Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (1/20616)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (2/20616)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (3/20616)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase can be involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. (4/20616)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) has been extensively studied as a stress-responsive kinase, but its role in development remains unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has two p38 genes, D-p38a and D-p38b. To elucidate the developmental function of the Drosophila p38's, we used various genetic and pharmacological manipulations to interfere with their functions: expression of a dominant-negative form of D-p38b, expression of antisense D-p38b RNA, reduction of the D-p38 gene dosage, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of a dominant-negative D-p38b in the wing imaginal disc caused a decapentaplegic (dpp)-like phenotype and enhanced the phenotype of a dpp mutant. Dpp is a secretory ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which triggers various morphogenetic processes through interaction with the receptor Thick veins (Tkv). Inhibition of D-p38b function also caused the suppression of the wing phenotype induced by constitutively active Tkv (TkvCA). Mosaic analysis revealed that D-p38b regulates the Tkv-dependent transcription of the optomotor-blind (omb) gene in non-Dpp-producing cells, indicating that the site of D-p38b action is downstream of Tkv. Furthermore, forced expression of TkvCA induced an increase in the phosphorylated active form(s) of D-p38(s). These results demonstrate that p38, in addition to its role as a transducer of emergency stress signaling, may function to modulate Dpp signaling.  (+info)

Ligand substitution of receptor targeted DNA complexes affects gene transfer into hepatoma cells. (5/20616)

We have targeted the serpin enzyme complex receptor for gene transfer in human hepatoma cell lines using peptides < 30 amino acids in length which contain the five amino acid recognition sequence for this receptor, coupled to poly K of average chain length 100 K, using the heterobifunctional coupling reagent sulfo-LC SPDP. The number of sulfo-LC SPDP modified poly-L-lysine residues, as well as the degree of peptide substitution was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Conjugates were prepared in which 3.5%, 7.8% or 26% of the lysine residues contained the sulfo-LC SPDP moiety. Each of these conjugates was then coupled with ligand peptides so that one in 370, one in 1039, or one in 5882 lysines were substituted with receptor ligand. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to assess complex structure and size. HuH7 human hepatoma cells were transfected with complexes of these conjugates with the plasmid pGL3 and luciferase expression measured 2 to 16 days after treatment. All the protein conjugates in which 26% of the K residues were modified with sulfo-LC SPDP were poor gene transfer reagents. Complexes containing less substituted poly K, averaged 17 +/- 0.5 nm in diameter and gave peak transgene expression of 3-4 x 10(6) ILU/mg which persisted (> 7 x 10(5) ILU) at 16 days. Of these, more substituted polymers condensed DNA into complexes averaging 20 +/- 0.7 nm in diameter and gave five-fold less luciferase than complexes containing less substituted conjugates. As few as eight to 11 ligands per complex are optimal for DNA delivery via the SEC receptor. The extent of substitution of receptor-mediated gene transfer complexes affects the size of the complexes, as well as the intensity and duration of transgene expression. These observations may permit tailoring of complex construction for the usage required.  (+info)

Characterization of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis lbpB, lbpA, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants. (6/20616)

Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. Recently, putative Moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpB, lbpA, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. We describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in LbpB, LbpA, or Orf3 protein.  (+info)

Three receptor genes for plasminogen related growth factors in the genome of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes. (7/20616)

Plasminogen related growth factors (PRGFs) and their receptors play major roles in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and neoplasia. In order to investigate the complexity and evolution of the PRGF receptor family we have cloned and sequenced three receptors for PRGFs in the teleost fish Fugu rubripes, a model vertebrate with a compact genome. One of the receptor genes isolated encodes the orthologue of mammalian MET, whilst the other two may represent Fugu rubripes orthologues of RON and SEA. This is the first time three PRGF receptors have been identified in a single species.  (+info)

Cloning, molecular analysis and differential cell localisation of the p36 RACK analogue antigen from the parasite protozoon Crithidia fasciculata. (8/20616)

The family of the RACK molecules (receptors for activated C kinases) are present in all the species studied so far. In the genus Leishmania, these molecules also induce a strong immune reaction against the infection. We have cloned and characterised the gene that encodes the RACK analogue from the parasite trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata (CACK). The molecule seems to be encoded by two genes. The sequence analysis of the cloned open reading frame indicates the existence of a high degree of conservation not only with other members of the Trypanosomatidae but also with mammalians. The study of the protein kinase C phosphorylation sites shows the presence of three of them, shared with the mammalian species, additional to those present in the other protozoa suggesting a certain phylogenetic distance between the protozoon Crithidia fasciculata and the rest of the Trypanosomatidae. The CACK-encoded polypeptide shows an additional sequence of four amino acids at the carboxy-terminal end, which produces a different folding of the fragment with the presence of an alpha-helix instead of the beta-sheet usual in all the other species studied. A similar result is elicited at the amino-terminal end by the change of three amino acid residues. The immunolocalisation experiments show that the CACK displays a pattern with a distribution mainly at the plasma membrane, different from that of the related Leishmania species used as control, that displays a distribution close to the nucleus. Altogether, the data suggest that the existence of the structural differences found may have functional consequences.  (+info)

This is a specific mechanism. the Endocytosis is stimulated by binding of specific molecules to their specific membrane receptors. A pocket is formed, then pinced off, bilayer fuses, then incoming molecule is taken into the cell. ATP is used ...
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The fourth meeting on dependence receptors featured descriptions of previously unknown dependence receptors. New mechanistic data were presented on the switch between the trophic, antiapoptotic response with the proapoptotic response that occurs with loss of trophic support. The possibility that the loss of trophic support may also involve the binding of an active antitrophin was also discussed. New in vivo data were presented on the roles of dependence receptors in development, angiogenesis, oncogenesis, and neurodegeneration, as well as new therapeutic approaches based on dependence receptor function. The next meeting on dependence receptors is scheduled for 2012.. ...
Two papers describing mice deficient in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule and 2B4 represent the first accounts of immune phenotypes in animals lacking me
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Though zebrafish do not have placental arterioles and mice do not have a structural equivalent to the PAV, our developmental studies indicate that netrin signaling has evolved to ensure the formation of specific subsets of vessels. Thus, in contrast to VEGF signaling, which has profound effects on virtually all endothelial cells and vascular beds during developmental angiogenesis (Ferrara et al., 2003), guidance cues in general and UNC5B specifically, may provide an additional level of regulation to coordinate the spatial and temporal organization of tissue-specific vascular beds during embryogenesis. Because the first vital requirement for UNC5B is during mid-gestation, the reagents used in this study were unable to ascertain a function in later stages of development or within the adult. Such an assessment requires the use of alternative mutagenesis schemes, which we are vigorously pursuing.. A role for UNC5B in embryonic angiogenesis was originally postulated because of its vascular-specific ...
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Interpretive Summary: The acquisition of nutrients and the avoidance of toxicants by plants is an important problem in agricultural production and human health. The bioavailability of nutrients and toxicants is determined by plant characteristics and by the environment. For example, copper, both a nutrient and a toxicant, and lead, a toxicant, are accumulated in some plants more than in others, and in hard waters (high concentration of calcium and magnesium) these metals are much less available (and less intoxicating) than in soft waters. Toxicologists have adopted the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to interpret and predict toxicant bioavailability. The model states that ameliorative ions (e.g., Ca and Mg) alleviate toxicity by competing with toxicants (e.g., Cu and Pb) for cell-surface binding site. The BLM is only a partial explanation and it ignores the great importance of cell electrical phenomena. The contribution of the present study is the extension of our understanding of plant and ...
Eezi-Awn K9 Roof Rack to suit Suzuki Jimny, 1.2m long, Track mount.. Dolium practically pioneered flat-deck roof racks in Australia, and now theyve made a good thing even better with the introduction of the next generation in flat-decks - the K9 Rack.. A true expedition-strength roof rack, the K9 Rack employs a fully-welded Aluminium deck with cross-braced longitudinal slats for greater support and carrying capacity.. Built around aero-section Aluminium extrusions, and with built-in harmonic damping thanks to the cross-bracing, the longitudinal front-to-back slat arrangement significantly reduces noise and drag.. Each slat incorporates twin slots which accept movable bolts giving the K9 Rack far greater mounting versatility than other flat-deck racks - itll even accept most other brands accessories.. The K9 Rack isnt just stronger and quieter than other flat-deck racks - its also lower. With low-profile aero section extrusions and a close-fitting mounting system, K9 Rack gives you more ...
Endoglin is a coreceptor for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that acts as a suppressor of malignancy during mouse skin… Expand ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is involved in mediating the apoptotic effect of cleaved high molecular weight kininogen in human endothelial cells. AU - Cao, Dian J.. AU - Guo, Yan Lin. AU - Colman, Robert W.. PY - 2004/5/14. Y1 - 2004/5/14. N2 - Cleaved high molecular weight kininogen (HKa) has been shown to inhibit in vivo neovascularization and induce apoptosis of endothelial cells. We have shown that HKa-induced apoptosis correlated with its antiadhesive effect and was regulated by extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In this study, we identified the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a target of HKa activity at the endothelial cell surface. Anti-uPAR antibodies blocked the apoptotic effect of HKa. Further studies revealed that uPAR formed a signaling complex containing integrin αvβ3 or α5β1, caveolin, and Src kinase Yes in endothelial cells. HKa physically disrupted the formation of this complex in a manner that paralleled its ...
A circulating biomarker of early pregnancy outcome independent of ultrasonography and gestational age is a coveted goal. This study evaluated soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a well-described marker of inflammation and immunological activation, for this purpose, and compared it with established early pregnancy biomarkers of the luteoplacental phase: progesterone, estradiol and hCG. We merged data from two prospective first trimester cohorts to conduct a case-control study comparing these analytes in women who had either a live birth, a miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy. The ability to predict pregnancy location and viability was assessed by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Comparing women irrespective of gestational age with a live birth, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy showed significantly lower suPAR values in the latter group (2.4 vs. 2.4 vs. 2.0 μg/L, p = 0.032, respectively), as were all other analytes. Before 6 weeks gestation, ...
Expression of endothelial protein C receptor in cortical peritubular capillaries associates with a poor clinical response in lupus nephritis.
Dive into the research topics of Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, changes of 24-hour blood pressure, and progression of chronic kidney disease. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of a folate binding protein in L1210 cells grown in low folate medium. AU - Jansen, G. AU - Kathmann, I. AU - Rademaker, B C. AU - Braakhuis, B J. AU - Westerhof, G R. AU - Rijksen, G. AU - Schornagel, J H. PY - 1989/4/15. Y1 - 1989/4/15. N2 - We have isolated variants of L1210 cells (L1210B) expressing, in addition to the classical high affinity/low capacity system for reduced folate uptake, high levels of a membrane-associated folate binding protein. This folate binding protein was expressed in L1210 cells grown at low physiological folate levels (less than 0.5 nM), but down-regulated after transfer in standard high folate (2 microM) medium. The binding capacity of L1210B cells for [3H]folic acid and [3H]-methotrexate was identical (5-11 pmol/10(6) cells) but affinities were different. The affinities relative to folic acid were 0.5 for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 0.25 for 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, 0.08 for 10-ethyl-10-deazaaminopterin, and 0.05 for methotrexate, ...
HIV pseudotypes bearing native hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (pressure H and Con1) are infectious for the human hepatoma cell traces Huh-7 and PLC/PR5. Infectivity will depend on coexpression of each E1 and E2 glycoproteins, is pH-dependent, and could be neutralized by mAbs mapping to amino acids 412-447 inside E2. Cell-surface expression of 1 or all the candidate receptor molecules (CD81, low-density lipoprotein receptor, scavenger receptor class B sort 1, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule three grabbing nonintegrin) didnt confer permissivity to HIV-HCV pseudotype an infection. Nonetheless, HIV-HCV pseudotype infectivity was inhibited by a recombinant soluble type of CD81 and a mAb particular for CD81, suggesting that CD81 could…. ...
HIV pseudotypes bearing native hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (pressure H and Con1) are infectious for the human hepatoma cell traces Huh-7 and PLC/PR5. Infectivity will depend on coexpression of each E1 and E2 glycoproteins, is pH-dependent, and could be neutralized by mAbs mapping to amino acids 412-447 inside E2. Cell-surface expression of 1 or all the candidate receptor molecules (CD81, low-density lipoprotein receptor, scavenger receptor class B sort 1, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule three grabbing nonintegrin) didnt confer permissivity to HIV-HCV pseudotype an infection. Nonetheless, HIV-HCV pseudotype infectivity was inhibited by a recombinant soluble type of CD81 and a mAb particular for CD81, suggesting that CD81 could…. ...
The Eagle Biosciences Soluble Leptin Receptor (sLEP-R) ELISA Assay Kit is for measurement of soluble human leptin receptor (sLEP-R) in human serum or plasma
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-linked protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune Ezatiostat system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors whose expression is essential for T NK and B-cell Rabbit Polyclonal to GABRD. responses. in mouse. However it is definitely less obvious whether other users of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here we display that and strain suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8+ T cell development. Accordingly B6 mice showed an exclusive growth of innate CD8+ T cells but not NKT cells. Interestingly the SAP-independent strain showed an growth of both splenic innate CD8+ T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand and similar to what was recently demonstrated in BALB/c mice the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZFhi) NKT cells and innate CD8+ T cells significantly improved in the SAP-independent ...
suPAR is a novel biomarker of inflammation, and it has been shown that suPAR is expressed in carotid plaque.10 In this study, we showed that elevated levels of suPAR were significantly associated with an increased risk of both CAD and ischemic stroke. Plasma levels of suPAR were increased in subjects with carotid plaque, and presence of both carotid plaque and elevated suPAR levels substantially increased risk of ischemic stroke and CAD.. Previous studies have shown that elevated levels of suPAR are related to increased risk of CVD.8,9 Our results are in accordance with a previous study that showed that suPAR in plasma was associated with carotid plaque and that subjects with elevated levels of suPAR had an increased risk of CVD.21 In a prospective study of 2315 healthy individuals, elevated suPAR, in combination with elevated hsCRP, improved the risk prediction beyond the Framingham risk score.22 To our knowledge, there are no studies that have explored the relationship with ischemic ...
Results Full-length uPAR expression was significantly downregulated in SSc dermis, especially in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Dermal thickness, collagen content and myofibroblast counts were significantly greater in uPAR−/− than in uPAR+/+ mice. In uPAR−/− mice, dermal fibrosis was paralleled by endothelial cell apoptosis and severe loss of microvessels. Lungs from uPAR−/− mice displayed non-specific interstitial pneumonia-like pathological features, both with inflammation and collagen deposition. Pulmonary pathology worsened significantly from 12 to 24 weeks, as shown by a significant increase in alveolar septal width and collagen content.. ...
Previous experiments indicated that secreted (s) and membrane (m) forms of folate binding protein (FBP) are present in the intrauterine environment of the pig. Our previous studies indicated that the two forms were produced sequentially; the secreted form was present in the intrauterine glands until Day 20 of gestation, whereas binding analysis indicated that folate binding increased dramatically in placental membranes until Day 50 of gestation. However, the cell types expressing mFBP have not been investigated. In this experiment, uterine wall sections from Day 20, 35, 50, 70, 90, and 105 of gestation were collected at slaughter and fixed, and subjected to in situ hybridization analysis for mFBP expression. The mFBP mRNAwas expressed by both columnar and cuboidal epithelia of the placental folds and expression appeared to be similar throughout gestation. Therefore, the placenta expressed mFBP from Day 35 of gestation onward, consistent with the concept that sFBP and mFBP occur sequentially during
article{25b1f445-f908-4d68-b75c-46e879dc6bc1, abstract = {volved in tumor growth and metastasis. We assayed the components of the uPA system in homogenates of 64 primary epithelial ovarian tumors and 5 metastases and evaluated the association of these parameters to prognosis in the 51 malignant cases. The levels of uPA, PAI-2 and the uPA: PAI-I complex increased with progressive loss of histological differentiation (P-trend <0.001, <0.05 and <0.001). The level of PAI-I was higher in poorly than in well/moderately differentiated tumors (p = 0.03). The content of uPAR was lower in benign tumors as compared to borderline malignancies (p = 0.002), invasive primary tumors (p < 0.001), and metastases (p = 0.002). Surprisingly, the level of uPAR was lower in poorly differentiated as compared to both borderline (p = 0.01) and well differentiated malignant tumors (p = 0.005). Also, the level of uPAR was lower in advanced as compared to early stages of the disease (P-trend = 0.002). The median ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for activated protein C, a serine protease activated by and involved in the blood coagulation pathway. The encoded protein is an N-glycosylated type I membrane protein that enhances the activation of protein C. Mutations in this gene have been associated with venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction, as well as with late fetal loss during pregnancy. The encoded protein may also play a role in malarial infection and has been associated with cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013 ...
