in the immune system known as natural killer cells are also covered in Fc receptors which bind to IgG. (wisegeek.com)
  • These receptors are also glycoproteins and provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. (dovepress.com)
  • In many cases this process occurs via cellular receptors for IgG on immune cells, the Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). (uva.nl)
  • Binding of IgA-opsonized particles (e.g., bacteria, viruses) to Fc alpha R may trigger a plethora of cell-mediated immune effector functions designed to rid the body of the foreign invader. (nih.gov)
  • IgA Fc receptors may, therefore, play a role in both the induction and control of an efficient (mucosal) immune response. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that FcγRIIb is important in controlling the immune response to malarial parasites and suggests that the higher frequency of human FcγRIIb polymorphisms predisposing to SLE in Asians and Africans may be maintained because these variants reduce susceptibility to malaria. (pnas.org)
  • Mice deficient in FcγRIIb demonstrate hyperactive immune responses ( 3 ) and are prone to autoimmunity ( 2 ), particularly systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) ( 4 ), but show increased resistance to bacterial infections ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Notably, our results showed that immune complex formation and the activating Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) were involved in the anti-ganglioside Abs-mediated nodal and axonal injury in this model. (jneurosci.org)
  • Perussia B, Dayton ET, Lazarus R, Fanning V, Trinchieri G: Immune interferon induces the receptor for monomeric IgG1 on human monocytic and myeloid cells. (springer.com)
  • Immunoglobulin G Fc receptors are important for clearance of immune complexes. (diva-portal.org)
  • The reticuloendothelial system is thought to play an important role in removing immune complexes and other immunologically active substances from the circulation via interaction with specific cell-surface receptors. (annals.org)
  • Patients with other autoimmune diseases have defects in Fc receptor functional activity when their illness is characterized by tissue deposition of immune complexes. (annals.org)
  • Normal patients with HLA-B8/DRw3, an HLA type associated with an increased incidence of autoimmune disease, also have an increased incidence of defective Fc receptor-specific functional activity, suggesting that this defect may predispose patients with this haplotype to develop manifestations of immune complex-mediated disease. (annals.org)
  • Upon IgG opsonization, pathogens are simultaneously recognized by FcγRs as well as by various pathogen-sensing receptors, leading to the induction of pathogen class-specific immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we discuss control of cytokine production as a novel function of FcγRs in human innate immune cells in the context of homeostasis, infection, and autoimmunity and address the possibilities for future therapeutic exploitation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Innate immune cells produce cytokines upon detection of pathogens or endogenous danger signals via activation of different families of receptors, which collectively are referred to as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). (frontiersin.org)
  • When evaluating recent findings, it appears that FcγR-mediated control of cytokine production is physiologically important to tailor immune responses to efficiently counteract pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • The striking correlation between clearance rates and disease manifestations suggests that decreased clearance of immune complexes by defective reticuloendothelial system Fc receptors may contribute to disease pathogenesis. (annals.org)
  • Fcγ receptors (FcRs) are receptors for IgG that classically regulate processes in immune response cells including B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Immune complexes consist of autoantibodies to self-antigens, which initiate an inflammatory response through binding to immunoglobulin Fc receptors (FcRs) or via complement components. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. (harvard.edu)
  • receptors (Fc?R) expressed by immune cells. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Ig-G containing immune complexes (ICs) correlate with disease severity and bone erosion and are recognized by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) on myeloid cells. (bmj.com)
  • In the presence of immune complexes, differentiation of both FcγRIIB-/- and wild-type osteoclasts resulted in significantly reduced numbers of large TRAP+ cells (containing more than 10 nuclei), but not of smaller sized osteoclasts (3-10 nuclei). (bmj.com)
  • In addition, they indicate that absence of the inhibiting IgG receptor cause disease, depending on an imbalance of activating and inhibiting immune cells. (lu.se)
  • Recognition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) by surface receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (Fcγ), FcγRs, can trigger both humoral and cellular immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Recognition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) by surface receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (Fc{gamma}), Fc{gamma}Rs, can trigger both humoral and cellular immune responses. (caltech.edu)
  • Conclusion/Significance: Our data define the upper GI tract as the main site for IgE-mediated immune activation via FcεRI. (harvard.edu)
  • Fc receptors, the receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins, play an essential role in antibody-dependent immune responses. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • 2011) Loss of CD20 and bound CD20 antibody from opsonized B cells occurs more rapidly because of trogocytosis mediated by Fc receptor‐expressing effector cells than direct internalization by the B cells. (els.net)
  • Our in vivo results are consistent with in vitro assays indicating that interaction of Fc-receptor-bearing effector cells with antibody-complexed infected cells is important in reducing virus yield from infected cells. (nature.com)
