A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A subtype of dopamine D1 receptors that has higher affinity for DOPAMINE and differentially couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Amides of salicylic acid.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist used primarily as a research tool.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
A benzocycloheptapyridoisoquinolinol that has been used as an antipsychotic, especially in schizophrenia.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
A hypothalamic tripeptide, enzymatic degradation product of OXYTOCIN, that inhibits the release of MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A long-acting dopamine agonist which has been used to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and HYPERPROLACTINEMIA but withdrawn from some markets due to potential for HEART VALVE DISEASES.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
A dopamine D1 receptor agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. It lowers blood pressure through arteriolar vasodilation.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It has been used in the treatment of aberrant sexual behavior. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p567)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)
A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
Uncrossed tracts of motor nerves from the brain to the anterior horns of the spinal cord, involved in reflexes, locomotion, complex movements, and postural control.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (1/1365)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Dopamine receptor subtypes modulate olfactory bulb gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. (2/1365)

The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor is the predominant Cl- channel protein mediating inhibition in the olfactory bulb and elsewhere in the mammalian brain. The olfactory bulb is rich in neurons containing both GABA and dopamine. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are also highly expressed in this brain region with a distinct and complementary distribution pattern. This distribution suggests that dopamine may control the GABAergic inhibitory processing of odor signals, possibly via different signal-transduction mechanisms. We have observed that GABAA receptors in the rat olfactory bulb are differentially modulated by dopamine in a cell-specific manner. Dopamine reduced the currents through GABA-gated Cl- channels in the interneurons, presumably granule cells. This action was mediated via D1 receptors and involved phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase A. Enhancement of GABA responses via activation of D2 dopamine receptors and phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase C was observed in mitral/tufted cells. Decreasing or increasing the binding affinity for GABA appears to underlie the modulatory effects of dopamine via distinct receptor subtypes. This dual action of dopamine on inhibitory GABAA receptor function in the rat olfactory bulb could be instrumental in odor detection and discrimination, olfactory learning, and ultimately odotopic memory formation.  (+info)

The Ca2+ channel blockade changes the behavioral and biochemical effects of immobilization stress. (3/1365)

We investigated how the effects of chronic immobilization stress in rats are modified by Ca2+ channel blockade preceding restraint sessions. The application of nifedipine (5 mg/kg) shortly before each of seven daily 2 h restraint sessions prevented the development of sensitized response to amphetamine as well as the stress-induced elevation of the densities of L-type Ca2+ channel in the hippocampus and significantly reduced the elevation of the densities of [3H]nitrendipine binding sites in the cortex and D1 dopamine receptors in the limbic forebrain. Neither stress, nor nifedipine affected the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and D1 receptors in the cerebral cortex nor D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. A single restraint session caused an elevation of blood corticosterone level that remained unaffected by nifedipine pretreatment, but the reduction of this response during the eighth session was significantly less expressed in nifedipine-treated rats. We conclude that L-type calcium channel blockade prevents development of several stress-induced adaptive responses.  (+info)

Presynaptic inhibition of GABA(B)-mediated synaptic potentials in the ventral tegmental area during morphine withdrawal. (4/1365)

Opioids increase the firing of dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area by presynaptic inhibition of GABA release. This report describes an acute presynaptic inhibition of GABAB-mediated IPSPs by mu- and kappa-opioid receptors and the effects of withdrawal from chronic morphine treatment on the release of GABA at this synapse. In slices taken from morphine-treated guinea pigs after washing out the morphine (withdrawn slices), a low concentration of a mu receptor agonist increased, rather than decreased, the amplitude of the GABAB IPSP. In withdrawn slices, after blocking A1-adenosine receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxantine, mu-opioid receptor activation inhibited the IPSP at all concentrations and increased the maximal inhibition. In addition, during withdrawal, there was a tonic increase in adenosine tone that was further increased by forskolin or D1-dopamine receptor activation, suggesting that metabolism of cAMP was the source of adenosine. The results indicate that during acute morphine withdrawal, there was an upregulation of the basal level of an opioid-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. Inhibition of this basal activity by opioids had two effects. First, a decrease in the formation of cAMP that decreased adenosine tone. This effect predominated at low mu receptor occupancy and increased the amplitude of the IPSP. Higher agonist concentrations inhibited transmitter release by both kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. This study indicates that the consequences of the morphine-induced upregulation of the cAMP cascade on synaptic transmission are dependent on the makeup of receptors and second messenger pathways present on any given terminal.  (+info)

Characteristics of tetrahydroprotoberberines on dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in calf striatum. (5/1365)

AIM: To study the characteristics of tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPB) on dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and elucidate their structure-activity relationship. METHODS: Radioligand assay in vitro with a two-site model program analysis. RESULTS: Four THPB with two hydorxyl groups on C2 and C9 or C2 and C10 exhibited RH and RL two binding sites to D1 receptors and guanosine triphosphate regulated the RH binding site of SPD and THPB-132A in competition assay, while eleven THPB including nonhydroxy-THPB, monohydroxy-THPB, and THPB with two hydroxyl groups attaching to C3 and C10 showed one binding site to D1 receptors under the same conditions. However, the tested eleven THPB all manifested one binding site to D2 receptors in competition assay, and the 2-hydroxy-THPB had the most potent affinity for D2 receptors. CONCLUSION: Dihydroxy-THPB with two hydroxyl groups attaching to C2 and C9 or C2 and C10 possess the intrinsic activity of agonist to D1 receptors, while the other THPB do not. The tested eleven THPB all are the antagonists of D2 receptors.  (+info)

Dopamine depolarizes podocytes via a D1-like receptor. (6/1365)

BACKGROUND: Dopamine influences glomerular haemodynamics and dopamine receptors have been demonstrated in the glomerulus, but little is known about the cellular effects of dopamine in glomerular cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dopamine on the cellular functions of podocytes. METHODS: The effect of dopamine on membrane voltage was investigated in differentiated mouse podocytes. The membrane voltage was measured using the patch clamp technique. Reverse transcribed-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies were performed to investigate the expression of dopamine receptor mRNA in mouse glomeruli and podocytes. RESULTS: The addition of dopamine (100 nM-1000 microM) caused a concentration-dependent depolarization of podocytes (EC50 is approximate to 10 microM). Like dopamine, the selective agonist of the D1-like receptor, SKF 82958, depolarized podocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. (EC50 is approximate to 50 microM). SKF 82958 stimulated a time-and concentration-dependent accumulation of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in podocytes (EC50 is approximate to microM). RT-PCR studies with primers derived from mouse sequences amplified mouse mRNA for the D1-like and the D2-like receptor in glomeruli, which were obtained by the sieve technique, whereas only mRNA for the D1-like receptor was detected in cultured mouse podocytes. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that dopamine induces a cAMP-dependent depolarization via a D1-like receptor in podocytes.  (+info)

Dopamine-1 receptor coupling defect in renal proximal tubule cells in hypertension. (7/1365)

The ability of the dopamine-1 (D1)-like receptor to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC), inhibit sodium transport in the renal proximal tubule (RPT), and produce natriuresis is attenuated in several rat models of hypertension. Since the inhibitory effect of D1-like receptors on RPT sodium transport is also reduced in some patients with essential hypertension, we measured D1-like receptor coupling to AC and PLC in cultures of human RPT cells from normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) subjects. Basal cAMP concentrations were the same in NT (n=6) and HT (n=4). However, the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam increased cAMP production to a greater extent in NT (maximum response=67+/-1%) than in HT (maximum response=17+/-5%), with a potency ratio of 105. Dopamine also increased cAMP production to a greater extent in NT (32+/-3%) than in HT (14+/-3%). The fenoldopam-mediated increase in cAMP production was blocked by SCH23390 (a D1-like receptor antagonist) and by antisense D1 oligonucleotides in both HT and NT, indicating action at the D1 receptor. The stimulatory effects of forskolin and parathyroid hormone-related protein of cAMP accumulation were not statistically different in NT and HT, indicating receptor specificity and an intact G-protein/AC pathway. The fenoldopam-stimulated PLC activity was not impaired in HT, and the primary sequence and expression of the D1 receptor were the same in NT and HT. However, D1 receptor serine phosphorylation in the basal state was greater in HT than in NT and was not responsive to fenoldopam stimulation in HT. These studies demonstrate the expression of D1 receptors in human RPT cells in culture. The uncoupling of the D1 receptor in both rats (previously described) and humans (described here) suggests that this mechanism may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension; the uncoupling may be due to ligand-independent phosphorylation of the D1 receptor in hypertension.  (+info)

Striatal neuronal activity and responsiveness to dopamine and glutamate after selective blockade of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in freely moving rats. (8/1365)

Although striatal neurons receive continuous dopamine (DA) input, little information is available on the role of such input in regulating normal striatal functions. To clarify this issue, we assessed how systemic administration of selective D1 and D2 receptor blockers or their combination alters striatal neuronal processing in freely moving rats. Single-unit recording was combined with iontophoresis to monitor basal impulse activity of dorsal and ventral striatal neurons and their responses to glutamate (GLU), a major source of excitatory striatal drive, and DA. SCH-23390 (0.2 mg/kg), a D1 antagonist, strongly elevated basal activity and attenuated neuronal responses to DA compared with control conditions, but GLU-induced excitations were enhanced relative to control as indicated by a reduction in response threshold, an increase in response magnitude, and a more frequent appearance of apparent depolarization inactivation. In contrast, the D2 antagonist eticlopride (0.2 mg/kg) had a weak depressing effect on basal activity and was completely ineffective in blocking the neuronal response to DA. Although eticlopride reduced the magnitude of the GLU response, the response threshold was lower, and depolarization inactivation occurred more often relative to control. The combined administration of these drugs resembled the effects of SCH-23390, but whereas the change in basal activity and the GLU response was weaker, the DA blocking effect was stronger than SCH-23390 alone. Our data support evidence for DA as a modulator of striatal function and suggest that under behaviorally relevant conditions tonically released DA acts mainly via D1 receptors to provide a continuous inhibiting or restraining effect on both basal activity and responsiveness of striatal neurons to GLU-mediated excitatory input.  (+info)

Principal Investigator:OKA Tetsuo, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:General pharmacology
Kappa-opioid receptor agonists may have pharmacotherapeutic potential in the management of psychostimulant abuse, due to their ability to modulate dopamine receptor systems involved in drug reinforcement. kappa-Opioid receptor agonists also modulate dopamine receptor function in the hypothalamic tub …
BioAssay record AID 711880 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]SCH-23390 from human cloned dopamine D1 receptor expressed in LhD1 cells at 10000 nM after 60 mins by scintillation counter.
New research shows how dopamine plays an influence with neuropsychiatric disorders. The focus is with how dopamine receptors create signal within cells. It is hoped the research will lead to better and more targeted treatments.
Dopamine might be the most misunderstood neurochemical in the brain. HowStuffWorks looks at what dopamine actually does and doesnt do.
For bases b ≤ 5 and exponents e ≥ 2, there exist arbitrarily long finite sequences of d-consecutive e-power b-happy numbers for a specific d = d(e,b), which is shown to be minimal possible ...
Anatomie, Medizin, Modelle, Skelett, Wirbelsäule, Schädel, Somso, Pflegepuppe, Rettungspuppe, Lehrtafel, höchstes Qualitätsniveau.
The present study indicates that activation of dopamine D1-like receptors by administration of SKF 38393 leads to dose-dependent (doses: 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) increases in the expression of cFos proteins in the rat paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). This effect was abolished by administration of SCH 23390, a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, given 30 min before SKF 38393--10 mg/kg), suggesting that the apparent effect is specific for activation of dopamine D1-like receptors. Expression of cFos after SKF 38393 (10 mg/kg) was observed in some, but not all, CRF-immunoreactive neurons, as well as in small portion of oxytocin- but not vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons (double-immunofluorescence experiments). There were also certain populations of nuclei that showed expression of cFos but did not co-localize with the above markers. We also found that both acute and repeated (once daily for 5 consecutive days) exposure to cocaine (25 mg/kg) attenuated the induction of cFos
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of quantitative RT-PCR to the analysis of dopamine receptor mRNA levels in rat striatum. AU - Vrana, Sheila L.. AU - Kluttz, Bryan W.. AU - Vrana, Kent E.. N1 - Funding Information: discussion. This work was supported by USPHS grants DA06634 (K.E.V.), T32DA-07246 (S.L.V.) and DA00230 (S.L.V.).. PY - 1995/12/1. Y1 - 1995/12/1. N2 - A quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure has been developed which selectively amplifies and quantifies the two isoforms of the dopamine D2 receptor. Variability is corrected by the inclusion of a D2 dopamine receptor mRNA standard within each reaction. The internal standard was generated by introducing a point mutation within a D2 cDNA clone that created a unique restriction site within the amplified region. An in vitro transcribed RNA for the internal mutant control is added to the RNA isolated from brain tissue and the mixture is subjected to RT-PCR, digestion with the restriction enzyme, separation ...
Dopamine D1-D5 receptor protein immunoreactivity was investigated in different sized pial, renal and mesenteric artery branches using immunohistochemical techniques and anti-dopamine D1-D5 receptor protein antibodies. Faint dopamine D1 receptor protein immunoreactivity was observed in smooth muscle of tunica media of pial, renal and mesenteric artery branches. Dopamine D2 receptor protein immunoreactivity was located in the adventitia and adventitia-media border of pial and renal artery branches and to a lesser extent of mesenteric artery branches. No dopamine D3 receptor protein immunoreactivity was observed in pial and mesenteric arteries. In renal arteries a moderate dopamine D3 receptor immunoreactivity was detectable in the adventitia and adventitia-media border. A strong dopamine D4 receptor protein immunoreactivity displaying the same localization of dopamine D2 receptor protein was observed in pial and mesenteric arteries, but not in renal artery branches. Moderate dopamine D5 receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hemodynamic effects of an oral dopamine receptor agonist (fenoldopam) in patients with congestive heart failure. AU - Young, James B.. AU - Leon, Carlos A.. AU - Pratt, Craig M.. AU - Suarez, Jose M.. AU - Aronoff, Robert D.. AU - Roberts, Robert. N1 - Funding Information: From the Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine and Ben Taub General Hospital, Houston, Texas. This study was presented in part at the 57th Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association, Miami, Florida, November 14, 1984. Computational assistance was provided by the CLINFO Project funded by Grant RR-()()350, Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. This project was funded in part by a research grant from Smith, Kline & French Lab• oratories, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Manuscript received February 19, 1985; revised manuscript received May 7, 1985, accepted May 24, 1985. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1985. Y1 - ...
Molecular genetic studies suggest the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) may be implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As little is known about the potential motor role of D1R in ADHD, animal models may provide important insights into this issue. We investigated the effects of a full and selective D1R agonist, SKF-81297 (0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg), on motor behaviour and expression of the plasticity-associated gene, c-fos, in habituated young adult male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), the most commonly used animal model of ADHD, and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; the strain from which SHR were derived). SHR rats were more behaviourally active than WKY rats after injection with vehicle. The 0.3 mg/kg dose of SKF-81297 increased motor behaviour (locomotion, sifting, rearing, and sniffing) in both SHR and WKY rats. Total grooming was also stimulated, but only in WKY rats. The same dose increased c-fos mRNA expression in the piriform cortex of both strains. The 3 mg/kg dose increased sifting and
Increase the Dopamine D4 receptor density - posted in Brain Health: Ive read alot about how one can increase the Dopamine receptor density or activity (D2 and D3 mainly), but almost nothing about the Dopamine D4 receptor,,the thing is thats interesting to me is that the D4 receptor is said to be involved in higher cognitive processes, and that responsiveness to methylphenidate is dependant on D4 receptor density/function.So what i have in mind to ask is; Is it possible to increas...
