Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (1/20616)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (2/20616)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (3/20616)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase can be involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. (4/20616)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) has been extensively studied as a stress-responsive kinase, but its role in development remains unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has two p38 genes, D-p38a and D-p38b. To elucidate the developmental function of the Drosophila p38's, we used various genetic and pharmacological manipulations to interfere with their functions: expression of a dominant-negative form of D-p38b, expression of antisense D-p38b RNA, reduction of the D-p38 gene dosage, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of a dominant-negative D-p38b in the wing imaginal disc caused a decapentaplegic (dpp)-like phenotype and enhanced the phenotype of a dpp mutant. Dpp is a secretory ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which triggers various morphogenetic processes through interaction with the receptor Thick veins (Tkv). Inhibition of D-p38b function also caused the suppression of the wing phenotype induced by constitutively active Tkv (TkvCA). Mosaic analysis revealed that D-p38b regulates the Tkv-dependent transcription of the optomotor-blind (omb) gene in non-Dpp-producing cells, indicating that the site of D-p38b action is downstream of Tkv. Furthermore, forced expression of TkvCA induced an increase in the phosphorylated active form(s) of D-p38(s). These results demonstrate that p38, in addition to its role as a transducer of emergency stress signaling, may function to modulate Dpp signaling.  (+info)

Ligand substitution of receptor targeted DNA complexes affects gene transfer into hepatoma cells. (5/20616)

We have targeted the serpin enzyme complex receptor for gene transfer in human hepatoma cell lines using peptides < 30 amino acids in length which contain the five amino acid recognition sequence for this receptor, coupled to poly K of average chain length 100 K, using the heterobifunctional coupling reagent sulfo-LC SPDP. The number of sulfo-LC SPDP modified poly-L-lysine residues, as well as the degree of peptide substitution was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Conjugates were prepared in which 3.5%, 7.8% or 26% of the lysine residues contained the sulfo-LC SPDP moiety. Each of these conjugates was then coupled with ligand peptides so that one in 370, one in 1039, or one in 5882 lysines were substituted with receptor ligand. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to assess complex structure and size. HuH7 human hepatoma cells were transfected with complexes of these conjugates with the plasmid pGL3 and luciferase expression measured 2 to 16 days after treatment. All the protein conjugates in which 26% of the K residues were modified with sulfo-LC SPDP were poor gene transfer reagents. Complexes containing less substituted poly K, averaged 17 +/- 0.5 nm in diameter and gave peak transgene expression of 3-4 x 10(6) ILU/mg which persisted (> 7 x 10(5) ILU) at 16 days. Of these, more substituted polymers condensed DNA into complexes averaging 20 +/- 0.7 nm in diameter and gave five-fold less luciferase than complexes containing less substituted conjugates. As few as eight to 11 ligands per complex are optimal for DNA delivery via the SEC receptor. The extent of substitution of receptor-mediated gene transfer complexes affects the size of the complexes, as well as the intensity and duration of transgene expression. These observations may permit tailoring of complex construction for the usage required.  (+info)

Characterization of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis lbpB, lbpA, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants. (6/20616)

Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. Recently, putative Moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpB, lbpA, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. We describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in LbpB, LbpA, or Orf3 protein.  (+info)

Three receptor genes for plasminogen related growth factors in the genome of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes. (7/20616)

Plasminogen related growth factors (PRGFs) and their receptors play major roles in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and neoplasia. In order to investigate the complexity and evolution of the PRGF receptor family we have cloned and sequenced three receptors for PRGFs in the teleost fish Fugu rubripes, a model vertebrate with a compact genome. One of the receptor genes isolated encodes the orthologue of mammalian MET, whilst the other two may represent Fugu rubripes orthologues of RON and SEA. This is the first time three PRGF receptors have been identified in a single species.  (+info)

Cloning, molecular analysis and differential cell localisation of the p36 RACK analogue antigen from the parasite protozoon Crithidia fasciculata. (8/20616)