  • receptors for epinephrine or norepinephrine, such as those on effector organs innervated by postganglionic adrenergic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • receptor sites on effector organs innervated by cholinergic nerve fibers and which respond to the acetylcholine secreted by these fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coligation of the cytoplasmic region of PD-1 with the B cell receptor (BCR) in IIA1.6 transformants inhibited BCR-mediated growth retardation, Ca(2+) mobilization, and tyrosine phosphorylation of effector molecules, including Ig beta, Syk, phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC gamma 2), and ERK1/2, whereas phosphorylation of Lyn and Dok was not affected. (curehunter.com)
  • These reagents have permitted determination of the role of FcγR in ADCC of the protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii , by human effector cells. (springer.com)
  • Critical role of phospholipase Cgamma2 in integrin and Fc receptor-mediated neutrophil functions and the effector phase of autoimmune arthritis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results identify PLCgamma2 as a critical player of integrin and Fc receptor-mediated neutrophil functions and the neutrophil-mediated effector phase of autoimmune arthritis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fc receptors (FcRs) are cell surface molecules that mediate interactions between cells and immunoglobulins. (springer.com)
  • receptors present on a variety of cells for the Fc fragment of immunoglobulins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These receptors recognize immunoglobulins of the IgG and IgE class. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulins gamma. (drugbank.ca)
  • Fc receptors with an Ig superfamily related structure exist that correspond to each of these classes of immunoglobulins. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • Human Fc receptors (FcRs) are expressed on a variety of cells, such as monocytes, granulocytes, B cells and dendritic cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Looney RJ, Abraham GN, Anderson CL: Human monocytes and U937 cells bear two distinct Fc receptors for IgG. (springer.com)
  • Some sera of humans exposed to P. falciparum from The Gambia, Sudan, and Thailand inhibited ingestion via the Fc receptor by normal human monocytes. (ajtmh.org)
  • Fc receptor-like molecules (FCRLs) are a class of proteins that resemble Fc receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both alpha- and betaherpesviruses encode proteins that recognize the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules (Fcγ) ( 7 , 18 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The viral Fcγ receptor (vFcγR) in alphaherpesviruses is a heterodimer of the two transmembrane proteins gE and gI, which are found in the viral envelope and on the surface of infected cells ( 5 , 15 , 24 , 30 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Each of these proteins recognizes the C H 2-C H 3 interdomain interface, which contains a six-residue consensus Fcγ binding site ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Both vFcγRs, gp34 and gp68, were shown to be cell surface proteins that bind to Fcγ ( 3 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • In the present study, chimeric proteins comprising the extracellular domains of TβRI and/or TβRII fused with the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin (IgG) were validated in the melanoma context. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Fc epsilon R1-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins, including phospholipase C gamma 1 and the receptor beta gamma 2 complex, in RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells. (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that cross-linking Fc epsilon R1 on RBL-2H3 cells causes the tyrosine phosphorylation of at least 12 cellular proteins, including PLC gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and the receptor beta and gamma subunits. (asm.org)
  • This "Methods" paper describes applications of CLR-Fc fusion proteins to screen for yet unknown CLR/bacteria interactions using C. jejuni as an example. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In conclusion, the here-described applications of CLR-Fc fusion proteins represent useful methods to screen for and identify novel CLR/bacteria interactions. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Its name is derived from its binding specificity for a part of an antibody known as the Fc (fragment crystallizable) region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sondermann P, Huber R, Oosthuizen V, Jacob U: The 3.2-A crystal structure of the human IgG1 Fc fragment-Fc gammaRIII complex. (drugbank.ca)
  • In contrast, the extracellular CAR single-chain variable fragment (scFv), which recognizes the targeted TAA, has been replaced with the extracellular portion of the FcγRIIIA (CD16). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although uptake of the monovalent Fab fragment had no detectable effect on intracellular receptor distribution, preparations of 2.4G2 Fab rendered multivalent by adsorption to colloidal gold were as effective as the IgG complexes at causing lysosomal accumulation of internalized receptors. (rupress.org)
  • CII pre-immunized DBA/1 mice were intravenously boosted with extravidin coupled biotinylated monomeric CII-peptide epitope (ARGLTGRPGDA) and its complexes with biotinylated FcγRII/III specific single chain Fv (scFv) fragment. (dovepress.com)
  • Such cells are removed by phagocytic cells of the spleen, and the process depends on the presence of an intact IgG Fc fragment. (annals.org)
  • Genetic characterization showed Fc alpha RI to be a more distantly related member of the Ig receptor gene family. (nih.gov)
  • Therapeutic activity of humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and polymorphism in IgG Fc receptor FcgammaRIIIa gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the FcγRIIb gene encodes a threonine for isoleucine substitution at position 232, within the transmembrane domain. (pnas.org)