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Our initial studies were motivated by our recently reported findings that acutely applied cocaine can act through dopamine transporter blockade to enhance neurotransmitter activation of D2-like dopaminergic receptors and significantly enhance the magnitude of LTP evoked in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices (Thompson et al., 2005). We also noted that Gribkoff and Ashe (1984a, using paired stimuli while recording population spike responses) had previously concluded that exogenously applied dopamine could elicit a long-lasting attenuation of inhibition in the CA1. As outlined in the previous paragraph, we have found strong support for such a disinhibitory mechanism of cocaine actions using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of monosynaptic IPSCs evoked following stimulation of the stratum radiatum in the CA1 region. Activation of the D3 subtype of dopamine receptor appeared to mediate this effect because a D3-selective agonist could mimic the actions of cocaine, and pretreatment with a ...
We have reported a physical interaction between D1 and D3 receptors in rat A10 aortic smooth muscle cells.23 In A10 and RPT cells from normotensive rats, D1 receptor stimulation with a D1-like agonist, fenoldopam, increases D1 receptor protein expression.23,25 In contrast, in RPT cells from SHRs, fenoldopam has no effect of D1 receptor expression.25 The current study extends our previous reports and has several novel observations. First, fenoldopam, via D1-like receptors, increases D3 receptor protein expression in RPT cells from WKY rats. Second, in these cells, D1 and D3 receptors co-immunoprecipitate, which is increased by D1-like receptor stimulation. Third, the aforementioned effects of D1-like receptor stimulation on D3 receptor protein and D1/D3 receptor co-immunoprecipitation are impaired in SHRs. Fourth, the D1-like receptor agonist, fenoldopam, increases D1 and D3 receptor protein expressions in human CASMCs. Fifth, activation of either D1 or D3 receptor relaxes the mesenteric artery ...
Controlled Release of Dopamine from a Polymeric Brain Implant: In Vivo Characterization Matthew J. During, MD, FRACP,t, Andrew Freese, BA,S§, Bernhard A. Sabel, PhDJI W. Mark Saltzrnan, PhD,$§ Arie1 Deutch, PhD,* Robert H. Roth, PhD,X and Robert Langer, ScDS§ Intracerebrai microdialysiswas used to evaiuate the long-term in vivo release of dopamine from ethylene-vinylacetate (EVAddopamine copolymer matrix discs for up to 65 days followingstriatai implantation. Dopamine release occurred through a single cavity present on one side of the disc, which was otherwise fdly coated with an additionai, imperme&le layer of EVAc. At 20 days following implantation of the device, extracelldar concentrations of dopamine within the striatum reached micromolar levels, over 200-fold greater than contro1vaiues. Release of dopamine was shown to be stable and maintained for the 2-month duration of the experiment. Histological examination confirmed the biocompatible nature of the implant. There are potential ...
BioAssay record AID 229630 submitted by ChEMBL: Selectivity ratio for serotonin 5-HT2A to that of dopamine D2 receptors was determined; ND=No data.
Dopamine influences how well you can concentrate on tasks. Your focus is also influenced by how much dopamine is in your system. The amount of dopamine in your brains prefrontal cortex affects your focus and concentration. If you have a high degree of focus, you have more dopamine in this area, along with other important neurotransmitters and hormones ...
Our brain releases a neurotransmitter, dopamine, which is crucial for numerous essential bodily functions. Dopamine is great for the following body functio
Tezin Türü: Yüksek Lisans. Tezin Yürütüldüğü Kurum: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi, Biyolojik Bilimler Bölümü, Türkiye. Tezin Onay Tarihi: 2013. Öğrenci: SELİN AKKUZU. Danışman: ÇAĞDAŞ DEVRİM SON. ...
Dopamine Brain Food™ is a supplement designed to support the bodys natural production of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that benefits movement, learning, attention and mood.
Feeling UNEVALUABLE EVENT while using Dopamine? UNEVALUABLE EVENT Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Dopamine Reports and Side Effects.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that facilitates transmission of signals between brain cells, or neurons, by binding to neuron receptors. The...
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in many necessary brain functions. It is released when we get rewarded and is linked to feelings of pleasur
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Dopamine is a medication form of a substance that occurs naturally in the body. It works by improving the pumping strength of the heart and improves blood flow to the kidneys.
Hello Brainiacs. What is dopamine 1 and 2? what do they do? apparently most anti psychotics block both of these, but the one ive just been prescribed, for which.....
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Author John Gray, in this 10 minute video, lays out the reasons to go get a bottle of L-Tyrosine, because we are ALL dopamine depleted. If you are diagnosed with Parkinsons, all the more reason ...
Paolo Del Prete feat Karlot Dopamine (video spot) Composed and Performed byCarlotta Dessi and Paolo Del Prete Karlot (Carlotta Dessi): vocals, keyboards, concept Paolo Del Prete:All instruments, OBE Mastercut Recor
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TY - JOUR. T1 - D2-like dopamine receptors promote interactions between calcium and chloride channels that diminish rod synaptic transfer in the salamander retina. AU - Thoreson, Wallace B.. AU - Stella, Salvatore L.. AU - Bryson, Eric J.. AU - Clements, John. AU - Witkovsky, Paul. PY - 2002/5/1. Y1 - 2002/5/1. N2 - Activation of D2-like dopamine receptors in rods with quinpirole stimulates L-type calcium currents (ICa). This result appears inconsistent with studies showing that D2-like dopamine receptor activation diminishes rod signals in second-order retinal neurons. Since small reductions in [Cl-]i can inhibit photoreceptor ICa, we tested the hypothesis that enhancement of ICa, with the D2/D4 receptor agonist, quinpirole, increases calcium-activated chloride currents (ICl(Ca)) causing an efflux of Cl- from rods that would provide a negative feedback inhibition of ICa. In agreement with studies from Xenopus, quinpirole reduced rod input to second-order neurons of tiger salamander retina ...
Earlier we have reported that the inhibitory effects of dopamine on NKA and NHE activities in proximal tubules of hyperinsulinemic obese rats were significantly reduced compared with lean rats. We also observed that the reduced inhibition of these transporters was associated with a significant reduction in D1 receptor number in proximal tubular membranes of obese rats. In the present study, we found that if plasma levels of insulin were lowered in obese rats, the ability of dopamine to inhibit the sodium transporters in proximal tubules was restored and membrane D1 receptor numbers were normalized to the level as in lean rats.. Dopamine, endogenously produced or exogenously infused, activates tubular D1 dopamine receptors, leading to the inhibition of sodium transporters, involving multiple second-messenger pathways and subsequently causes an increase in sodium excretion.1 There have been reports suggesting a negative correlation between renal dopaminergic function and plasma insulin ...
The cellular localization of DARPP-32, a dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 that appears to mediate certain actions of dopamine in the mammalian brain by acting as an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1, was studied in the kidney of several species. DARPP-32 mRNA and DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The specific dopamine DA1 agonist SKF 82526 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity, which could be blocked by SCH 23390, a specific DA1 antagonist, and by PKI-(5-24) amide, a specific inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The results indicate that DA1 dopamine receptors and DARPP-32, an intracellular third messenger for dopamine, are part of the signal-transduction process for dopamine acting on renal tubule cells. ...
In this report we demonstrate for the first time that activation of the dopamine 1/5 receptors results in increased skeletal muscle cAMP, increased non-atrophying muscle mass and reduced atrophy-induced loss of muscle mass and force production. By using knockout mice to differentiate the effects of activation of the dopamine 1 receptor from that of the dopamine 5 receptor, we demonstrate that both the dopamine 1 and dopamine 5 receptors mediate the anti-atrophy effects of the dopamine 1/5 receptor selective agonist SKF 81297. Genetic removal of the dopamine 1 receptor (with maintenance of the dopamine 5 receptor) results in a complete loss of the SKF 81297 mediated EDL mass/force preservation, data consistent with the idea that the dopamine 1 receptor mediates the effects of SKF 81297. In contrast, genetic removal of the dopamine 5 receptor (with maintenance of the dopamine 1 receptor) resulted in a partial loss of SKF 81297 mediated EDL mass/force preservation, data that is inconsistent with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of serine residues to constitutive and agonist- induced signaling via the D(2S) dopamine receptor. T2 - Evidence for multiple, agonist- specific active conformations. AU - Wiens, Brenda L.. AU - Nelson, Cole S.. AU - Neve, Kim A.. PY - 1998/8. Y1 - 1998/8. N2 - Dopamine D2 receptors contain a cluster of serine residues in the fifth transmembrane domain that contribute to activation of the receptor as well as to the binding of agonists. We used rat D(2S) dopamine receptor mutants, each containing a serine-toalanine substitution (S193A, S194A, S197A), to investigate the mechanism through which these residues affect activation of the receptor. Activation of the mutant receptor S194A was abolished in an agonist-dependent manner, such that dopamine no longer inhibited cAMP accumulation in C6 glioma cells or activated G protein-regulated K+ channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes, whereas the efficacy of several other agonists was unaffected. Dihydrexidine did not inhibit cAMP ...
Result Gastrin infusing WKY rats via renal artery induced natriuresis and diuresis, which was blocked in the presence of CI988, a gastrin receptor blocker. Similarly, effect hereinbefore of fenoldopam, a D1-like receptor agonist, was blocked by D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH23390, indicating gastrin and fenoldopam play natriuretic and diuretic effect through individual receptors. Lower dosages of gastrin or fenoldopam failed to induce natriuresis and diuresis alone, while putting together induced the effects. The above-mentioned effects were lost in SHRs. Natriuresis and diuresis was partially blocked by SCH23390 or CI988, indicating the interaction between gastrin and D1-like receptor. Stimulation of either receptor increased the expression of the other and inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity, while the inhibitory effect of Na+-K+-ATPase activity was partially blocked through its corresponding receptors due to respective existence of SCH23390 and CI988.. ...
The interaction of glutamate and dopamine in the striatum is heavily dependent on signaling pathways that converge on the regulatory protein DARPP-32. The efficacy of dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling is regulated by DARPP-32 phosphorylated at Thr-34 (the PKA site), a process that inhibits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and potentiates PKA action. Activation of dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling also leads to dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 (the CK2 site), leading to localization of phospho-Thr-34 DARPP-32 in the nucleus where it also inhibits PP1. In this study the role of glutamate in the regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation at four major sites was further investigated. Experiments using striatal slices revealed that glutamate decreased the phosphorylation states of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 as well as Thr-34, Thr-75, and Ser-130 by activating NMDA or AMPA receptors in both direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons. The effect of glutamate in decreasing Ser-97 phosphorylation was mediated by
In the current study we examined the relationship between dopamine D2 signaling and prefrontal representations in humans. Dopamine has long been suggested to play a fundamental role in prefrontal functions (Miller and Cohen, 2001; Robbins and Arnsten, 2009; DArdenne et al., 2012). For instance, dopamine applied to the primate prefrontal cortex enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of pyramidal neurons representing task-relevant stimuli (Jacob et al., 2013). However, effects of dopamine on prefrontal function seem to be receptor specific, as D1- and D2-specific agents differentially affect the activity patterns of prefrontal neurons (Seamans et al., 2001). For instance, a low dose of a D1 agonist applied to the prefrontal cortex sharpens the spatial tuning of task-sensitive neurons in a spatial working memory task (Vijayraghavan et al., 2007), and blocking prefrontal D1 receptors impairs learning of visuomotor associations (Puig and Miller, 2012). In contrast, D2-receptor antagonists impair ...
Renal dopamine D1 and angiotensin II AT1 receptors by regulating proximal tubular sodium transporters maintain sodium homeostasis and blood pressure. Recently w...
Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors in Chronic Mild Stress: Analysis of Dynamic Receptor Changes in an Animal Model of Depression Using In Situ Hybridization and Autoradiography Depression is a multifaceted illness that involves altered monoamine neurotransmission. Many monoamine receptor subtypes (e.g., dopamine D1 and D2) demonstrate altered expression levels in depressed patients and animal models of depression. Currently, there are an increasing number of molecular and biochemical studies on the mechanism of stress resilience. In this chapter, we describe a chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure along with in situ hybridization and autoradiography protocols to study changes in brain dopamine receptor expression of rats subjected to CMS. Chronic mild stress procedure (CMS) is one of few behavioral animal models of depression, and this model has good construct, face, and predictive validity. Moreover, approximately 30 % of rats exposed to stress regimen are stress resilient. There are numerous ...
Here, we use a compartmental modeling approach to search for discriminatory features in the properties of incoming stimuli to a PFC pyramidal neuron and/or its response that signal which of these stimuli will result in persistent activity emergence. Furthermore, we use our modeling approach to study cell-type specific differences in persistent activity properties, via implementing a regular spiking (RS) and an intrinsic bursting (IB) model neuron. ... Collectively, our results pinpoint to specific features of the neuronal response to a given stimulus that code for its ability to induce persistent activity and predict differential roles of RS and IB neurons in persistent activity expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: The quest for a potentially selective PET ligand. Part two: Lead optimization. AU - Micheli, Fabrizio. AU - Holmes, Ian Peter. AU - Arista, Luca. AU - Bonanomi, Giorgio. AU - Braggio, Simone. AU - Cardullo, Francesca. AU - Di Fabio, Romano. AU - Donati, Daniele. AU - Gentile, Gabriella. AU - Hamprecht, Dieter. AU - Terreni, Silvia. AU - Heidbreder, Christian. AU - Savoia, Chiara. AU - Griffante, Cristiana. AU - Worby, Angela. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TF9-4WHFD49-7&_user=542840&_origUdi=B6TF9-4WHMMF7-1&_fmt=high&_coverDate=08%2F01%2F2009&_r8. M3 - Article. VL - 19. SP - 4011. EP - 4013. JO - Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. JF - Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. SN - 0960-894X. IS - 15. ER - ...
The opiates bind to the opiate receptors in the brain, increasing a dopamine release, but once gone, there is an ever-increasing need for more opiate (or other drug) to induce the same dopamine-high. This is what causes drug addicts to resort to ever increasing, negative behaviors to get their next fix. The dopamine high is that desirable.. In experiments conducted with mice, when the same nerve bundle that causes an opiate release was stimulated when they pressed a lever, the mice, left to their own devices, would press the lever thousands of times in an hour, due to the pleasurable feelings the dopamine would induce. A later experiment (conducted unethically on a human being) showed a similar response. Over the course of three hours, a person would press a button which triggered a dopamine dump thousands of times to get an immense emotional boost.. We get little dopamine dumps in our brains with less destructive behaviors - like making money, having sex, and even winning a video game, but ...
As cerebral neurons express the dopamine D1 receptor positively coupled with adenylyl cyclase, together with the D3 receptor, we have investigated in a heterologous cell expression system the relationships of cyclic AMP with D3 receptor signaling pathways. In NG108-15 cells transfected with the huma …
Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups.
AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Line: Human recombinant Dopamine D2L receptor in aequorin CHO-K1 host cell.. We provide two vials of cryopreserved cells (approximately 2.5 x 106 cells/vial), detailed product information including cell line properties, culture conditions and the pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in a functional assay.. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma.. Terms and conditions apply. Some of our receptors may be restricted for sale in specified countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
The basal ganglia (BG) are a central component of the brain, crucial to the initiation, execution and learning of adaptive actions. The BG are the major site of the action of dopamine. An important aspect of the BG architecture is the existence of two paths, direct and indirect, having different projection targets and dopamine receptor expression. To understand the BG, dopamine, and related disorders, it is imperative to understand the two paths. The standard account used in neuroscience research for decades posits that the role of the direct path is to support movements, while that of the indirect path is to suppress unselected or completed movements. This account is contradicted by converging evidence. Here, we explain why the arguments supporting the standard account are flawed, and present a new account, in which the role of the indirect path is completely opposite: to support automated execution. During acute events, the direct path allows coarse responses. These are refined by competition, and the
New work from researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons sheds light on how dopamine receptors signal within cells, opening the door for more targeted-and more tolerable-therapeutics to treat an array of neuropsychiatric disorders.
This graph shows the total number of publications written about 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine by people in this website by year, and whether 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Dopamine receptors are among the most validated drug targets for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease, and are potential targets for other disorders such as substan
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Dopamine Hydrochloride with NDC 0143-9253 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by West-ward Pharmaceuticals Corp. The generic name of Dopamine Hydrochloride is dopamine hydrochloride.