The family of the RACK molecules (receptors for activated C kinases) are present in all the species studied so far. In the genus Leishmania, these molecules also induce a strong immune reaction against the infection. We have cloned and characterised the gene that encodes the RACK analogue from the parasite trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata (CACK). The molecule seems to be encoded by two genes. The sequence analysis of the cloned open reading frame indicates the existence of a high degree of conservation not only with other members of the Trypanosomatidae but also with mammalians. The study of the protein kinase C phosphorylation sites shows the presence of three of them, shared with the mammalian species, additional to those present in the other protozoa suggesting a certain phylogenetic distance between the protozoon Crithidia fasciculata and the rest of the Trypanosomatidae. The CACK-encoded polypeptide shows an additional sequence of four amino acids at the carboxy-terminal end, which produces a different folding of the fragment with the presence of an alpha-helix instead of the beta-sheet usual in all the other species studied. A similar result is elicited at the amino-terminal end by the change of three amino acid residues. The immunolocalisation experiments show that the CACK displays a pattern with a distribution mainly at the plasma membrane, different from that of the related Leishmania species used as control, that displays a distribution close to the nucleus. Altogether, the data suggest that the existence of the structural differences found may have functional consequences.  (+info)

There are several types of taste disorders, including:

1. Ageusia: A complete loss of the sense of taste.
2. Hypogeusia: A decreased ability to perceive tastes.
3. Dysgeusia: A distorted perception of tastes, often described as a metallic or bitter taste.
4. Parageusia: A change in the sense of taste, such as a sweetness that is perceived as sour or salty.
5. Taste blindness: The inability to distinguish between different tastes.

Taste disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, as they can affect not only the enjoyment of food but also the ability to detect potentially harmful substances. Treatment options for taste disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or dietary changes.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

Examples of experimental leukemias include:

1. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): A rare inherited disorder that leads to a lack of antibody production and an increased risk of infections.
2. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare inherited disorder characterized by a failure of red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow.
3. Fanconi anemia: A rare inherited disorder that leads to a defect in DNA repair and an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.
4. Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT): A rare inherited disorder characterized by progressive loss of coordination, balance, and speech, as well as an increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma.
5. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which increases the risk of developing leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

These experimental leukemias are often used in research studies to better understand the biology of leukemia and to develop new treatments.

There are several types of lymphoma, including:

1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.

The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching

Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

The two main types of lymphoid leukemia are:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This type of leukemia is most commonly seen in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow.
2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia usually affects older adults and is characterized by the gradual buildup of abnormal white blood cells in the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for lymphoid leukemia can vary depending on the type of cancer and the severity of symptoms, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur during a person's lifetime. Some risk factors for developing fibrosarcoma include previous radiation exposure, chronic inflammation, and certain inherited conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

The symptoms of fibrosarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown to a significant size. Common symptoms include pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. If the tumor is near a nerve, it can also cause numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.

Diagnosis of fibrosarcoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for fibrosarcoma may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for fibrosarcoma is generally good if the tumor is caught early and treated aggressively. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized), the prognosis is generally poorer. In some cases, the cancer can recur after treatment, so it is important for patients to follow their doctor's recommendations for regular check-ups and follow-up testing.

Overall, fibrosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. However, with early detection and appropriate treatment, many people with this condition can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.

Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the plasma membrane of ... Receptor protein: cells must have cell surface receptor proteins which bind to the signaling molecule and communicate inward ... receptors Integrins Low Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor NMDA receptor Several Immune receptors Toll-like receptor T cell ... Adrenergic receptor Olfactory receptors Receptor tyrosine kinases Epidermal growth factor receptor Insulin Receptor Fibroblast ...
KIR3DS1 NK cell receptors bind directly to the MHC class I molecules on the surface of target cells. Human killer cell ... Because natural killer cells target virally infected host cells and tumor cells, inhibitory KIR receptors are important in ... The co-expression of many MHC-specific receptors by NK cells is disfavored, likely because cells that co-express receptors are ... leading to distinct NK cells. The IgSF and CTLR superfamily inhibitory receptors expressed on the surface of NK cells are each ...
At the cell surface the receptor exists as a homodimer. The crystal structure is known since 2018. 5-HT2C receptors are located ... Editing is also thought to function in cell surface expression of the receptor subtype. The fully edited VGV, which has the ... 5-HT2C receptors are also found on epithelial cells lining the ventricles. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of the many binding sites ... Third, RNA editing controls the ultimate physiological output of constitutively active receptors by affecting the cell surface ...
The T-cell receptor (TCR) is a protein complex found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for ... T cells expressing this receptor are referred to as α:β (or αβ) T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate ... UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T-cell receptor T-Cell+Receptor at the US ... the T-cell receptor signalling should not be activated by self-pMHC so that endogenous, healthy cells are ignored by T cells. ...
The CI-MPR is also present on the cell surface. Around 10-20% of the CI-MPR can be found at the cell membrane. Its function ... The larger receptor is known as the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), while the smaller receptor (CD- ... Studies of I-cell disease led to the discovery of the receptors that bind to this specific tag. Firstly the CI-MPR was ... It is thought that when the CI-MPR is present on the cell surface, domain 11 will bind to any IGF-II free in the extracellular ...
This protein functions as a cell surface receptor for bile acids. Treatment of cells expressing this GPCR with bile acids ... The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) also known G-protein coupled receptor 19 (GPCR19), membrane-type receptor ... 2007). "The G-protein coupled bile salt receptor TGR5 is expressed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells". Hepatology. 45 (3): ... "Bile Acid Receptor". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
Then, Killer Inhibitory Receptors (KIRs) examine the surface of the tumor cell in order to determine the levels of MHC class I ... Killer Activation Receptors (KARs) are receptors expressed on the plasmatic membrane of Natural Killer cells (NK cells). KARs ... Killer-cell inhibitory receptors involve both immunoglobulin-like receptors and C-type lectin-like receptors. There are two ... Radaev, Sergei; Sun, Peter D. (June 2003). "Structure and Function of Natural Killer Cell Surface Receptors". Annual Review of ...
273-. ISBN 978-1-4200-0716-9. Thiriet M (14 December 2011). Signaling at the Cell Surface in the Circulatory and Ventilatory ... There are seven type I receptors, termed the activin-like receptors (ALK1-7), five type II receptors, and one type III receptor ... receptors are a family of serine/threonine kinase receptors involved in TGF beta signaling pathway. These receptors bind growth ... TGF beta receptors, Transmembrane receptors, Protein families, All stub articles, Receptor stubs). ...
FGFR1-4 are cell surface membrane receptors that possess tyrosine kinase activity. A full-length representative of these four ... FGFs binding to FGFR1 is promoted by their interaction with cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans and, with respect to ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fms-related tyrosine ... cell stimulation by activated FGFR1 as well as other tyrosine kinase receptors such as the Epidermal growth factor receptor. ...
STRA6 is unique as it functions both as a membrane transporter and a cell surface receptor, particularly as a cytokine receptor ... Blaner WS (March 2007). "STRA6, a cell-surface receptor for retinol-binding protein: the plot thickens". Cell Metabolism. 5 (3 ... Blaner WS (March 2007). "STRA6, a cell-surface receptor for retinol-binding protein: the plot thickens". Cell Metabolism. 5 (3 ... Vitamin A receptor, Stimulated by retinoic acid 6 or STRA6 protein was originally discovered as a transmembrane cell-surface ...
"Separation and reformation of cell surface dopamine receptor oligomers visualized in cells". European Journal of Pharmacology. ... The D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer is a receptor heteromer consisting of D1 and D2 protomers. D1 and D2 receptors interact ... The D1-D2 receptor is upregulated in individuals with major depression, and especially the ratio D1-D2 to D1 receptor is ... The signalling of the D1-D2 receptor heteromer is distinct from that of the parent receptor monomers. It comprises Gq/11 ...
