Sensory Receptor Cells
Olfactory Receptor Neurons
Chorda Tympani Nerve
Receptors, Cell Surface
Phospholipase C beta
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
TRPM Cation Channels
Nervous System Physiological Processes
Second Messenger Systems
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Hair Cells, Auditory
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Gene Expression Regulation
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Type C Phospholipases
Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
Ion Channel Gating
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
In Situ Hybridization
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Viral Envelope Proteins
Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (1/20616)BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however. (+info)
Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (2/20616)Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases. (+info)
Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (3/20616)Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes. (+info)
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase can be involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. (4/20616)p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) has been extensively studied as a stress-responsive kinase, but its role in development remains unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has two p38 genes, D-p38a and D-p38b. To elucidate the developmental function of the Drosophila p38's, we used various genetic and pharmacological manipulations to interfere with their functions: expression of a dominant-negative form of D-p38b, expression of antisense D-p38b RNA, reduction of the D-p38 gene dosage, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of a dominant-negative D-p38b in the wing imaginal disc caused a decapentaplegic (dpp)-like phenotype and enhanced the phenotype of a dpp mutant. Dpp is a secretory ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which triggers various morphogenetic processes through interaction with the receptor Thick veins (Tkv). Inhibition of D-p38b function also caused the suppression of the wing phenotype induced by constitutively active Tkv (TkvCA). Mosaic analysis revealed that D-p38b regulates the Tkv-dependent transcription of the optomotor-blind (omb) gene in non-Dpp-producing cells, indicating that the site of D-p38b action is downstream of Tkv. Furthermore, forced expression of TkvCA induced an increase in the phosphorylated active form(s) of D-p38(s). These results demonstrate that p38, in addition to its role as a transducer of emergency stress signaling, may function to modulate Dpp signaling. (+info)
Ligand substitution of receptor targeted DNA complexes affects gene transfer into hepatoma cells. (5/20616)We have targeted the serpin enzyme complex receptor for gene transfer in human hepatoma cell lines using peptides < 30 amino acids in length which contain the five amino acid recognition sequence for this receptor, coupled to poly K of average chain length 100 K, using the heterobifunctional coupling reagent sulfo-LC SPDP. The number of sulfo-LC SPDP modified poly-L-lysine residues, as well as the degree of peptide substitution was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Conjugates were prepared in which 3.5%, 7.8% or 26% of the lysine residues contained the sulfo-LC SPDP moiety. Each of these conjugates was then coupled with ligand peptides so that one in 370, one in 1039, or one in 5882 lysines were substituted with receptor ligand. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to assess complex structure and size. HuH7 human hepatoma cells were transfected with complexes of these conjugates with the plasmid pGL3 and luciferase expression measured 2 to 16 days after treatment. All the protein conjugates in which 26% of the K residues were modified with sulfo-LC SPDP were poor gene transfer reagents. Complexes containing less substituted poly K, averaged 17 +/- 0.5 nm in diameter and gave peak transgene expression of 3-4 x 10(6) ILU/mg which persisted (> 7 x 10(5) ILU) at 16 days. Of these, more substituted polymers condensed DNA into complexes averaging 20 +/- 0.7 nm in diameter and gave five-fold less luciferase than complexes containing less substituted conjugates. As few as eight to 11 ligands per complex are optimal for DNA delivery via the SEC receptor. The extent of substitution of receptor-mediated gene transfer complexes affects the size of the complexes, as well as the intensity and duration of transgene expression. These observations may permit tailoring of complex construction for the usage required. (+info)
Characterization of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis lbpB, lbpA, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants. (6/20616)Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. Recently, putative Moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpB, lbpA, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. We describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in LbpB, LbpA, or Orf3 protein. (+info)
Three receptor genes for plasminogen related growth factors in the genome of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes. (7/20616)Plasminogen related growth factors (PRGFs) and their receptors play major roles in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and neoplasia. In order to investigate the complexity and evolution of the PRGF receptor family we have cloned and sequenced three receptors for PRGFs in the teleost fish Fugu rubripes, a model vertebrate with a compact genome. One of the receptor genes isolated encodes the orthologue of mammalian MET, whilst the other two may represent Fugu rubripes orthologues of RON and SEA. This is the first time three PRGF receptors have been identified in a single species. (+info)