  • Fcg receptor variants and gene deletion have been found to confer SLE risk. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therapeutic activity of humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and polymorphism in IgG Fc receptor FcγRIIIa gene," Blood 99:754-758, American Society of Hematology (Feb. 2002). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In line with this observation levels of macrophage derived factors like IL-1β and S100A8, known to strongly induce osteoclast activity, were reduced both at gene expression level and protein level in the synovium of FcγRI, II, III, IV -/- mice. (bmj.com)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of Fc receptor gene of FcγRIIIa - V158F or V176F is known to result in low functioning receptor with phenylalanine (F) and high functioning receptor with valine (V) [ 13 , 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This family includes several members, FcγRI (CD64), FcγRIIA (CD32), FcγRIIB (CD32), FcγRIIIA (CD16a), FcγRIIIB (CD16b), which differ in their antibody affinities due to their different molecular structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four classes of murine leukocyte FcγR are currently distinguished [FcγRI (CD64), FcγRII (CD32), FcγRIII (CD16), and the recently described FcγRIV], which differ in cell distribution and function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PMN constitutively express members of two immunoglobulin G receptor (Fc gammaR) classes: Fc gammaRIIa (CD32) and Fc gammaRIIIb (CD16). (asm.org)
  • FcγRI also has an extracellular portion composed of three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, one more domain than FcγRII or FcγRIII has. (wikipedia.org)
  • With one Ig-like domain in its extracellular portion, this Fc receptor is also a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular parts of most human Fc receptors are composed of varying amounts (1-5) of immunoglobulin domains. (els.net)
  • To study the molecular mechanism for negative regulation of lymphocytes through the PD-1 receptor, we generated chimeric molecules composed of the IgG Fc receptor type IIB (Fc gamma RIIB) extracellular region and the PD-1 cytoplasmic region and expressed them in a B lymphoma cell line, IIA1.6. (curehunter.com)
  • Zhang Y, Boesen CC, Radaev S, Brooks AG, Fridman WH, Sautes-Fridman C, Sun PD: Crystal structure of the extracellular domain of a human Fc gamma RIII. (drugbank.ca)
  • Fc-hDectin-1a is a soluble human Dectin-1 receptor constructed by fusing the C-terminal extracellular domain of human Dectin-1a (aa 67-247) to the C-terminus of an engineered human IgG1 Fc domain with a 10 amino acid linker. (invivogen.com)
  • This receptor is called the Fc-alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR) and is a type I transmembrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • We studied the ability of tripartite motif protein 21 (TRIM21), a newly identified intracellular antibody receptor, to intercept assemblies of misfolded tau, a cytoplasmic protein that aggregates in patients with Alzheimer's disease. (pnas.org)
  • Description The receptors are ligand binding factors of type 1, 2 or 3 and protein-molecules that receive chemical-signals from outside a cell. (gentaur.com)
  • In this sense, am olfactory receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous-chemical signals, chemokinesor cytokines e.g. an acetylcholine-receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous-ligand, acetylcholine. (gentaur.com)
  • ALT-803, a complex of an interleukin (IL)-15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL-15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein, was found to exhibit significantly stronger in vivo biologic activity on NK and T cells than IL-15. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This symmetric interaction with Fcγ, which is a twofold symmetric homodimer in which each polypeptide chain contains an N-terminal hinge followed by the C H 2 and C H 3 domains, is analogous to that previously identified for protein A ( 11 ), protein G ( 43 ), rheumatoid factor ( 9 ), and FcRn ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • This TNFRSF17 protein is labelled with Fc Tag. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Protein Structure: A DNA sequence encoding the rhesus TNFRSF17 (XP_001106892.1) (Met1-Ala53) was expressed with the Fc region of human IgG1 at the C-terminus. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Our results indicate a means by which the Fc epsilon R1 may control PLC activity in RBL-2H3 cells and raise the possibility that other receptor-mediated signalling events in mast cells may also be controlled through protein tyrosine phosphorylation. (asm.org)
  • In this paper, we describe the binding of a number of animal IgG and IgG subclass molecules to HSV-1-infected cells and compare this binding to that of protein A. Although only few representatives from each animal order were tested, we found that IgG from Carnivora and Rodentia did not bind or bound only slightly to the HSV-1 receptor, whereas IgG from Primates, Lagomorpha, and Artiodactyla bound well. (lu.se)
  • This pattern was clearly different from the species spectrum of IgG binding of protein A. Differences between the two receptors were also found when animal IgG subclasses were tested. (lu.se)