Folate Binding Protein小鼠单克隆抗体[LK26](ab3361)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被9篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance. Mediates axon repulsion of neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system upon ligand binding. Axon repulsion in growth cones may be caused by its association with DCC that may trigger signaling for repulsion (By similarity). Functions as netrin receptor that negatively regulates vascular branching during angiogenesis. Mediates retraction of tip cell filopodia on endothelial growth cones in response to netrin (By similarity). It also acts as a dependence receptor required for apoptosis induction when not associated with netrin ligand (PubMed:12598906). Mediates apoptosis by activating DAPK1. In the absence of NTN1, activates DAPK1 by reducing its autoinhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-308 thereby increasing its catalytic activity (By similarity ...
Unequivocal identification of stem cells requires their separation and purification, usually based on a combination of specific cell-surface markers. These isolated stem cells [e.g., hematopoietic stem (HS) cells] can be studied in detail and used in clinical applications, such as bone marrow transplantation (Chap. 66). However, the lack of specific cell-surface markers for other types of stem cells has made it difficult to isolate them in large quantities. This challenge has been partially addressed in animal models by genetically marking different cell types with green-fluorescence protein driven by cell-specific promoters. Alternatively, putative stem cells have been isolated from a variety of tissues as side population (SP) cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting after staining with Hoechst 33342 dye. ...
Systemic levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) positively correlate with the activation level of the immune system. We reviewed the usefulness of systemic levels of s
Mouse uPA Receptor/U-PAR ELISA Kit is a sensitive (| 5 pg/ml) immunoassay suitable for the quantification of uPA Receptor/U-PAR in Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Cell Lysate, Hep Plasma, EDTA…
BMS-833923, also known as XL-139, is an orally bioavailable small-molecule SMO (Smoothened) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. SMO antagonist BMS-833923 inhibits the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway protein SMO, which may result in a suppression of the SHH signaling pathway. SMO is a G-protein coupled receptor that lies just downstream of the SHH ligand cell surface receptor Patched-1 in the SHH pathway; in the absence of ligand Patched-1 inhibits SMO and ligand binding to Patched-1 results in increased levels of SMO. The SHH signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair; constitutive activation of this pathway is associated with uncontrolled cellular proliferation and has been observed in a variety of cancers
Buy our Human DC-SIGN peptide. Ab6092 is a blocking peptide for ab5716 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free protocols, tips and expert support for…
Solid phase sandwich ELISA for the determination of soluble (Pro)renin receptor in human serum, EDTA-plasma, and urine. This kit can also be used for the determination of soluble (Pro)renin receptor in mouse and rat serum, EDTA-plasma, and cell culture.
The fundamental principles of signalling can be illustrated by a simple example in the yeast S. cerevisiae (Figure 1). In order to sexually reproduce, a yeast cell needs to be able to make physical contact with another yeast cell. First, it has to call to yeast cells of the opposite mating type. It does this by secreting a mating factor peptide, an extracellular signal, which can also be called an intercellular signal. Yeast mating factor binds to specific cell surface receptors on cells of the opposite mating type, and the signal is relayed into the target cell via a chain of interacting intracellular signalling molecules, which switch from an inactive (Figure 2a) to an active state (Figure 2b). Signalling molecules are said to be upstream or downstream of other components of the pathway (this terminology should not be confused with that used to describe the structure of genes in relation to transcription). Ultimately, signalling molecules activate target effector proteins (an effector in ...
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Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a member of the IL-12 cytokine family. It is a heterodimeric cytokine that is composed of two distinct genes, Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-27p28. IL-27 is expressed by antigen presenting cells and interacts with a specific cell-surface receptor complex known as IL-27 receptor (IL-27R). This receptor consists of two proteins, IL-27ɑ and gp130. IL-27 induces differentiation of the diverse populations of T cells in the immune system and also upregulates IL-10. When IL-27 binds to the IL-27 receptor, signaling pathways including JAK-STAT and p38 MAPK pathways are turned on. There are two types of responses, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, which involve different types of cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells. The response that is activated is very much dependent on the external surrounding of IL-27. There are many different subsets of T cells, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, Tr1, and Treg cells; IL-27 is greatly involved in ...
BioAssay record AID 146424 submitted by ChEMBL: The receptor binding activity was evaluated as the displacement of specifically bound [3H]-NPY from male Sprague-Dawley rat brain membrane homogenates.
Our research focuses on the chemical synthesis and the biological. investigation of signaling molecules for cells. We are developing. and improving syntheses for three classes of biomolecules:. oligosaccharides, peptides and glycoproteins. Oligosaccharides. are playing a major role in cell-surface binding events, protein. stability and immunology and can be considered an emerging field. in bioscience. Oligosaccharides have potential as diagnostic markers. and vaccines and can be synthesized by chemical and enzymatic. methods. Proteins and glycoproteins are of high interest for biotechnology. since their recombinant production provides many pharmaceutical. products such as cellular growth factors or monoclonal antibodies.. ...
A few years ago, an original concept of cell biology was proposed: whereas the classic dogma postulates that transmembrane receptors are inactive unless bound by their specific ligand, it was suggested that some receptors may be active not only in the presence of their ligand, but also in their absence. In this latter case, the signaling downstream of these unbound receptors leads to apoptosis. These receptors were consequently named
Compare SLAM family member 7 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Hedgehog signalling is a key regulator of embryonic development controlling proliferation and/or cell fate determination. With identification of the Hedgehog receptor PTCH1 as a tumour suppressor...
Эндосиалин (CD248), называемый также TEM1 (от англ. tumor endothelial marker 1), экспрессирован на стромальных клетках растущих тканей на эмбриональной стадии. Во взрослом организме отсутствует, но может быть экспрессирован на опухолевых клетках и при воспалении. Играет роль в росте опухоли и воспалении, но механизм его влияния неизвестен.[1][2]. Экспрессирован на сосудистых эндотелиальных клетках злокачественных опухолей, но не на клетках нормальных сосудов.[3] ...
Leptin Receptor鸡多克隆抗体(ab92615)可与大鼠样本反应并经IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Subcellular Localization: Cell membrane (By similarity). Note=Localizes to cell surface receptors in the plasma membrane after stimulation with respective receptors (TCR, CD28, CD2) in T- cells (By similarity ...
Receptors are proteins, usually cell surface receptors, which bind to ligands and cause responses in the immune system, including cytokine receptors, growth factor receptors and Fc receptors.
Nokia Slam. Sharing made easy. - Nokia Slam makes it easier than ever to share content such as photos, videos and contacts. Theres no tricky set-up or pairing needed - just select SLAM, connect with another device and thats it. Your content is shared.
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ImageMagick- 13-Mar-2014 13:59 36468 ImageMagick- 06-Mar-2014 08:51 139927 ImageMagick-devel- 13-Mar-2014 13:59 46558 ImageMagick-devel- 06-Mar-2014 08:51 110243 ImageMagick-extra- 06-Mar-2014 08:51 60476 Mesa-9.2.2_9.2.3-61.6.1_61.9.1.i586.drpm 09-Dec-2013 14:27 404271 Mesa-9.2.3-61.9.1.i586.rpm 09-Dec-2013 14:15 7516401 Mesa-devel-9.2.2_9.2.3-61.6.1_61.9.1.i586.drpm 09-Dec-2013 14:27 48774 Mesa-devel-9.2.3-61.9.1.i586.rpm 09-Dec-2013 14:15 133086 Mesa-libEGL-devel-9.2.3-61.9.1.i586.rpm 09-Dec-2013 14:15 55699 Mesa-libEGL1-9.2.3-61.9.1.i586.rpm 09-Dec-2013 14:15 88938 Mesa-libGL-devel-9.2.2_9.2.3-61.6.1_61.9.1.i586.., 09-Dec-2013 14:27 96351 Mesa-libGL-devel-9.2.3-61.9.1.i586.rpm 09-Dec-2013 14:15 488549 Mesa-libGL1-9.2.2_9.2.3-61.6.1_61.9.1.i586.drpm 09-Dec-2013 14:27 43877 Mesa-libGL1-9.2.3-61.9.1.i586.rpm 09-Dec-2013 14:15 141358 ...
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Cell surface receptors. *HDL: SCARB1. *IDL: LRP *LRP1. *LRP1B. *LRP2. *LRP3. *LRP4 ... A critical role for nuclear liver X receptors alpha and beta". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (35): 31900-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202993200. ... "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and ...
Cell surface receptor deficiencies. G protein-coupled receptor. (including hormone). Class A. *TSHR (Congenital hypothyroidism ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... Kisspeptin and its associated receptor KISS1R are known to be involved in the regulation of puberty. Studies have shown there ... "Defective migration of neuroendocrine GnRH cells in human arrhinencephalic conditions". The Journal of Clinical Investigation ...
Cell surface receptor deficiencies. G protein-coupled receptor. (including hormone). Class A. *TSHR (Congenital hypothyroidism ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ...
Cell surface receptor deficiencies. G protein-coupled receptor. (including hormone). Class A. *TSHR (Congenital hypothyroidism ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... It can be associated with missense mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor-3. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant ... processing and ubiquitylation of the receptor". FEBS J. 274 (12): 3078-93. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2007.05835.x. PMID 17509076. ...
Cell surface receptors. *HDL: SCARB1. *IDL: LRP *LRP1. *LRP1B. *LRP2. *LRP3. *LRP4 ... After this occurs, other cells recognize the phosphatidylserines and phagocytosize the cells or cell fragments exposing them.[ ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 184 (4): 469-72. doi:10.1083/jcb.200901127. PMC 2654137. PMID 19237595.. ... "Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 9 (2): 112-24. doi:10.1038/nrm2330. PMC 2642958. PMID 18216768.. ...
Cell surface receptors. *HDL: SCARB1. *IDL: LRP *LRP1. *LRP1B. *LRP2. *LRP3. *LRP4 ... negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. • lipid catabolic process. • positive regulation of phospholipase ... which hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus provides free fatty acids for cells. Mutations in this gene cause hyperlipoproteinemia ...
Cell surface receptor deficiencies. G protein-coupled receptor. (including hormone). Class A. *TSHR (Congenital hypothyroidism ... Sickle-cell anemia is also considered a recessive condition, but heterozygous carriers have increased resistance to malaria in ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... Williams T. N.; Obaro S. K. (2011). "Sickle cell disease and malaria morbidity: a tale with two tails". Trends in Parasitology ...
AMHs bind to the AMH Type 2 Receptors, which is present on cells on the surface of the Mullerian Duct. The binding of AMH to ... The AMH receptors are on the Müllerian duct mesenchyme and transfer the apoptotic signal to the Müllerian epithelial cell, ... AMH (Anti Müllerian Hormone) is produced by the primitive Sertoli cells as one of the earliest Sertoli cell products and ... Anti-Mullerian Hormone Receptor Type II) regressing the Mullerian duct. The Leydig cells secrete testosterone to aid male ...
Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ... Among the methods thought to hold promise for treatment include gene transfer therapy,[13] which works by inserting in cells of ...
Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ... Neurons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts work together to create a functional nerve. Schwann cells and neurons exchange ... X-linked CMT and Schwann cells[edit]. CMT can also be produced by X-linked mutations, and is named X-linked CMT (CMTX). In CMTX ... The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ...
Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
The viral particle binds to cell surface receptors. Cell surface receptors are characterized for each serotype of ... poliovirus couldn't be made in many laboratories until transgenic mice having a CD155 receptor on their cell surface were ... For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155 which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. For ... These acids form a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected [2]. Once inside the cell, the RNA un-coats and the ...
These compounds interact with cell surface adrenergic receptors. Such stimuli result in a signal transduction cascade that ... endothelin receptor ETA angiotensin II. ↑Angiotensin receptor 1 *On smooth muscle cells: Activation of Gq --, ↑PLC activity ... Arginine vasopressin receptor 1 (V1) on smooth muscle cells Activation of Gq --, ↑PLC activity --, ↑IP3 and DAG --, activation ... P2X receptor. ↑Ca2+ NPY. NPY receptor Activation of Gi --, ↓cAMP --, ↓PKA activity --, ↓phosphorylation of MLCK --, ↑MLCK ...
CD200R1: Cell surface glycoprotein CD200 receptor 1. *CLDND1: Claudin domain containing 1 ... and represents about 6.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. ... OXTR: oxytocin receptor. *PHF7 encoding protein PHD finger ...
receptor complex. • cell membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ruffle membrane. • cell surface. • cell junction ... cell growth. • cell-substrate adhesion. • vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • cell adhesion. • ... Integrins are known to participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface-mediated signaling.[7] ... positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation. • tube development. • heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • angiogenesis ...
It may have a cell surface receptor function. The human butyrophilin gene is localized in the major histocompatibility complex ... 1999). "Cloning, expression analysis, and chromosomal localization of a novel butyrophilin-like receptor". J. Hum. Genet. 44 (4 ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of human butyrophilin reveals a potential receptor function". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1306 (1): 1 ... "Butyrophilin, a milk protein, modulates the encephalitogenic T cell response to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in ...
... binds to the cell surface receptor albondin.. Contents. *1 Function. *2 Structure ... This is because retinol causes cells to swell with water (this is also the reason too much Vitamin A is toxic).[10] This ... zinc and tocopherol on retinol-induced damage in human lymphoblastoid cells". The Journal of Nutrition. 114 (12): 2256-61. PMID ...
Spear, Patricia G.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H. "Three Classes of Cell Surface Receptors for Alphaherpesvirus Entry ... gB, gD, gH, and gL proteins allow for fusion of the cell and envelope, and are necessary for survival. Entrance to host cells ... DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off host cell synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and other macro ... Similar Alphaviruses use gC protein to aid in binding the virion to the cell and gD to stabilize it, if required. ...
Cell surface matrix receptors in return, feed back to the cells through cell-matrix interaction, allowing the cell to regulate ... In the end, cell-surface receptors close the loop by giving feedback on the surrounding ECM to the cells, affecting also their ... CD44 is a cell surface receptor for HA. Cells such as fibroblasts are responsible for synthesizing ECM molecules. ... and progesterone receptors in epithelial cells, granular cells and fibroblasts of VF, suggesting that some of the structural ...
"CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate". Cell. 61 (7): 1303-13. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(90)90694-A. PMID ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ... CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell ... In addition, variations in CD44 are reported as cell surface markers for some breast and prostate cancer stem cells.In breast ...
Hynes, R (1987). "Integrins: A family of cell surface receptors". Cell. 48 (4): 549-554. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90233-9. PMID ... "Identification and isolation of a 140 kd cell surface glycoprotein with properties expected of a fibronectin receptor". Cell. ... These foundational studies also identified of the cellular receptors that recognize the sequence; these receptors were later ... Cell Culture Surfaces Selection Guide" (PDF). 2017-10-31. Meyers, Steven R.; Grinstaff, Mark W. (2012-03-14). "Biocompatible ...
Hynes RO (February 1987). "Integrins: a family of cell surface receptors". Cell. 48 (4): 549-54. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90233 ... "Development of cell surface linkage complexes in cultured fibroblasts". The Journal of Cell Biology. 100 (4): 1103-14. doi: ... Integrin receptors are involved in the attachment of adherent cells to the extracellular matrix and of lymphocytes to other ... It also allows cells to measure extracellular rigidity, since cells in which talin is prevented from forming mechanical ...
"Human immunodeficiency virus induces phosphorylation of its cell surface receptor". Nature. 333 (6170): 278-80. doi:10.1038/ ... cell chemotaxis. • positive regulation of interleukin-17 production. • inflammatory response. • T cell receptor signaling ... Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway. • protein phosphorylation. • negative regulation of T cell apoptotic process. • negative ... It is required for the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1, and may link the T cell receptor (TCR) ...