Receptors can be membrane-bound, as cell surface receptors, or inside the cell as intracellular receptors, such as nuclear ... Christopoulos A (March 2002). "Allosteric binding sites on cell-surface receptors: novel targets for drug discovery". Nature ... Binding to the active site on the receptor regulates receptor activation directly. The activity of receptors can also be ... A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and ...
Scavenger receptors are a large and diverse superfamily of cell surface receptors. Its properties were first recorded in 1970 ... Scavenger receptors are mainly found on myeloid cells and other cells that bind to numerous ligands, primarily endogenous and ... CD36 can be found in many different cells, for example, insulin-responsive cells, hematopoietic cells like platelets, monocytes ... and macrophages, endothelial cells, and specialized epithelial cells in the breast and the eye. Some receptors that can bind to ...
"Ubiquitous cell-surface glycoprotein on tumor cells is proliferation-associated receptor for transferrin". Proceedings of the ... Aisen P (November 2004). "Transferrin receptor 1". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 36 (11): 2137-43. ... in contrast to glycophorin that marks all types of red blood cells. Transferrin receptor 2 Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: ... the adult T cell leukemia (ATLL) caused by HTLV-1 and the Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).[citation needed] TfR1 expressed on the ...
Kotarsky K, Nilsson NE, Flodgren E, Owman C, Olde B (2003). "A human cell surface receptor activated by free fatty acids and ... Brown AJ, Jupe S, Briscoe CP (2005). "A family of fatty acid binding receptors". DNA Cell Biol. 24 (1): 54-61. doi:10.1089/dna. ... Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1), also known as GPR40, is a class A G-protein coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by ... It is expressed in taste bud cells (specifically cell type I), and its absence leads to reduced preference to two types of ...
Kunz D, Gerard NP, Gerard C (1992). "The human leukocyte platelet-activating factor receptor. cDNA cloning, cell surface ... 1995). "Streptococcus pneumoniae anchor to activated human cells by the receptor for platelet-activating factor". Nature. 377 ( ... 1995). "Expression of human platelet-activating factor receptor gene in EoL-1 cells following butyrate-induced differentiation ... "Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
In order to regain thrombin responsiveness, PAR1 must be replenished in the cell surface. Uncleaved PAR1 in the cell membrane ... Proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) also known as protease-activated receptor 1 or coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor ... "Molecular cloning of a functional thrombin receptor reveals a novel proteolytic mechanism of receptor activation". Cell. 64 (6 ... PAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor and one of four protease-activated receptors involved in the regulation of thrombotic ...
Banham AH (2007). "Cell-surface IL-7 receptor expression facilitates the purification of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells". Trends ... 1996). "Interleukin-7 signaling in human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and murine BAF3 cells involves ... IL7R-α is a type I cytokine receptor and is a subunit of the functional Interleukin-7 receptor and Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin ... Akashi K, Kondo M, Weissman IL (1999). "Role of interleukin-7 in T-cell development from hematopoietic stem cells". Immunol. ...
"Fibronectin and asialoglyprotein receptor mediate hepatitis B surface antigen binding to the cell surface". Arch. Virol. 155 (6 ... This gene encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. This receptor is a transmembrane protein that plays a critical ... "Expression of a functional asialoglycoprotein receptor in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells". Nephron. 91 (3): 431- ... of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor are present with the major subunit H1 in different hetero-oligomeric receptor ...
L.E. Limbird (2005) Cell Surface Receptors: A Short Course on Theory and Methods. 3rd Edition Springer ISBN 0-387-23069-6 ... Receptor theory is the application of receptor models to explain drug behavior. Pharmacological receptor models preceded ... Receptors are saturable and finite (limited number of binding sites) Receptors must possess high affinity for its endogenous ... It was first described by Black and Leff in 1983 as an alternative model of receptor activation. Similar to the receptor ...
The 5-HT2A receptor is a cell surface receptor, but has several intracellular locations. 5-HT is short for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine ... The 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled ... "Presynaptic 5-HT2A-mGlu2/3 Receptor-Receptor Crosstalk in the Prefrontal Cortex: Metamodulation of Glutamate Exocytosis". Cells ... Especially high concentrations of this receptor on the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer V of the cortex may ...
They bind to G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface to elicit their effects. Bombesin-like peptide receptors include ... neuromedin B receptor, and bombesin-like receptor-3 (BRS3; this article). BB3 is a G protein-coupled receptor. BB3 only ... Hou X, Wei L, Harada A, Tatamoto K (2007). "Activation of bombesin receptor subtype-3 stimulates adhesion of lung cancer cells ... 1993). "BRS-3: a novel bombesin receptor subtype selectively expressed in testis and lung carcinoma cells". J. Biol. Chem. 268 ...