  • Negative Co-Receptors and Ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport of macrophage Fc receptors and Fc receptor-bound ligands to lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • The results show that the uptake of multivalent ligands follows the normal pathway of receptor-mediated endocytosis: internalization in clathrin-coated pits and coated vesicles, delivery to endosomes, and finally to acid hydrolase-rich lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the ability of certain Fc receptor-bound ligands to interfere with receptor recycling and trigger lysosomal transport seems to depend on ligand valency rather than on the presence or absence of Fc domains on intact IgG molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Cell culture studies have shown that the transcytosis requires insulin signaling ( 21 , 22 ) and that it is stimulated by nitric oxide (NO) ( 23 ), and we previously demonstrated that FcγRIIB activation by its ligands such as CRP inhibits endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation by various stimuli, including insulin ( 14 , 24 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, PLCgamma2(-/-) neutrophils respond normally to various other agonists, including chemokines, bacterial formyl peptides, Toll-like receptor ligands, or proinflammatory cytokines, and migrate normally both in vitro and in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are carbohydrate-binding receptors that recognize their ligands often in a Ca2+-dependent manner. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Recently, Fc alpha RI was found to associate with the FcR gamma-chain signaling molecule through a unique charge-based mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Like CARs, Fcγ-CRs are composed of an intracellular tail resulting from the fusion of a co-stimulatory molecule with the T cell receptor ζ chain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data suggest an important role for PTPN22-dependent dephosphorylation events, which are required to enable full FcγR-induced activation, pointing to an important role for this molecule in neutrophil function. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, since this Fc receptor is also involved in transferring IgG from a mother either via the placenta to her fetus or in milk to her suckling infant, it is called the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeting the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) presents an innovative and potentially more effective, safer, and more convenient alternative for clearing pathogenic IgGs. (jci.org)
  • Both features are solely due to its interaction with a cellular receptor named the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), also known as the Brambell receptor. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study aimed to selectively deliver albumin‑methylprednisolone (MP) nanoparticles towards glomerular podocytes, which highly express the specific neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) of albumin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The nanoparticle demonstrated a 36‑fold uptake in receptor‑specific cellular delivery in the FcRn‑expressing human podocytes compared to the uptake in the non-FcRn-expressing control cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) protects immunoglobulin G (IgG) from catabolism and controls IgG transport between different cell layers. (arvojournals.org)
  • The neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) has been well characterized in the transfer of passive humoral immunity from a mother to her fetus. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • Ravetch JV, Perussia B: Alternative membrane forms of Fc gamma RIII(CD16) on human natural killer cells and neutrophils. (drugbank.ca)
  • FcγRI (CD64) knock-out mice ( 12 ), FcγRIII (CD16) knock-out mice ( 13 ), and FcR γ-chain knock-out mice ( 7 ), all in the C57Bl/6 background, were bred and maintained in the Central Animal Laboratory, Utrecht University. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As such, much effort is focussed on identifying which single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations in Fc receptor genes are linked with disease and understanding of how these affect therapeutic options. (els.net)
  • Van der Pol WL and van de Winkel JGJ (1998) IgG receptor polymorphisms: risk factors for disease. (els.net)
  • Influence of platelet collagen receptor polymorphisms on risk for arterial thrombosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fc receptor (FcR) genes collectively have copy number and allelic polymorphisms that have been implicated in multiple inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (epfl.ch)
  • The protective role of Fc-mediated antibody-function in HIV-1 immunity has led to the investigation of specific polymorphisms in FcR genes on acquisition, disease progression, and vaccine efficacy in natural history cohorts. (epfl.ch)
  • Polymorphisms of leukocyte IgG receptors (FcγR) that influence efficiency of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity determine rituximab efficacy in patients with lymphoma and autoimmune disease. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions FcγRIIIA polymorphisms are potential biomarkers for response to rituximab treatment in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. (bmj.com)
  • 5 , 6 Two FcγR subclasses, FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIA, display single nucleotide polymorphisms that correlate with the efficacy of antibody-mediated leukocyte functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and are associated with the response to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with lymphoma and autoimmune disease. (bmj.com)
  • 5 , 7 , 8 We therefore investigated whether the FcγRIIA-R/H131 and FcγR IIIA-F/V158 polymorphisms are associated with a favourable response to treatment with rituximab in Dutch patients with IgM-PNP. (bmj.com)
  • The study underscores the role of polymorphism in the FcγRIIIa receptor on HIV-specific ADCC response and suggests that the screening of the individuals for FcγRIIIa-V176F and Y158H polymorphisms could be useful for prediction of efficient treatment in monoclonal antibody-based therapies aimed at ADCC in HIV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both receptors exhibit genetically determined structural and functional biallelic polymorphisms, which have been shown to influence PMN phagocytic function. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we assessed the relevance of these Fc gammaR polymorphisms to susceptibility to adult periodontitis and recurrence rate. (asm.org)
  • The genes of most FcRs are located on chromosome 1 at 1q21-23, whereas FcalphaRI is on chromosome 19, at 19q13.4, a region called the leukocyte receptor complex, because it is clustered with several leukocyte receptor families including killer cell inhibitory receptors (KIRs) and leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LIRs). (rcsb.org)