Mesecar, Andrew D.; Ratia, Kiira (2008-06-23). "Viral destruction of cell surface receptors: Fig. 1". Proceedings of the ... SARS-CoV primarily infects epithelial cells within the lung. The virus is capable of entering macrophages and dendritic cells ... single-stranded RNA virus which infects the epithelial cells within the lungs. The virus enters the host cell by binding to ... The primary human receptor of the virus is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and hemaglutinin (HE), first identified in ...
Wang, Michelle Dong (1993). Reaction and aggregation dynamics of cell surface receptors. OCLC 713128957. "Michelle D. Wang". ... including RNA polymerase molecules which move along the DNA template during cell division. During this process genetic ...
... multifunctional cell-surface co-receptors". Biochem. J. 327 (Pt 1): 1-16. doi:10.1042/bj3270001. PMC 1218755. PMID 9355727. ... A third function is cell-cell adhesion. Evidence for syndecan's role in cell-cell adhesion comes from the human myeloma cell ... Syndecans are expressed on the cell surface in a cell-specific manner. For example, in mouse cells and tissues, syndecan 1 is ... Klaus Elenius & Markku Jalkanen (1994). "Function of the syndecans - a family of cell surface proteoglycans". Journal of Cell ...
In biology, the sigma receptor (σ-receptors) is a type of cell surface receptor. ... The symbol can be used to signify surface tension (alternatively, γ or T are also used instead). ...
"Cell surface glypicans are low-affinity endostatin receptors" (PDF). Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 811-22. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01) ... Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans are composed of a membrane-associated protein core substituted with a variable ... These proteins may play a role in the control of cell division and growth regulation. The GPC4 gene is adjacent to the 3' end ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 130 (5): 1207-18. doi:10.1083/jcb.130.5.1207. PMC 2120559. PMID 7657705. GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW ...
... that netrin attraction is mediated through UNC-40/DCC cell surface receptors and repulsion is mediated through UNC-5 receptors ... The luminal cells secrete netrin 1, which binds to the receptor neogenin (a homologue of DCC) on the cap cells. This allows for ... This pathway is unique and independent of the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways that lead to controlled cell death. ... Netrins-G are secreted but remain bound to the extracellular surface of the cell membrane through Glycophosphatidylinositol ( ...
... and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells). These T cells bind to the MHC II- ... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
... cell-surface marker),可以用以分离、鉴定不同亚群的T细胞[1]。 ... Neonatal and adult recent thymic emigrants produce IL-8 and express complement receptors CR1 and CR2. JCI insight. 2017-08-17, ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的
The stomach contains receptors to allow us to know when we are full. The intestines also contain receptors that send satiety ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat-losing surface area to heat-generating volume, they tend to have high energy ... Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ...
In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. Mice ... β-catenin is particularly interesting as it plays a dual role in the cell. First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
... "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of ... "Body Surface Temperature Of Hibernating Black Bears May Be Related To Periodic Muscle Activity". Journal of Mammalogy. 85 (3): ... selective androgen receptor modulators) are being investigated with promising results. They would have fewer side-effects, ... accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle cells as well as lower protein content. In humans, prolonged periods of ...
Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins, DC-SIGN ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol ( ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
Ion channel, cell surface receptor: ligand-gated ion channels. Cys-loop receptors. ... Receptor/signaling modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... GABA-A receptor activity. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ...
... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Devic's disease,[23] Graves' ophthalmopathy,[24] autoimmune pancreatitis,[25] Opsoclonus ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... which is primarily found on the surface of immune system B cells.[6] When it binds to this protein it triggers cell death.[2] ...
Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia ... Subsequently, SP is degraded and NK-1 is re-expressed on the cell surface.[10] ... ReceptorEdit. The endogenous receptor for substance P is neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-receptor, NK1R).[8] It belongs to the ... Elevation of serum, plasma, or tissue SP and/or its receptor (NK1R) has been associated with many diseases: sickle cell crisis; ...
Δ32 homozygous individual with two genetic copies of a rare variant of a cell surface receptor. This genetic trait confers ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
Their distance in relation to the nearest epithelial surface will determine the cell lineage. For example osteoblastic ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete.[87] ... A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ...
Cell surface receptor. *Transcription factor. Influential figures. *C. H. Waddington. *Richard Lewontin ... "sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ...
They attach to the cell surfaces via specific receptors and are taken up by an endosomal vesicle. Inside the endosome, the ... Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing ... After entering the host cell, the viral genome is replicated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the so-called ... After transmission from a mosquito, the viruses replicate in the lymph nodes and infect dendritic cells in particular. From ...
When the bladder is fully distended the superficial cells become squamous (flat) and the stratification of the cuboidal cells ... Action potentials carried by sensory neurons from stretch receptors in the urinary bladder wall travel to the sacral segments ... Domestic dogs mark their territories by urinating on vertical surfaces (usually at nose level), sometimes marking over the ... transitional epithelium which contains a superficial layer of dome-like cells and multiple layers of stratified cuboidal cells ...
Protein: cell membrane proteins (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ... and two polypeptides are produced to form a heterodimer receptor on the cell surface.[15] After the formation of receptor, ... cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ... T cell receptor signaling pathway. • segmentation. • positive regulation of receptor recycling. • calcium ion transmembrane ...
... expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2),[30] which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface ... by activity BaP diminished NMDA receptor-dependent nerve cell activity measured as mRNA expression of the NMDA NR2B receptor ... Upon binding the transformed receptor translocates to the nucleus where it dimerises with ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor ... BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ...
For example, the Canadian currency tactile feature is a system of raised dots in one corner, based on Braille cells but not ... braille is a form of communication in which people use their fingers to feel elevated bumps on a surface and can understand ... Leber's Congenital Amaurosis damages the light receptors in the retina and usually begins affecting sight in early childhood, ... Two experimental treatments for retinal problems include a cybernetic replacement and transplant of fetal retinal cells.[71] ...
This idea, that electrical synapses couple groups of cells into functional units, lead to Bullock's lifelong interest in field ... potentials, which are generated by the summated electrical activity of millions of brain cells. Bullock was a respected teacher ...
... cell-surface marker),可以用以分離、鑑定不同亞群的T細胞。 ... 輔助性CD4+/TFH(英語:Follicular B helper T cells)/Th3(英語:T helper 3 cell)/Th17(英語:T helper 17 cell)/調節T細胞 ... T細胞(英語:T cell、T淋巴細胞/T lymphocyte)是淋巴細胞的一種,在免疫反應中扮演着重要的角色。T細胞在胸腺內分
Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2).". Nature 329 ... "Molecular cloning of the human T-lymphocyte surface CD2 (T11) antigen.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (22): 8718-22. PMC ... Tamén recibiu o nome de antíxeno de superficie de células T T11/Leu-5, LFA-2, receptor LFA-3, receptor de eritrocitos e ... the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection procedure.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (10): 3365-9. PMC ...
Stimulation of these receptors causes a muscular contraction. The anatoxin-a molecule is shaped so it fits this receptor, and ... Gerald Karp (19 October 2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 14-. ISBN 978-0- ... scum or mats or like paint floating on the surface of the water, but they are not always visible. Nor are the blooms always ... The nerve tissues which communicate with muscles contain a receptor called the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. ...
SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... The nociceptin/nociceptin opioid receptor system is involved in the reinforcing or conditioning effects of alcohol.[110] ... Tropberger P, Schneider R (Jun 2013). "Scratching the (lateral) surface of chromatin regulation by histone modifications". ... "Cell. 148 (4): 664-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.029. PMC 3281992. PMID 22325148.. ...
... s contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells.[1] The taste receptors are located around ... Spacing patterns on tongue surface-gustatory papilla. (2004) Jung HS, Akita K, Kim JY. Int J Dev Biol. 48(2-3):157-61. PMID ... These are located on top of the taste receptor cells that constitute the taste buds. The taste receptor cells send information ... The bud is formed by two kinds of cells: supporting cells and gustatory cells. ...
By serving as ligands for specific receptors on cell membranes, the apolipoproteins that reside on the surface of a given ... Low-density lipoproteins are taken into the cell by LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis in clathrin-coated pits, and then ... Cholesterol is primarily synthesized from acetyl CoA through the HMG-CoA reductase pathway in many cells and tissues. About 20- ... It plays a central role in many biochemical processes, such as the building of cell membranes and the synthesis of steroid ...
Cell+surface+receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... complement receptors, Fc receptors, B cell receptors and T cell receptors.[12] ... GABA receptors: GABA-A, GABA-C. GABA. Cl− , HCO−3 [11]. Glutamate receptors: NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, and Kainate receptor ... Steroid and thyroid-hormone receptors are examples of such receptors.[5]. Membrane receptors may be isolated from cell ...
Value of detailed chromosome studies on large numbers of cells in CML". American Journal of Hematology. 3 (2): 121-6. doi: ... at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes". Biochem. J. 383 (Pt 2): 237-48. doi:10.1042/BJ20040647. PMC 1134064. PMID ... "Estrogen receptor alpha interacts with mitochondrial protein HADHB and affects beta-oxidation activity". Molecular & Cellular ...
Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2004 Oct;15(5):457-65. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.; Review ... Cell surface receptors in lysophospholipid signaling.. Anliker B1, Chun J.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular ... regulate various signaling pathways within cells by binding to multiple G protein-coupled receptors. Receptor-mediated LPA and ... Finally, in vivo effects of LP receptor gene deletion in mice will be discussed. ...
Dimerization of cell surface receptors in signal transduction.. Heldin CH1.. Author information. 1. Ludwig Institute for Cancer ... Receptors, Antigen/metabolism. *Receptors, Cell Surface/chemistry*. *Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism*. *Receptors, Cytokine/ ...
Identification of Functional LsrB-Like Autoinducer-2 Receptors Catarina S. Pereira, Anna K. de Regt, Patrícia H. Brito, Stephen ... Kinetic Evidence for the Presence of Putative Germination Receptors in Clostridium difficile Spores Norma Ramirez, Marc Liggins ... Identification and Characterization of a New Ferric Enterobactin Receptor, CfrB, in Campylobacter Fuzhou Xu, Ximin Zeng, ... Positive Control of Ferric Siderophore Receptor Gene Expression by the Irr Protein in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Sandra K. Small ...
Unlike existing live-cell microscopy methods, which typically rely on sizeable fluorescent proteins fused to the receptor, here ... The method allows for two differently colored dyes to be installed on live cells in almost any position of the receptor. Hence ... Many receptors, such as the large family of G-protein coupled receptors, are important drug targets. Mechanistic insight into ... The new method, successfully demonstrated by the team on a G-protein coupled receptor and a Notch receptor, expands the ...
Cell surface expression of these receptors was validated by immunocytochemistry (Fig. S3B). Receptor densities on the cell ... surface receptor expression level per cell, ratio of receptor expression level, receptor-ligand affinity, and ligand ... 2008) Heterobivalent ligands crosslink multiple cell-surface receptors: The human melanocortin-4 and delta-opioid receptors. ... 40,000 receptor binding sites per cell, respectively. To assess the penetrance of both receptors in the target cell population ...
Identification of cell surface receptors for the 86-kilodalton glycoprotein of human cytomegalovirus. S Keay, T C Merigan, and ... Cell surface receptors for the 86-kDa glycoprotein (gp86) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were identified by using two ... Identification of cell surface receptors for the 86-kilodalton glycoprotein of human cytomegalovirus ... Identification of cell surface receptors for the 86-kilodalton glycoprotein of human cytomegalovirus ...
Here, we examined the dynamics of cell surface GABAA receptors using receptor subunits modified with N-terminal extracellular ... Gephyrin Regulates the Cell Surface Dynamics of Synaptic GABAA Receptors. Tija C. Jacob, Yury D. Bogdanov, Christopher Magnus, ... Gephyrin Regulates the Cell Surface Dynamics of Synaptic GABAA Receptors. Tija C. Jacob, Yury D. Bogdanov, Christopher Magnus, ... Palmitoylation regulates the clustering and cell surface stability of GABAA receptors. Mol Cell Neurosci 26: 251-257. ...
Here, an α-bungarotoxin binding site (BBS) was inserted into the N-terminus of R2 to monitor receptor mobility in live cells. ... In conclusion, this study provides new and important insight into the mobility of cell surface GABABRs and the underlying ... Finally, the lateral surface mobility of GABABRs was studied by extending the BBS-tagging method to single-particle tracking ... Type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABRs) are important for mediating slow inhibition in the central nervous system and ...
In this review, we discuss the principal mechanisms that enable KSHV to interact with the host cell surface receptors as well ... KSHV has a broad cell tropism and the attachment and receptor engagement on target cells have an important role in determining ... KSHV utilizes heparan sulfate, integrins and EphrinA2 molecules as receptors which results in the activation of host cell pre- ... KSHV entry is a complex multistep process involving viral envelope glycoproteins and several cell surface molecules that is ...
These receptors contribute to the internalization of VacA into epithelial cells, activate signal transduction pathways, and ... The C-terminal domain of VacA plays a crucial role in receptor recognition on target cells. We have previously identified three ... In addition, other factors (e.g., CD18, sphingomyelin) have also been identified as cell-surface, VacA-binding proteins. Since ... In this review, we focus on VacA receptors and their role in events leading to cell damage. ...
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands. ... Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular ... event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, ... Receptors, Cell Surface; Cell Surface Hormone Receptors; Endogenous Substances Receptors; Hormone Receptors, Cell Surface; ...
Receptor proteins in nerve and muscle cells have attracted much attention recently because of their central role in the ... transmission of signals between nerve and muscle cells. Kinetic investigations... ... Acetylcholine Receptor Receptor Function Current Amplitude Receptor Molecule Receptor Desensitization These keywords were added ... Two new approaches allow kinetic measurements of receptor function to be made on cell surfaces with a time resolution of μs to ...
In the present study, we found that conditional deletion of the cell surface receptor Toso on B cells unexpectedly resulted in ... Surface receptor Toso controls B cell-mediated regulation of T cell immunity. ... Surface receptor Toso controls B cell-mediated regulation of T cell immunity. ... results indicate that Toso is involved in the differentiation/maintenance of regulatory B cells by fine-tuning B cell receptor ...
Patients with spondylarthritis express both HLA-B27 heavy-chain homodimers and receptors for HLA-B27 homodimers. This may be of ... Cell-surface expression and immune receptor recognition of HLA-B27 homodimers Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Nov;46(11):2972-82. doi: ... Results: Patients with spondylarthritis expressed cell-surface HLA-B27 homodimers. Populations of synovial and peripheral blood ... Methods: Expression of HLA-B27 heavy chains by mononuclear cells was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter staining, ...
30 CXCR5 receptors. In addition, the CXCR4 receptors are estimated to distribute on ~70% area of the cell surface.. ... we converted the count numbers of complexes on the cell images to the actual amount of CXCR4 receptors on the cell surfaces by ... 5, 6, 7 Therefore, it is imperative to be able to effectively detect the CXCR4 receptors on the T-cell surface that can serve ... Thus, a single complex is supposed to be able to immunoreact with multiple CXCR4 receptors on the cell surface up to 17. Of ...
... receptor will transmit the presence of the signal into the cell Classification of Cell-Surface Receptors Although cell-surface ... receptor Disease and Cell surface Receptors Several human diseases have been linked to alterations in cell-surface receptors. ... A Cell-surface Receptor. These receptors span the cell membrane and detect chemical signals on the outside of the cell and ... Receptors and the Surface of a Cell A cell is surrounded by a membrane, which forms a barrier between the inside and outside of ...
Various cell surface as well as hormone receptor signaling play crucial role in breast cancer initiation and progression. This ... chapter briefly discusses few of the important receptor signaling pathways and the various strategies in practice as well as at ... Various cell surface as well as hormone receptor signaling play crucial role in breast cancer initiation and progression. This ... Endocrine and Cell Surface Receptor Signaling in Breast Carcinogenesis. By Ibrahim O. Alanazi and Zahid Khan ...
... APA Style. Dr. Biology. (2014, July 09). Receptors and Cell Surface ... "Receptors and Cell Surface Markers". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 09 July, 2014. ... Receptor: a molecule on the surface of a cell that responds to specific molecules and receives chemical signals sent by other ... ... Article: Receptors and Cell Surface Markers. *Author(s): Dr. ...