Brain, Concentrations, Dopamine, Dopamine D1 Receptor, Dopamine Receptor, Haloperidol, Inhibition, Knowledge, Ligands, Measure, Membrane, Membranes, Mice, Mk-801, Mouse, Nmda, Rat, Skf-38393
Dopamine is a brain chemical that plays a vital role in both our mental and physical health. Dr.Keti.com reports that dopamine is the pleasure and pain chemical and controls our emotional response as well as our movement.
Learn about Dopamine (Dopamine Hydrochloride) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
What does dopamine do? It is involved in movement, memory, attention, learning, behavior, etc. In case you have dopamine deficiency, try the methods to increase production.
So, C. H., Verma, V., Alijaniaram, M., Cheng, R., Rashid, A. J., ODowd, B. F., et al. (2009). Calcium Signaling by Dopamine D5 Receptor and D5-D2 Receptor Hetero-Oligomers Occurs by a Mechanism Distinct from That for Dopamine D1-D2 Receptor Hetero-Oligomers. Mol Pharmacol (Vol. 75 ...
Feeling DEPRESSION while using Dopamine? DEPRESSION Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Dopamine Reports and Side Effects.
Fenoldopam information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Sicor Pharmaceuticals, Fenoldopam indications, usages and related health products lists
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By learning how to stimulate your own dopamine levels naturally, you wont have to feel depressed or suffer from anxiety, apathy, and fear.
Are you the kind of person who is always on, constantly driven to achieve? Or are you more of a slacker type, less motivated by the promise of material reward? The difference may lie in the responsiveness of the dopamine system in your brain, according to new research.
Are you the kind of person who is always on, constantly driven to achieve? Or are you more of a slacker type, less motivated by the promise of material reward? The difference may lie in the responsiveness of the dopamine system in your brain, according to new research.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical in your brain that regulates things like emotion, behavior, alertness and impulsivity. The University of Texas...
Our brain produces dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that pushes people against gently into doing stuff. It allows people to focus and achieve great things.
People with a less efficient version of COMT have more dopamine in this region, and this makes them good at storing multiple ideas in the short term.
These gorgeous molecular structure earrings are perfect for the science geek in your life! One side represents the dopamine molecule, and one side represents the serotonin molecule.SIZEApprox. 25mm (just under 1 inch)MATERIALSStainless Steel hooks...
Studies suggest that ADHD could be linked to the dysfunction of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that helps control movements and emotions. Learn more.
Overloud releases DOPAMINE, the emulation of two classic tape encoding processors, used as enhancers, designed to revive individual tracks as well as complex mixes while preserving
Learn about the potential side effects of dopamine. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Research shows that happy people solve more problems and come up with more ideas. The search for happiness is perhaps really a search for the right levels of dopamine. To create...
Dopamine is a branding and design studio based in Melbourne. We provide creative solutions for all Australian businesses to build brands of influence.
https://lucybertoldi.files.wordpress.com/2021/02/dopamine-styling.m4a Intro to Dopamine Styling Do you wear what trends dictate? Do you wear only what you think is appropriate for your age- occupation- status (fill in the blanks)? Sometimes all that is actually necessary...but it doesnt mean that even so, you cant enjoy it! When you love how you look (no matter the circumstance),…
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To recycle the D1 dopamine receptor. The gene that encodes the human EHD3 protein is located in chromosome number 2, most ... This family of four paralogs (EHD1-EHD4) has been implicated in receptor intracellular trafficking, particularly in ...
... is a moderately selective full agonist at the dopamine D1 and D5 receptors. It has approximately 10-fold selectivity for D1 and ... Zhang J, Xiong B, Zhen X, Zhang A (2009). "Dopamine D1 receptor ligands: where are we now and where are we going". Med Res Rev ... Salmi P, Isacson R, Kull B (2004). "Dihydrexidine--the first full dopamine D1 receptor agonist". CNS Drug Rev. 10 (3): 230-242 ... Mottola DM, Brewster WK, Cook LL, Nichols DE, Mailman RB (1992). "Dihydrexidine, a novel full efficacy D1 dopamine receptor ...
Cameron, DL (1993). "Dopamine D1 receptors facilitate transmitter release". Nature. 366 (6453): 344-47. doi:10.1038/366344a0. ... For LTP to occur, NMDA receptors on the dendritic spine send intracellular signals to increase the number of AMPA receptors on ... GABAergic neurons in the VTA also synapse on local dopamine cells. In non-drug models, the VTA dopamine neurons are stimulated ... These drugs induce an increase in synaptic dopamine by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft, effectively ...
... pharmacological evaluation at D1 dopamine receptors". Psychopharmacology. 118 (4): 401-9. doi:10.1007/BF02245940. PMID 7568626 ...
LSD and structural analogs: pharmacological evaluation at D1 dopamine receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 Apr;118(4):401 ... and include a number of compounds with potent agonist and/or antagonist activity at various serotonin and dopamine receptors. ... Drug discrimination and receptor binding studies of N-isopropyl lysergamide derivatives. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 Mar;47(3 ...
... binds to the dopamine D1 receptor. Research has indicated that DHCB can be helpful in reducing neuropathic ... "Isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Corydalis yanhusuo and their binding affinities at the dopamine D1 receptor". Molecules ( ...
Significant age-related decreases in dopamine receptors D1, D2, and D3 have also been highly reported. A general decrease in D1 ... A general decrease in D1 receptor density has also been shown to occur with age. Significant age-related declines in dopamine ... Iyo, M.; Yamasaki, T. (1993). "The detection of age-related decrease of dopamine, D1, D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in ... September 1998). "Age-dependent decline of dopamine D1 receptors in human brain: a PET study". Synapse. 30 (1): 56-61. doi: ...
The encoded protein interacts with dopamine receptor D1 and may interact with other DA receptor subtypes and/or GPCRs. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: DRD1IP dopamine receptor D1 interacting protein". Milligan G, White JH (October 2001). "Protein-protein ... Ali MK, Bergson C (December 2003). "Elevated intracellular calcium triggers recruitment of the receptor cross-talk accessory ... required for maximal stimulated calcium release after stimulation of purinergic or muscarinic but not beta-adrenergic receptors ...
... suggesting functional dopamine D1 receptor is necessary for their induction. This receptor had been seen to modulate the ... They had observed previous cocaine injections led to a direct increase in D1 receptor sensitivity. Through lines of D1 receptor ... Also involved in the CREB-Fos protein pathways is the dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1), expressed in neurons in the nucleus ... response to D1/D2 receptor stimulation it could be involved in alterations of the signal transduction pathway after D1 receptor ...
Gleason SD, Witkin JM (May 2006). "Effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in rats trained to discriminate dihydrexidine". ... that acts as a selective full agonist at the dopamine D1 receptor. Gulwadi AG, Korpinen CD, Mailman RB, Nichols DE, Sit SY, ... characterization of a D1 dopamine receptor agonist in a rat model of Parkinson's disease". The Journal of Pharmacology and ... a potent full dopamine D1 agonist containing a rigid-beta-phenyldopamine pharmacophore". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 39 (2 ...
D'Aquila PS, Panin F, Cossu M, Peana AT, Serra G (January 2003). "Dopamine D1 receptor agonists induce penile erections in rats ... Beninger RJ, Rolfe NG (December 1995). "Dopamine D1-like receptor agonists impair responding for conditioned reward in rats". ... CY-208,243 is a drug which acts as a dopamine agonist selective for the D1 subtype. Unlike most D1-selective agonists, it shows ... "Pulsatile administration of D1 but not D2 dopamine agonists induces behavioral tolerance in MPTP-treated monkeys". Advances in ...
Zhang J, Xiong B, Zhen X, Zhang A (March 2009). "Dopamine D1 receptor ligands: where are we now and where are we going". ... A-86929 is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective dopamine receptor D1 agonist. It was developed as a possible treatment ... Giardina WJ, Williams M (2001). "Adrogolide HCl (ABT-431; DAS-431), a prodrug of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist, A-86929: ... "Induction by dopamine D1 receptor agonist ABT-431 of dyskinesia similar to levodopa in patients with Parkinson disease". ...
Stubbendorff C, Hale E, Cassaday HJ, Bast T, Stevenson CW (June 2019). "Dopamine D1-like receptors in the dorsomedial ... Another study looked at how dopamine receptors in the dmPFC play a role in regulating fear in rats. Self-model theory of ... Geng F, Tian J, Wu JL, Luo Y, Zou WJ, Peng C, Lu GF (February 2018). "Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex 5-HT6 receptors regulate ... Researchers have shown in mice that the dmPFC 5-HT6 receptors play a role in regulating anxiety-like behaviors. ...
... has been shown to interact with Dopamine receptor D1, COPZ1 and COPB1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000181789 - ... 2002). "Interaction of gamma-COP with a transport motif in the D1 receptor C-terminus". Eur. J. Cell Biol. 81 (2): 77-85. doi: ... "Interaction of gamma-COP with a transport motif in the D1 receptor C-terminus". Eur. J. Cell Biol. Germany. 81 (2): 77-85. doi: ...
Mice without a functional Dopamine D1 receptor have attenuated FAA. Mice that are given a D1 receptor agonist show FAA without ... RGS16, a gene regulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling, attenuates FAA but is also not necessary for it. Up until the ... Out of the researched neurotransmitters, only disrupting the dopamine signaling pathway appears to disrupt normal FAA. It is ... The identification of EECs as a possible source of FEO is that they contain many nutrient sensing and dependent receptors that ...
Bermak JC, Li M, Bullock C, Zhou QY (May 2001). "Regulation of transport of the dopamine D1 receptor by a new membrane- ... DNAJC14 has been shown to interact with Dopamine receptor D1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135392 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... like motif in the cytoplasmic tail of the type 1 receptor for angiotensin II plays an important role in receptor trafficking ... "Accessory proteins in the biogenesis of G protein-coupled receptors". Mol. Interv. 1 (5): 282-7. PMID 14993367. Leclerc PC, ...
... is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective dopamine receptor D1 agonist. It is orally active and has ... Trampus M, Ferri N, Adami M, Ongini E (April 1993). "The dopamine D1 receptor agonists, A68930 and SKF 38393, induce arousal ... AI-Naser HA, Cooper SJ (April 1994). "A-68930, a novel, potent dopamine D1 receptor agonist: a microstructural analysis of its ... Salmi P, Ahlenius S (April 2000). "Sedative effects of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist A 68930 on rat open-field behavior". ...
2019). "Positive allosteric modulators of the dopamine D1 receptor: A new mechanism for the treatment of neuropsychiatric ... Allosteric regulation AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator GABAA receptor ... Affinity is the ability of a substance to bind to a receptor. Efficacy is the ability of a substance to activate a receptor, ... reducing depressive symptoms of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia by positively modulating dopamine receptors. ...
Gozen O, Balkan B, Yildirim E, Koylu EO, Pogun S (September 2013). "The epigenetic effect of nicotine on dopamine D1 receptor ... modification consisting of 3-fold increased acetylation of histone H4 occurs at the promoter of the dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1 ... This caused increased dopamine release in the PFC reward-related brain region, and such increased dopamine release is ... 47 (D1): D874-D880. doi:10.1093/nar/gky821. PMC 6324025. PMID 30215764. Morris JH, Huang CC, Babbitt PC, Ferrin TE (September ...
Lemon N, Manahan-Vaughan D (September 2012). "Dopamine D1/D5 receptors contribute to de novo hippocampal LTD mediated by novel ... Lemon N, Manahan-Vaughan D (July 2006). "Dopamine D1/D5 receptors gate the acquisition of novel information through hippocampal ... Hansen N, Manahan-Vaughan D (April 2014). "Dopamine D1/D5 receptors mediate informational saliency that promotes persistent ... Popkirov SG, Manahan-Vaughan D (March 2011). "Involvement of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 in NMDA receptor- ...
Neumeyer JL, Kula NS, Baldessarini RJ, Baindur N (April 1992). "Stereoisomeric probes for the D1 dopamine receptor: synthesis ... Weed MR, Woolverton WL (December 1995). "The reinforcing effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys". The ... a new high-affinity D1 dopamine receptor ligand: synthesis and structure-activity relationship". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry ... Barrett AC, Miller JR, Dohrmann JM, Caine SB (2004). "Effects of dopamine indirect agonists and selective D1-like and D2-like ...
The medication provides relief from nausea by blocking D receptors. It blocks dopamine receptors in the anterior pituitary ... It has no clinically significant interaction with the D1 receptor, unlike metoclopramide. ... It is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist and was developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica. There is some ... Janssen pharmacologists discovered that some of antipsychotic drugs had a significant effect on dopamine receptors in the ...
Terry P, Katz JL (1992). "Differential antagonism of the effects of dopamine D1-receptor agonists on feeding behavior in the ... PMID 7069713.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Wang JQ, McGinty JF (May 1997). "The full D1 dopamine receptor ... Weed MR, Woolverton WL (December 1995). "The reinforcing effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys". The ... Abrahams BS, Rutherford JD, Mallet PE, Beninger RJ (February 1998). "Place conditioning with the dopamine D1-like receptor ...
... claimed that adaptive span training had led to changes in dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. In the same study, tests of "far ... "Changes in cortical dopamine D1 receptor binding associated with cognitive training". Science. 323 (5915): 800-802. Bibcode: ...
Young JW (March 2009). "Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor family contributions to modafinil-induced wakefulness". The Journal of ... a D1 receptor antagonist, and haloperidol, a D2 receptor antagonist. Partial substitution was seen with the DRA ... Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H (August 2009). "Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide ... Of the sites tested, it was found to significantly affect only the dopamine transporter (DAT), acting as a dopamine reuptake ...
February 2009). "Changes in cortical dopamine D1 receptor binding associated with cognitive training". Science. 323 (5915): 800 ... It has been shown in one study that working memory training increases the density of prefrontal and parietal dopamine receptors ... Mood states (positive or negative) can have an influence on the neurotransmitter dopamine, which in turn can affect problem ... Several neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamate may be involved in both ADHD and working memory. Both are associated ...
It works by stimulating beta-2 adrenergic receptors and peripheral dopamine receptor D1 and dopamine receptor D2. It also ... Dopexamine stimulates beta-2 adrenergic receptors and peripheral dopamine receptor D1 and dopamine receptor D2. It also ... Effects of depexamine may be suppressed by concomitant use with ß2-adrenergic and dopamine receptor antagonists requires ... a novel agonist at peripheral dopamine receptors and beta 2-adrenoceptors". British Journal of Pharmacology. 85 (3): 599-608. ...
2006). "The D1 dopamine receptor is constitutively phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4". Mol. Pharmacol. 69 ( ... 2003). "Desensitization of human renal D1 dopamine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4". Kidney Int. 62 (3): 790-8 ... G protein-coupled receptor kinases phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors, which promotes the binding of an ... 2001). "Determination of bradykinin B2 receptor in vivo phosphorylation sites and their role in receptor function". J. Biol. ...
... the D1 receptor increases it. If D2-blocking drugs are administered, the blocked dopamine spills over to the D1 receptors. The ... Blocking dopamine receptors (namely, the dopamine D2 receptors) and decreasing dopaminergic activity continues to be an ... The connection between dopamine and psychosis is generally believed to be complex. While dopamine receptor D2 suppresses ... The two major sources of evidence given to support this theory are that dopamine receptor D2 blocking drugs (i.e., ...
Commonly, this plasticity leads to long-term depression, LTD, mediated by dopamine D1 class receptors. These receptors' ... Much like the serotonin receptors in Aplysia, dopamine receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that activate cAMP production ... Therefore, heterosynaptic dopamine signaling in mammals can be best represented by dopamine's biological functions of mediating ... Further research on dopamine's role in neuromodulation is also underway. Experiments performed at the University of Pittsburgh ...