  • FcγRIIA are single-chain ITAM-containing activating receptors, whereas FcγRIIB are single-chain ITIM-containing inhibitory receptors ( 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • FcRs are categorized into activating receptors (Fcγ receptor [FcγR]I, FcγRIIA, and FcγRIII) and inhibitory receptors, with the latter group consisting of a single subtype, FcγRIIB ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fc receptor genetic variations are linked with inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. (els.net)
  • Whether IgG and FcγR contribute to anaphylaxis in humans or to allergic inflammation is not known. (jimmunol.org)
  • Engagement of Fc receptors on basophils and mast cells can either activate these cells, which promotes autoimmune and allergic inflammation, or prevent these cells from being activated. (sciencemag.org)
  • These studies provide new evidence that the activating FcγRs-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in anti-ganglioside Abs-induced neuropathy (injury to intact nerve fibers) in GBS. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, when activated undesirably, the same mechanism of FcγR-mediated cytokine induction is responsible for excessive inflammation as observed in autoimmune diseases that are associated with IgG autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (frontiersin.org)
  • beta(2) integrins and Fcgamma receptors are critically involved in neutrophil activation at the site of inflammation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The mRNA expression levels of the α, β, and γ subunits of FcεRI did not correlate with total serum IgE but were associated with mucosal inflammation. (harvard.edu)
  • Journal Article] The inhibitory effects of intravenous administration of rabbit immunoglo bulin G on airway inflammation are dependent upon Fcγ receptor IIb on CD11c(+) dendritic cells in a murine model. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2006) Signaling through mutants of the IgA receptor CD89 and consequences for Fc receptor gamma‐chain interaction. (els.net)
  • Beekman JM, Bakema JE, van de Winkel JG and Leusen JH (2004) Direct interaction between FcgammaRI (CD64) and periplakin controls receptor endocytosis and ligand binding capacity. (els.net)
  • The mechanism by which cells accomplish this recognition is, for many particles such as Latex or carbon, not well understood, and may not proceed through interaction of the particle with a receptor. (springer.com)
  • Ingestion of these opsonin-coated particles is triggered by interaction with specific glycoprotein receptors on the cell plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • The formation of oligomers during the production of Fc receptors can result in an artificially-enhanced binding interaction as a result of the avidity effect. (news-medical.net)
  • However, evaluating the Fc receptor interaction is typically achieved by SPR. (news-medical.net)
  • In this study, the current knowledge on FcγR glycosylation is discussed, and some insight into its role and influence on the interaction properties with IgG, particularly in the context of biotherapeutics, is provided. (dovepress.com)
  • Through interaction with antibody, IgG Fc receptors provide an interface between specific humoral immunity and FcγR-bearing host cells. (springer.com)
  • The results of this study point to new directions for the design of molecules to inhibit the interaction of Fc epsilon RI alpha with its natural ligand and thus to prevent a primary step in the allergic response. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To gain further insight into the interaction with Fcγ, truncation mutants of the vFcγR gp68 ectodomain were probed for Fcγ binding, resulting in localization of the Fcγ binding site on gp68 to residues 71 to 289, a region including an immunoglobulin-like domain. (asm.org)
  • To facilitate an understanding of how HCMV vFcγRs recognize IgG, we expressed and purified the ectodomains of gp34 and gp68 and characterized the interaction between gp68 and Fcγ. (asm.org)
  • Proteinase-activated receptor-2 up-regulation by Fc-receptor activation in human neutrophils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We recently found that active systemic anaphylaxis primarily depends on IgG Abs, on IgG receptors (FcγR), and on neutrophils, rather than on IgE Abs, on FcεRI, and on mast cells ( 10 ), as IgE-induced passive systemic anaphylaxis does ( 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • They engage and activate neutrophils via FcγRs ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We show that phospholipase C (PLC) gamma2 is phosphorylated downstream of Src family kinases and Syk during integrin or Fc receptor-mediated activation of neutrophils. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • PLCgamma2(-/-) neutrophils are completely defective in beta(2) integrin or Fcgamma receptor-mediated functional responses such as respiratory burst, degranulation, or cell spreading in vitro and show reduced adhesion/spreading in inflamed capillary venules in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To confirm the in vivo relevance of these observations, the effect of the PLCgamma2(-/-) mutation was tested in the K/BxN serum transfer arthritis model, which is known to require beta(2) integrins, Fcgamma receptors, and neutrophils. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alternatively, internalization may be mediated by receptors that recognize the Fc portion of immunoglobulin molecules, the Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma Rs). (neurology.org)
  • Fc gamma Rs comprise a family of molecules within the immunoglobulin superfamily. (neurology.org)
  • Moreover, FcγR are the exclusive trigger molecules for tumor cell killing by human myeloid cells. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical and structural analyses of gE-gI binding to Fcγ revealed that gE-gI interacts with the Fcγ C H 2-C H 3 interdomain junction with a stoichiometry of two molecules of gE-gI per Fcγ ( 47 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • 5 Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is mediated through IgG receptors (FcγR) on specific leukocytes such as natural killer cells. (bmj.com)