Home/ Forums/ Cell Signaling/Transduction: Cell Surface Receptors. Cell Signaling/Transduction: Cell Surface Receptors. Log in ... Is human Angiogenin inside the cell or on the cell surface? by life analyzer » Wed, 10/11/2006 - 17:32 2. by guohui. Mon, 03/07 ... For Hela cell,which microRNA is highly expressed? by mei wang » Wed, 03/26/2008 - 15:40 4. by mei wang. Thu, 04/03/2008 - 01:09 ... a2 adrenergic receptor mutant uncoupled from Gi by alexey-7 » Wed, 03/24/2010 - 10:38 2. by alexey-7. Wed, 03/24/2010 - 14:38 ...
Cell Surface Trk Receptors Mediate NGF-Induced Survival While Internalized Receptors Regulate NGF-Induced Differentiation. Yan- ... Cell Surface Trk Receptors Mediate NGF-Induced Survival While Internalized Receptors Regulate NGF-Induced Differentiation ... Cell Surface Trk Receptors Mediate NGF-Induced Survival While Internalized Receptors Regulate NGF-Induced Differentiation ... Cell Surface Trk Receptors Mediate NGF-Induced Survival While Internalized Receptors Regulate NGF-Induced Differentiation ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the plasma membrane of ... Receptor protein: cells must have cell surface receptor proteins which bind to the signaling molecule and communicate inward ... receptors Integrins Low Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor NMDA receptor Several Immune receptors Toll-like receptor T cell ... Adrenergic receptor, Olfactory receptors, Receptor tyrosine kinases Epidermal growth factor receptor Insulin Receptor ...
... genes with the human receptor-ACE2 were calculated from several publicly available datasets pertaining to lung epithelial cells ... gene family which prime the virus spike protein for cell entry. Other genes from the gene-signature are associated with reduced ... The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 docks with its spike protein onto the receptor-ACE2 found on the surface of lung cells. The levels ... The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 docks with its spike protein onto the receptor-ACE2 found on the surface of lung cells. The levels ...
Growth Inhibition of Osteosarcoma by Cytotoxic Polymerized Liposomal Nanoparticles Targeting the Alcam Cell Surface Receptor. ... We describe a novel osteosarcoma-associated cell surface antigen, ALCAM. We, then, create an engineered anti-ALCAM-hybrid ... AL-HPLN) to specifically target osteosarcoma cells and deliver a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin. We have ...
More articles from Cell Surface Receptors in Cancer Initiation and Progression: Oral Presentations - Proffered Abstracts. ... Grb10/Nedd4-mediated multiubiquitination of the Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor regulates receptor internalization Giada ... Cadherin-cadherin engagement promotes cell survival via Rac/Cdc42 and Stat3 Rozanne Arulanandam, Adina Vultur, Jun Cao, Lionel ... Filamin A modulates kinase activation and intracellular trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptors Jennifer Fiori, Tie- ...
... encoded G protein-coupled-receptor US28 is believed to participate in virus dissemination through modulation of cell migration ... Human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor US28 induces migration of cells on a CX3CL1-presenting surface J Gen Virol. 2013 May; ... Here, we used stable transfected cell lines to examine how US28 expression affects cell migration on immobilized full-length ... We observed that US28-expressing cells migrated more than CX3CR1-expressing cells when adhering to immobilized CX3CL1. US28- ...
... a method of determining the cell count for such cells; a method for determining the CD4/CD8 ratio;a method for determining the ... as for example CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells, in a liquid whole blood sample or a sample derived therefrom; ... quantity of such receptors in a sample;as well as a vertical flow assay device for performing such assessment. ... The present invention relates to a novel method for rapid assessment of one or more subclasses of blood cells of interest (BCoI ...
Stimulation of diverse cell surface receptors including immune response receptors, integrins, and growth factor receptors leads ... CELL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. Vav Family Proteins Couple to Diverse Cell Surface Receptors. Sheri L. Moores, Laura M. Selfors, ... Vav Family Proteins Couple to Diverse Cell Surface Receptors. Sheri L. Moores, Laura M. Selfors, Jessica Fredericks, Timo Breit ... Vav Family Proteins Couple to Diverse Cell Surface Receptors. Sheri L. Moores, Laura M. Selfors, Jessica Fredericks, Timo Breit ...
A Novel Algorithm for Deconvoluting the Dynamics of Individual Receptors at the Cell Surface ... A Novel Algorithm for Deconvoluting the Dynamics of Individual Receptors at the Cell Surface ... A Novel Algorithm for Deconvoluting the Dynamics of Individual Receptors at the Cell Surface ... A Novel Algorithm for Deconvoluting the Dynamics of Individual Receptors at the Cell Surface ...
... of dengue virus infection mediated by bispecific antibodies against cell surface molecules other than Fc gamma receptors.. B J ... These results indicate that cell surface molecules other than Fc gamma R can mediate ADE and suggest that the Fc gamma R does ... dengue virus to the cell surface by a bispecific antibody facilitates the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor, ... of dengue virus infection mediated by bispecific antibodies against cell surface molecules other than Fc gamma receptors. ...
  • Dimerization of cell surface receptors in signal transduction. (
  • In the process of signal transduction, ligand binding affects a cascading chemical change through the cell membrane. (
  • Signal transduction processes through membrane receptors involve the external reactions, in which the ligand binds to a membrane receptor, and the internal reactions, in which intracellular response is triggered. (
  • Signal transduction through membrane receptors requires four parts: Extracellular signaling molecule: an extracellular signaling molecule is produced by one cell and is at least capable of traveling to neighboring cells. (
  • These receptors contribute to the internalization of VacA into epithelial cells, activate signal transduction pathways, and contribute to cell death and gastric ulceration. (
  • Fluorescence cell imaging can be used for disease diagnosis and cellular signal transduction. (
  • Fluorescence cell imaging shows great promise in disease diagnosis or in elucidating cellular signal transduction. (
  • Vav1 plays an important role in lymphocyte development and antigen receptor-mediated signal transduction in mice. (
  • To truly understand signal transduction, we will ultimately need to understand the dynamics and kinetics of individual proteins as they perform their functions in a single cell. (
  • MIF-mediated signal transduction involves binding to cell-surface CD74, this study documents, in vivo, MIF- CD74 interactions at the urothelial cell surface. (
  • Therefore, the study of interactions between urothelial cell-surface receptors expressed during normal and diseased states and different molecules is likely to shed light on urothelial signal transduction in health and disease. (
  • These enzymes are generally protein kinases (q.v.). See ABC transporters, cellular signal transduction, receptor-mediated endocytosis. (
  • Receptors can be classified structurally into single-pass transmembrane receptors (with one extracellular, one transmembrane and one intracellular region) and multipass transmembrane receptors.However, in terms of their signal transduction characteristics, it is easier to distinguish four groups of receptors ( Figure 4 ). (
  • When a peptide hormone binds to a receptor on the surface of the cell, a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm, which triggers signal transduction leading to the cellular responses. (
  • In biology , signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. (
  • Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes , activated by second messengers , resulting in a signal transduction pathway . (
  • Most signal transduction involves the binding of extracellular signaling molecules (or ligands) to cell-surface receptors that face outward from the plasma membrane and trigger events inside the cell. (
  • Here, we propose an alternative targeting approach based on patterns of cell surface proteins to rationally develop small, synthetic heteromultivalent ligands (htMVLs) that target multiple receptors simultaneously. (
  • These ligands were tested in an experimental animal model containing tumors that expressed only one (control) or both (target) MSH and CCK receptors. (
  • Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands. (
  • Typically, the molecules of interest on the cell surface are conjugated by molecule imaging agents, which consist of organic fluorophore moieties and targeting functionalities (e.g., antibodies, peptides, or special ligands, through immunoreactions). (
  • Dual-wavelength single-particle fluorescence imaging has been used to quantify the co-localization of receptors and/or ligands on cells by widefield microscopy. (
  • Large families of neural orphan receptor proteins have been identified and are likely to contribute to these recognition processes but due to the technical difficulty in identifying novel extracellular interactions of membrane-embedded proteins, their ligands remain unknown. (
  • We screened 7,592 interactions to construct a network of 34 cell surface receptor-ligand pairs that included orphan receptor subfamilies such as the Lrrtms, Lrrns and Elfns but also novel ligands for known receptors such as Robos and Unc5b. (
  • At the wild type receptor large increases in FRET signal to carbachol and acetylcholine were concentration-dependent with EC values consistent with the relative affinities of the two ligands. (
  • The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a large endocytic receptor that binds multiple ligands and is highly expressed in neurons. (
  • In a quantitative cell surface biotinylation assay, we found that applying CCL2 or CCL12, endogenous ligands for CCR2, to primary cultured microglial cells, increased the levels of P2X4R protein on the cell surface without changing total cellular expression. (
  • Unique model features include the degradation of internalized cell surface species, the binding of a second FGF-2 ligand to a high-affinity FGF receptor (FGFR), and the dimerization of FGF-2 ligands. (
  • Activating receptors recognize ligands that are overexpressed or expressed de novo upon cell stress, viral infection, or tumor transformation. (
  • Upon binding to its ligands or secreted factors they homodimerize or heterodimerize with other members of their receptor family. (
  • Intro Receptor dimerization can be a common system to initiate sign transduction, and can be used by many development elements such as cytokines, and ligands for tyrosine kinase receptors (RTK), among others (Klemm et al. (
  • Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies, as well as additional manufactured real estate agents that dimerize receptor extracellular domain names, including those of dimeric RTKs, can possess disparate influences on signaling, but the topological human relationships of these nonnative dimers to those caused by the endogenous ligands are unfamiliar (Boersma et al. (
  • Biology depends on a vast array of information processing activities that are coordinated by diverse cell-surface adhesion receptors and their cognate ligands. (
  • We use two-color STED to further determine the distribution of two different receptor subunits of the family of receptor serine/threonine kinases in the presence or absence of their ligands. (
  • Drugs which block the receptors for endogenous peptide ligands can be peptide or non-peptide molecules. (
  • Also, intracellular signaling cascades can be triggered through cell-substratum interactions, as in the case of integrins , which bind ligands found within the extracellular matrix . (
  • Unlike existing live-cell microscopy methods, which typically rely on sizeable fluorescent proteins fused to the receptor, here only two amino acids in the receptor of interest are exchanged for noncanonical amino acids. (
  • In addition, immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled membrane and cell surface proteins from human foreskin tissue, human foreskin fibroblasts, or HEL cells showed specific binding of anti-idiotype antibody predominantly to the 92.5-kDa protein. (
  • They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the extracellular space. (
  • Many membrane receptors are transmembrane proteins. (
  • The rotation alters which parts of the receptor are exposed on the intracellular side of the membrane, altering how the receptor can interact with other proteins within the cell. (
  • Two most abundant classes of transmembrane receptors are GPCR and single-pass transmembrane proteins. (
  • Receptor protein: cells must have cell surface receptor proteins which bind to the signaling molecule and communicate inward into the cell. (
  • Intracellular signaling proteins: these pass the signal to the organelles of the cell. (
  • Binding of the signal molecule to the receptor protein will activate intracellular signaling proteins that initiate a signaling cascade. (
  • Target proteins: the conformations or other properties of the target proteins are altered when a signaling pathway is active and changes the behavior of the cell. (
  • CD18, sphingomyelin) have also been identified as cell-surface, VacA-binding proteins. (
  • Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). (
  • Receptor proteins in nerve and muscle cells have attracted much attention recently because of their central role in the transmission of signals between nerve and muscle cells. (
  • In virtually every case, the cellular structures that these chemical signals interact with are receptor proteins. (
  • This structure consists of a double layer of phospholipid molecules interspersed with cholesterol and proteins (many of which are receptors for chemical signals) that float in or are attached to the membrane. (
  • Their receptor proteins are usually found within the cell. (
  • Their receptor proteins must therefore span the membrane, detect their presence on the outside of the cell, and transmit this information into the interior of the cell. (
  • These proteins are called cell-surface receptors and can be thought of as a conduit for the transfer of information from the outside of the cell to the inside of the cell (see Figure 1). (
  • Vav proteins contain several protein binding domains which can link cell surface receptors to downstream signaling proteins. (
  • We expressed Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3 at equivalent levels to directly compare the responses of the Vav proteins to receptor activation. (
  • Integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav proteins was not detected in nonhematopoietic cells unless the protein tyrosine kinase Syk was also expressed, suggesting that integrin activation of Vav proteins may be restricted to cell types that express particular tyrosine kinases. (
  • Vav proteins are Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are ideally suited to couple receptors to Rho GTPases because they contain multiple protein domains that can bind to receptors or receptor-associated signaling proteins ( 3 , 35 ). (
  • Thus, Vav proteins may function to transduce signals from diverse receptors to Rho GTPases. (
  • Groundbreaking advances in single-molecule biophysics now allow us to follow the motion of many individual proteins on the cell surface with the use of fluorescent probes, such as quantum dots. (
  • These findings suggest that animal cells may have fail-safe mechanisms that prevent the surface expression of improperly folded proteins with unpaired or improperly bonded cysteine residues. (
  • N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide biotin ester-labeled surface urothelial proteins in rats treated either with saline or substance P (SP, 40 μg/kg). (
  • To identify novel neural recognition signals, we performed a large systematic protein interaction screen using an assay capable of detecting low affinity extracellular protein interactions between the ectodomains of 150 zebrafish receptor proteins containing leucine-rich-repeat and/or immunoglobulin superfamily domains. (
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a prominent class of plasma membrane proteins that regulate physiologic responses to a wide variety of stimuli and therapeutic agents. (
  • Thus, I-peptide receptors were identified to be pre-mRNA splicing factor (Sfrs) proteins. (
  • Constitutive and regulated internalization of cell surface proteins has been extensively investigated. (
  • Then we localize the SR-B1 proteins by immunohistochemistry on ocular tissue section : in choriocapillary endothelial cells, RPE cells, rod inner segment (RIS), plexiform layers and ganglionnic cells. (
  • We conclude that cell surface glycosaminoglycans play a crucial role in HHV-8 target cell recognition and that HHV-8 envelope protein K8.1 is at least one of the proteins involved. (
  • SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis after cross-linking of bound 125I-insulin to cell-surface proteins with disuccinimidyl suberate showed that these variations were not associated with changes in Mr of binding components, in particular for the major labelled band of Mr 130,000. (
  • Trypsin is primarily used to cleave the proteins that cells use to adhere to each other and the plate in culture. (
  • It can cleave other membrane bound proteins as well, including receptors. (
  • Receptors are proteins. (
  • Transmembrane proteins on the surface of target cells. (
  • Cell-surface receptors are grouped into three classes: (1) receptors that are linked to ion channels, (2) receptors linked to G proteins (q.v.), and (3) receptors linked to enzymes. (
  • The mechanism of activation of most 7TM receptors involves coupling to G proteins, and in this case they are also called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) . (
  • Receptors that require association with cytosolic or membrane-bound proteins with enzymatic activity for signalling These receptors do not have intrinsic enzymatic activity, and have been referred to as enzyme-associated receptors or recruiter receptors (although, strictly speaking, both GPCRs and receptors with intrinsic enzymatic activity also function by recruiting cytosolic signalling molecules, as you will see in Section 3.3). (
  • In some cases, other integral membrane proteins interact with the receptor to modulate its activity. (
  • Finally, as elaborated below, interaction of the hormone-bound receptor with other membrane or cytoplasmic proteins is the key to generation of second messengers and transduction of the hormonal signal. (
  • Transduction of the intracellular signal can be mediated by protein-protein interactions by effector proteins, or by enzymatic activity as in the case of the enzyme-linked receptors. (
  • The enzyme-linked receptors usually possess enzymatic activity themselves, or associate with kinases or other enzymatic proteins intracellularly. (
  • Enzyme-linked receptors, which include the receptor tyrosine kinases, are integral membrane proteins with just one transmembrane domain spanning the plasma membrane, and with extracellular and intracellular domains. (
  • G-protein coupled receptors are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins that can bind hormones, neurotransmitters and other molecules, and are mostly involved in sensory perception. (
  • They are coupled intracellularly to G-proteins, which then mediate the signal after receptor and ligand binding. (
  • Ion channel-linked receptors, also called ligand-gated ion channels or ionotropic receptors, are multipass transmembrane proteins and possess channels for the transport of ions, such as Ca2+, Na+, Cl-, and K+ across membranes. (
  • Insulin acts on all cells of the body, binding to receptor proteins on the surface of cells and enabling the uptake of glucose. (
  • Hormone receptors are proteins that bind hormones. (