Radioligands that bind to dopamine receptors (D1,[14] D2 receptor,[15][16] reuptake transporter), serotonin receptors (5HT1A, ... "Imaging cortical dopamine D1 receptors using 11C NNC112 and ketanserin blockade of the 5-HT 2A receptors". J Cereb Blood Flow ... 2006). "D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding with F-18fallypride in thalamus and cortex of patients with schizophrenia". ... desmethoxyfallypride for dopamine D2/D3 receptors, [11C] McN 5652 and [11C] DASB for serotonin transporters, [18F] Mefway for ...
IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an ... Such sensitization involves changes in brain mesolimbic dopamine transmission, as well as a protein inside mesolimbic neurons ... Collingridge GL, Isaac JT, Wang YT (2004). "Receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity". Nat Rev Neurosci 5(12): 952-962, ...
dopamine metabolic process. • phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • maternal behavior. • dopamine ... dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity. • dopamine binding. • связывание с белками плазмы. • dopamine neurotransmitter ... 1990). "Human dopamine D1 receptor encoded by an intronless gene on chromosome 5". Nature. 347 (6288): 80-83. DOI:10.1038/ ... Hurd YL, Suzuki M, Sedvall GC (2001). "D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in whole hemisphere sections of the human ...
transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • Wnt-activated receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. ... "Frizzled Receptors: FZD5". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Dopamine *D1. *D2. *D3. *D4. *D5. *GHB receptor. *Histamine *H1. *H2. *H3 ...
Grenader A, Healy DP (July 1991). "Fenoldopam is a partial agonist at dopamine-1 (DA1) receptors in LLC-PK1 cells". J. ... Hughes AD, Sever PS (1989). "Action of fenoldopam, a selective dopamine (DA1) receptor agonist, on isolated human arteries". ... In contrast to dopamine, fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor agonist with no effect on beta adrenoceptors, although there is ... It decreases afterload and also promotes sodium excretion via specific dopamine receptors along the nephron. The renal effect ...
Acetilholin (M1, M2, M3, M4, M5) • Dopamin (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5) • Histamin (H1, H2, H3, H4) • Melatonin (1A, 1B, 1C) • TAAR (1 ... Liu Z, Wang Y, Zhang J, Ding J, Guo L, Cui D, Fei J (2001). „Orphanin FQ: an endogenous antagonist of rat brain dopamine ... Nociceptinski receptor (NOP, orfaninski FQ receptor, kapa tip 3 opioidni receptor) je protein koji je kod čoveka kodiran OPRL1 ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ...
... dopamine D1 and D2, muscarinic, GABA, histaminergic H1, serotonin 5-HT2, and N-methyl-D-aspartate). Inhibitory effects on 5-HT ... σ receptors, IC50=145μM. Pharmacokinetics[edit]. The pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine follow first-order kinetics, with a half- ... NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine, dextromethorphan, methadone). *Opioids (e.g., hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, ... It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and has weak 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor inhibition. These ...
taste receptor activity. • fatty acid binding. • lipid binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Dopamine *D1. *D2. *D3. *D4. *D5. *GHB receptor. *Histamine *H1. *H2. *H3 ... G-protein coupled receptor 120 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR120 gene.[5][6] ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • signal transduction. • G-protein coupled purinergic nucleotide receptor ... G-protein coupled purinergic nucleotide receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Dopamine *D1. *D2. *D3. *D4. *D5. *GHB receptor. *Histamine *H1. *H2. *H3 ...
... excitatory function since dopamine's effect can be both excitatory or inhibitory depending upon which dopamine receptors ( ... labelled D1 - D5) have been stimulated. DiagnosisEdit. Some characteristics of stuttered speech are not as easy for listeners ... DopamineEdit. Recent studies have found that adults who stutter have elevated levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and have ... which all contribute to the production of dopamine.[29] However, increased dopamine does not imply increased ...
Fuxe K, Ferré S, Genedani S, Franco R, Agnati LF (September 2007). "Adenosine receptor-dopamine receptor interactions in the ... The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors[1]) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as the ... A2A adenosine receptor[edit]. Main article: Adenosine A2A receptor. As with the A1, the A2A receptors are believed to play a ... A1 adenosine receptor[edit]. Main article: Adenosine A1 receptor. The adenosine A1 receptor has been found to be ubiquitous ...
Dopamine receptor) (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5) · 组织胺(英语:Histamine receptor) (H1, H2, H3, H4) · 褪黑素(英语:Melatonin receptor) (1A, 1B, 1C) ... 腺苷酸(英语:Adenosine receptor) (A1, A2A, A2B, A3) · P2Y(英语:P2Y receptor) (1(英语:P2RY1), 2(英语:P2RY2), 4(英语:P2RY4), 5(英语:LPAR6), 6(英语: ... α1(英语:Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor) (A, B, D) · α2(英语:Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor) (A, B, C) · β1 · β2 · β3 ... 肾上腺髓质素(英语:GPR182) · 嗅觉 · 视蛋白 (3, 4, 5, 1长波, 1中波, 1短波, RGR, 类视色素受体
"Prostanoid Receptors: EP3". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... prostaglandin receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • prostaglandin E receptor activity. • protein binding. ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4). അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]. *↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000050628 - Ensembl, May ... Dopamine *D1. *D2. *D3. *D4. *D5. *GHB receptor. *Histamine *H1. *H2. *H3 ...
... (GAL1) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR1 gene.[5] ... "Galanin Receptors: GAL1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... Dopamine *D1. *D2. *D3. *D4. *D5. *GHB receptor. *Histamine *H1. *H2. *H3 ...
Taste receptor 2 member 38 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAS2R38 gene. TAS2R38 is a bitter taste receptor; ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • bitter taste receptor activity. ... Dopamine *D1. *D2. *D3. *D4. *D5. *GHB receptor. *Histamine *H1. *H2. *H3 ... TAS2R38, PTC, T2R38, T2R61, taste 2 receptor member 38, THIOT. External IDs. OMIM: 607751 MGI: 2681306 HomoloGene: 47976 ...
leukotriene receptor activity. • cysteinyl leukotriene receptor activity. • galanin receptor activity. Cellular component. • ... "Leukotriene Receptors: CysLT2". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2, also termed CYSLTR2, is a receptor for cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT) (see leukotrienes# ... G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • ...
The bombesin receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors which bind bombesin.. Three bombesin receptors are currently ... BB1, previously known as Neuromedin B receptor NMBR. BB2, previously known as Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor GRPR. BB3, ... previously known as Bombesin-like receptor 3 BRS3. External links[edit]. *. "Bombesin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Dopamine *D1. *D2. *D3. *D4. *D5. *GHB receptor. *Histamine *H1. *H2. *H3 ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. Cellular component. • plasma membrane. • membrane. • integral component of membrane. • ...
Giardino L, Zanni M, Pozza M, Bettelli C, Covelli V (March 1998). "Dopamine receptors in the striatum of rats exposed to ... has been demonstrated to elicit a statistically significant increase in extracellular dopamine D1 and D2 concentrations in the ... GABA receptors are the most prolific inhibitory receptor within the brain. The GABA chemical and receptor system mediates ... The GABAA receptor is made up of 5 subunits out of a possible 19, and GABAA receptors made up of different combinations of ...
mineralocorticoid receptor activity. • steroid binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • steroid hormone receptor ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans ... "Estrogen (G protein coupled) Receptor". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ...
Lluch J, Rodríguez-Arias M, Aguilar MA, Miñarro J (2005). "Role of dopamine and glutamate receptors in cocaine-induced social ... NMDA மற்றும் D1 டோபமைன் ரிசப்டார் ஆகியவையும் இது செயல்படுவதாக விளங்கப்படுத்தப்பட்டிருக்கும் இன்னும் கூடுதலான குறிப்பிட்ட ... The binding sites for cocaine and dopamine in the dopamine transporter overlap. Nature Neuroscience 11 , 780 - 789 (2008) ... "Cocaine inhibits 5-HT3 receptor function in neurons from transgenic mice overexpressing the receptor". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 459 ( ...
regulation of dopamine metabolic process. • positive regulation of heart rate. • response to morphine. • positive regulation of ... "Tachykinin Receptors: NK3". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... tachykinin receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. ... "Entrez Gene: TACR3 tachykinin receptor 3".. *^ Quartara L, Altamura M (Aug 2006). "Tachykinin receptors antagonists: from ...
Dopamine. *Ebalzotan. *Eltoprazine. *Enciprazine. *Ergolines (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, ... There is no 5-HT1C receptor, as it was reclassified as the 5-HT2C receptor.[2] For more information, please see the respective ... The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin ( ... 5-HT7 receptor. References[edit]. *^ Hoyer D, Clarke DE, Fozard JR, Hartig PR, Martin GR, Mylecharane EJ, Saxena PR, Humphrey ...
positive regulation of adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of signal transduction by ... Miranda TB, Khusial P, Cook JR, Lee JH, Gunderson SI, Pestka S, Zieve GW, Clarke S (2004). "Spliceosome Sm proteins D1, D3, and ... "Interaction of the somatostatin receptor subtype 1 with the human homolog of the Shk1 kinase-binding protein from yeast". J. ...
Prostaglandin receptors or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as ... All of the prostanoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the Subfamily A14 of the rhodopsin-like receptor ... There are 9 established prostanoid receptors. The following table gives these receptors: a) full name; b) shortened names; c) ... "Prostanoid receptors - G protein-coupled receptors - IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY". www.guidetopharmacology.org.. ...
Dopamine receptor) (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5) · 组织胺(英语:Histamine receptor) (H1, H2, H3, H4) · 褪黑素(英语:Melatonin receptor) (1A, 1B, 1C) ... 除5-HT3之外:5-HT1(英语:5-HT1 receptor) (A, B, D, E, F) · 5-HT2 (A, B, C) · 5-HT (4, 5A, 6, 7) ... The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta-glucopyranosides.. Nat. Genet. 2002, 32 (3): 397-401. PMID ... Bitter receptor gene (TAS2R38), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness and alcohol intake. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2004, 28 ( ...
Beyond these general permissive effects, dopamine (acting via D1 receptors) and norepinephrine (acting at several receptors) ... Dopamine neurons in the VTA are activated by food and water, and dopamine release in the NAc is stimulated by the presence of ... through indirect stimulation of dopamine and norepinephrine receptors. .... ... Dopamine acts in the nucleus accumbens to attach motivational significance to stimuli associated with reward.. ...
Acetilholin (M1, M2, M3, M4, M5) • Dopamin (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5) • Histamin (H1, H2, H3, H4) • Melatonin (1A, 1B, 1C) • TAAR (1 ... 5-HT2A and alpha1b-adrenergic receptors entirely mediate dopamine release, locomotor response and behavioural sensitization to ... Alfa-1B adrenergički receptor (α1B adrenoreceptor, ADRA1B), je alfa-1 adrenergički receptor, kodiran ADRA1B humanim genom.[1] ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ...
2010). "Foxa2 and Nurr1 synergistically yield A9 nigral dopamine neurons exhibiting improved differentiation, function, and ... 2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α. *β. *CAR ...
... makes it likely to be involved in several psychiatric disorders in which olfaction and dopamine receptors are affected. Many ... Rats rely heavily on olfactory sensory input from olfactory receptors for behavioral attitudes.[28] Studies show that bilateral ... The olfactory tubercle has been shown to be concerned primarily with the reception of sensory impulses from olfactory receptors ... Suaud-Chagny, M.F.; Ponec, J.; Gonon, F. (1991). "Presynaptic autoinhibition of the electrically evoked dopamine release ...
... dopamine D3 receptor, histamine H3 receptor, μ opioid receptor, NMDA receptor, and adenosine A1 receptor. D1-D2 receptor ... a target to prevent neurodegeneration D1-D3 receptor complex D1-NMDAR receptor complex D1-A1 receptor complex Dopamine receptor ... Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene. D1 receptors are the most ... Dopamine receptor D1 has been shown to interact with: COPG2, COPG, and DNAJC14. The D1 receptor forms heteromers with the ...
The D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer is a receptor heteromer consisting of D1 and D2 protomers. D1 and D2 receptors interact ... Hasbi A, ODowd BF, George SR (February 2010). "Heteromerization of dopamine D2 receptors with dopamine D1 or D5 receptors ... The D1-D2 receptor is upregulated in individuals suffering from major depression, and especially the ratio D1-D2 to D1 receptor ... "Dopamine D1-D2 receptor Heteromer-mediated calcium release is desensitized by D1 receptor occupancy with or without signal ...
D1-dopamine-receptors, dopamine-receptors, Karolinska-Institutet, medication, Memory-Training, mental-activity, overflowing- ... Specif-i-cal-ly, the researchers found changes in the den-si-ty and bind-ing poten-tial of cor-ti-cal D1 dopamine recep-tors in ...
Human D3 dopamine receptor in the medulloblastoma TE671 cell line: cross-talk between D1 and D3 receptors. FEBS Lett. 1998; 439 ... Differential expression and regulation of dopamine-1 (D-1) and dopamine-5 (D-5) receptor function in human kidney. Am J ... D3 dopamine receptor upregulates and directly interacts with the D1 dopamine receptor in renal proximal tubule cells. Am J ... Dopamine activation of the arachidonic acid cascade as a basis for D1/D2 receptor synergism. Nature. 1991; 353: 164-167. ...
Inverted-U dopamine D1 receptor actions on prefrontal neurons engaged in working memory.. Vijayraghavan S1, Wang M, Birnbaum SG ... Dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) stimulation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) produces an inverted-U dose-response, whereby either ...
Methylphenidate and atomoxetine enhance prefrontal function through α2-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors.. Gamo NJ1, Wang M ... Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Enhance Prefrontal Function Through α2-Adrenergic and Dopamine D1 Receptors ... Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Enhance Prefrontal Function Through α2-Adrenergic and Dopamine D1 Receptors ... Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Enhance Prefrontal Function Through α2-Adrenergic and Dopamine D1 Receptors ...
It is an ergot derivative with D2 dopamine receptor agonist and D1 dopamine receptor antagonist activities. In medicine, it is ... a versatile drug with many uses thanks to its dopamine increasing effects. In bodybuilding, its used for its ability to ... D1 dopamine receptor antagonist (CLICK HERE TO BUY) https://i.imgur.com/PzRR6Gn.png Bromocriptine mesylate (Bromo for short). ... BROMO ( High Quality prolactin protection)D1 dopamine receptor antagonist D1 dopamine receptor antagonist (CLICK HERE TO BUY). ...
1999) Dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice exhibit decreased dopamine transporter function but no changes in dopamine release in ... Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Family Contributions to Modafinil-Induced Wakefulness Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... 1993) Differential effects of dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptor antagonist antipsychotics on sleep-wake patterns in the rat. J ... 2008) Sleep deprivation decreases binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the human brain. J Neurosci 28:8454 ...
D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors in Gambling and Amphetamine Reinforcement (HFDEX). The safety and scientific validity of this ... D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors in Gambling and Amphetamine Reinforcement Official Title ICMJE Comparative Effects of a D2 and ... BACKGROUND: No previous research appears to have investigated the role of dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 receptors in psychostimulant ... by mitigating undue D1 activation in subjects with high baseline D1 function. If D1 or D2 genes contribute to gambling or ...
... is associated with an alteration in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) and glutamate receptor interactions. We hypothesized that the ... a detrimental consequence of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinsons disease, ... is associated with an alteration in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) and glutamate receptor interactions. We hypothesized that the ... PSD-95 expression controls L-DOPA dyskinesia through dopamine D1 receptor trafficking J Clin Invest. 2012 Nov;122(11):3977-89. ...
... of central dopamine receptors corresponds to the genotypic constitution of DNA-polymorphisms of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor ... A human D1 dopamine receptor gene is located on chromosome 5 at q35.1 and identifies an EcoRI RFLP. Grandy, D.K., Zhou, Q.Y., ... Association between dopamine receptor D1 A-48G polymorphism and methamphetamine abuse. Liu, H.C., Chen, C.K., Leu, S.J., Wu, H. ... Studies of the potential role of the dopamine D1 receptor gene in addictive behaviors. Comings, D.E., Gade, R., Wu, S., Chiu, C ...