  • FcR activation can be regulated by inside-out signaling, a process well-known for integrins but also described for FcγRI (CD64), FcγRIIa (CD32a), and FcαRI (CD89). (uio.no)
  • Two human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded type I transmembrane receptors with Fcγ-binding properties (vFcγRs), gp34 and gp68, have been identified on the surface of HCMV-infected cells and are assumed to confer protection against IgG-mediated immunity. (asm.org)
  • Here we report that there is a dramatic decrease in the ability of a broadly neutralizing antibody to protect macaques against SHIV challenge when Fc receptor and complement-binding activities are engineered out of the antibody. (nature.com)
  • Baumann U and Schmidt RE (2001) The role of Fc receptors and complement in autoimmunity. (els.net)
  • Ravetch JV and Clynes RA (1998) Divergent roles for Fc receptors and complement in vivo. (els.net)
  • a cell-surface receptor capable of binding activated complement components. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In both MS and EAE, autoantibodies (autoAbs) are thought to be involved in tissue destruction through recruiting Fc receptor (FcR)-bearing cells or direct cytotoxic effects through the activation of the complement pathway. (uzh.ch)
  • Adoptively transferred sera were protective in mice lacking complement, Fc receptors, or both, suggesting that they operate independent of these effectors. (asm.org)
  • The cells with FcR expression sometimes give false positive or false negative results of immunofluorescent staining due to the FcRs-mediated Ig Fc binding. (biolegend.com)
  • HSV-1 gE-gI) that function as Fc receptors (FcRs) by binding to the Fc regions of human IgG. (caltech.edu)
  • Studies in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus show a profound defect in Fc-receptor-specific clearance that correlates with disease activity. (annals.org)
  • 2012) Both activating and inhibitory Fc gamma receptors mediate rituximab‐induced trogocytosis of CD20 in mice. (els.net)
  • Here, we show that FcγRIIb-deficient mice have increased clearance of malarial parasites ( Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi ) and develop less severe disease. (pnas.org)
  • FcγR therefore function as a regulatory module, made of two subunits with antagonistic properties, that prevents IgG-induced and controls IgE-induced basophil activation in both mice and humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • Also, IgG1-induced passive systemic anaphylaxis, which depends on FcγRIIIA ( 13 ), was observed in mast cell-deficient mice ( 14 ), but it was abrogated by basophil depletion ( 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • FcγRIIb deficiency mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) had significantly lower liver weight and liver to body weight ratio, as well as less triglyceride accumulation in the livers. (mdpi.com)
  • We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The abnormality in glucose homeostasis caused by CRP did not occur in FcγRIIB −/− mice globally deficient in the receptor, linking FcγRIIB to metabolic health and disease for the first time. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We examined the role of FcγR in antibody therapy of metastatic melanoma in wild-type and different FcγR knock-out mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A role for FcγR in TA99 antibody-mediated effects has been documented with the use of FcR γ-chain knock-out mice, which lack all activatory leukocyte FcγR ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this report, we observed FcγRI to be essential for TA99 antibody-induced antitumor effects in C57Bl/6 mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mice, lacking cellular expression of activating mFc?Rs, and further characterised using Fc?RI-/-, Fc?RIII-/- and Fc?RIV-/- mice. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Methods AIA was induced by injection of 60 μg mBSA into the knee joint of FcγRI, II, III, IV -/- and wild type (WT) control mice previously immunized with mBSA/CFA. (bmj.com)
  • Results In FcγRI, II, III, IV -/- mice the development of bone erosion in knee joints was significantly reduced both at days 7 and 21 after induction of AIA (30% and 25% lower) when compared to WT controls. (bmj.com)
  • The composition of these bone marrow subsets was similar for both FcγRIIB-/- mice and C57Bl/6 wild-type controls. (bmj.com)
  • Bone marrow-derived osteoclasts of FcγRIIB-/- mice and wild-type controls showed no differences in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase + (TRAP+) cells and mRNA expression of the osteoclast markers cathepsin K, CTR, DC-STAMP and NFATc1. (bmj.com)
  • TRAP staining of arthritic knee joints displayed significantly enhanced numbers of TRAP+ osteoclasts in FcγRIIB-/- mice compared with wild-type controls. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, using FcγRIIB-/- mice, we demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of IC is not directly mediated by FcγRIIB. (bmj.com)
  • Fc{gamma}RIIB Inhibits the Development of Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice. (lu.se)
  • Bone marrow cells from FcgammaRIIB-deficient mice and C57BL/6 control mice were transplanted to low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. (lu.se)
  • These effects were lacking in Fc_YRIIB knockout mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There were no significant difference in basophils activity derived from bone marrows of wild type mice and from that of Fc_YRIIB knockout mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2010) CD23/FcεRII: molecular multi‐tasking. (els.net)
  • Hulett MD and Hogarth PM (1994) Molecular basis of Fc receptor function. (els.net)
  • Human IgG Fc receptor heterogeneity: molecular aspects and clinical implications. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hibbs ML, Bonadonna L, Scott BM, McKenzie IFC: Molecular cloning of a human immunoglobulin G Fc receptor. (springer.com)
  • Fc-hDectin-1a has an apparent molecular weight of ~55 kDa on SDS-PAGE. (invivogen.com)