  • The two researchers - friends who first collaborated when Kobilka was a trainee in Lefkowitz's laboratory at Duke - shared the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discoveries involving the G-proteins coupled receptors , which are activated by signaling proteins to detect hormones, neurotransmitters, pain, light. (
  • They act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules. (
  • KSHV entry is a complex multistep process involving viral envelope glycoproteins and several cell surface molecules that is utilized by KSHV for its attachment and entry. (
  • KSHV utilizes heparan sulfate, integrins and EphrinA2 molecules as receptors which results in the activation of host cell pre-existing signal pathways that facilitate the subsequent cascade of events resulting in the rapid entry of virus particles, trafficking towards the nucleus followed by viral and host gene expression. (
  • 8 , 9 , 10 In this method, the target molecules on the cell surfaces can be detected by the emission intensity and/or lifetime. (
  • Despite the diversity of signal molecules that bind them, all G-protein-linked receptors studied to date consist of a single polypeptide chain that threads back and forth across the lipid bilayer seven times. (
  • a molecule on the surface of a cell that responds to specific molecules and receives chemical signals sent by other cells. (
  • Each and every cell in our body carries special marker molecules. (
  • On a real cell, these toothpicks and flags are bits of protein and other special molecules. (
  • Thus, interactions between Trk receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular signaling molecules are dictated both by phosphotyrosine motifs within the receptors and by the intracellular location of phosphorylated receptors. (
  • A key class of signaling molecules that mediate receptor-induced rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, activation of kinase cascades, and changes in gene transcription is the Rho family of GTPases ( 46 ). (
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection mediated by bispecific antibodies against cell surface molecules other than Fc gamma receptors. (
  • These results indicate that cell surface molecules other than Fc gamma R can mediate ADE and suggest that the Fc gamma R does not provide a unique signal necessary for enhanced infection. (
  • HOUSTON Colon cancer researchers are studying a variety of cell surface molecules and receptors as potential targets for new treatments aimed particularly at preventing or treating metastatic disease. (
  • Interestingly, Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by NK cells, monocytes, or polymorphonuclear cells as well as complement-dependent cytotoxicity positively correlated with the number of EGFR molecules. (
  • One protein to rule them all: modulation of cell surface receptors and molecules by HIV Nef. (
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of these cloned DNAs revealed that the poliovirus receptor gene is approximately 20kb long and contains seven introns in the coding region, and that at least four mRNA isoforms referring to the coding sequence are generated by alternative splicing and appear to encode four different molecules, that is, PVRalpha, PVRbeta, PVRgamma, and PVRdelta. (
  • Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB 3 (Proto Oncogene Like Protein c ErbB 3 or Tyrosine Kinase Type Cell Surface Receptor HER3 or HER3 or ERBB3 or EC pipeline Target constitutes close to 25 molecules. (
  • Ch 6 CELL COMMUNICATION To maintain homeostasis, cells must continuously receive and send information Cell signaling Chemical molecules or electrical stimuli are synthesized and released and receptors on cells receive the information. (
  • The autoantibody response is directed towards two major classes of antigens: nuclear constitutents and cell surface molecules. (
  • When they bind to appropriate extracellular signaling molecules, they are activated and generate a cascade of intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cells. (
  • Water-soluble signalling molecules cannot cross the membrane lipid bilayer, but bind to specific receptors embedded in the plasma membrane. (
  • Tails or loops of the receptor that are within the cytoplasm react to hormone binding by interacting in some way with other molecules, leading to generation of second messengers. (
  • Receptor molecules are neither isolated by themselves nor fixed in one location of the plasma membrane. (
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (
  • Cell surface receptors transduce signals from the exterior of the cell to the interior by binding to secreted or extracellular factors, including hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, or other molecules. (
  • It is advantageous to test NF-κB targeting molecules in an ocular surface culture system that allows assessment of temporal NF-κB activation in a longitudinal fashion without destruction of cells. (
  • At least 15 genes and 2 pseudogenes encoding KIR map in a 150-kb region of the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) on human chromosome 19q13.4 They regulate the killing function of these cells by interacting with major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, which are expressed on all nucleated cell types. (
  • Most KIRs are inhibitory, meaning that their recognition of MHC molecules suppresses the cytotoxic activity of their NK cell. (
  • Only a limited number of KIRs are activating, meaning that their recognition of MHC molecules activates the cytotoxic activity of their cell. (
  • Receptors displaying this function have evolved during phylogenesis by highly dynamic processes following the rapid evolution of genes coding for MHC class I molecules. (
  • In other receptors, the transmembrane domains undergo a conformational change upon binding, which effects intracellular conditions. (
  • The intracellular (or cytoplasmic) domain of the receptor interacts with the interior of the cell or organelle, relaying the signal. (
  • With enzyme-linked receptors, the intracellular domain has enzymatic activity. (
  • Ligand engagement of receptors at the cell surface induces the assembly of intracellular protein complexes that transduce signals to the cytoplasm and nucleus to activate many cellular responses. (
  • The ligand-receptor interaction results in the transduction of these extracellular signals across the plasma membrane and, through the activation of intracellular signaling pathways, affect the appropriate functional response. (
  • The PTP superfamily is subdivided into three subfamilies: the dual-specificity PTPs, the intracellular PTPs, and the receptor-like PTPs (RPTPs) ( 49 ). (
  • These data demonstrate a novel concept that regulated internalization of cell surface NMDARs not only reduces the number of NMDARs on the cell surface but also causes an inhibition of the activity of remaining surface NMDARs through intracellular signaling pathway(s). (
  • Although first identified by their cytotoxic activity against tumor and virally infected cells, there is now increasing evidence that NK cells are important mediators of the innate resistance to a variety of pathogenic microorganisms, including intracellular bacteria ( 18 , 23 ). (
  • The receptors have an extracellular domain that binds the signalling molecule, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. (
  • Binding of a ligand induces a conformational change in the receptor, in particular that of its intracellular region. (
  • 7-helix transmembrane receptors 7TM receptors possess seven membrane-spanning regions, an N-terminal extracellular region and a C-terminal intracellular tail. (
  • Receptors whose intracellular tail contains an enzymatic domain, which are known as receptors with intrinsic enzymatic activity (RIEA) This group includes the receptor tyrosine kinases, involved in the response to many growth factors. (
  • In certain cancer cells, DR4 and DR5 were found to be mislocalized in intracellular compartments yet to be characterized. (
  • This promotes conformational changes that induce the tyrosine kinase enzyme activity of the receptor, which then phosphorylates itself and its partner conveying an intracellular signal. (
  • Provided are cell surface receptors that include an extracellular binding domain, a transmembrane domain, an intracellular signaling domain, and a protease cleavage site disposed between the extracellular binding domain and the intracellular signaling domain. (
  • In this example, the engineered cell surface receptor is a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in which the protease cleavage site is disposed between the transmembrane domain and a first intracellular signaling domain. (
  • and character of sign service, or counteract oncogenic ligand-independent intracellular signaling, by reorienting the geometry of receptor dimerization. (
  • 2009). Cytokine receptor dimerization outcomes in service PD0325901 of intracellular primarily, non-covalently connected Janus Kinases (JAKs) which after that activate the STAT path to modulate gene appearance and eventually determine cell destiny (Ihle et al. (
  • On one hands, prior research displaying that cytokine-induced intracellular signaling could become triggered through chimeric receptors including alternate ECDs proven that dimerization geometries suitable with signaling had been permissive to some level (Heller et al. (
  • Your question: Do peptide hormones have cell surface or intracellular receptors? (
  • Receptors for steroid hormones are usually found within the cytoplasm and are referred to as intracellular or nuclear receptors, such as testosterone. (
  • Which hormones have intracellular receptors? (
  • Classic hormones that use intracellular receptors include thyroid and steroid hormones. (
  • What are examples of intracellular receptors? (
  • What are two examples of steroid hormones that act on intracellular receptors? (
  • The new method, successfully demonstrated by the team on a G-protein coupled receptor and a Notch receptor, expands the possibilities to study natural behavior and pharmacology of receptors in their native setting in the membrane of live cells. (
  • Immunoblot analysis showed specific binding of both internal image anti-idiotype antibodies as well as gp86 to an HEL cell membrane protein with an approximate molecular mass of 92.5 kDa. (
  • Although these approaches have provided key insights into membrane trafficking of GABA A Rs, the dynamics of the cell surface receptors remains unknown. (
  • Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the plasma membrane of cells. (
  • Each cell membrane can have several kinds of membrane receptors, with varying surface distributions. (
  • A single receptor may also be differently distributed at different membrane positions, depending on the sort of membrane and cellular function. (
  • Receptors are often clustered on the membrane surface, rather than evenly distributed. (
  • Transmembrane receptors in plasma membrane can usually be divided into three parts. (
  • In some receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the transmembrane domain forms a protein pore through the membrane, or around the ion channel. (
  • A cell is surrounded by a membrane, which forms a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell. (
  • In contrast, the vast majority of chemical signals are water-soluble and thus unable cross the fatty lipid layer of the cell membrane. (
  • These receptors span the cell membrane and detect chemical signals on the outside of the cell and transmit this detection inside the cell. (
  • Chemical signals in the form of neurotransmitters are transduced by ion-channel-linked receptors directly into an electrical signal in the form of a voltage difference across the plasma membrane. (
  • This occurs when a neurotransmitter binds to this type of receptor, altering its conformation to open or close a channel (often through or near the receptor) to the flow of Na2+, K+, Ca2+, or Cl- ions across the membrane. (
  • Driven by their electrochemical gradient (i.e. one side of the membrane has numerous ions, while the other side has few) the ions rush into or out of the cell, creating a change in the membrane potential due to the positive or negative nature of the ions. (
  • The binding of a signal to this receptor results in the switching "on" of a G-protein on the internal face of the membrane. (
  • Peptide growth factors, such as the neurotrophins, bind to specific receptor tyrosine kinases (Trks) located at the plasma membrane of responsive cells. (
  • We show that survival is maximally regulated by NGF receptors localized at the plasma membrane, via prolonged activation of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. (
  • The resulting gene-signature consisted of members from the Trans-Membrane-Serine-Protease (TMPRSS) gene family which prime the virus spike protein for cell entry. (
  • Membrane-anchored CX3CL1 is expressed by immune-activated endothelial cells, causing redirection of CX3CR1-expressing leukocytes in the blood to sites of infection. (
  • In addition, the best-characterized Vav protein, Vav1, is activated by two common signals generated by multiple classes of plasma membrane receptors: tyrosine phosphorylation and the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3′-kinase product, PI-3,4,5-P 3 ( 3 , 16 ). (
  • Ang-2 allows the endothelial cell to separate from the basement membrane, which then releases it to respond to proliferative factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)," Dr. Ellis said. (
  • It was concluded that cell surface basigin functions as a membrane receptor for soluble basigin and this homophilic interaction is not dependent upon glycosylation of the basigin ligand. (
  • This may orient AGP in a way that assists an interactionbetween AGP and the neutrophil membrane which favours transfer of AGP?boundHETEs to the BLT2 receptor.In conclusion, these data gives new insights regarding how AGP interacts with andmediates signalling in human neutrophils and supports the view of AGP as beingan acute phase reactant with immunomodulatory properties. (
  • The regulated internalization has been characterized as a principal mechanism for removing cell-surface receptors from the plasma membrane, and signaling to downstream targets of receptors. (
  • This receptor may also provide the cholesterol needed by the synthesis of photoreceptor membrane shedding discs in RIS. (
  • Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB 3 (Proto Oncogene Like Protein c ErbB 3 or Tyrosine Kinase Type Cell Surface Receptor HER3 or HER3 or ERBB3 or EC - Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3 or HER3 is a membrane bound protein encoded by the ERBB3 gene. (
  • Results: In this study, we demonstrate that alpha-TEA induces the accumulation of cell surface membrane ceramide, leading to co-localization with Fas, DR5, and FADD, followed by activation of caspases-8 and -9 and apoptosis in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. (
  • alpha-TEA treatment leads to increased acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activity by 30 min, peaking at 4 hrs, which is correlated with ASMase translocation from cytosol to the cell surface membrane. (
  • Functional knockdown of ASMase with either the chemical inhibitor, desipramine, or siRNA markedly reduces alpha-TEA-induced cell surface membrane accumulation of ceramide and its co-localization with Fas, DR5, and FADD, cleavage of caspases-8 and -9 and apoptosis, suggesting an early and critical role for ASMase in alpha-TEA-induced apoptosis. (
  • Consistent with cell culture data, immunohistochemical analyses of tumor tissues taken from alpha-TEA treated nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 xenografts show increased levels of cell surface membrane ceramide in comparison to tumor tissues from control animals. (
  • OPCML is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell adhesion-like molecule and a member of the IgLON family, denoting the immunoglobulin domain protein family that includes limbic system-associated membrane protein ( 20 , 21 ), OPCML, neurotrimin ( 22 ), and more recently neuronal growth regulator 1 ( 23 ). (
  • Upon fluorescent agonist occupancy of the native receptor, it becomes "insulated" from the effects of acid washing and becomes immobilized on the surface of the plasma membrane in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. (
  • In response to acetylcholine, these receptors allow the passage of specific ions, thereby effecting changes in the membrane potential of a cell. (
  • Protein and peptide hormones, catecholamines like epinephrine, and eicosanoids such as prostaglandins find their receptors decorating the plasma membrane of target cells. (
  • Hydrophobic stretches of amino acids are "comfortable" in the lipid bilayer and serve to anchor the receptor in the membrane. (
  • Another class, which includes the beta-adrenergic receptor, is threaded through the membrane seven times. (
  • Some types of receptors cluster together in the membrane after binding hormone. (
  • We have previously shown that deficiency of DR4 and DR5 on the surface membrane is a critical mechanism of cancer cell resistance to the recombinant human TRAIL and its receptor agonistic antibodies, which are being evaluated clinically for treating cancers. (
  • Cell surface receptors are generally classified by their tertiary structure or their membrane topology. (
  • Also in this example, a protease capable of cleaving the protease cleavage site is tethered intracellularly to the cell membrane. (
  • Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be cell surface receptors built into the plasma membrane of cells and are thus referred to as trans membrane receptors. (
  • Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be found on the plasma membrane of cells, whereas receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are usually found within the cytoplasm. (
  • While this download Surface Membrane Receptors: Interface Between Cells and Their Environment is a contemporary segment, it goes grotesquely large. (
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  • Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the plasma membrane of natural killer (NK) cells and a minority of T cells. (
  • article{10c8951d-ba34-4740-8b0c-eb63701fa732, abstract = {Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in hypoxic niches in endosteal regions of bones. (
  • abstract = "P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs), a subtype of the purinergic P2X family, play important roles in regulating neuronal and glial functions in the nervous system. (
  • Receptor-mediated LPA and S1P signaling induces diverse cellular responses including proliferation, adhesion, migration, morphogenesis, differentiation and survival. (
  • Rotation: Ligand binding to the extracellular part of the receptor induces a rotation (conformational change) of part of the receptor's transmembrane helices. (
  • Formation of the ligand-receptor complex induces, or stabilizes, the formation of receptor oligomers and activates the receptor's intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. (
  • Furthermore, rBSG binds to the surface of uterine fibroblasts, activates the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and induces expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3. (
  • alpha-TEA induces apoptosis via activation of extrinsic death receptors Fas (CD95) and DR5, JNK/p73/Noxa pathways, and suppression of antiapoptotic mediators Akt, ERK, c-FLIP and survivin in breast, ovarian and prostate cancer cells. (
  • Our results show that NGF induces a rapid increase of cell surface LRP expression in a central nervous system-derived neuronal cell line, GT1-1 Trk, which was seen within 10 min and reached a maximum at about 1 h of NGF treatment. (
  • Holtzman, David M. / Nerve growth factor induces rapid increases in functional cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein . (
  • TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the surface of target cells. (