Model of dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer signaling pathway. Activation of the D1-D2 receptor heteromer leads to intracellular ... Dopamine D1-D2 Receptor Heteromer-mediated Calcium Release Is Desensitized by D1 Receptor Occupancy with or without Signal ... 2008) Dopamine D1 receptor-induced signaling through TrkB receptors in striatal neurons. J Biol Chem 283:15799-15806. ... Classically, dopamine exerts its actions through D1-like (D1, D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, D4) receptors, which regulate activation ...
... Cátia Fernandes- ... The natriuretic effects of ANP have been related to renal dopamine D1-receptors (D1R). We examined the interaction between ANP ...
1995) D1 and D2 dopamine receptor function in the striatum: coactivation of D1- and D2-dopamine receptors on separate ... D1 and D2 dopamine receptor gene expression in the rat striatum: sensitive cRNA probes demonstrate prominent segregation of D1 ... 1996) D1 dopamine receptor-deficient mouse: cocaine-induced regulation of immediate-early gene and substance P expression in ... 1998) The dopamine D-1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 injected into the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis ...
Dopamine acts through two classes of G protein-coupled receptor (D1-like and D2-like) to modulate neuron activity in the brain ... D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors are also coexpressed in the cholinergic ventral-cord motor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans ... Thus, coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors act antagonistically in vivo to modulate acetylcholine release from the ... Coexpressed D1- and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Modulate Acetylcholine Release in Caenorhabditis elegans. ...
Transcription Factor Nrf2 Protects Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor Function During Oxidative Stress. Anees Ahmad Banday, Mustafa F. ... Transcription Factor Nrf2 Protects Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor Function During Oxidative Stress ... Transcription Factor Nrf2 Protects Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor Function During Oxidative Stress ... Transcription Factor Nrf2 Protects Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor Function During Oxidative Stress ...
What is Dopamine D1 receptor? Meaning of Dopamine D1 receptor medical term. What does Dopamine D1 receptor mean? ... Looking for online definition of Dopamine D1 receptor in the Medical Dictionary? Dopamine D1 receptor explanation free. ... redirected from Dopamine D1 receptor) DRD1. A gene on chromosome 5q35.1 that encodes G protein-coupled dopamine receptor D1, ... Dopamine-opioid interactions in the rat striatum: a modulatory role for dopamine D1 receptors in delta opioid receptor-mediated ...
... demonstrate that D2 dopamine receptors can function without the enabling role of D1 receptors but that D1 dopamine receptors ... Selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist SKF 81297 fails to induce cFos in the striatum of D1 mutant mice. (A) Sparse but ... Thus, even though other dopamine receptors may be coexpressed with D1 receptors in some or most dynorphin-containing striatal ... Our results with D1 mutant mice suggest that D1 receptors might be able in part to suppress or to override D2 receptor ...
Selective D1-like dopamine receptor partial agonist. Vasodilator in vivo. α2-adrenoceptor antagonist in vitro. ... Selective D1-like dopamine receptor partial agonist. Vasodilator in vivo. α2-adrenoceptor antagonist in vitro. ...
D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons ... D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons ... D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons ... D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons ...
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor ... genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLATE CYCLASE. ... Dopamine D1 Receptor; Receptors, Dopamine D1; Dopamine-D1 Receptor; D1 Receptors, Dopamine; Receptor, Dopamine-D1 ... Dopamine D1 Receptors (Dopamine D1 Receptor). Subscribe to New Research on Dopamine D1 Receptors ...
Combining with the neurotransmitter dopamine and activating adenylate cyclase via coupling to Gs to initiate a change in cell ... D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors in Gambling and Amphetamine Reinforcement. *Treatment of Schizophrenia With L-tetrahydropalmatine ... Effect of Gene Variants on Dopamine Receptor Natriuretic Responses. *Effects of PF-06412562 on Value-based Decision-making in ... QuickView for dopamine D1 receptor-like receptor activity (biogroup) *NextBio Summary. *General Info ...
ASSA14-03-08 Gastrin and D1 Dopamine Receptor Interact to Induce Natriuresis and Diuresis ... indicating the interaction between gastrin and D1-like receptor. Stimulation of either receptor increased the expression of the ... Conclusion It indicated the synergistic effect between gastrin and D1-like receptor would increase the sodium excretion in WKY ... We hypothesise that gastrin interact with dopamine receptors in kidney, resulting in synergistically increased sodium excretion ...
The goal of this study was to determine whether dopamine D2 and/or D1receptors in the shell and the core of the nucleus ... Unilateral injection of a mixture of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (10 µg) and the dopamine D1 receptor agonist 1 ... Stimulation of acetylcholine or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens differentially alters dopamine release in the ... The goal of this study was to determine whether dopamine D2 and/or D1 receptors in the shell and the core of the nucleus ...
The effects of the dopamine receptor D1 partial agonist, SKF 38393, on behavior maintained by cocaine was assessed in squirrel ... The effects of the dopamine receptor D1 partial agonist, SKF 38393, on behavior maintained by cocaine was assessed in squirrel ... Koob GF, Le HT, Creese I (1987) The D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 increases cocaine self-administration in the rat ... Selective effects of the D1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF 38393, on behavior maintained by cocaine injection in squirrel ...
D1 and D2 dopamine receptors exert opposing effects on the same signaling pathway mediated by heterotrimeric GTP-binding ... Coactivation of D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors: In Marriage, a Case of His, Hers, and Theirs ... Coactivation of D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors: In Marriage, a Case of His, Hers, and Theirs ... Coactivation of D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors: In Marriage, a Case of His, Hers, and Theirs ...
Selective YAP/TAZ inhibition in fibroblasts via dopamine receptor D1 agonism reverses fibrosis ... Selective YAP/TAZ inhibition in fibroblasts via dopamine receptor D1 agonism reverses fibrosis ... Selective YAP/TAZ inhibition in fibroblasts via dopamine receptor D1 agonism reverses fibrosis ... Selective YAP/TAZ inhibition in fibroblasts via dopamine receptor D1 agonism reverses fibrosis ...
Yang K, Wei M, Yang Z, Fu Z, Xu R, Cheng C, Chen X, Chen S, Dammer E and Le W: Activation of dopamine receptor D1 inhibits ... Dopamine receptor D1 agonist inhibits glioblastoma via calpain‑mediated ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. *Authors: * ... Rashid AJ, So CH, Kong MM, Furtak T, El-Ghundi M, Cheng R, ODowd BF and George SR: D1-D2 dopamine receptor heterooligomers ... Zhen X, Goswami S and Friedman E: The role of the phosphatidyinositol-linked D1 dopamine receptor in the pharmacology of ...
... coexpress dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, which can form a D1-D2 receptor complex, but their relevance in addiction is not known ... which can form a D1-D2 receptor complex, but their relevance in addiction is not known. The existence of the D1-D2 heteromer in ... In rat, D1-D2 receptor heteromer activation led to place aversion and abolished cocaine CPP and locomotor sensitization, ... In rat, D1-D2 receptor heteromer activation led to place aversion and abolished cocaine CPP and locomotor sensitization, ...
  • D1 receptors regulate the growth of neurons, mediate some behaviors, and modulate dopamine receptor D2-mediated events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic THC increased the number of D1-D2 heteromer-expressing neurons, and the number of heteromers within individual neurons in adult monkey striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inverted-U dopamine D1 receptor actions on prefrontal neurons engaged in working memory. (nih.gov)
  • These effects, although robust in striatal neurons from D5 −/− mice, were absent in neurons from D1 −/− mice. (pnas.org)
  • In this context, we describe a signaling pathway that links dopamine action through the D1-D2 receptor heterooligomer to the expression of BDNF in postnatal striatal neurons and in adult rat brain by a mechanism involving activation of Gq, phospholipase C (PLC), the mobilization of intracellular calcium, activation of cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) and subsequently an increase in BDNF expression. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, using confocal FRET, we demonstrate the presence of the D1-D2 receptor heterooligomer as a physical entity in striatal neurons and rat brain. (pnas.org)
  • Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors Form Heterooligomers in Striatal Neurons. (pnas.org)
  • Cellular responses used to study the effects of dopamine receptor stimulation in striatal projection neurons and resulting changes in target areas include the expression of immediate-early genes, such as c- fos and zif 268 (for review, see Steiner and Gerfen, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • While subtypes of D1- and D2-like receptors are coexpressed in many neurons of the mammalian brain, it is unclear how signaling by these coexpressed receptors interacts to modulate the activity of the neuron in which they are expressed. (genetics.org)
  • D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors are also coexpressed in the cholinergic ventral-cord motor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans . (genetics.org)
  • We used transgene rescue experiments to show that defects in these dopamine-specific behaviors were caused by abnormal signaling in the cholinergic motor neurons . (genetics.org)
  • To investigate the interaction between the D1- and D2-like receptors specifically in these cholinergic motor neurons , we measured the sensitivity of dopamine-signaling mutants and transgenic animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. (genetics.org)
  • We found that D2 signaling inhibited acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons while D1 signaling stimulated release from these same cells. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors act antagonistically in vivo to modulate acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons of C. elegans . (genetics.org)
  • We show here that deletion of the D1 dopamine receptor produces a neural phenotype in which amphetamine and cocaine, two addictive psychomotor stimulants, can no longer stimulate neurons in the striatum to express cFos or JunB or to regulate dynorphin. (pnas.org)
  • Striatopallidal neurons show a 6-OHDA-induced elevation in their specific expression of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding the D2 dopamine receptor and enkephalin, which is reversed by subsequent continuous treatment with the D2 agonist quinpirole. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conversely, striatonigral neurons show a 6-OHDA-induced reduction in their specific expression of mRNAs encoding the D1 dopamine receptor and substance P, which is reversed by subsequent daily injections of the D1 agonist SKF-38393. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, the differential effects of dopamine on striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons are mediated by their specific expression of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • A significant subpopulation of neurons in rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) coexpress dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, which can form a D1-D2 receptor complex, but their relevance in addiction is not known. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of DA involvement through its receptors ( Beaulieu and Gainetdinov, 2011 ) has focused on the mechanisms occurring in DA D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing or D2 receptor (D2R)-expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum composing the two distinct projection pathways, the striatonigral D1R-enriched pathway and the striatopallidal D2R-enriched pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Knowledge of the circuitry underlying D1-mediated regulation of nigrostriatal neurons may have significance in current research on treatments for Parkinson's disease. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Knockdown of PSD-95 immobilizes D(1) receptors on the cell surface and escalates NMDA receptor-dependent D(1) cAMP signaling in neurons. (nih.gov)
  • In another experiment, 6-OHDA lesions were applied to transgenic mice with a cell-specific knockdown of mGluR5 in D1 receptor-expressing neurons. (lu.se)
  • In cultured rat striatal neurons, stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors induces NFAT-dependent transcription through activation of L-type calcium channels. (umn.edu)
  • Glutamatergic neurons of rat medial prefrontal cortex innervating the ventral tegmental area are positive for serotonin 5-HT1A receptor protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We show that, in prefrontal cortical neurons, dopamine D1-induced enhancement of NMDA receptor function depends on rapid insertion of new NMDA receptor 2B subunits on the synaptic surface. (pcom.edu)
  • This study addresses the hypothesis that the previously described capacity of D1 dopamine receptors (D1Rs) to regulate dendritic growth in developing cortical neurons may involve alterations in the phosphorylation state of microtubuleassociated protein-2 (MAP2). (cuny.edu)
  • Expression of D1 but not D2 dopamine receptors in striatal neurons producing neurokinin B in rats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Neostriatal projection neurons are known to be largely divided into two groups, striatoentopeduncular/striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, which mainly express D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, respectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To reveal which type of dopamine receptors were expressed by these NKB-producing neurons, we examined rat striatal neurons by combining immunofluorescence labeling for preprotachykinin B (PPTB), the precursor of NKB, and fluorescence in situ hybridization labeling for dopamine receptors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fluorescent signals for D1 receptor mRNA were detected in 85-89% of PPTB-immunopositive neurons in the neostriatum, accumbens nucleus and lateral stripe of the striatum, whereas almost no signal for D2 receptor was observed in PPTB-positive striatal neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To further reveal intracellular signaling downstream of D1 receptor in PPTB-producing neurons, we used a double immunofluorescence labeling method to study the localization of some substrates for protein kinase A (PKA), which was known to be activated by D1 receptor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although only 3-7% of PPTB-immunopositive striatal neurons displayed immunoreactivity for dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa, a well-known PKA substrate expressed in the two major groups of neostriatal projection neurons, 60-64% of PPTB-positive striatal neurons exhibited immunoreactivity for striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that NKB-producing neostriatal neurons are similar to striatoentopeduncular/striatonigral neurons in the usage of dopamine receptor subtypes, but different from the two major groups of neostriatal projection neurons in terms of the downstream signaling of dopamine receptors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The disease is caused by the death of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. (mau.se)
  • About 50% dopamine is produced in gastrointestinal tract by enteric neurons and intestinal epithelial cells, and thus results in higher level of dopamine in hepatic portal vein ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In primary cultures of frontal cortex neurons, D(1)-like receptor-induced Ser133 phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) was potentiated by concurrent stimulation of M(1) receptors. (unica.it)
  • Differential regulation of the dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptor gene expression and changes in the phenotype of the striatal neurons in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. (duke.edu)
  • Our results show that in DAT+/+ mice, D1 and D2 receptor mRNAs are segregated in two different main populations corresponding to substance P and preproenkephalin A mRNA-containing neurons, respectively. (duke.edu)
  • The phenotype of D1 or D2 mRNA-containing neurons was unchanged in both the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens of DAT-/- mice. (duke.edu)
  • Our data further support the critical role for the D3 receptor in the regulation of D1-D2 interactions, an action being restricted to neurons coexpressing D1 and D3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. (duke.edu)
  • Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • LS-F37527 is a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Quantitative detection of Rat DRD1 / Dopamine Receptor D1 in samples of Plasma and Serum. (lsbio.com)
  • It is based upon a Sandwich CLIA assay principle and can be used to detect levels of DRD1 / Dopamine Receptor D1 as low as 1.875 nanograms per millilter. (lsbio.com)
  • Rabbit IgG polyclonal antibody for D(1A) dopamine receptor(DRD1) detection. (bosterbio.com)
  • Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a human gene. (bosterbio.com)
  • 112 Dopamine Receptor D1 (DRD1) Anticorps de 21 fabricants sont disponibles sur www.anticorps-enligne.fr. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • DRD1 activation by A-68930, a DRD1-specific agonist, decreased DOX-induced nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) expression, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1β maturation in H9C2 cells. (edu.sa)
  • D1-like dopamine receptors (DRD) including DRD1 and DRD5 activate adenylyl cyclase, whereas D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 inhibit adenylyl cyclase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several D1 receptor agonists are used clinically. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these drugs are preferentially D2-like receptor agonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dihydrexidine and adrogolide (ABT-431) (a prodrug of A-86929 with improved bioavailability) are the only selective, centrally active D1-like receptor agonists that have been studied clinically in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The selective D1 agonists give profound antiparkinson effects in humans and primate models of PD, and yield cognitive enhancement in many preclinical models and a few clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, Pfizer made public information about pharmaceutically-acceptable non-catechol selective D1 agonists that are in clinical development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both D 3 (PD128907, Emax=80%±6%, pED 50 =5±0.1) and D 1 -like receptor (fenoldopam, Emax=81%±8%, pED 50 =5±0.2, n=12) agonists relaxed mesenteric arterial rings. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine whether D 1 and D 3 receptors also interact in vascular smooth muscle cells, we studied the effect of D 1 and D 3 receptor agonists on the wall tension of rat mesenteric arterial rings from WKY rats and SHRs. (ahajournals.org)
  • The improvement was related to dose levels, and was consistent with that seen in conventional therapies for PD such as dopamine D1 receptor agonists. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By contrast, haloperidol, a typical neuroleptic that acts preferentially at D2-class receptors, remains effective in inducing catalepsy and striatal Fos/Jun expression in the D1 mutants, and these behavioral and neural effects can be blocked by D2 dopamine receptor agonists. (pnas.org)
  • These data together with the fact that l -sulpiride is known to be a valid tool to differentiate the involvement of distinct regions within the shell underlie the conclusion that dopamine D 2 and D 1 receptors in the shell, but not the core, of the nucleus accumbens play a critical role in the contralateral turning induced by unilateral injection of dopamine receptor agonists into this nucleus. (springer.com)
  • Finally, pharmacological manipulation of cAMP levels in the BLA is not only able to mimic the behavioural effects of DA receptor blockade or activation, but also reverses the effect of both DA receptor agonists and antagonists, regardless of opiate exposure state. (uwo.ca)