Cloning, molecular analysis and differential cell localisation of the p36 RACK analogue antigen from the parasite protozoon Crithidia fasciculata. (8/20616)The family of the RACK molecules (receptors for activated C kinases) are present in all the species studied so far. In the genus Leishmania, these molecules also induce a strong immune reaction against the infection. We have cloned and characterised the gene that encodes the RACK analogue from the parasite trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata (CACK). The molecule seems to be encoded by two genes. The sequence analysis of the cloned open reading frame indicates the existence of a high degree of conservation not only with other members of the Trypanosomatidae but also with mammalians. The study of the protein kinase C phosphorylation sites shows the presence of three of them, shared with the mammalian species, additional to those present in the other protozoa suggesting a certain phylogenetic distance between the protozoon Crithidia fasciculata and the rest of the Trypanosomatidae. The CACK-encoded polypeptide shows an additional sequence of four amino acids at the carboxy-terminal end, which produces a different folding of the fragment with the presence of an alpha-helix instead of the beta-sheet usual in all the other species studied. A similar result is elicited at the amino-terminal end by the change of three amino acid residues. The immunolocalisation experiments show that the CACK displays a pattern with a distribution mainly at the plasma membrane, different from that of the related Leishmania species used as control, that displays a distribution close to the nucleus. Altogether, the data suggest that the existence of the structural differences found may have functional consequences. (+info)
There are several types of taste disorders, including:
1. Ageusia: A complete loss of the sense of taste.
2. Hypogeusia: A decreased ability to perceive tastes.
3. Dysgeusia: A distorted perception of tastes, often described as a metallic or bitter taste.
4. Parageusia: A change in the sense of taste, such as a sweetness that is perceived as sour or salty.
5. Taste blindness: The inability to distinguish between different tastes.
Taste disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, as they can affect not only the enjoyment of food but also the ability to detect potentially harmful substances. Treatment options for taste disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or dietary changes.
There are several types of melanoma, including:
1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.
The risk factors for developing melanoma include:
1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma
The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:
1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole
If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.
In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.
Examples of experimental leukemias include:
1. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): A rare inherited disorder that leads to a lack of antibody production and an increased risk of infections.
2. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare inherited disorder characterized by a failure of red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow.
3. Fanconi anemia: A rare inherited disorder that leads to a defect in DNA repair and an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.
4. Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT): A rare inherited disorder characterized by progressive loss of coordination, balance, and speech, as well as an increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma.
5. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which increases the risk of developing leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
These experimental leukemias are often used in research studies to better understand the biology of leukemia and to develop new treatments.
There are several types of lymphoma, including:
1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.
The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.
Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.
Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.
In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.
It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.
See also: Cancer, Tumor
Word count: 190
Types of experimental neoplasms include:
* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.
The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.
Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.
The two main types of lymphoid leukemia are:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This type of leukemia is most commonly seen in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow.
2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia usually affects older adults and is characterized by the gradual buildup of abnormal white blood cells in the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.
Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for lymphoid leukemia can vary depending on the type of cancer and the severity of symptoms, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.
There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:
1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.
Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.
Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.
The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur during a person's lifetime. Some risk factors for developing fibrosarcoma include previous radiation exposure, chronic inflammation, and certain inherited conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
The symptoms of fibrosarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown to a significant size. Common symptoms include pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. If the tumor is near a nerve, it can also cause numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.
Diagnosis of fibrosarcoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for fibrosarcoma may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.
Prognosis for fibrosarcoma is generally good if the tumor is caught early and treated aggressively. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized), the prognosis is generally poorer. In some cases, the cancer can recur after treatment, so it is important for patients to follow their doctor's recommendations for regular check-ups and follow-up testing.