  • The levels of co-expressed genes with the human receptor-ACE2 were calculated from several publicly available datasets pertaining to lung epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. (
  • CXCR4 is constitutively expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types, including various subtypes of leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and nonhematopoietic cells, such as endothelial and epithelial cells ( 2 ). (
  • Native serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are expressed as homodimers on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells. (
  • Native 5-HT2C receptors in choroid plexus epithelial cells were evaluated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with photon counting histogram (PCH). (
  • 5-HT2C receptors displayed a diffusion coefficient of 5 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s and were expressed at 32 receptors/μm(2) on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells. (
  • The CD36 protein family is involved in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages and rod outer segments (ROS) phagocytosis by retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). (
  • Here, we further show the clinical relevance of OPCML and demonstrate that OPCML functions by a novel mechanism in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and normal ovarian surface epithelial cells by regulating a specific repertoire of receptor tyrosine kinases: EPHA2, FGFR1, FGFR3, HER2, and HER4. (
  • Folate receptor-alpha (FRα) is highly expressed in non-mucinous tumors of epithelial origin including ovarian, breast, and lung cancers and expressed at low levels on the apical surface of a subset of polarized epithelial cells including the parotid, kidney, lung, thyroid, and breast. (
  • Using a metal nanoshell as molecular imaging agent, we develop a cellular model system to detect CXCR4 chemokine receptor on T-lymphatic cell surface. (
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), play important roles in hematopoiesis regulation, lymphocyte activation, and trafficking, as well as in developmental processes, including organogenesis, vascularization, and embryogenesis. (
  • CXCL12) is a member of the CXC chemokine subfamily, and it seems to be the only ligand for chemokine receptor CXCR4. (
  • Here, we identify the CC chemokine receptor CCR2 as a regulator of P2X4R trafficking to the cell surface of microglia. (
  • The majority of targeted anticancer approaches rely on high-affinity monovalent interactions between a cell-targeted agent (monoclonal or recombinant antibodies and peptides) and a tumor-associated protein to direct therapeutic or imaging payload selectively to the tumors ( 3 ⇓ - 5 ). (
  • Cell surface receptors for the 86-kDa glycoprotein (gp86) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were identified by using two monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies that bear the internal image of gp86. (
  • These antibodies bound to cells permissive for HCMV infection by both ELISA and immunofluorescence assay and inhibited HCMV plaque formation in human embryonic lung (HEL) cells. (
  • Furthermore, we showed that during influenza A-induced pulmonary inflammation, the application of Toso-specific antibodies selectively induced IL-10-competent B cells at the site of inflammation and resulted in decreased proinflammatory cytokine production by lung T cells. (
  • They are covalently bound with anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibodies for immunoreactions with the target sites of the CXCR4 receptors on the CEM-SS cells. (
  • It is known that antibodies to dengue viruses at subneutralizing concentrations enhance dengue virus infection of Fc gamma R+ cells. (
  • It is known that antibodies that react with phosphatidyl choline (PtC) are produced largely by B-1 cells ( 7 ) and are mostly encoded by either of two H and L chain combinations, namely V H 12 and Vκ4 or V H 11 and Vκ9. (
  • For example, stimulatory autoantibodies toward platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) or antibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors (e.g., angiotensin II receptor type 1 and endothelin receptor type A) have pleiotropic roles in the pathogenesis of SSc. (
  • The BDU can make experimental medication and biological research products such as antibodies which can target cancers cells in a far more specific way than traditional chemotherapy treatments. (
  • Cancers Vaccine - Synthetically generated glycopeptides from tumor cells may stimulate the formation of specific antibodies Tumor cells and healthy somatic cells differ in the structures on their surfaces. (
  • Since we believe that, following interactions with its host cell receptors, VacA participates in events leading to disease, a better understanding of the cellular function of VacA receptors may provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of VacA and the pathogenesis of H. pylori -mediated disease. (
  • To initiate a HIV infection, the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 comes in contact with a cellular receptor of T-lymphocyte known as CD4, followed by interaction with co-receptors, e.g. (
  • 11 , 12 However, cell imaging is often problematic due to interference from cellular autofluorescence and intrinsic drawbacks from the conventional organic fluorophores in cell imaging. (
  • Cellular autofluorescence is fluorescence from the substrate other than the fluorophore of interest in cell imaging. (
  • Thus, it is almost impossible to distinguish the emission of fluorophores from cellular autofluorescence by spectroscopy in cell imaging. (
  • About 20-30% of diagnosed cancer cases may be associated with these factors and their activity that lead to deregulation of the normal cellular processes into neoplastic transformation of breast cells [ 4 ]. (
  • Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGF beta receptor type II (Tf3R11) and type I (TpRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Srnad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smadzi. (
  • The ubiquitous nature of this cytokine suggests that cellular response to MIF is dictated either by increasing the amount of available MIF or by changes in receptor bioavailability. (
  • As ever more researchers turn their attention to cellular senescence as a cause of aging and age-related disease, more potential approaches to selectively targeting these unwanted cells are emerging. (
  • Cellular senescence refers to a state of irreversible growth arrest and altered function of normal somatic cells after a finite number of divisions . (
  • In addition, progressive inability of the immune system to destroy senescent cells during aging results in the accumulation of "death-resistant" cells that accelerate aging and disease development by altering neighboring cell behavior, lowering the pool of mitotic-competent cells , degrading the cellular matrix , and stimulating cancer. (
  • however, it is unclear precisely how S1P receptor signaling modulates cellular responses to egress cues. (
  • Although GPCR oligomerization has been studied extensively in recombinant cells, it remains uncertain whether native receptors expressed in their natural cellular environment are monomers, dimers, or oligomers. (
  • This study is the first to demonstrate the homodimeric structure of 5-HT2C receptors endogenously expressed in their native cellular environment, and identifies the homodimer as a functional signaling unit. (
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and insulin growth factor receptor (IGFR) are well-known families of tyrosine receptor kinases, which control cellular growth and proliferation and cellular metabolism. (
  • Once bound, the hormone/receptor complex initiates a cascade of cellular effects resulting in some modification of physiology and/or behavior. (
  • Hormones usually require receptor binding to mediate a cellular response. (
  • Why do hospital germs bind more strongly to certain surfaces than to others? (
  • For example, a neurotransmitter, hormone, or atomic ions may each bind to the extracellular domain as a ligand coupled to receptor. (
  • Some neurotransmitters that bind to ion-channel-linked receptors also bind to G-protein-linked receptors (although in a much slower fashion). (
  • Dr. Ellis said that angiopoietins 1 and 2, which bind to the Tie-2 receptor, are expressed differently in normal vs cancerous tissues and may represent a useful target for treating tumor metastases. (
  • The functional significance and signaling capabilities of the homodimer were investigated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells using agonists that bind in a wash-resistant manner to one or both protomers of the homodimer. (
  • In order to establish whether NKp44 could directly bind to BCG, whole BCG cells were stained with soluble forms of the three NCRs chimeric for the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc fragment (NKp30-Fc, NKp44-Fc, NKp46-Fc), followed by incubation with a phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated goat anti-human IgG antibody. (
  • Some of the residues exposed to the outside of the cell interact with and bind the hormone - another term for these regions is the ligand-binding domain . (
  • The distinct V H repertoire that is found in B-1 cells has led to the hypothesis that the specificity of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) 1 may in fact determine the differentiation of B cells into this subset ( 5 )( 6 ). (
  • The aim of the present study was to apply a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) approach for the targeting of FRα expressed on TNBC cells and evaluate the antitumor activity of CAR-engineered T cells in vitro and in vivo. (
  • The lysophospholipids, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), regulate various signaling pathways within cells by binding to multiple G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • This review will focus on major components of lysophospholipid signaling: metabolism, identification and expression of LPA and S1P receptors, general signaling pathways and specific signaling mechanisms in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (
  • This chapter briefly discusses few of the important receptor signaling pathways and the various strategies in practice as well as at different stages of development to target these pathways. (
  • However, it is not known whether internalized receptors and cell surface receptors initiate the same signaling pathways and biological responses. (
  • Taken together, these data indicate that the location of activated receptors is a critical regulator of biological responses and signaling pathways. (
  • Thus, although each Vav isoform can respond to similar cell surface receptors, there are isoform-specific differences in their activation of downstream signaling pathways. (
  • Although much recent work has focused on the pathways downstream of Rho GTPases which lead to cytoskeletal changes, little is known about how receptor activation at the cell surface leads to the activation of Rho GTPases. (
  • In particular, the use of targeted contrast agents to report on the expression of cell surface receptors, combined with the functional capabilities of MR imaging, together provide unique opportunities to understand receptor-mediated pathways. (
  • Following binding to extracellular receptors, these functional autoantibodies trigger the activation of signal transducing pathways, resulting in a stimulatory or suppressive effect. (
  • This chapter examines the diversity of mechanisms thought to be involved in adhesion and signaling and highlights some of the shared principles that must be considered for all signaling pathways utilizing cell-surface receptors. (
  • The internalisation of R1aASA was slowed to that of R2 by mutating a di-leucine motif in the R1 C-terminus, indicating a new role for heterodimerisation, whereby R2 subunits slow the internalization of surface GABABRs. (
  • Internalization and transport of a ligand-receptor complex are required to initiate cell body responses to target-derived neurotrophin. (
  • Formation of the ligand-receptor complex also initiates internalization of the activated receptor into vesicles. (
  • The effect of internalization on receptor signaling is particularly relevant in considering biological responses to neurotrophins. (
  • Previous work showed that agonist-induced internalization of this G protein-coupled receptor correlates with inhibition of lymphocyte egress and results in lymphopenia. (
  • T cells expressing the mutant S1P 1 showed delayed S1P 1 internalization and defective desensitization after agonist stimulation. (
  • However, so far it is still not known whether the functional properties of remaining (non-internalized) receptor/channels may be regulated by internalization of the same class of receptor/channels. (
  • In the present work, we investigated effects of regulated NMDAR internalization on the activity of residual cell-surface NMDARs and neuronal functions. (
  • In electrophysiological experiments we discovered that the regulated internalization of NMDARs not only reduced the number of cell surface NMDARs but also caused an inhibition of the activity of remaining (non-internalized) surface NMDARs. (
  • Knockdown of PKD1 did not affect NMDAR internalization but prevented the phosphorylation and inhibition of remaining surface NMDARs and NMDAR-mediated synaptic functions. (
  • Furthermore, modulating the activity of remaining surface receptors may be an effective approach for treating receptor internalization-induced changes in neuronal functions of the CNS. (
  • The transient increase in growth factor receptors appears to be due to a decrease in ligand-mediated internalization because EGFR, which undergoes an immediate decline when cultures are deprived of FGF (Lim, R. W., and S. D. Hauschka. (
  • Well-established mechanisms for desensitization of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors include phosphorylation, sequestration/internalization, and down-regulation. (
  • The extracellular domain just externally from the cell or organelle. (
  • The OPCML tumor suppressor negatively regulates a specific spectrum of receptor tyrosine kinases in ovarian cancer cells by binding to their extracellular domain and altering trafficking to a nonclathrin, caveolin-1-associated endosomal pathway that results in receptor tyrosine kinase polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. (
  • Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine, and its receptor CD74 are upregulated by bladder inflammation. (
  • A central question in the study of tissue response to inflammation is how cells titrate and integrate cytokine signals in order to respond in an appropriate manner. (
  • Is there a data base, tool or method I can use to find out which of my genes code for cytokine receptors? (
  • Expression changes indicate a shift towards mature B cells, inhibition of cell cycling and increased expression of adhesion (CD11b/ITGAM) and cytokine (CD119/IFNGR1) receptors. (
  • Wells and de Vos, 1993), while additional cytokines, such as Interleukin-2, heterodimerize a distributed receptor (common gamma string) with a cytokine-specific subunit to initiate signaling (Liao et al. (
  • Constructions of cytokine-receptor extracellular site (ECD) things from different systems possess exposed a PD0325901 varied range of molecular architectures and receptor dimer topologies that are suitable with signaling (Boulanger et al. (
  • 2013). Prior research possess demonstrated that cytokine receptor signaling effectiveness can become inspired by extracellular site mutations or structural perturbations (Barclay et al. (
  • Natural killer cell cytolysis of target cells and cytokine production is controlled by a balance of inhibitory and activating signals, which are facilitated by NK cell receptors. (
  • Hence, fluorescent assays can be developed that not only read out the localization of the receptor, but also report on conformational changes involved in sensing the environment and transducing extracellular signals to the cells' interior. (
  • The number of emission spots on the single cell image is estimated by direct count to the emission signals. (
  • The behavior of a cell often relies on the chemical signals it is exposed to in its environment. (
  • Equally large is the diversity of chemical signals that act through G-protein-linked receptors. (
  • The urothelium is no longer regarded as a passive barrier but rather as a complex "sensory web" transducing signals from inside the viscus (and in response to neuronal and local changes) through the activation of cell-surface receptors [ 1 ]. (
  • If indeed signals transmitted through a BCR of a certain specificity lead to the generation of B-1 cells, then interference with the cell surface expression of that specific BCR may alter the differentiation process of these cells. (
  • A series of molecular signals initiated by activation of a receptor on the surface of a cell. (
  • Acetylcholine receptors are extremely important in the transmission of electrical signals between excitable cells. (
  • Understanding how cells integrate signals from several hormones into a coherent biological response remains a challenge. (
  • It binds to Tie-2 and initiates signaling to stabilize endothelial cells. (
  • This revealed that K8.1 binds to heparin with an affinity comparable to that of glycoproteins B and C of herpes simplex virus, which are known to be involved in target cell recognition by binding to cell surface proteoglycans, especially heparan sulfate. (
  • Four PARs have been cloned and they all share the same basic mechanism of activation: proteases cleave at a specific site within the extracellular N-terminus to expose a new N-terminal tethered ligand domain, which binds to and thereby activates the cleaved receptor. (
  • A hormone receptor is a molecule that binds to a specific hormone. (
  • Stimulation of diverse cell surface receptors including immune response receptors, integrins, and growth factor receptors leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav1 ( 3 , 6 , 14 , 31 , 55 ). (
  • Cell surface fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptors are permanently lost during skeletal muscle terminal differentiation in culture. (
  • These results indicate that the loss of certain growth factor receptors is a specific phenotype acquired during skeletal muscle differentiation, but they do not resolve whether regulation of FGFR number is causal for initiation of the postmitotic phenotype. (
  • many growth factor receptors take this form. (
  • The immunoglobulin superfamily protein basigin (EMMPRIN/CD147) is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed by tumor cells that stimulates matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in stromal cells. (
  • After systemic injection of the htMVL in tumor-bearing mice, label was highly retained in tumors that expressed both, compared with one, target receptors. (
  • The metastatic spread of a tumor is dependent upon the ability of the tumor to stimulate surrounding stromal cells to express enzymes required for tissue remodeling. (
  • The receptor is also involved in HIV infection and tumor growth and metastasis. (
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a widely expressed Ag that is successfully targeted in tumor patients by mAbs or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (
  • In comparison with ADCC by mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cell-mediated ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity required higher EGFR expression levels and higher mAb concentrations to trigger significant tumor cell killing. (
  • This correlation between EGFR expression levels and Fc-mediated MoA was confirmed in an independent panel of human tumor cell lines carrying diverse genetic alterations. (
  • Furthermore, RNA interference-induced knockdown experiments reinforced the impact of EGFR expression on tumor cell killing by EGFR mAb. (
  • Fukuda MN, Ohyama C, Lowitz K, Matsuo O, Pasqualini R, Ruoslahti E, Fukuda M (2000) A peptide mimic of E-selectin ligand inhibits sialyl Lewis X-dependent lung colonization of tumor cells. (