  • These data are also supported by pharmacological results that D1 receptor agonists fail to potentiate grooming behaviors in headless DopR flies. (escholarship.org)
  • Decreased striatal dopamine efflux after intrastriatal application of benzazepine-class D1 agonists is not mediated via dopamine receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present experiments employed in vivo microdialysis to further examine the ability of widely used benzazepine-class D1 agonists to modulate striatal dopamine efflux. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To clarify the involvement of dopamine D 4 receptors in behavioral regulation, the phenotypic ethogram of congenic D 4 "knockout" mice was studied in terms of (i) course of exploration and habituation, and (ii) topographical responsiveness to the selective D 2 -like agonist RU 24213 and the selective D 1 -like agonists A 68930, SK&F 83959 and SK&F 83822. (elsevier.com)
  • The mutant mice do not respond to the stimulant and suppressive effects of D1 receptor agonists and antagonists, respectively, and they exhibit locomotor hyperactivity. (elsevier.com)
  • Specifically, dysregulation of dopamine (DA) has been hypothesized in ADHD based on the potent efficacy of indirect dopaminergic agonists, such as methylphenidate, supported by in vivo evidence that methylphenidate effects are related to striatal occupancy of the dopamine transporter (DAT), by increasing extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Co-stimulation of D 1 and D 3 receptors led to additive vasorelaxation in WKY rats, but not in SHRs. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8,9 D 1 and D 5 receptors are expressed in renal proximal tubules, but the increase in cAMP production secondary to D 1 -like agonist stimulation is primarily a D 1 rather than a D 5 receptor effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the medulloblastoma TE671 cell line endogenously expressing only D 1 and D 3 dopamine receptors and not the other dopamine receptor subtypes, stimulation of the D 1 receptor increases D 3 receptor mRNA levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 We have found that these immortalized RPT cells have characteristics similar to freshly obtained RPTs and RPT brush-border membranes, at least regarding D 1 -like receptors and responses to G-protein stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) stimulation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) produces an 'inverted-U' dose-response, whereby either too little or too much D1R stimulation impairs spatial working memory. (nih.gov)
  • These enhancing effects appeared to involve indirect stimulation of α(2) adrenoceptors and D(1) dopamine receptors in the PFC. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we used immediate-early genes (c- fos , zif 268 ) as functional markers to investigated how basal ganglia output altered by stimulation/blockade of D1 dopamine receptors in the striatum affects cortical function. (jneurosci.org)
  • To determine whether such changes in cortical gene expression could reflect altered cortical function, we examined the effects of blocking striatal D1 receptors on whisker stimulation-evoked immediate-early gene expression in the sensorimotor cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results suggest that stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors in the striatum exerts a widespread facilitatory effect on cortical function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Behavioral and molecular effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reversal of antipsychotic-induced working memory deficits by short-term dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors has profound effects on addictive behavior, movement control, and working memory. (pnas.org)
  • Stimulation of either receptor increased the expression of the other and inhibited Na + -K + -ATPase activity, while the inhibitory effect of Na + -K + -ATPase activity was partially blocked through its corresponding receptors due to respective existence of SCH23390 and CI988. (bmj.com)
  • Barrett RL, Appel JB (1989) Effects of stimulation and blockage of dopamine receptor subtypes on the discriminative stimulus properties of cocaine. (springer.com)
  • Unexpectedly, recent research suggests that D1 and D2 receptor coactivation in cells that coexpress both receptors leads to the recruitment of a novel signaling pathway, involving phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated calcium mobilization, that is distinct from the intracellular responses observed after stimulation of either dopamine receptor alone. (sciencemag.org)
  • This observation suggests that stimulation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors has the potential to give rise to different intracellular signals depending on whether D1 or D2 receptors are activated alone or together. (sciencemag.org)
  • D 1 -EGFP was similar to the untagged D 1 receptor in terms of affinity for agonist and antagonist ligands, coupling to G proteins, and stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • High and low levels of central 5-HT stimulation can attenuate and potentiate, respectively, dopamine-mediated stereotypies ( Carter and Pycock, 1981 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that both the D 1 and the D 2 receptor subtypes play a role in the consolidation of maternal memory and they might do so by mediating the motivational salience of pup stimulation. (nebraska.edu)
  • Systemic administration of the mixed D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine (3 mg/kg) increased immediate-early gene expression in the striatum and throughout most of the cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • Unilateral intrastriatal infusion of the selective D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (0.5-10 μg) blocked this response bilaterally in striatum and cortex in a dose-dependent manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • Even apparently regionally restricted blockade of striatal D1 receptors attenuated gene expression throughout striatum and cortex in both hemispheres. (jneurosci.org)
  • To investigate the effects of dopamine action in the striatum on cortical function, we have assessed immediate-early gene expression in the cortex after intrastriatal drug administration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dopamine-opioid interactions in the rat striatum: a modulatory role for dopamine D1 receptors in delta opioid receptor-mediated signal transduction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many of these functions depend on dopaminergic systems in the striatum and D1-D2 dopamine receptor synergies have been implicated as well. (pnas.org)
  • D2-class dopamine receptors have been shown to regulate these transcription factors also and to regulate enkephalin expression in the striatum ( 2 , 4 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have reported ( 21 , 24 ) marked abnormalities in motor responses of D1 mutant mice in the absence of major anatomical changes in the striatum or its nigrostriatal afferents. (pnas.org)
  • Rats with lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway caused by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) serve as a model for Parkinson's disease and show alterations in gene expression in the two major output systems of the striatum to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. (sciencemag.org)
  • The existence of the D1-D2 heteromer in the striatum of rat and monkey was established using in situ PLA, in situ FRET and co-immunoprecipitation. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the role of D1-like receptors localized within the striatum remains controversial. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using in vivo microdialysis, we report that infusions of the D1/D5 antagonist SCH 23390 [ R -(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H -3-benzazepine] (5-200 μM) directly into the striatum increased dopamine release in a concentration-dependent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that endogenous dopamine acts on D1-like receptors localized within the striatum to decrease nigrostriatal dopamine release. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mechanisms of Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated ERK1/2 Activation in the Parkinsonian Striatum and Their Modulation by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Type 5. (lu.se)
  • Application of the dopamine D1-like receptor agonist SKF38393 induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and downstream signaling in the DA-denervated but not the intact striatum. (lu.se)
  • Our results reveal that D1-dependent ERK1/2 activation in the DA-denervated striatum depends on a complex interaction between PKA- and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways that is critically modulated by striatal mGluR5. (lu.se)
  • The effects of postmortem interval on dopamine D 1 mRNA and D 1 receptors were assessed in rat striatum under conditions simulating the handling of human brain tissue at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h postmortem. (elsevier.com)
  • Neither the total amount of D1 mRNA in the striatum nor the frequency distribution of striatal cells expressing D1 mRNA varied with the postmortem interval. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that the D1 receptor regulates the neurochemical architecture of the striatum and is critical for the normal expression of motor activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The DA D1 receptors (D1R), which are expressed highly in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC), may be particularly relevant for ADHD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka signalvägar som induceras av dopamin D1-receptorn i vävnadsprov från regionen striatum i hjärnan från lesionerade råttor. (mau.se)
  • Dopamine binds D1 and D2 receptors that are expressed in the nerve cells of the striatum (a structure of the basal ganglia), and exerts different effects on the nerve cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The levels of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor proteins and the expression of receptor mRNAs in striatum were examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effect elicited from the shell was significantly attenuated by prior administration of either the dopamine D 2 receptor antagonist l -sulpiride (25 ng/0.5 µl) or the dopamine D 1 receptor antagonist (8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1 H -3-benzazepine-7-ol (SCH 23390, 0.5 µg/0.5 µl) into the same region. (springer.com)
  • Koob GF, Le HT, Creese I (1987) The D 1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 increases cocaine self-administration in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Locomotor activity in an open-field arena was measured in male, Sprague-Dawley rats given an intra-mPFC infusion of vehicle or the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.25 or 1.0 microg) prior to systemic (i.p.) injection of saline, AMPH (1 mg/kg), or METH (1 mg/kg). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Because SCH 23390 has been shown to have agonist-like properties at 5-HT(2C) receptors, a follow-up experiment was performed to determine if this contributed to the attenuation of METH-induced activity that we observed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Both D 1 and D 2 receptor antagonists, SCH 23390 [ R (+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H -3-benzazepine] and raclopride, inhibited BTS 74 398-induced circling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Treatment with dopamine D1/2 receptor antagonists SCH 23390 (1 μM) or sultopride (1 μM) could reverse the inhibitory effects of isosibiricin on NLRP3 expression as well as the cleavages of caspase-1 and IL-1β. (chinaphar.com)
  • Quantitative autoradiography of [ 3 H]SCH 23390 and [ 3 H](-)-sulpiride binding was performed in the brain of rats of various ages (3, 11 and 24 months) in order to study the changes in D 1 and D 2 receptor density with age. (elsevier.com)
  • SKF-89145 SKF-89626 7,8-Dihydroxy-5-phenyl-octahydrobenzo[h]isoquinoline: extremely potent, high-affinity full agonist Cabergoline - weak D1 agonism, highly selective for D2, and various serotonin receptors Pergolide - (similar to cabergoline) weak D1 agonism, highly selective for D2, and various serotonin receptors Many typical and atypical antipsychotics are D1 receptor antagonists in addition to D2 receptor antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • No other D1 receptor antagonists have been approved for clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors used male D 2 receptor KO mice, as well as the D 1 - and D 2 -family antagonists SCH23390 and raclopride, respectively, to investigate possible dopaminergic mechanisms for modafinil-induced wakefulness. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bergman J, Kamien JB, Spealman RD (1990) Antagonism of cocaine self-administration by selective dopamine D 1 and D 2 antagonists. (springer.com)
  • Hubner CB, Moreton JE (1991) Effects of selective D 1 and D 2 dopamine antagonists on cocaine self-administration in the rat. (springer.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, BTS 74 398 was administered in combination with selective dopamine, 5-HT, and noradrenaline receptor antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonists inhibit the induction of catalepsy, the anticholinergic activities of the drugs were investigated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This response was mediated through a canonical D1R/PKA/MEK1/2 pathway and independent of ionotropic glutamate receptors but blocked by antagonists of L-type calcium channels. (lu.se)
  • Effects of selective D1- or D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists with acute 'binge' pattern cocaine on corticotropin-releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • D1 and D2 dopamine receptors exert opposing effects on the same signaling pathway mediated by heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The D1-D2 heteromer activated Cdk5/Thr75-DARPP-32 and attenuated cocaine-induced pERK and ΔFosB accumulation, together with inhibition of cocaine-enhanced local field potentials in NAc, blocking thus the signaling pathway activated by cocaine: D1R/cAMP/PKA/Thr34-DARPP-32/pERK with ΔFosB accumulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dopamine acts through two classes of G protein-coupled receptor (D1-like and D2-like) to modulate neuron activity in the brain. (genetics.org)
  • To begin to understand how coexpressed dopamine receptors interact to modulate neuron activity, we performed a genetic screen in C. elegans and isolated mutants defective in dopamine response. (genetics.org)
  • they regulate neuronal growth and development, mediate some behavioural responses, and modulate dopamine receptor D2-mediated events. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. (curehunter.com)
  • The dopamine D 1 receptor belongs to the superfamily of heptahelical receptors that modulate the activity of effectors such as adenylate cyclase by activation of specific heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Overall, the data suggest that inhibition of the 5-HT and noradrenaline transporters modulate dopamine uptake inhibitor-mediated motor activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activation of the dopamine D1 receptor induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, the dopamine D1 receptor-mediated increase of pERK was shown to be dependent on calcium signaling, and the DA D1 receptor-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was possible to modulate via Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor pathway. (mau.se)
  • Parkinson's disease involves a dysfunction of the dopamine system, which will result in tremors and motion impairment. (elitefitness.com)
  • L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a detrimental consequence of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease, is associated with an alteration in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) and glutamate receptor interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Severe movement disorders result from the loss of striatal dopamine in patients with Parkinson's disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dopamine uptake inhibitors may provide a means of sustaining endogenous and exogenous striatal dopamine levels in Parkinson's disease, but most are not selective and also inhibit the noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporters. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In animal models of Parkinson's disease, striatal overactivation of ERK1/2 via dopamine (DA) D1 receptors is the hallmark of a supersensitive molecular response associated with dyskinetic behaviors. (lu.se)
  • It is important to understand how ERK1/2 is activated in Parkinson's disease by dopamine receptors in order to develop a reasonable treatment for LID or to prevent this condition in levodopa-treatment of Parkinsonian patients. (mau.se)
  • L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a major side effect of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease. (jci.org)
  • Dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia (a set of subcortical structures) causes severe motor dysfunctions, such as slowness of movements (bradykinesia), as observed in Parkinson's disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Dopamine and its receptors play a critical role in diseases such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. (edu.au)
  • Strategies that prevent NMDA receptor subcellular redistribution through inhibition of Fyn kinase may prove useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (uab.edu)
  • The intracellular loop 3 of the D2 receptor contains two adjacent arginine residues, while the carboxyl tail of the D1 receptor possesses two adjacent glutamic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It comprises Gq/11 coupling, phospholipase C activation, intracellular calcium release from inositol trisphosphate receptor-sensitive stores, CaMKII activation and BDNF production. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations led us to the discovery of the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heterooligomer, which is able to mobilize intracellular calcium ( 15 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest that coactivation of D1 and D2 receptors should produce opposite or competing intracellular signals through activation of separate D1- and D2-mediated signaling pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • These receptors belong to the super-family of seven transmembrane domain receptors, which exert their biological effects via G-protein-coupled intracellular signaling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have previously reported that activation of the dopamine D1 receptor triggers a rapid redistribution of striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors between intracellular and postsynaptic subcellular compartments. (uab.edu)
  • These findings suggest that the effects of postmortem interval on D 1 mRNA and receptors are minimal and should not limit an examination of possible alterations in dopamine D 1 receptor mRNA and D 1 receptors in the postmortem brains of humans with neuropsychiatric disease. (elsevier.com)
  • The amount of D1 mRNA was measured by both in situ hybridization film and emulsion autoradiography with [35S]dATP-labeled oligonucleotide probes. (elsevier.com)
  • Classically, dopamine exerts its actions through D1-like (D1, D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, D4) receptors, which regulate activation or inhibition of cAMP accumulation, through Gs/olf or Gi/o proteins, respectively ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Dopamine exerts its effects by acting on two primary receptor subtypes: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, DA D1 receptor activation potentiates the rewarding effects of morphine in the opiate-naive state, while DA D2 receptors activation exerts the same action in the opiate-dependent state. (uwo.ca)
  • Azizbeigi R, Piri M. Nicotine restores morphine-induced amnesia via activation of dopamine D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. (ac.ir)
  • In striatal tissue from DARPP-32-depleted mice, basal tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of striatal NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B was normal, and activation of dopamine D1 receptors with the agonist SKF-82958 [(±)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4, 5-tetra-hydro-1H-benzazepine] produced redistribution of NMDA receptors from vesicular compartments (P3 and LP2) to synaptosomal membranes (LP1). (uab.edu)
  • Because dopamine receptors can regulate and interact with each other, we studied the interaction of D 1 and D 3 receptors in immortalized RPT cells and mesenteric arteries from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), and in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • In WKY rats, the D 1 -like agonist, fenoldopam, increased D 3 receptor protein in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner (EC 50 =4.5×10 −9 M, t 1/2 =15.8 hours). (ahajournals.org)