Overall, fibrosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. However, with early detection and appropriate treatment, many people with this condition can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.
Cell surface receptor
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor
Mannose 6-phosphate receptor
G protein-coupled bile acid receptor
Killer activation receptor
TGF-beta receptor family
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1
Vitamin A receptor
D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer
Scavenger receptor (immunology)
Transferrin receptor 1
Free fatty acid receptor 1
Platelet-activating factor receptor
Coagulation factor II receptor
Asialoglycoprotein receptor 1
Bombesin-like receptor 3
Interleukin 1 receptor, type I
CD28 family receptor
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor
Papillary carcinomas of the breast
Filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin
Follicular dendritic cells
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Voltage-gated ion channel
Selective androgen receptor modulator
Olfactory receptor neuron
Integrin alpha 2
Trimeric autotransporter adhesin
Cell surface receptor news and latest updates
An ECM Mimetic Library for Engineering Surfaces to Direct Cell Surface Receptor Binding Specificity and Signaling
Cell surface marker-based capture of neoantigen-reactive CD8+ T-cell receptors from metastatic tumor digests - PubMed
A Uniform Shear Assay for Human Platelet and Cell Surface Receptors via Cone-plate Viscometry | Protocol (Translated to Turkish)
Cell surface receptors for lymphokines. II. Studies on the carbohydrate composition of the MIF receptor on macrophages using...
P2X2 receptor subunit interfaces are missense variant hotspots where mutations tend to increase apparent ATP affinity | bioRxiv
Subjects: Receptors, Cell Surface - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
EHD1-dependent traffic of IGF-1 receptor to the cell surface is essential for Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. |...
NLM Classification 2006 Edition Now Available. NLM Technical Bulletin. 2006 Mar-Apr
Neuropilins (NRP) are cell surface area receptors for VEGF and SEMA3 - Opioid receptor trafficking and interaction
Appendices of the 1997 Genomics Strategic Plan | CDC
The constitutive activity of the ALK mutated at positions F1174 or R1275 impairs receptor trafficking
Receptors, LHRH | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
regulation of neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway - Ontology Report - Rat Genome Database
Drug Activates Brown Fat and Increases Metabolism | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5Nx) Viruses with Altered H5 Receptor-Binding Specificity - Volume 23, Number 2-February 2017 -...
NIH VideoCast - Modulating Immunity Through Ligand-Receptor Engineering
Receptor Studies on 19 Cases of Non-Hodgkin Malignant Lymphocytic Lymphoma | Acta Haematologica | Karger Publishers
Marvin C. Gershengorn, M.D. - NIDDK
Molecular Trigger for Organ Rejection in Mice Identified | The Scientist Magazine®
Scientist Search Results | HHMI
The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is degraded following internalization and is replenished at the cell surface by de novo synthesis...
Schnitzler Syndrome Medication: Antineoplastics, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Anti-Interleukin...
Orthohantavirus - Wikipedia
NOT-AI-22-051: Notice of Intent to Publish a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Molecular Dynamics of HIV (R01 Clinical Trial...