  • Neonatal Fc Receptor blockade by Fc engineering ameliorates arthritis in a murine model. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unkeless JC, Scigliano E, Freedman VH: Structure and function of human and murine receptors for IgG. (springer.com)
  • First, given in combination with mAbs, Fcγ-CR T cells mediate anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo by an antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity mechanism. (frontiersin.org)
  • FcγRI, FcγRIII, and FcγRIV are activatory receptors, whereas FcγRII can mediate inhibitory effects ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2000) Fcα/µ receptor mediates endocytosis of IgM‐coated microbes. (els.net)
  • In this paper, we have characterized the intracellular pathway involved in the endocytosis and transport of Fc receptors in the J774 macrophage cell line. (rupress.org)
  • Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled receptor from Percoll density gradients showed that endocytosis of the IgG complexes also results in the concomitant transport of the receptor to lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Co‑localization further confirmed that uptake of the nanoconjugates involved receptor‑mediated endocytosis followed by lysosome associated transportation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, FcγRs as therapeutics and therapeutic targets are discussed, and insight into and comment on the therapeutic aspects of receptor glycosylation are provided. (dovepress.com)
  • PRIMABioMed Limited (Melbourne, Australia), the cancer and immunotherapy research and therapeutic development company, announced that it has received notification from the United States Patent and Trademark Office that it will allow an application relating to the three dimensional (3D) structure of the Fc receptor (FcR), the target of drugs being developed by its subsidiary Arthron Ltd. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study reveals a novel role for FcγRIIb in regulating lipid metabolism and glycometabolism, and provides a new therapeutic target to improve NAFLD. (mdpi.com)
  • A greater understanding of the processes by which FcγRIIB potentially contributes to type 2 diabetes may reveal new targets for prophylactic or therapeutic interventions for the disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) express a cell surface receptor able to bind the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG). (lu.se)
  • Arthron has demonstrated that this Fc receptor may be an important target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, and that inhibition of this receptor can alleviate symptoms in several disease models. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and 6) that IL-3 upregulates the expression of both activating and inhibitory FcγR on human basophils from normal donors, but further enhances FcγRIIB-dependent inhibition. (jimmunol.org)
  • Whether these cells are activated depends upon which Fc receptors are present in clusters, because some Fc receptors can inhibit signaling by other Fc receptors that are present in the same signalosome, a phenomenon known as cis-inhibition. (sciencemag.org)
  • This mechanism of trans-inhibition also allowed inhibitory Fc receptors to limit signaling by growth factor receptors in mast cells and oncogene-induced proliferation in mastocytoma cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recruitment of the lipid phosphatase SHIP1 enables trans-inhibition by Fc receptors (Malbec et al . (sciencemag.org)
  • Whereas individual stimulation of FcγRs does not evoke cytokine production, FcγRs cell-type specifically interact with various other receptors for selective amplification or inhibition of particular cytokines, thereby tailoring cytokine responses to the immunological context. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result of its cellular distribution, this receptor plays a major role in controlling allergic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular activities may be triggered by Fc receptor α chains independent of FcR γ chains. (els.net)
  • However, considering that FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including B lymphocytes, which modulate insulin sensitivity through multiple mechanisms ( 12 , 13 ), the cellular context in which the receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis and how it does so are currently unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When such chemical-signals couple or bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue-response, e.g. a change in the electrical-activity of a cell. (gentaur.com)
  • This technique allowed the cellular distribution of Fc receptors, C'3 receptors and surface Ig to be determined. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Users should recognize that it is essential to use a monomeric Fc receptor, as this type of receptor represents its natural state. (news-medical.net)
  • therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. (hindawi.com)
  • Given their vital role in maintaining balanced immunity, dysregulation of Fc receptor function may lead to inflammatory or autoimmune disease. (els.net)
  • A defunctioning, SLE-associated polymorphism of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIb is found at an increased frequency in African and Asian populations, broadly corresponding to areas where malaria is endemic. (pnas.org)
  • Anderson CL, Ryan DH, Looney RJ, Leary PC: Structural polymorphism of the human monocyte 40 kilodalton Fc receptor for IgG. (springer.com)
  • However, no data is available on the influence of the polymorphism in FcγRIIIa receptor on HIV-specific ADCC response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore in the present study, the presence of polymorphism in FcγRIIIa receptor was assessed by sequencing the exon 4 of FcγRIIIa receptor and the association of this polymorphism with the HIV-specific ADCC responses was determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Relevance of immunoglobulin G Fc receptor polymorphism to recurrence of adult periodontitis in Japanese patients. (asm.org)