  • D 1 and D 3 receptor co-immunoprecipitation was increased by fenoldopam (10 −7 M/24 h) in WKY rats but not in SHRs. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3-5 In rats, during conditions of normal sodium load, and especially with increased sodium load, D 1 -like and D 2 -like receptors interact to increase sodium excretion. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 In a previous study, we showed that D 3 and D 1 receptors co-localized in immortalized renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and that activation of D 3 dopamine receptors increased D 1 receptor protein expression in these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13-15 The present studies were designed to determine whether D 1 -like receptors regulate D 1 and D 3 receptors and whether the regulation is different in RPT cells from WKY rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Method Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and RPT cells were stimulated or blocked through D 1 -like dopamine and gastrin receptors to observe Na + -K + -ATPase activity and natriuresis. (bmj.com)
  • Result Gastrin infusing WKY rats via renal artery induced natriuresis and diuresis, which was blocked in the presence of CI988, a gastrin receptor blocker. (bmj.com)
  • The goal of this study was to determine whether dopamine D 2 and/or D 1 receptors in the shell and the core of the nucleus accumbens of rats have a differential role in turning behaviour. (springer.com)
  • Cools AR, Miwa Y, Koshikawa N (1995) Role of dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in the core and the shell of the nucleus accumbens in jaw movements of rats: a critical role of the shell. (springer.com)
  • We used a place preference conditioning paradigm and pharmacological manipulations of DA D1 and D2 receptors to examine the role of DA Dl-like versus D2-like receptors within the BLA, as well as the downstream secondary messenger cAMP during associative opiate reward memory encoding in both opiate-naive and opiate-dependent rats. (uwo.ca)
  • Aims: This study investigates whether the dopamine D1 receptor agonist A77636 modulates antidepressant-like activity in rats. (inserm.fr)
  • Methods: Rats were injected with an acute single dose of A77636 (0.75, 1.5 or 3 mg/kg), a potent and selective dopamine D1-like receptor agonist. (inserm.fr)
  • Conclusions: The present results provide evidence that pharmacological modulation of D1 receptor by the selective agonist A77636 induces antidepressant-like effects in rats, which encourages further studies regarding D1-specific modulation in major depressive disorder treatment. (inserm.fr)
  • Here, we examined the influence of D1 dopamine receptor (D1DR) activation on excitatory synaptic plasticity in the accumbens shell of adult rats following cocaine self-administration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the pathways induced by the dopamine D1 receptor in striatal "slices" from parkinsonian rats. (mau.se)
  • or a combination D1/D2 antagonist, cis-Z-flupenthixol, into the NA shell of postpartum female rats. (nebraska.edu)
  • D 1 and D 2 binding sites also decreased in the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle of aged rats, while in the substantia nigra only the D 1 receptors appeared to be modified with aging. (elsevier.com)
  • First, when rats were administered with AMPH (1 mg/kg, i.p.) following a bilateral microinjection of ghrelin (0.1 or 0.5 μg/side) into the NAcc core, their locomotor activity was significantly enhanced, while these effects were blocked by co-microinjection of ghrelin receptor antagonist (0.5 μg/side) into this site. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • D1R agonist or antagonist also impaired long term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in freely moving rats and attenuated learning induced phosphorylation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit 1 (GluA1) at Ser831 and Ser845 in hippocampus. (ndsl.kr)
  • These mutants were also defective in behaviors mediated by endogenous dopamine signaling, including basal slowing and swimming-induced paralysis. (genetics.org)
  • Our Membrane Target System membranes are prepared from cells that express recombinant or endogenous receptors. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Membrane Target Systems are quality assured frozen membranes from cells that express recombinant or endogenous receptors. (perkinelmer.com)
  • In the SHR, the ability of exogenous and endogenous renal dopamine to engender a natriuresis is impaired. (bvsalud.org)
  • Occupation of the β-adrenergic receptor by agonist stabilizes a conformation of the receptor that increases its phosphorylation by GRK, which in turn increases the affinity of the receptor for β-arrestin ( Krupnick and Benovic, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The free energy for activation of a receptor by an agonist is derived from the higher affinity of the agonist for the activated conformation of the receptor compared with the inactive or ground conformation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We submit every batch of receptor to stringent quality control testing that includes saturation radioligand binding assay to determine receptor concentration (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). (perkinelmer.com)
  • Both of these pathways are regulated by dopamine. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present research aimed to explore the antineoplastic effect and intrinsic pathways of action of dopamine receptor D1 agonist SKF83959 on GBM cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Here we investigate the pathways involved in D1 receptor-dependent ERK1/2 activation using acute striatal slices from rodents with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. (lu.se)
  • Our data suggest that D1-mediated enhancement of NMDA current depends on the NMDA receptor trafficking through rapid synaptic insertion and both PKA and PKC signaling pathways play important roles in the regulatory process. (pcom.edu)
  • The dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is essential for neurotransmission in various brain pathways where it modulates key functions including voluntary movement, memory, attention and reward. (utmb.edu)
  • The clear alterations in the dopamine D1 induced signaling pathways were observed. (mau.se)
  • To unravel the signaling pathways underlying this trafficking, we studied mice with targeted disruptions of either the gene that encodes the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32), a potent and selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, or the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn. (uab.edu)
  • These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the trafficking of striatal NMDA receptors by signaling pathways that are independent of DARPP-32 but require Fyn protein tyrosine kinase. (uab.edu)
  • DAT knock-out (KO) mice exhibit altered dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors, however, as well as other compensatory mechanisms such as norepinephrine abnormalities. (jneurosci.org)
  • To address this confound, the authors investigated wakefulness effects of modafinil in D 2 receptor KO mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dopamine D1 receptor mutant mice are defident in striatal expression of dynorphin and in dopamine-mediated behavioral responses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, mutant mice in which particular D1- or D2-class receptors have been deleted by homologous recombination provide a means for genetic analysis of receptor-specific drug effects and for determining receptor function ( 21 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • To determine the contributions made by the dopamine receptor subtypes, D1R and D2R in mediating the inhibitory effects of the non-selective dopamine agonist apomorphine (APO) on form deprivation myopia (FDM) development in wildtype mice, we compared the described effects of this agonist in wildtype (WT) mice with those in its D2R knockout (D2R-KO) and D1R-KO counterparts. (arvojournals.org)
  • Lack of self-administration of cocaine in dopamine D1 receptor knock-out mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Induction of stereotyped, ponderous locomotion by RU 24213 was reduced in D 4 -null mice consistent with an involvement of D 4 receptors in the topographical expression of stereotypy. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate the contribution of the dopamine D1 receptor to this modulation, we have used gene targeting technology to generate D1 receptor mutant mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Activation of dopamine D1 receptor decreased NLRP3-mediated inflammation in intracerebral hemorrhage mice. (edu.sa)
  • Objective To explore whether the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors were involved in pathogenic mechanism of Parkinsonian mice induced by paraquat . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mice with a genetic disruption of the dopamine transporter (DAT-/-) exhibit locomotor hyperactivity and profound alterations in the homeostasis of the nigrostriatal system, e.g. a dramatic increase in the extracellular dopamine level. (duke.edu)
  • Here, we investigated the adaptive changes in dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptor gene expression in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens of DAT-/- mice. (duke.edu)
  • In this study, activation of dopamine D1-like receptors (D1Rs) by SKF-38393 elicited membrane depolarization and inward currents in MSNs from the NAc core of 14 17 day-old mice. (unicatt.it)
  • In the Fyn knockout mice, the dopamine D1 receptor agonist failed to induce subcellular redistribution of NMDA receptors. (uab.edu)
  • Unilateral injection of a mixture of the dopamine D 2 receptor agonist quinpirole (10 µg) and the dopamine D 1 receptor agonist 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H -3-benzazepine-7, 8-diol (SKF 38393, 5 µg) into the shell of the nucleus accumbens produced contralateral turning, when doses which per se were ineffective were injected. (springer.com)
  • Bardo MT, Hammer Jr RP (1991) Autoradiographic localization of dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in rat nucleus accumbens: resistance to differential conditions. (springer.com)
  • Deutch AY, Cameron DS (1992) Pharmacological characterization of dopamine systems in the nucleus accumbens core and shell. (springer.com)
  • Jongen-Rlo AL, Groenewegen HJ, Voorn P (1992) Distribution and regulation of dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens of the rat. (springer.com)
  • There is significant evidence for the involvement of mesolimbic and striatal dopamine (DA) transmission in mediating different aspects of reward, as well as aversion, with particular importance for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) (reviewed in Salamone and Correa, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Dopamine D1-like receptors agonist SKF 38393 increases cFOS expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus--impact of acute and chronic cocaine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present study indicates that activation of dopamine D1-like receptors by administration of SKF 38393 leads to dose-dependent (doses: 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) increases in the expression of cFos proteins in the rat paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). (semanticscholar.org)
  • This kind of maternal experience-based memory is critically dependent on the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, especially the nucleus accumbens (NA) shell. (nebraska.edu)
  • Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-test injection of nicotine on morphine state-dependent learning as well as the effect of intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) administration of D1 receptor antagonist on nicotine's effects in morphine state-dependent learning model. (ac.ir)
  • These data indicate that in mouse prefrontal cortex G(q/11)-coupled M(1) receptor and G(s)-coupled D(1)-like receptor inputs converge on AC4 with a consequent enhancement of cyclic AMP formation and signaling to the nucleus. (unica.it)
  • In: Willner P, Scheel-Krüger J (eds) The mesolimbic dopamine system: from motivation to action. (springer.com)
  • The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a component of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system involved in psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity and previous studies have shown that altering DA transmission or D2 receptors within the mPFC can decrease this stimulant effect. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Through anatomical connections with the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, neuronal activity and plasticity within the BLA are altered through DA receptor transmission originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). (uwo.ca)
  • Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) D 1 and D 2 receptors appear to be involved in mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. (elsevier.com)
  • Our research involves methodologies such as neuro- and behavioral pharmacology, molecular pharmacology and toxicology, electrophysiology and advanced cell imaging, signal transduction, structural analysis of receptor and enzyme proteins, vaccine development, and drug design and synthesis. (utmb.edu)
  • Studies performed in vivo and in vitro have suggested several possible mechanisms for the action of modafinil, including inhibiting dopamine and norepinephrine transporters and increasing dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, and histamine release ( Minzenberg and Carter, 2008 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • A search for colocalization of serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors in the rat medial prefrontal and entorhinal cortices--immunohistochemical studies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • D1 receptor activation positively affects adenylyl cyclase, and D2 receptor activation is either uncoupled from adenylyl cyclase or negatively affects it. (sciencemag.org)
  • This G-protein coupled receptor stimulates adenylyl cyclase and activates cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. (genetex.com)
  • Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. (bosterbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemical studies indicated that the adenylyl cyclase isoforms AC2 and AC4 are expressed in mouse prefrontal cortex and that they colocalize with D(1)-like receptors with a greater association for AC4. (unica.it)
  • Dopamine plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure by inhibition of sodium transport in renal proximal tubules (RPTs) and relaxation of vascular smooth muscles. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both D1-class and D2-class dopamine receptors have been implicated in this immediate-early gene and peptide regulation. (pnas.org)
  • Pharmacologic studies point to D1-class dopamine receptors as essential to the induction of bZip and NGFI-A family transcription factors and to the regulation of dynorphin expression ( 3 , 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Previous research has indicated that both subtypes are involved in the negative feedback regulation of dopamine release in the brain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although this model closely describes the regulation of some GPCRs, the regulation of other receptors differs significantly in ways that may be both cell- and receptor-dependent ( Koenig and Edwardson, 1996 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Consistent with these in-vitro data, repeated exposure to cocaine triggers striatal NFATc4 nuclear translocation and the up-regulation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 and glutamate receptor subunit 2 gene expression in vivo, suggesting that cocaine-induced increases in gene expression may be partially mediated through activation of NFAT-dependent transcription. (umn.edu)
  • D1 Dopamine Receptor Regulation of Microtubule-Associated Protein-2 Ph" by Z.-M. Song, Ashiwel S. Undieh et al. (cuny.edu)
  • In the prefrontal cortex, dopamine D(1)-like and M(1) muscarinic receptors are both involved in the regulation of attentional, cognitive and emotional processes but so far no information has been provided on their functional interaction. (unica.it)
  • Binding of agonist to the activated state traps the receptor in this state, causing accumulation of activated receptors that then mediate a downstream response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • dopamine D1 receptor) mediate MA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. (ovid.com)
  • Although both PKA and PKC mediate the D1-induced enhancement of NMDA receptors, the phospholipase C-PKC-Src pathway is only required for surface expression and new synaptic insertion of NMDA receptors. (pcom.edu)
  • Dopamine/cAMP signaling has been reported to mediate behavioral responses related to drug addiction. (unicatt.it)
  • A gene on chromosome 5q35.1 that encodes G protein-coupled dopamine receptor D1, which is the most abundant dopamine receptor in the CNS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Classical dopaminergic signaling paradigms and emerging studies on direct physical interactions between the D(1) dopamine (DA) receptor and the NMDA glutamate receptor predict a reciprocally facilitating, positive feedback loop. (nih.gov)
  • Coapplication of an antagonist of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) or its downstream signaling molecules (PLC, PKC, IP3 receptors) markedly attenuated SKF38393-induced ERK1/2 activation. (lu.se)
  • Additionally, the genes encoding inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 and glutamate receptor subunit 2 are regulated by striatal NFATc4 activity. (umn.edu)
  • Methylphenidate and atomoxetine enhance prefrontal function through α2-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors. (nih.gov)
  • This study examined the effects of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatments, methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATM), on prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in monkeys and explored the receptor mechanisms underlying enhancement of PFC function at the behavioral and cellular levels. (nih.gov)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Blockade of D1 dopamine receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex attenuates amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in the rat. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the present study we show that in mouse medial prefrontal cortex, concomitant activation of M(1) muscarinic receptors potentiated D(1)-like receptor-induced cyclic AMP formation through a mechanism involving activation of G(q/11) and the release of G protein βγ subunits. (unica.it)
  • Disruption of dopamine D1 receptor gene expression attenuates alcohol-seeking behavior. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that D2 dopamine receptors can function without the enabling role of D1 receptors but that D1 dopamine receptors are essential for the control of gene expression and motor behavior by psychomotor stimulants. (pnas.org)
  • The interaction among noradrenaline, 5-HT, and dopamine in the control of motor behavior is complex. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR, potentiates hind leg grooming behavior in Drosophila. (escholarship.org)
  • Interactions between Histamine H1 and H3 and Dopamine D1 Receptors on feeding behavior in chicken', Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine , 11(1), pp. 63-73. (ac.ir)
  • BACKGROUND: Brain monoamines (such as histamine and dopamine) play an important role in emotions, cognition, reward and feeding behavior. (ac.ir)
  • The interactions between histamine and dopamine were studied in many physiological functions but this correlation is unclear in feeding behavior of chickens. (ac.ir)
  • Alterations in dopamine output within the various subnuclei of the amygdala have previously been implicated in cocaine reinforcement, as well as cocaine-seeking behavior. (elsevier.com)
  • combined pharmacological and genetic techniques to investigate the contribution of D 1 and D 2 receptors to modafinil-induced wakefulness. (jneurosci.org)
  • The pharmacological agents so far available for dissecting the molecular specificity of these effects lack full selectivity for the subsets of D1-class (D1, D5) and D2-class (D2, D3, D4) receptors ( 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this study was to use pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase A and mutation of potential protein kinase A phosphorylation sites to determine the role of protein kinase A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the dopamine D 1 receptor in agonist-stimulated desensitization and internalization of the receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Previous pharmacological studies have reported that striatal dopamine efflux is negatively modulated not only by presynaptic D2 dopamine autoreceptors but also by striatal D1 dopamine receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This uncoupling is achieved, at least in part, via a disinhibition mechanism by which PSD-95 abolishes NMDA receptor-dependent inhibition of D(1) internalization. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that 5-HT, but not noradrenaline, reuptake inhibition facilitates dopamine-mediated motor activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Boyson, S.J., McGonigle, P., and Molinoff, P.B. (1986) Quantitative autoradiographic localization of the D 1 and D 2 subtypes of dopamine receptors in rat brain. (springer.com)