ACVRL1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
Butterfly Senses - EnchantedLearning.com
Non-coding variants in MYH11, FZD3, and SORCS3 are associated with dementia in women - PubMed
- Cadherins are calcium dependent cell adhesion proteins which are involved in many morphoregulatory processes including the establishment of tissue boundaries, tissue rearrangement, cell differentiation, and metastasis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The surface of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is covered with spike proteins. (nih.gov)
- These proteins latch onto human cells, allowing the virus to enter and infect them. (nih.gov)
- First, they incorporated a segment of the ACE2 receptor into the small proteins. (nih.gov)
- This technology allowed them to custom build proteins and predict how they would bind to the receptor. (nih.gov)
- Altered receptor-binding specificity of virus clade 184.108.40.206 H5 proteins might have contributed to emergence and spread of H5Nx viruses. (cdc.gov)
- HA proteins bind to sialoside receptors on the host cell surface. (cdc.gov)
- Although a recent study ( 22 ) reported enhanced avidity of H5N6 viruses for human-type receptors, recombinant clade 220.127.116.11 highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5 proteins from virus isolates in North America show a strict avian receptor-binding preference ( 23 ). (cdc.gov)
- These are special proteins on the surfaces of cells. (nih.gov)
- These proteins are the location where hormones produced in the brain's hypothalamus and in the pituitary gland interact to control cell function in the thyroid gland and central nervous system. (nih.gov)
- They contain intracellular compartments called granules, which are filled with proteins that can form holes in the target cell and also cause apoptosis, the process for programmed cell death. (nih.gov)
- The multiple molecular variant forms of AFP are discussed in relation to published reports of AFP binding proteins and cell surface receptors. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- AFP AA sequences are further presented as peptide identification sites for growth factors, receptors, cytoskeletal proteins, and chemokines. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- 14. Signal transduction responses to lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate in human prostate cancer cells. (nih.gov)
- An important aspect of this research is to discover small molecule ligands for these receptors that can be used as probes in animal models and that can lead to the development of drugs for the treatment of endocrine and neurologic diseases in humans. (nih.gov)
- Small molecule drug-like ligands for these receptors are not available. (nih.gov)
- Because CXCR3(+) cells are themselves a source of IFN-gamma, which potently induces the expression of CXCR3 ligands, such tight regulation of CXCR3 may serve as a control to avoid the unnecessary amplification of activated T lymphocyte recruitment. (uea.ac.uk)
- 9. Novel clusters of receptors for sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingosylphosphorylcholine, and (lyso)-phosphatidic acid: new receptors for "old" ligands. (nih.gov)
- Given the role of NK cells in immune surveillance, we postulated that NK cell activating receptors and their cognate ligands are involved in LAM pathogenesis. (jci.org)
- We found that ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor UL-16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2) and ULBP3 are localized in cystic LAM lesions and pulmonary nodules. (jci.org)
- It binds cell-signaling molecules called chemokines (e.g. (cdc.gov)
- The spike binds to ACE2 receptors on the cell surface. (nih.gov)
- LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. (harvard.edu)
- Igfbp-6 is a secreted factor that specifically binds insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), prevents its binding to the IGF-I receptor, and is thought to regulate the activity of IGF-II in growth and differentiation. (nih.gov)
- GnRH binds with high affinity to cell surface LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors located on the pituitary gonadotrophs. (medscape.com)
- Dendritic cells (DC) are an important antigen-presenting cell (APC), and they also can develop from monocytes. (nih.gov)
- This Research Topic contains nine manuscripts related to different scientific aspects of the "Role of the Antigen Receptor in the Pathogenesis of B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies" . (frontiersin.org)
- The notion that antigen selection of B cells through the BcR drives the pathogenesis of B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies, such as CLL, is now well established. (frontiersin.org)
- Over the years, immunogenetic studies in several B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies support the theory for antigen drive by identifying distinct biases in the BcR IG gene repertoires. (frontiersin.org)
- Overexpression of the EPS15 Homology Domain containing 1 (EHD1) protein has been linked to tumorigenesis but whether its core function as a regulator of intracellular traffic of cell surface receptors plays a role in oncogenesis remains unknown. (bvsalud.org)