  • Only one Fc receptor belongs to the FcαR subgroup, which is called FcαRI (or CD89). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008) Inside‐out regulation of Fc alpha RI (CD89) depends on PP2A. (els.net)
  • Bracke M, Lammers JW, Coffer PJ and Koenderman L (2001) Cytokine‐induced inside‐out activation of FcalphaR (CD89) is mediated by a single serine residue (S263) in the intracellular domain of the receptor. (els.net)
  • Human FcalphaRI (CD89) is the receptor specific for IgA, an immunoglobulin that is abundant in mucosa and is also found in high concentrations in serum. (rcsb.org)
  • FcεRI is found on epidermal Langerhans cells, eosinophils, mast cells and basophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like mouse ( 16 ) and human ( 17 ) mast cells, mouse and human basophils express not only IgE receptors, but also IgG receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Double-immunofluorescence staining of esophageal specimens confirmed that FcεRIα was expressed on intraepithelial mast cells and Langerhans cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Associates with the Fc epsilon RI gamma 2 receptor inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of gamma 2. (rcsb.org)
  • Glycoprotein VI is the collagen receptor in platelets which underlies tyrosine phosphorylation of the Fc receptor gamma-chain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both receptor types trigger a receptor-proximal tyrosine phosphorylation cascade through Src family kinases and Syk, but further downstream signaling events are poorly understood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phagocytes, which effectively eat harmful particles such as microbes, are a group composed of different types of cells with IgG-binding Fc receptors on their surfaces. (wisegeek.com)
  • TRIM21 has emerged as an atypical Fc receptor that is broadly conserved and widely expressed in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Evidence exists in support of receptors for IgA (distinct from Fc alpha RI) on human T and B cells. (nih.gov)
  • FcγRIIb knockdown using shRNA suppressed the lipid and triglyceride accumulation, and mRNA expression of ACC1 , FASn , CD36 , MTTP , and ApoB in OA-treated HepG2 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Fcγ-CR T cells have a few intriguing features. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1989, Gross and colleagues introduced the concept of engineering T cells with chimeric receptors capable of overcoming the major histocompatibility complex restriction, laying the groundwork to generate a powerful tool for targeted cancer immunotherapy ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., Tupitsyn N. N. Federal State Budgetary Institute N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Health Ministry of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing Fc ε RII or CD23 (Fc ε RIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have been studied in 232 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. (scirp.org)
  • Here, we show that the inhibitory FcγRIIb on target B cells promotes this process and is largely responsible for the observed heterogeneity across a range of B-cell malignancies. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, transfection of FcγRIIb into FcγRIIb negative Ramos cells increased internalization of rituximab in a dose-dependent manner. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Target-cell FcγRIIb promoted rituximab internalization in a cis fashion and was independent of FcγRIIb on neighboring cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Fc γ receptor (FcγR) coengagement can facilitate antibody-mediated receptor activation in target cells. (rupress.org)
  • We previously discovered that FcγRIIB is expressed in endothelial cells, including the endothelium in skeletal muscle microvasculature ( 5 , 11 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • FceR1a lacks signal-transducing ability and is expressed by mast and basophil cells.The Fc ε Receptor I α subunit is upregulated by IgE and forms a tetramer with a beta subunit and two gamma subunits, which have ITAM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs). (peprotech.com)
  • At day 7 after AIA induction, the decrease in bone erosion in FcγRI, II, III, IV -/- was associated with a significantly decrease in the number of inflammatory cells present within the joint (infiltrate and exudate 29% and 27% lower respectively compared to WT control). (bmj.com)
  • Even though Fcγ binding activity has long been reported for cells infected with the betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the effects of Fcγ binding are unknown ( 17 , 19 , 26 , 41 , 42 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, it was revealed that TβRI‑TβRII‑Fc chimeric receptor suppressed the EMT program in melanoma cells in vitro induced by any of the three TGF‑β isoforms, as revealed by decreased expression of mesenchymal markers. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The α-subunit of FcεRI (FcεRIα), detected by immunohistochemistry, was found on cells infiltrating the mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, and the duodenum, but was rarely detected in more distal sections of the GI tract. (harvard.edu)
  • This review deals with membrane Fc receptors (FcR) of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • There are two types of FcεR are known- FcεRI and FcεRII, FcεRI is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (it has two Ig-like domains). (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • Although various FcγR functions are conserved between species, both IgG subclasses and FcγRs differ in a number of aspects between mouse and man ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 5 FcγR are classified in three classes and several subclasses. (bmj.com)
  • Takai T (2002) Roles of Fc receptors in autoimmunity. (els.net)
  • If FcγRIIb deficiency increased pathogen clearance, this could explain the high frequency of SLE-associated mutations and, thus, a predisposition to autoimmunity in Africans and Asians, similar to the effect of malaria on the selection of thalassemia or sickle cell anemia ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)