  • We previously demonstrated that opioid binding protein cell adhesion molecule (OPCML) was frequently epigenetically inactivated in epithelial ovarian cancers, with tumor suppressor function in vitro and in vivo . (
  • Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5), promote the selective clearing of various malignancies by inducing apoptosis, holding the promise as a potent therapeutic agent for anticancer. (
  • Though DR4 and DR5 have high sequence similarity, differential regulation of both receptors in human tumor cells remains largely unexplored. (
  • Expression level of GODZ affects apoptosis of tumor cells triggered by TRAIL, but not that induced by TNF-a/cycloheximide (CHX) or DNA-damaging drugs. (
  • Interestingly, GODZ expression is highly downregulated in Hep-3B tumor cells, which show resistance to TRAIL. (
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that folate receptor-alpha (FRα) may represent an ideal tumor-associated marker for immunotherapy for TNBC. (
  • We found that human T cells expressing a FRα-specific CAR were potent and specific killers of TNBC cells that express moderate levels of FRα in vitro and significantly inhibited tumor outgrowth following infusion into immunodeficient mice bearing an MDA-MB-231 tumor xenograft. (
  • However, the antitumor activity of the FRα CAR T cells was modest when compared to the same CAR T cells applied in an ovarian tumor xenograft model where FRα expression is more abundant. (
  • Notably, FRα CAR T cells induced superior tumor regression in vivo against MDA-MB-231 that was engineered for overexpression of FRα. (
  • Taken together, our results show that FRα CAR T cells can mediate antitumor activity against established TNBC tumor, particularly when FRα is expressed at higher levels. (
  • The CAR approach combines the antigen specificity of an antibody with the ability of T cells to mediate the killing of tumor cells in a single fusion molecule. (
  • NK cells play important roles in innate defenses against viruses and in the control of tumor growth and metastasis. (
  • However, cell-based therapies in which the engineered receptor targets solid tumor antigens present a substantial risk of on-target off-tumor effects and other adverse events. (
  • it is not feasible to elicit a targeted immune response directed specifically against the tumor cells. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune system's response to viral infection and tumor transformation of host cells. (
  • Substantial evidence suggests that cell surface carbohydrate antigens, particularly those containing fucose residues, are related to cancer malignancy. (
  • In addition to autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens, patients with SSc also develop high serum levels of functional autoantibodies that target cell surface receptors when compared to healthy subjects. (
  • Like T cells, NK cells have many qualities characteristic of the adaptive immune system, including the production of "memory" cells that persist following encounter with antigens and the ability to create a secondary recall response. (
  • Collectively, our results reveal that CIN85 promotes recycling of TGF beta receptors and thereby positively regulates TGF beta signaling. (
  • Cripto Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cells as a Hypoxic-Niche-Related Factor through Cell Surface Receptor GRP78. (
  • The findings of this study suggest that the phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac3 maintains the protein level of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and regulates foam cell formation. (
  • OPCML negatively regulates receptor tyrosine kinases by binding their extracellular domains, altering trafficking via nonclathrin-dependent endocytosis, and promoting their degradation via a polyubiquitination-associated proteasomal mechanism leading to signaling and growth inhibition. (
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that NGF regulates LRP expression in neuronal cells. (
  • This phenomenon is determined by MHC class I-specific inhibitory receptors that functionally dominate over the triggering potentials induced by activating receptors Thus, NK cells use a complex array of inhibitory or activating receptor/ligand interactions, the balance of which finely regulates NK cell function and cytolytic activity. (
  • Close interactions between immune and vascular cells may underlie the ability of S1P 1 to promote lymphocyte egress. (
  • The leucine-rich repeat receptor family and its interactions in zebrafish. (
  • The specificity and affinity of these interactions were then determined by surface plasmon resonance measurements using immobilized heparin and soluble K8.1. (
  • The second messengers then trigger a series of molecular interactions that alter the physiologic state of the cell. (
  • Filion, RJ & Popel, AS 2004, ' A reaction-diffusion model of basic fibroblast growth factor interactions with cell surface receptors ', Annals of biomedical engineering , vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 645-663. (
  • Since PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) may be expressed by different tumors, PD-1/PD-L1 interactions inactivate both T and NK cells. (
  • Two models have been proposed to explain transmembrane receptors' mechanism of action. (
  • 5 , 6 , 7 Therefore, it is imperative to be able to effectively detect the CXCR4 receptors on the T-cell surface that can serve as an important tool in understanding the molecular mechanism of HIV infection, especially when CXCR4 interacts with its ligand and/or with viral gp120. (
  • Regulation of the specific pathway through bioavailability ofligands and/or receptors is one potential mechanism. (
  • A mechanism driven approach for specific interaction and uptake of nanoparticles by senescent cells has thus become a challenging necessity. (
  • Exogenous recombinant OPCML domain 1-3 protein inhibited the cell growth of epithelial ovarian cancers cell in vitro and in vivo in 2 murine ovarian cancer intraperitoneal models that used an identical mechanism. (
  • In this work, we have examined some mechanisms for desensitization of the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor which is native to the pancreatic acinar cell, and have found the predominant mechanism to be distinct from these recognized processes. (
  • These results indicate that CCL2 promotes expression of P2X4R protein on the cell surface of microglia through exocytosis of P2X4R-containing lysosomes, which may be a possible mechanism for pain hypersensitivity after nerve injury. (
  • The HLA-class I-specific inhibitory receptors, including KIRs recognizing HLA-class I allotypic determinants and CD94/NKG2A recognizing the class-Ib HLA-E, constitute a fail-safe mechanism to avoid unwanted NK-mediated damage to healthy cells. (
  • Unlike T lymphocytes, resting NK cells use preformed lytic granules to kill target cells, implying a rapid cytolytic effect that requires a finely regulated mechanism of control. (
  • Because NK cells target self cells, they have an intricate mechanism by which they differentiate self and non-self cells in order to minimize the destruction of healthy cells and maximize the destruction of unhealthy cells. (
  • In this study, we address the role of the low-affinity heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the identity of the minimal signaling complex leading to FGF-2 activity, and the importance of FGF-2 dimerization using a mathematical model of FGF-2 diffusion and ligand-receptor binding. (
  • Transmembrane receptors are typically classified based on their tertiary (three-dimensional) structure. (
  • GABA A receptors (GABA A Rs) are pentameric hetero-oligomers that mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain. (
  • Toso exhibited its B cell-inherent immunoregulatory function by negatively controlling the pool of IL-10-competent B1 and B2 B cells, which were characterized by a high degree of self-reactivity and were shown to mediate immunosuppressive activity on inflammatory T cell responses in vivo. (
  • Each Vav protein coprecipitated with activated epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, and multiple phosphorylated tyrosine residues on the PDGF receptor were able to mediate Vav2 tyrosine phosphorylation. (
  • N -methyl D -aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and play a critical role in synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. (
  • Cell surface receptors in lysophospholipid signaling. (
  • In this review, we discuss the principal mechanisms that enable KSHV to interact with the host cell surface receptors as well as the mechanisms that are required to modulate cell signaling machinery for a successful entry. (
  • Various cell surface as well as hormone receptor signaling play crucial role in breast cancer initiation and progression. (
  • These distinct biological responses to NGF are controlled by receptors signaling from different locations within the cell. (
  • In addition, we found that Vav1, but not Vav2 or Vav3, can efficiently cooperate with T-cell receptor signaling to enhance NFAT-dependent transcription, while Vav1 and Vav3, but not Vav2, can enhance NFκB-dependent transcription. (
  • To identify antagonists of this signaling pathway, we screened a small library of compounds derived from marine organisms (Supplementary Fig. S1 A ) and found a class of macrolactones, bryostatins, with potent inhibitory activity against SDF-1-induced chemotaxis in a human acute T-cell leukemia cell line (Jurkat). (
  • Thyrotropin (TSH) signaling through its receptor mediates the paracrine control of thyroid function. (
  • There are, however, substantial risks associated with unregulated receptor signaling. (
  • The ability to regulate signaling of the engineered receptor would provide control over receptor activity and thus a means to intervene in the case of adverse events. (
  • In addition, regulatable receptor signaling would permit fine-tuning and optimization of the response profile of the transferred cells, reduce susceptibility to exhaustion (e.g. (
  • Also provided are methods for regulating signaling of a cell surface receptor, and methods of using the cells of the present disclosure, including methods of using such cells to administer a regulatable cell-based therapy to an individual. (
  • Many cell surface area receptors for development and cytokines elements sign as dimers, but it is definitely uncertain if remodeling receptor dimer topology is definitely a practical strategy to track signaling result. (
  • 2011). Nevertheless, the obvious permissiveness in dimer structures suitable with signaling increases the query: to what level can modulation of receptor-ligand PD0325901 geometries fine-tune receptor service? (
  • A immediate structural relationship of a solitary receptor-ligand complicated in different dimerization topologies to differential signaling result would become extremely educational in dealing with this query. (
  • Though these receptor-ligand pairs differ in chemical and structural terms, there are common principles that must be carefully considered in order to construct viable molecular and atomic mechanisms for signaling. (
  • The engagement of receptor-ligand pairs leads to an increase in their local density/concentration at cell-cell and cell-ECM interfaces, and in many cases may support a natural coupling between signaling and adhesive function. (
  • The chapter provides the quantitative understanding of both the cell-surface oligomeric state and the available concentration of receptor and ligand on their cell surfaces, as they dictate the relative stoichiometries and the type of signaling complexes that can be formed at cell-cell and cell-ECM interfaces. (
  • In Handbook of Cell Signaling, 2/e (Vol. 1, pp. 63-69). (
  • The implications of receptor clustering on the downstream signaling are discussed, and future challenges are also presented. (
  • It has been suggested that Cell signaling be merged into this article or section. (
  • By combining FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) measurements with live imaging of FM4-64-labeled active presynaptic terminals, it was evident that clustered synaptic receptors exhibit significantly lower rates of mobility at the cell surface compared with their extrasynaptic counterparts. (
  • Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), our studies show that synaptic receptors have lower FRAP rates compared with extrasynaptic GABA A Rs, strongly suggesting lower rates of lateral mobility for synaptic receptors compared with their extrasynaptic counterparts under control conditions. (
  • Expression of HLA-B27 heavy chains by mononuclear cells was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter staining, Western blotting with the monoclonal antibody HC-10, and 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing. (
  • Fluorescence-labeled tetrameric complexes of HLA-B27 heavy-chain homodimers were constructed in which each dimer comprised one His-tagged heavy chain and one biotinylated heavy chain, and were used to stain patient and control mononuclear cells and transfected cell lines. (
  • The fluorescence intensity and lifetime cell images are recorded with a time-resolved confocal microscopy. (
  • Alvarez-Curto, E. , Ward, R. J. , Pediani, J. D. and Milligan, G. (2010) Ligand regulation of the quaternary organization of cell surface M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors analyzed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging and homogenous time-resolved FRET. (
  • This localization was assessed by ultrastructural studies using a colloidal gold conjugate of CCK, and lateral mobility of the receptor was assessed using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. (
  • We first assessed basal levels of autophagosomes in a panel of 11 breast cancer cell lines using complementary approaches (LC3 immunoblotting, RFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy). (
  • KSHV enters human fibroblast cells by dynamin dependant clathrin mediated endocytosis and by dynamin independent macropinocytosis in dermal endothelial cells. (
  • Tie-2 is a tyrosine kinase receptor expressed almost exclusively on endothelial cells. (
  • It destabilizes endothelial cells, which is necessary for the initiation of angiogenesis. (
  • Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that mutant S1P 1 expression in lymphocytes, rather than endothelial cells, facilitated this delay in lymphopenia. (
  • I-peptide inhibited lung colonization of FUT3-B16 cells in E-/P-selectin doubly deficient mutant mice, suggesting the existence of an as yet unidentified carbohydrate-binding endothelial receptor distinct from E-/P-selectins. (
  • Subsequently, we isolated the endothelial receptors by I-peptide affinity chromatography and identified them by proteomics. (
  • Christian S, Pilch J, Akerman ME, Porkka K, Laakkonen P, Ruoslahti E (2003) Nucleolin expressed at the cell surface is a marker of endothelial cells in angiogenic blood vessels. (
  • Hatakeyama S, Sugihara K, Nakayama J, Akama TO, Wong SM, Kawashima H, Zhang J, Smith DF, Ohyama C, Fukuda M et al (2009) Identification of mRNA splicing factors as the endothelial receptor for carbohydrate-dependent lung colonization of cancer cells. (
  • We define more precisely the Sr-b1 mRNA localization by in situ hybridization on ocular tissue sections in different types of cell bodies: choriocapillary endothelial cells, RPE cells, photoreceptors, inner nuclear layer and ganglionnic cell layer. (
  • Interestingly, the infection of primary human endothelial cells by HHV-8 could also be blocked by similar concentrations of heparin. (
  • High levels of these functional autoantibodies dysregulate the response of non-immune cells (e.g., fibroblasts and endothelial cells) as well as innate and adaptive immune cells, including myeloid cells and lymphocytes, respectively. (
  • To examine the basis of this confinement, we used RNAi to inhibit the expression of gephyrin, a protein shown to regulate the accumulation of GABA A receptors at synaptic sites. (
  • Inhibiting gephyrin expression did not modify the total number of GABA A receptors expressed on the neuronal cell surface but significantly decreased the number of receptor clusters. (
  • Using RNA interference (RNAi), we reveal that decreasing gephyrin expression did not modify the total cell surface expression levels of GABA A Rs but significantly reduced the number of synaptic receptor clusters. (
  • Here, we used stable transfected cell lines to examine how US28 expression affects cell migration on immobilized full-length CX3CL1, to model how HCMV-infected leukocytes interact with inflamed endothelium. (
  • At low receptor expression levels, however, no significant difference in migration potential was observed when comparing the migration of CX3CR1- and US28-expressing cells. (
  • Overall, this indicates that infected cells probably move more than uninfected cells in inflamed tissues with high CX3CL1 expression, with soluble chemokines affecting the final migration. (
  • Receptor bioavailability is achieved predominantly through the cell-surface expression of specific functional receptors. (
  • Paired spatiotemporal gene expression patterns revealed dynamic neural receptor recognition maps within the developing nervous system, providing biological support for the network and revealing likely functions. (
  • A clinical study in non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a positive correlation between EGFR expression levels and the therapeutic efficacy of the EGFR mAb cetuximab. (
  • These cells were used to systematically investigate the impact of target Ag expression levels on Fab- or Fc-mediated MoAs of EGFR mAb. (
  • Mice expressing the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) chain variable (V) region from a rearranged V H 12 gene inserted into the IgH locus generate predominantly B-1 cells, whereas expression of two other V H region transgenes (V H B1-8 and V H glD42) leads to the almost exclusive generation of conventional, or B-2, cells. (
  • they express high levels of B220, IgD, and CD23 and moderate levels of IgM, and lack surface CD5 expression (for review see references 1, 2). (
  • Here, we generated IgH double (V H 12 and V H B1-8 or V H 12 and V H glD42) insertion mice to test whether the expression of a second H chain in V H 12-expressing B cells may act in a dominant negative manner to perturb the generation of B-1 cells. (
  • Hence, we investigated the effect of coexpressing the TSHR and different sialyltransferases (SIAT1, SIAT4a, and SIAT8a) for cell-surface expression of the receptor. (
  • Moreover, Western blot analysis with lectins specific for α(2,3) and α(2,6)-linked sialic acids and lectin-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay support a direct effect on TSHR cell-surface expression mediated by sialic acid transfer to the TSHR. (
  • Subsequent loss of TSHR cell-surface expression suggests that sialylation prolongs the resting time of the TSHR on the cell surface. (
  • Our data demonstrate for the first time that the transfer of sialic acid can improve and prolong cell-surface expression of a transmembrane receptor. (
  • Flow cytometry analyses revealed two distinct subpopulations of CD34(-)KSL cells based on the expression of GRP78, and these populations showed different reconstitution potential in transplantation assays. (
  • Expression of the receptor mRNAs in tissues of the transgenic mice was analyzed by using RNA blot hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. (
  • In this article we have reviewed current MRI strategies used to visualize receptor expression, the potential advantages and drawbacks of these strategies, and novel areas of focus for the future. (
  • K8.1ΔTMFc specifically bound to the surface of cells expressing glycosaminoglycans but not to mutant cell lines negative for the expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (
  • We therefore evaluated the association between FLT3 surface expression and disease characteristics and outcomes in pediatric patients with AML. (