- Although the mutated receptors exhibited a constitutive activation, the minor pool of receptor addressed to the plasma membrane was much more tyrosine phosphorylated than the intracellular pool. (nih.gov)
- 1. Bioactive lysophospholipids and mesangial cell intracellular signaling pathways: role in the pathobiology of kidney disease. (nih.gov)
- We found that this exaggerated transport of the human receptor is mediated by two functional arginine clusters, one in the third intracellular loop and one in the C-terminus. (aspetjournals.org)
- An ECM Mimetic Library for Engineering Surfaces to Direct Cell Surface Receptor Binding Specificity and Signaling Laminin derived peptide (α1 ~ α5, β, γ chains) Fibronectin naturally exists as a dimer, consisting of two nearly identical monomers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Knowledge of the evolution of receptor-binding specificity of these viruses, which might affect host range, is urgently needed. (cdc.gov)
- We report that emergence of these viruses is accompanied by a change in receptor-binding specificity. (cdc.gov)
- Type and number of internal monosaccharides and their linkages determine fine specificity of virus receptors ( 19 , 20 ). (cdc.gov)
- The extracellular (ECM) microenvironment, defined by biochemical cues and physical cues, is a deciding factor in a wide range of cellular processes including cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and expression of phenotype specific functions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Crosstalk among signaling pathways act synergistically to enhance cellular responses such as cell adhesion or proliferation 3 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The combinatorial presentation of ECM peptides on cell growth surfaces may also promote elevated proliferation rates of primary or stem cells 4,5,6 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Integrin binding sites for αvβ3 have antitumor activity, and may inhibit the activation of human neutrophil or the proliferation of capillary endothelial cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 11. Common signaling pathways link activation of murine PAR-1, LPA, and S1P receptors to proliferation of astrocytes. (nih.gov)
- CD5 is considered among the most relevant ones in the context of CLL, which is located close to the BcR IG on the surface of the B cells and promotes cell survival and proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
- To discover and develop probes or drugs for receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). (nih.gov)
- I conduct studies on the structure-function relationships of G protein-coupled receptors-in particular, receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). (nih.gov)
- P3 pups had been euthanized and pores and skin tissue was useful for major epidermal cell isolation as referred to (38). (opioid-receptors.com)
- Currently existing technology offers simple and merely adequate environments that facilitate simple cell processes such as cellular adhesion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Integrins, dystroglycan, syndecans, and several other cell surface molecules are cellular receptors for laminins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The globular domains located in the N- and C-terminus of the laminin alpha chains are critical for interactions with the cellular receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Approaches affording insight at all cellular scales, from atomistic to whole-cell resolutions, are encouraged. (nih.gov)
- 5. Diversity of cellular receptors and functions for the lysophospholipid growth factors lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate. (nih.gov)
- Macrophages also have important non-immune functions, such as recycling dead cells, like red blood cells, and clearing away cellular debris. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Johannes Hofer was selected MedUni Vienna Researcher of the Month, August 2017, for the work „Ig-like transcript 4 as a cellular receptor for soluble complement fragment C4d", published in „FASEB Journal" (IF 5.5). (meduniwien.ac.at)
- The present study identifies Ig-like transcript (ILT)4 and ILT5v2 as cellular receptors for C4d. (meduniwien.ac.at)
- The carbohydrate composition of the surface receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on guinea pig macrophages has been studied by examining the interaction of MIF with different saccharides and by testing the ability of plant lectins with known saccharide binding affinities to bind to macrophages and block their response to MIF. (elsevier.com)
- The role of fucosyl residues in the binding of MIF by macrophages is discussed with reference to the possible composition of the MIF receptor and the role of fucose-containing glycolipids as receptors for this lymphokine. (elsevier.com)
- Upon activation, monocytes and macrophages coordinate an immune response by notifying other immune cells of the problem. (nih.gov)