  • A problem with developing specific drugs for such diseases is that there are five subtypes of dopamine receptors that can be categorized as either D1 like or D2 like. (edu.au)
  • Ecopipam is a selective D1-like receptor antagonist that has been studied clinically in humans in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including schizophrenia, cocaine abuse, obesity, pathological gambling, and Tourette's syndrome, with efficacy in some of these conditions seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity. (elitefitness.com)
  • Understanding the interaction between dopamine and glutamate, particularly the interaction of dopamine and NMDA receptors, may enable a more rational approach to the treatment of schizophrenia, drug addiction, and other psychiatric disorders. (pcom.edu)
  • This study is designed to test association of FOKI polymorphism in Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and its potential effect on expression of dopamine D1 receptor in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder as well as in healthy individuals. (cdc.gov)
  • Dopamine receptor D1 gene -48A/G polymorphism is associated with bipolar illness but not with schizophrenia in a Polish population. (cdc.gov)
  • The dopamine system is a preferred object of biological research in schizophrenia. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a single mutant form of one of the dopamine receptor genes under study is commonly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. (elsevier.com)
  • Pretreatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 ( N -[2-( p -bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide) or substitution of Ala for Thr268 reduced agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of the receptor and resulted in diminished trafficking of the receptor to the perinuclear region of the cell. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Substitution of Ala for Ser380 had no effect on D 1 receptor phosphorylation, sequestration, desensitization, or trafficking to the perinuclear region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We conclude that protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of the D 1 receptor on Thr268 regulates a late step in the sorting of the receptor to the perinuclear region of the cell, but that phosphorylation of Thr268 is not required for receptor sequestration or maximal desensitization of cyclic AMP accumulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dihydrexidine derivatives A-86929 - full agonist with 14-fold selectivity for D1-like receptors over D2 Dihydrexidine - full agonist with 10-fold selectivity for D1-like receptors over D2 that has been in Phase IIa clinical trials as a cognitive enhancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of ligands selective for the D1 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, none of the known orthosteric ligands is selective for the D1 vs. the D5 receptor, but the benzazepines generally are more selective for the D1 and D5 receptors versus the D2-like family. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] None of the known ligands is selective for the D 1 vs. the D 5 receptor, but the benzazepines generally are more selective for the D 1 and D 5 receptors versus the D 2 -like family. (worldheritage.org)
  • Rut previous morphological and biochemical studies have been unable to characterize or determine the tissue distribution of the dopamine receptor subtypes because no selective ligands are available yet. (bvsalud.org)
  • Benzazepine derivatives SCH-23,390 - 100-fold selectivity for D1 over D5 Ecopipam (SCH-39,166) - a selective D1/D5 antagonist that was being developed as an anti-obesity medication but was discontinued DETQ − PAM LY-3154207 - potent and subtype selective PAM, in phase 2 studies for Lewy body dementia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D 1 -like receptor interacting with the specific D 2 -like receptor subtype in renal sodium transport is unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • This gene encodes the D1 subtype of the dopamine receptor. (genetex.com)
  • The D1 subtype is the most abundant dopamine receptor in the central nervous system. (genetex.com)
  • Thus, dopamine displays complex regulatory effect on immune responses, depending on dopamine concentration, subtype of receptors and type of immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the role of striatal D1 receptors in apomorphine-induced gene expression in different cortical areas. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, 3-FMA significantly produced dopaminergic impairments [i.e., increase in dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in DA level, and in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2)] with behavioral impairments. (ovid.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest, there is relationship between histaminergic and dopaminergic systems on food intake in chicken and H1, H3 and D1 receptors are involved in this interaction. (ac.ir)
  • The results indicate that the age-associated decrease of D 1 and D 2 receptors is not widespread, being confined to dopaminergic areas with high density of dopamine receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • And renal dopamine derives mainly from renal tubular dopamine production and to a lesser extent from dopaminergic nerves. (bvsalud.org)
  • The optimal doses were challenged with the α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan, or the D(1) dopamine receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (SCH). (nih.gov)
  • While the use of low doses of SCH23390 and raclopride increased the likelihood of specifically targeting D 1 and D 2 receptor families, respectively, neither drug is wholly selective within these families. (jneurosci.org)
  • Similarly, effect hereinbefore of fenoldopam, a D 1 -like receptor agonist, was blocked by D 1 -like receptor antagonist, SCH23390, indicating gastrin and fenoldopam play natriuretic and diuretic effect through individual receptors. (bmj.com)
  • Natriuresis and diuresis was partially blocked by SCH23390 or CI988, indicating the interaction between gastrin and D1-like receptor. (bmj.com)
  • SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, but not sulpiride, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist significantly attenuated 3-FMA-induced neurotoxicity. (ovid.com)
  • 3 H-SCH23390 and 3 H-raclopride were used for the labeling of D 1 and D 2 receptors, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In Experiment 1, 3 h-fasted chicks were given an ICV injection of histamine, SCH23390, a D1 receptors antagonist and co-injection of histamine and SCH23390. (ac.ir)
  • Our results demonstrate that peripheral dopamine controlled by gut microbes inhibits IL4 and IFNγ production in iNKT cells and suppresses iNKT cell-mediated hepatitis. (frontiersin.org)
  • As an important immune regulator, peripheral dopamine is mainly produced by autonomic nervous system, gut epithelial cells, and immune cells including dendritic cells, regulatory T cells, B cells, and macrophages ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • And the dopamine receptors in central nervous system and peripheral organs were identified by physiological, biochernical and radioligand binding techniques . (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent studies have reported the important roles of dopamine receptors in the early development and progression of glioblastoma (GBM). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We used quantitative in situ hybridization and found that the constitutive hyperdopaminergia results in opposite regulations in the gene expression for the dopamine receptors. (duke.edu)
  • The effects of fenoldopam in CASMCs were similar as those in WKY RPT cells (ie, fenoldopam increased D 1 and D 3 receptor proteins). (ahajournals.org)
  • The coupling of the receptor to heterotrimeric G proteins is inhibited by the binding of β-arrestin, which is likely to be the immediate cause of rapid desensitization. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The involvement of these MSNs and specifically the role of the D1-D2 heteromer complex activation in the modulation of brain reward functions and addiction mechanisms have not been studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanisms of desensitization and resensitization have been perhaps most thoroughly characterized for the β-adrenergic receptor, a Gα s -coupled receptor that is structurally and functionally homologous to the D 1 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results indicated that during the first 2 days following cocaine exposure both pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms contribute to a net decrease in AMPA receptor-mediated signaling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and in levels of proopiomelanocortin and corticotropin-releasing hormone-receptor 1 mRNAs in the pituitary and hypothalamus of the rat during chronic 'binge' cocaine and withdrawal. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The nigrostriatal dopamine system of the mammalian brain is necessary for normal voluntary motor activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Intrastriatal administration of the D1 antagonist inhibited apomorphine-induced sniffing/whisking, whereas other motor behaviors were unaffected. (jneurosci.org)
  • Broad neuronal expression of dopamine receptor in mutant animals restored normal grooming behaviors. (escholarship.org)
  • The D1 receptor forms heteromers with the following receptors: dopamine D2 receptor, dopamine D3 receptor, histamine H3 receptor, μ opioid receptor, NMDA receptor, and adenosine A1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This loop, if not controlled, may cause concomitant overactivation of both D(1) and NMDA receptors, triggering neurotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report that PSD-95, a prototypical structural and signaling scaffold in the postsynaptic density, inhibits D(1)-NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1) NMDA receptor association and uncouples NMDA receptor-dependent enhancement of D(1) signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, in addition to its role in receptor stabilization and synaptic plasticity, PSD-95 acts as a brake on the D(1)-NMDA receptor complex and dampens the interaction between them. (nih.gov)
  • Dopamine D1 receptor-mediated enhancement of NMDA receptor trafficking" by Yan-Chun Li, Gang Liu et al. (pcom.edu)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, but not protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, completely blocked dopamine D1 agonist SKF-81297-induced increase of the total expression of NMDA receptors. (pcom.edu)
  • Furthermore, SKF-81297 failed to alter the surface expression and synaptic insertion of NMDA receptors in the presence of PKA inhibitor, phospholipase C inhibitor, PKC inhibitor, or Src family kinase inhibitor. (pcom.edu)
  • Dopamine promotes neuronal differentiation, maintenance, and survival ( 1 - 4 ) by modulating the transcription of different genes. (pnas.org)
  • Because calcium is involved in the activation of BDNF signaling ( 19 ), we hypothesized that this pathway may be central to dopamine activation of BDNF and subsequent neuronal maturation and differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • It activates dopamine receptors in the absence of that receptor's physiological ligand, the neurotransmitter dopamine. (elitefitness.com)
  • Dopamine is a hormone and neurotransmitter, which plays an important role in the human brain and body. (elitefitness.com)
  • With the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter: a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells. (elitefitness.com)
  • The dopamine neurotransmitter system has been of interest to neuroscientists since its discovery in the central nervous system (CNS) in the 1960s using catecholamine histofluroescence techniques (Dahlström and Fuxe, 1964, 1965). (springer.com)
  • These receptor actions likely contribute to their therapeutic effects in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (nih.gov)
  • In medicine, it is a versatile drug with many uses thanks to its dopamine increasing effects. (elitefitness.com)
  • Many of its uses involve how bromo is related to dopamine increasing effects. (elitefitness.com)
  • This phenomenon is connected to its dopamine effects. (elitefitness.com)
  • Little however, is known regarding the molecular events that govern these dopamine-mediated effects. (pnas.org)
  • The natriuretic effects of ANP have been related to renal dopamine D1-receptors (D1R). (hindawi.com)
  • Strong interactive and synergistic effects of D1-class and D2-class receptors have been reported to affect these neural responses, however, and such interactive effects have been emphasized as clinically important ( 14 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • These findings suggest that indirect D 1 -receptor activation plays a role in the reinforcing effects of cocaine, and that drugs acting at D 1 receptors may show promise as therapeutic agents in the treatment of cocaine abuse. (springer.com)
  • Relationship between mACh receptor occupancy and change in catalepsy was used as the measure of catalepsy-reducing effects of the drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The magnitude and topographical specificity of these effects indicated that any functional role for D 4 receptors in exploratory processes is subtle. (elsevier.com)
  • In brain, DA effects are mediated through activation of two distinct receptor families, referred to as the D1 (D1A/D1 and D1B/D5) and the D2 (D2L/S, D3 and D4) classes [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of the amygdala and, in particular, central amygdala DA D 1 receptors, in modulating the stimulus effects of cocaine. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that ghrelin may have a distinct role in the NAcc core to provoke the sensitized locomotor activity induced by psychomotor stimulants, and further, it may produce these effects by interaction with D1 dopamine receptors. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Overwhelming evidence shows that oxidative stress downregulates renal dopamine receptors (D1R), and antioxidant supplementation protects D1R function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Genetic analyses have indicated a central importance of renal sodium handling in the determination of salt sensitivity, and particularly in the function of the renal dopamine D1 receptor in the proximal tubule (8-11). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since renal dopamine levels in genetic models of hypertension are not lower than their normotensive controls, the impaired intrarenal paracrine effect of dopamine in these animal models of hypertension appears to be receptor or postreceptor mediated. (bvsalud.org)
  • I'here are some differences in the receptors expressing sites on the previous radioligand binding and pharmacologic studies, but our results suggest that at least some of the renal dopamine DA and DAz receptors correspond structurally to the central dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dopamine, a critical transmitter, has been shown to regulate immune responses in periphery, and has been related to tumor immunity and several autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor partial agonist that does not cross the blood-brain-barrier and is used intravenously in the treatment of hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rat, D1-D2 receptor heteromer activation led to place aversion and abolished cocaine CPP and locomotor sensitization, cocaine intravenous self-administration and reinstatement of cocaine seeking, as well as inhibited sucrose preference and abolished the motivation to seek palatable food. (frontiersin.org)
  • After 2 weeks of drug-free withdrawal period, we examined the effect of saline, ghrelin (0.5 μg/side), D1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF81297 (0.5 μg/side) or ghrelin (0.5 μg/side) + SKF81297 (0.5 μg/side) directly microinjected into the NAcc core on locomotor activity. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • In experiment 6, ICV injection of dopamine, chlorpheniramine, H1 receptors antagonist and co-administration of dopamine and chlorpheniramine were done. (ac.ir)
  • Altered interactions between D 1 and D 3 receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension, including human hypertension, because these receptors also interact in human vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the exact role of striatal dopamine receptors remains uncertain. (jneurosci.org)
  • The goal of this study was to investigate a potential modulatory role for D1 receptors in the mPFC in amphetamine (AMPH)- and methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperactivity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The results of these studies suggest that D1 activation in the mPFC plays a significant role in AMPH- and METH-induced hyperactivity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors in neurotoxicity induced by 3-FMA in comparison with MA (35 mg/kg, i.p.) as a control drug. (ovid.com)
  • Evidence suggests that dopamine dysregulation might play a major role in major depressive disorder physiopathology. (inserm.fr)
  • The role of striatal mGluR5 in D1-dependent ERK1/2 activation was confirmed in vivo in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals treated systemically with SKF38393. (lu.se)
  • However, the synaptic consequences of cocaine self-administration and the potential role of dopamine in these processes remain unclear. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This is a remarkable juxtaposition to the considerable role of D1 family dopamine receptors in rodent grooming, and future investigations of evolutionary relationships of circuitry may be warranted. (escholarship.org)
  • The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a crucial role in the correct functioning of the strain response system through its actions on its receptors, CRF receptor 1 (CRF1) and CRF receptor 2 (CRF2), located at multiple anatomical sites. (researchdataservice.com)
  • Here, we show the role of dopamine D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing cardiomyocytes (CMs) in triggering heart failure -associated ventricular arrhythmia . (bvsalud.org)
  • The results of this study suggest that the dopamine D1 receptor of the NAc may play an important role in improving the effect of nicotine on morphine-induced amnesia. (ac.ir)
  • Although administration of cocaine into the central amygdala does not mimic the systemic cocaine cue, the present results demonstrate that DA D 1 receptors located within the central amygdala appear to have a modulatory role upon the discriminative stimulus properties of cocaine. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study utilizes imrnunohistochemistry with specific antibodies to characterize the renal distribution of dopamine receptor subtypes and recognize the role of dopamine receptor defect in the pathogenesis of hypertension in 14-week-old WKY (mean HP 108+/-5mmHg) and SHR (mean RP 174+/-7 mmHg) kidneys . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the role of dopamine type 1 receptor (D1R) in LHb in learning and memory is not clear yet. (ndsl.kr)
  • In SHRs, fenoldopam (10 −5 M) actually decreased the expression of D 3 receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • We also studied the effect of fenoldopam, a D 1 -like receptor agonist, on D 1 and D 3 receptor expression in human coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • i ) We found in our original study that there is a marked loss of expression of dynorphin in the D1-deficient mutants. (pnas.org)
  • We further demonstrated that isosibiricin upregulated the expression of dopamine D1/2 receptors in LPS-treated BV-2 cells, resulting in inhibitory effect on nucleotide binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway. (chinaphar.com)
  • Consistent with these results, the cocaine-induced synaptic changes at excitatory synapses in the shell are accompanied by changes in the expression of specific AMPA receptor subunits. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our results indicated that the ff genotype was associated with lower expression of dopamine D1 receptor gene. (cdc.gov)
  • VDR as a nuclear receptor may contribute to bipolar disorders via modification of the expression of the neurotransmitters receptor such as dopamine. (cdc.gov)
  • However, how dopamine controls through these receptors the information flow in the basal ganglia and voluntary movements is still not clear. (news-medical.net)