  • We analyzed FLT3 receptor expression on AML blasts by multi-dimensional flow cytometry and its association with disease characteristics, clinical outcomes, and FLT3 transcript level in 367 children with AML treated on the Children's Oncology Group trial AAML0531. (
  • There was high variability in blast CD135 cell-surface expression across specimens. (
  • FLT3 cell-surface expression did not vary by FLT3 mutational status, but high FLT3 expression was strongly associated with KMT2A rearrangements. (
  • Our study found that there was no prognostic significance of FLT3 cell surface expression in pediatric AML. (
  • In this study, we assessed the prognostic significance of FLT3 cell-surface expression (CD135) in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and demonstrated that FLT3 expression levels do not have a prognostic impact in this group of patients. (
  • A relationship could be established between the repetitive character of the rapid insulin-receptor cycle and the maximal expression of the biological effect in cultured foetal hepatocytes. (
  • To this end, we first investigated the surface expression of three NK cell-activating receptors belonging to the natural cytoxicity receptor (NCR) family on highly purified human NK cells upon in vitro direct stimulation with BCG. (
  • An induction of the surface expression of NKp44, but not of NKp30 or NKp46, was observed after 3 and 4 days of in vitro stimulation with live BCG. (
  • We demonstrated that OPCML expression inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth, enhanced intercellular attachment, and abrogated both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumorigenicity in vivo ( 11 ). (
  • In several of these studies, investigators demonstrated a significant correlation between OPCML hypermethylation and loss of expression in cancer cell lines ( 11 , 17 , 19 ) and primary tumors ( 12 , 14 , 18 ), and OPCML methylation and loss of expression were associated with poor survival for the patient ( 17 ). (
  • on ID8 cells, and that siRNA may be useful to reduce its expression. (
  • Can adding Trypsin to mammalian cells affect the expression of or hydrolyze cell surface receptors? (
  • Genome-wide gene expression analysis of leukemic samples from precursor B-cell ALL patients (n=18) identified a set of genes differentially expressed in blasts at diagnosis day 0 (d0) and persisting on day 8 (d8). (
  • However, reconstitution of GODZ expression enhances the targeting of DR4 to cell surface and sensitizes Hep-3B cells to TRAIL. (
  • In the current study, we analyzed the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment on LRP expression, distribution, and function within neurons in two neuronal cell lines. (
  • This increase of cell surface LRP expression is concomitant with an increase in the endocytic activity of LRP as measured via ligand uptake and degradation assays. (
  • Both rapid and long term induction of LRP expression were also detected in peripheral nervous system-derived PC12 cells following NGF treatment. (
  • We have previously shown that the expression of P2X4Rs is upregulated in activated microglia after peripheral nerve injury and that activation of the receptors by extracellular ATP is crucial for maintaining nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity. (
  • However, the regulation of P2X4R expression on the cell surface of microglia is poorly understood. (
  • These results have significant implications for the pre-selection of patients with high antigen expression levels when utilizing CAR-based adoptive T cell therapies of cancer in future clinical trials. (
  • Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the limited expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR) and accounts for approximately 15 % of invasive breast cancers. (
  • Disruption of basal autophagosomes successfully restored the surface expression of the death receptors which was accompanied by sensitization of TRAIL-resistant cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis. (
  • Human B7-H7, also known as HHLA2, HERV-H LTR-associating 2, GenBank Accession No. NM_007072, a.a. 23-344, with a C-terminal Avi-Tag fused with the Fc portion of Human IgG1, expressed in a HEK293 cell expression system. (
  • Initial expression of KIRs on NK cells is stochastic, but there is an educational process that NK cells undergo as they mature that alters the expression of KIRs to maximize the balance between effective defense and self-tolerance. (
  • We hypothesize that directing dengue virus to the cell surface by a bispecific antibody facilitates the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor, thereby increasing its infectivity. (
  • These results document that our previously described MIF-CD74 interaction occurs at the urothelial cell surface. (
  • In a recent publication, Maurel et al presented the combination of Cisbio's HTRF and SNAP-and CLIP- Tag technologies to investigate cell-surface protein-protein interaction. (
  • The interaction of protective antigen (PA), a component of the anthrax toxin, with receptors on the Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-K1 was characterized. (
  • We first characterized this virus-receptor interaction crystallographically. (
  • Comparative structure-function analysis further revealed several distinguishing features of HNV-G function: a secondary ephrinB2 interaction site that contributes to more efficient ephrinB2-mediated entry in NiV-G relative to GhV-G and cognate residues at the very C terminus of GhV-G (absent in Asiatic HNV-Gs) that are vital for efficient receptor-induced fusion, but not receptor binding per se. (
  • In the present study, we found that conditional deletion of the cell surface receptor Toso on B cells unexpectedly resulted in impaired proinflammatory T cell responses, which led to impaired immune protection in an acute viral infection model and was associated with reduced immunopathological tissue damage in a chronic inflammatory context. (
  • a chemical released by cells in the immune system that helps coordinate an immune response by sending messages to specific cells. (
  • Millions and millions of immune system cells are organized into sets and subsets. (
  • Immune system cells can tell the difference between "self" and "non-self. (
  • One or more of these bits of protein tell the immune system's hunter and killer cells that everything is fine. (
  • The alarm sounds when immune defenders come across a cell or microbe that has no "self" marker. (
  • Immune system cells can remember past fights with disease-causing viruses and bacteria. (
  • Any cell or organism that triggers the immune system into action is called an antigen (and is usually a non-self antigen). (
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded G protein-coupled-receptor US28 is believed to participate in virus dissemination through modulation of cell migration and immune evasion. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are an important component of the innate immune system and have the ability to both lyse target cells and provide an early source of immunoregulatory cytokines ( 21 , 25 ). (
  • Other receptors such as PD-1, primarily expressed by activated T lymphocytes, are important inhibitory checkpoints of immune responses that ensure T-cell tolerance. (
  • Engineering T cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has already demonstrated impressive clinical efficacy and additional immune cell therapy applications using more complex CARs further comprising additional features hold great promise. (
  • Mechanistic insight into the action of drugs on those receptors has so far predominantly been collected on purified receptors in an in vitro environment. (
  • Since the discovery of KSHV in 1994, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of KSHV entry into its in vitro target cells. (
  • Background: Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (alpha-TEA), an analog of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol), is a potent and selective apoptosis-inducing agent for human cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. (
  • This study aims to establish an in-vitro cell culture system to assess NF-κB activation in the context of ocular surface cells. (
  • We aim to describe the activation of NF-κB in an in-vitro system of ocular surface cells using promoter assay and other approaches, induced by the presence of a TLR2 ligand. (
  • It also reviews key players involved in Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB 3 (Proto Oncogene Like Protein c ErbB 3 or Tyrosine Kinase Type Cell Surface Receptor HER3 or HER3 or ERBB3 or EC targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB 4 (Tyrosine Kinase Type Cell Surface Receptor HER4 or Proto Oncogene Like Protein c ErbB 4 or p180erbB4 or HER4 or ERBB4 or EC targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (
  • The report analyses the pipeline products across relevant therapy areas under development targeting Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB 3 (Proto Oncogene Like Protein c ErbB 3 or Tyrosine Kinase Type Cell Surface Receptor HER3 or HER3 or ERBB3 or EC (
  • In this study, BHK-21 cells were stably transfected to express different EGFR levels, which were quantified by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry and compared with EGFR levels of clinical non-small cell lung cancer samples. (
  • Analysis of cell surface FGF receptor (FGFR) in several adult mouse muscle cell lines and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mouse MM14 cells reveals a correlation between receptor loss and the acquisition of a postmitotic phenotype. (
  • Adrenalin receptors are examples of GPCRs. (
  • CIN85 enhanced TGF beta-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, and cell migration. (
  • In biochemical experiments we identified that this functional inhibition of remaining surface NMDARs was mediated by increased serine phosphorylation of surface NMDARs, resulting from the activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1). (
  • What happens to receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by phosphorylation? (
  • Here, we examined the dynamics of cell surface GABA A receptors using receptor subunits modified with N-terminal extracellular ecliptic pHluorin reporters. (
  • In hippocampal neurons, GABA A receptors incorporating pHluorin-tagged subunits were found to be clustered at synaptic sites and also expressed as diffuse extrasynaptic staining. (
  • The receptor subunits then autophosphorylate in trans specific phosphotyrosine residues within the receptor. (
  • The activated receptor subunits become scaffolding for assembly of a multi-enzyme signal-generating complex ( Lemmon and Schlessinger, 1994 ). (
  • Delayed-onset potentiation is reversible and selective for expressed receptors containing the NMDAR subunit subtype 2A (NR2A) or NR2B, but not the NR2C or NR2D, subunits. (
  • In Pam3CSK4 treated cells, active NF-κB subunits p50 and p65 increased in cell nuclear fractions as early as 1.5 h. (
  • We show that dynamin function is required for ligand-dependent endocytosis of Trk receptors. (
  • we can acutely regulate endocytosis of Trk receptors by changing from the permissive to nonpermissive temperature. (
  • These organelles are not observed to represent prominent compartments for the same receptor to traverse in the acinar cell, although fluorescent insulin is clearly internalized in these cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. (
  • Dimerization: The dimerization model suggests that prior to ligand binding, receptors exist in a monomeric form. (
  • Applications such as highly selective and non-radioactive ligand binding assays are described and the 7TM dimerization model can properly be investigated with streamlined and specific cell-surface tools. (
  • In this study, we show that transiently expressed cell surface RPTPα exists predominantly as homodimers, suggesting that dimerization-mediated inhibition of RPTPα biological activity is likely to be physiologically relevant. (
  • While it is well established that ligand binding to receptor PTKs results in dimerization, transautophosphorylation, and kinase activation ( 16 ), how the activity of RPTPs is regulated remains poorly understood. (
  • Based upon emerging structural and functional evidence, it has been proposed that, whereas dimerization activates receptor PTKs, dimerization may inhibit RPTPs ( 61 ). (
  • The efficacy of fast synaptic inhibition is critically dependent on the accumulation of GABA A receptors at inhibitory synapses, a process that remains poorly understood. (
  • Type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABRs) are important for mediating slow inhibition in the central nervous system and the kinetics of their internalisation and lateral mobility will be a major determinant of their signalling efficacy. (
  • In conclusion, this study provides new and important insight into the mobility of cell surface GABABRs and the underlying mechanisms that ensure they provide efficacious slow synaptic inhibition. (
  • suggests that functional antagonism of S1P 1 in the lymphocyte compartment is essential for the inhibition of T cell egress. (
  • Inhibition of lysosomal activity induced an accumulation of autophagosomes and a decrease in surface DR4 and DR5, and the cells became less sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. (
  • Insulation of a G protein-coupled receptor on the plasmalemmal surface of the pancreatic acinar cell. (
  • Certain extracellular proteases, derived from the circulation and inflammatory cells, can specifically cleave and trigger protease-activated receptors (PARs), a small, but important, sub-group of the G-protein-coupled receptor super-family. (
  • These findings suggest that Toso may serve as a novel therapeutic target to dampen pathogenic T cell responses via the modulation of IL-10-competent regulatory B cells. (
  • In the paper I'll point out here, the cell surface receptor CD9 is used to target nanoparticles carrying a therapeutic payload into senescent cells . (
  • The present approaches to destroying senescent cells, those under active development and heading towards the clinic, don't even try to deliver their therapeutic agents selectively to senescent cells. (
  • So it is interesting to see a group working on the more traditional method of steering delivery via cell surface markers, in order to place the therapeutic into the target cell population only, or at least to the greatest degree possible. (
  • The translational value of NK cells and their receptors is evidenced by the extraordinary therapeutic success of haploidentical HSCT to cure otherwise fatal high-risk leukemias. (
  • For example, CAR T cells have yielded impressive response rates against certain hematologic malignancies, and there is interest in extending this therapeutic approach to solid tumors. (
  • Therefore, selective antagonists or agonists of these receptors may be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of human diseases. (
  • It is therefore important to understand how NF-κB is finely tuned in health and disease involving ocular surface cells, so that appropriate therapeutic strategies can be implemented to protect the eye against ocular infections [ 8 ]. (
  • The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) belongs to a subgroup of G protein-coupled receptors comprising the TSHR, the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, and the lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor. (
  • At least 23 different types of human cancers, including hematopoietic and solid tumors, overexpress CXCR4 ( 7 ), and cancer cells with higher levels of CXCR4 show greater incidence of metastasis ( 8 - 10 ). (
  • The CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 has been reported to inhibit intracranial growth of primary brain tumors ( 11 ), whereas the antagonist T140 effectively inhibited pulmonary metastasis of human breast cancer cells in SCID mice ( 12 ). (
  • possible to slow the growth of FSH-responsive tumors using siRNA to target the FSHR-3 receptor. (
  • The cyclicAMP receptors, frizzled/smoothened receptors and glutamate receptors are examples of G-protein coupled receptors. (
  • NK cell inhibitory receptors are part of either the immunoglobulin-like (IgSF) superfamily or the C-type lectin-like receptor (CTLR) superfamily. (
  • CTLR inhibitory receptors include the CD94/NKG2A and the murine Ly49, which is probably analogous to the human KIR. (
  • Finally, in vivo effects of LP receptor gene deletion in mice will be discussed. (
  • By using cell-cell fusion and pseudotype virion infection assays, we found that HERV-W Env efficiently uses both hASCT2 and the related transporter hASCT1 (gene name, SLC1A4) as receptors. (
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of possible requratory region of the receptor gene did not clarify TATA box of the gene. (
  • The high level of SR-B1 protein in both choroidal cells and RPE cells may reflect a key role of Sr-b1 gene in the hemato-ocular cholesterol transport: through these cells, the SR-B1 receptor might provide the cholesterol to the whole retina and eliminate lipid worsts of metabolism and ROS phagocytosis. (
  • and (vi) clone and sequence the gene for the DNA receptor as a prelude to exploring critical amino acid sequences that may be involved in automimmunity in SLE. (
  • Unlike T cells, NK cell receptors are germline encoded, and therefore do not require somatic gene rearrangements. (
  • Single substitutions, insertions, or deletions in the genetic material that encodes KIR receptors changes the site of termination for the gene, causing the cytoplasmic tail to be long or short, depending on the site of the stop codon. (
  • In the media surrounding a cell, there are hundreds of chemical compounds. (
  • The insensitivity that a cell-surface receptor shows for the mix of chemical compounds surrounding it is a result of the high specificity it has for its chemical signal. (
  • The reporter plasmid for these GAL4 chimeric receptors (pGAL5TKpGL3) buy 209410-46-8 consists of five repeats from the GAL4 response component upstream of a minor thymidine kinase in the pGL3 luciferase manifestation vector (Promega, Southampton, UK). (
  • During development, many target tissues synthesize neurotrophins-nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3 or neurotrophin 4/5, while presynaptic neurons that contact the target express the corresponding receptor tyrosine kinases and require target-derived neurotrophin for survival and differentiation. (
  • The number of functional cell-surface NMDARs in cortical neurons increases 60-100% within 10 minutes of exposure to PregS, as shown by surface biotinylation and affinity purification. (
  • Binding of K8.1ΔTMFc to mammalian cells could be blocked by heparin. (
  • Could all mammalian receptors be described as allosteric? (
  • A chimeric receptor made up of the candida GAL4 DNA binding domain name fused to human being PPAR was made by insertion of the GAL4 DNA binding domain name encoding fragment in to the mammalian manifestation vector pcDNA3 (Invitrogen) to create the vector GAL4-pcDNA3. (
  • N -methyl D -aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory, in part by dynamically regulating the trafficking of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA) receptors via NMDAR channel-mediated Ca 2+ transport into dendritic spines. (
  • How can I keep HEK cells alive while expressing NMDA receptors? (
  • These surface area receptors are responsible for helping cells discern light. (
  • Further investigation into the sequelae for PregS-stimulated trafficking of NMDARs to the neuronal cell surface may uncover a new target for the pharmacological treatment of disorders in which NMDAR hypofunction has been implicated. (
  • Bispecific antibody mediated ADE was inhibited by pretreating the cells with the appropriate blocking mAb. (
  • In contrast to PVRalpha, PVRbeta was not detected on the sur … More face of the mouse cell transformants but was detected in the culture fluid by an immunological method using a monoclonal antibody against poliovirus receptor. (
  • The antibody sticks and recognises to a cell-surface receptor. (