- Their coordinated movement and exchange of signals then instructs other innate immune cells called macrophages and monocytes to surround the neutrophil cluster and form a tight wound seal. (nih.gov)
- In opsonization, an antibody-bound pathogen serves as a red flag to alert immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages, to engulf and digest the pathogen. (nih.gov)
- Modulating immunity through ligand-receptor engineering / Christopher Garcia. (nih.gov)
- Mechanistically, we demonstrate a requirement of EHD1 for endocytic recycling and Golgi to plasma membrane traffic of IGF-1R to maintain its surface expression and downstream signaling. (bvsalud.org)
- In contrast, rat and mouse α 2C -AR plasma membrane levels are less sensitive to decrease in temperature, whereas the opossum α 2C -AR cell surface levels are not changed in these conditions. (aspetjournals.org)
- Although these motifs do not affect the receptor subcellular localization at 37°C, deletion of the arginine clusters significantly enhanced receptor plasma membrane levels at reduced temperature. (aspetjournals.org)
- Inhibition of pontin activity enhanced human receptor plasma membrane levels and signaling at 37°C. Our results demonstrate that human α 2C -AR has a unique temperature-sensitive traffic pattern within the G protein-coupled receptor class due to interactions with different molecular chaperones, mediated in part by strict spatial localization of specific arginine residues. (aspetjournals.org)
- As the genetic engineering of T cells with tumor-reactive T-cell receptors (TCRs) comes to the forefront of clinical investigation, the rapid, scalable, and cost-effective detection of patient-specific neoantigen-reactive TIL remains a top priority. (nih.gov)
- They are important for recognizing and killing virus-infected cells or tumor cells. (nih.gov)
- Mature NK cells (either DP or CD27 − ) are more cytotoxic than immature ones against tumor targets 8 and express a distinct set of trafficking molecules that allow them to circulate in the blood. (nature.com)
- Antigens are molecules from pathogens, host cells, and allergens that may be recognized by adaptive immune cells. (nih.gov)
- APCs like DCs are responsible for processing large molecules into "readable" fragments (antigens) recognized by adaptive B or T cells. (nih.gov)
- However, antigens alone cannot activate T cells. (nih.gov)
- B cells have two major functions: They present antigens to T cells, and more importantly, they produce antibodies to neutralize infectious microbes. (nih.gov)
- More specifically, the study of immune cell (B and T cells) receptor repertoires revealed important differences between MBL and CLL, alluding to distinct selection forces, both in terms of the nature of the selective antigens as well as the persistence of these interactions. (frontiersin.org)
- An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS. (umassmed.edu)
- Since human cells also express SIRP-alpha, sequencing this gene to identify donors with matching molecules could help reduce rejection rates, Lakkis says in the statement. (the-scientist.com)
- molecules on the surface of cells that bind chemokines, which are signals produced by the immune system. (scienceblogs.com)
- The use of antagonist monoclonal antibodies suggested that the constitutive activity of the mutated receptors did not require the dimerization of the receptor, whereas adequate dimerization triggered by agonist monoclonal antibodies increased this activity. (nih.gov)
- Treatment with a GnRH receptor agonist, but not the GnRH receptor antagonist degarelix, induces atherosclerotic plaque instability in ApoE(-/-) mice. (harvard.edu)
- Desloratadine is a long-acting tricyclic histamine antagonist that is selective for H 1 receptors. (medscape.com)
- Levocetirizine is an H 1 -receptor antagonist, an active enantiomer of cetirizine. (medscape.com)
- The cell-surface receptor, SIRP-alpha, initiates the innate immune response in hosts. (the-scientist.com)
- Using positional cloning, a method that can identify genetic mutations, Lakkis and colleagues discovered that SIRP-alpha, a cell-surface receptor that varies across individual mice, was responsible for activating the innate immune response-the body's first-line, nonspecific defense mechanism. (the-scientist.com)
- Neutrophils, the most numerous innate immune cell, patrol for problems by circulating in the bloodstream. (nih.gov)
- Natural killer (NK) cells have features of both innate and adaptive immunity. (nih.gov)
- These data suggest a role for NK cells, sNKG2DL, and the innate immune system in LAM pathogenesis. (jci.org)
- Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. (harvard.edu)
- These hairs are attached to nerve cells, and relay information about the touch to the insect's brain. (enchantedlearning.com)
- These receptors (called chemoreceptors) are nerve cells on the body's surface which react to certain chemicals. (enchantedlearning.com)
- Nociceptors- To sense pain, thousands of specialized sensory nerve cells or neurons (nociceptors) throughout the body trigger a series of responses to a noxious (painful) stimulus. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support computational dynamic modeling of molecular complexes regulating the HIV life cycle, immune responses, and therapeutic interventions in HIV/AIDS using existing and new HIV and HIV/host cell structural datasets. (nih.gov)
- ALPS is characterized by the production of an abnormally large number of immune system cells (lymphocytes), resulting in enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), the liver (hepatomegaly), and the spleen (splenomegaly). (medlineplus.gov)
- People with ALPS have an increased risk of developing cancer of the immune system cells (lymphoma). (medlineplus.gov)
- One can imagine these interactions being critical in providing a constant trigger that poises the immune response to reject the organ, and thus new therapies that limit the function of these receptors may promote organ survival," Anita Chong, a professor of surgery at the University of Chicago who was not involved in the study, told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette . (the-scientist.com)
- OSM sends immune signals to cells by stimulating protein receptors on their surfaces. (nih.gov)
- MHC provides a checkpoint and helps immune cells distinguish between host and foreign cells. (nih.gov)
- Through apoptosis, immune cells can discreetly remove infected cells and limit bystander damage. (nih.gov)
- 6. Lysophospholipid receptors: signalling, pharmacology and regulation by lysophospholipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
- Finally, kinase inactivation of the mutated receptors restored maturation and cell-surface localization. (nih.gov)
- Our data thus suggest that EOMES and T-BET may distinctly govern, via differential expression and co-factors recruitment, NK cell maturation by inserting partially overlapping epigenetic regulations. (nature.com)
- NK cells then operate a process of maturation that starts in the bone marrow (BM) and continues in the periphery. (nature.com)
- however, this integrin-ligand interaction is only sufficient for cell attachment and spreading. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Background and Purpose P2X receptors (P2XRs) are trimeric ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that open a cation-selective pore in response to ATP binding to their large extracellular domain (ECD). (biorxiv.org)
- Cell Surface Receptor-Ligand Recognition and. (hhmi.org)
- In contrast to other chemokine receptors, which are largely recycled to the cell surface within an hour, cell surface replenishment of CXCR3 occurred over several hours and was dependent upon mRNA transcription, de novo protein synthesis, and transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. (uea.ac.uk)
- By contrast, T-BET is dominant in mature NK cells, where it induces responsiveness to IL-12 and represses the cell cycle, likely through transcriptional repressors. (nature.com)
- INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors. (harvard.edu)
- Here, we studied stably transfected cell lines expressing wild-type or F1174L- or R1275Q-mutated ALK in parallel with a neuroblastoma cell line (CLB-GE) in which the allele mutated at position F1174 is amplified. (nih.gov)
- This particular allele has a mutation: a deletion of 32 nucleotides which renders the receptor non-functional. (scienceblogs.com)
Squamous cell carc2
- Transgenic mice expressing the human being papillomavirus type 16 early area genes beneath the control of the keratin 14 promoter (K14-HPV16 mice) (38 39 had been euthanized at different time points throughout BMS-833923 SOS2 (XL-139) their disease development from hyperplastic to dysplastic to squamous cell carcinoma. (opioid-receptors.com)
- Sun T, Miao X, Zhang X, Tan W, Xiong P, Lin D. Polymorphisms of death pathway genes FAS and FASL in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. (medlineplus.gov)
- Scientists studying mice have now identified a key cell receptor that triggers this process. (the-scientist.com)
- The scientists showed that itch-sensing neurons in both mice and humans produce the receptor for OSM. (nih.gov)
- By generating two gene-modified mice facilitating chromatin immunoprecipitation of endogenous EOMES and T-BET, we show a strong overlap in their DNA binding targets, as well as extensive epigenetic changes during NK cell differentiation. (nature.com)
- The lymphoproliferative defect in CTLA-4-deficient mice is ameliorated by an inhibitory NK cell receptor. (umassmed.edu)
- 15. Lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathways and their receptors are differentially regulated during decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. (nih.gov)
- However, they differ from ILC1s by their capacity to circulate in the blood, by their expression of multiple receptors of the Ly49 family, by their higher cytotoxic potential and by their expression of integrin subunits. (nature.com)
- Additional signaling through the cell surface proteoglycan such as syndecan-4 is required for focal adhesion formation and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton into bundled stress fibers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. (mcw.edu)
- To show the overall principles focus on the exploitation of induced proximity at the cell surface to therapeutically manipulate signaling. (nih.gov)
- The FAS gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in cell signaling. (medlineplus.gov)
- Researchers believe that these variations may affect the signaling that initiates apoptosis, increasing the risk that cells will multiply out of control and result in cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
- 3. Cell surface receptors in lysophospholipid signaling. (nih.gov)
- Antibodies coat the surface of a pathogen and serve three major roles: neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation. (nih.gov)
- Neutralization occurs when the pathogen, because it is covered in antibodies, is unable to bind and infect host cells. (nih.gov)
- B cells also secrete antibodies to diffuse and bind to pathogens. (nih.gov)
- The activated B cell responds by secreting antibodies, essentially the BCR but in soluble form. (nih.gov)
- Two regions in each fibronectin subunit possess cell binding activity: III9-10 and III14-V (refer to the modular structure of fibronectin below). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Experimental Approach Here we examine the impact of P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) inter-subunit interface missense variants identified in the human population or through structural predictions. (biorxiv.org)
- The Kollodis ECM Library provides a means to regulate a variety of cell surface receptors for your cell studies with the highlighted features provided below. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Primary normal human being umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) had been bought from Lonza and cultured in EGM2 (Lonza). (opioid-receptors.com)
- We developed an efficient method to capture neoantigen-reactive TCRs directly from resected human tumors based on cell surface co-expression of CD39, programmed cell death protein-1, and TIGIT dysfunction markers (CD8 + TIL TP ). (nih.gov)
- Components and Strategies Cell tradition A431 human being epidermoid SCC cells originally isolated from an 85-yr old female (28) had been bought from American Type Tradition Collection (ATCC). (opioid-receptors.com)
- Porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells overexpressing human being NRP1 or NRP2 had been from Dr. Michael Klagsbrun (Harvard Medical College) and cultured in Ham's F12 press (Life Systems) supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% Gps navigation. (opioid-receptors.com)
- Human being SCC cells (1 × 106) had been injected subdermally (33) on the proper dorsal flank. (opioid-receptors.com)
- Researchers designed "miniproteins" that bound tightly to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and prevented the virus from infecting human cells in the lab. (nih.gov)
- Blocking entry of SARS-CoV-2 into human cells can prevent infection. (nih.gov)
- All protected lab-grown human cells from infection. (nih.gov)
- Rieux-Laucat F. Inherited and acquired death receptor defects in human Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
- The human α 2C -adrenergic receptor ( α 2C -AR) is localized intracellularly at physiologic temperature. (aspetjournals.org)
- Reinsertion of these residues in the rat α 2C -AR restored the same temperature sensitivity as in the human receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
- The α2β1 integrin recognizes GXO/SGER such as GFPGER or GFOGER, and these sites are for endothelial cell binding and activation, and for angiogenesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 12. Neutrophil sphingosine 1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid receptors in pneumonia. (nih.gov)
- 1,2 The simple presentation of cell adhesion motifs is not optimal for controlling more integrated processes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Mast cells are found in tissues and can mediate allergic reactions by releasing inflammatory chemicals like histamine. (nih.gov)
- A recent study showed that a combination of extracellular matrix derived peptides presented on a surface may enhance cell adhesion strength and focal adhesion assembly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- TSH/IGF1 receptor crosstalk: Mechanism and clinical implications. (nih.gov)
- The caspase cascade is a series of steps that results in the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis) when they are not needed. (medlineplus.gov)
- Interference with apoptosis allows cells to multiply without control, leading to the lymphomas that occur in people with this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is important to distinguish between apoptosis and other forms of cell death like necrosis. (nih.gov)
- These 7-transmembrane, cell surface G protein-coupled receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC). (medscape.com)
- Although freshly isolated T lymphocytes expressed moderate cell surface levels of CXCR3, they were only responsive to CXCL11 with CXCL9 and CXCL10 only having significant activity on activated T lymphocytes. (uea.ac.uk)