1987). "The cell surface receptors for interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta are identical". Nature. 324 (6094): 266-8. ... 1991). "A novel IL-1 receptor, cloned from B cells by mammalian expression, is expressed in many cell types". EMBO J. 10 (10): ... interleukin 1 receptor-like 2 (IL1RL2), and interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) form a cytokine receptor gene cluster in a ... 2000). "Tollip, a new component of the IL-1RI pathway, links IRAK to the IL-1 receptor". Nat. Cell Biol. 2 (6): 346-51. doi: ...
CD28 family receptors are a group of regulatory cell surface receptors expressed on immune cells. The CD28 family in turn is a ... CD28 receptors play a role in the development and proliferation of T cells. The CD28 receptors enhance signals from the T cell ... Through the promotion of T cell function, CD28 receptors allow effector T cells to combat regulatory T cell-mediated ... CD28 receptors also elicit the prevention of spontaneous autoimmunity. CD28 receptors aid in other T cell processes such as ...
"Cloning and expression of a cell surface receptor for advanced glycosylation end products of proteins". The Journal of ... Other AGE receptors are: SR-A (Macrophage scavenger receptor Type I and II) OST-48 (Oligosaccharyl transferase-4) (AGE-R1) 80 K ... RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts), also called AGER, is a 35 kilodalton transmembrane receptor of the ... Blockade/knockdown of RAGE resulted in impaired cell adhesion, and increased cell proliferation and migration A number of small ...
"Assembly and cell surface expression of heteromeric and homomeric gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors". The Journal of ... 4-Iodopropofol GABA receptor GABAB receptor GABAA-ρ receptor Gephyrin Glycine receptor GABAA receptor positive allosteric ... GABAA receptors can also be found in other tissues, including leydig cells, placenta, immune cells, liver, bone growth plates ... As a result, the IUPHAR has recommended that the terms "BZ receptor", "GABA/BZ receptor" and "omega receptor" no longer be used ...
ApoER2 is a cell surface receptor that is part of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. These receptors function in ... After binding ApoER2, ApoE is taken up into the cell and may remain in the intracellular space, be shipped to the cell surface ... "Reeler/Disabled-like disruption of neuronal migration in knockout mice lacking the VLDL receptor and ApoE receptor 2". Cell. 97 ... "Human apolipoprotein E receptor 2. A novel lipoprotein receptor of the low density lipoprotein receptor family predominantly ...
The B cell receptor (BCR) is a transmembrane protein on the surface of a B cell. A B cell receptor is composed of a membrane- ... Pre-B cells that do not generate any Ig molecule normally carry both Ig-α and Ig-β to the cell surface. Heterodimers may exist ... The B cell receptor has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of various B cell derived lymphoid cancers. Although it ... The BCR can be found in a number of identical copies of membrane proteins that are exposed at the cell surface. The B cell ...
"Cell surface expression of alpha1D-adrenergic receptors is controlled by heterodimerization with alpha1B-adrenergic receptors ... 2003). "alpha 1-Adrenergic receptor subtypes differentially control the cell cycle of transfected CHO cells through a cAMP- ... 2000). "Linkage between alpha(1) adrenergic receptor and the Jak/STAT signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells". ... 2000). "Transcriptional responses to growth factor and G protein-coupled receptors in PC12 cells: comparison of alpha(1)- ...
"Cell surface expression of alpha1D-adrenergic receptors is controlled by heterodimerization with alpha1B-adrenergic receptors ... 2003). "alpha 1-Adrenergic receptor subtypes differentially control the cell cycle of transfected CHO cells through a cAMP- ... 1995). "Cloning of the human alpha 1d-adrenergic receptor and inducible expression of three human subtypes in SK-N-MC cells". ... 1994). "Genes encoding adrenergic receptors are not clustered on the long arm of human chromosome 5". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 67 ...
These are made into synthetic receptors for T-Cells collected from the patient that are used to combat the disease. Competing ... By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein ... Then the expression of single chain Fv's (scFv), and single chain T cell receptors (scTCR) were expressed both with and without ... "CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers". National Cancer Institute. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 9 ...
Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Positive-stranded RNA virus ... Surfaces where norovirus particles may be present can be sanitised with a solution of 1.5% to 7.5% of household bleach in water ... HBGAs are not however the receptor or facilitator of norovirus infection. In fact, co-factors such as bile salts may facilitate ... It may also spread via contaminated surfaces or through air from the vomit of an infected person. Risk factors include ...
... had tumor cells that expressed the estrogen receptor, 72.7% had tumor cells that expressed the progesterone receptor, and 13.6 ... Epithelial cells lining the fronds' inner surfaces commonly form solid, cribriform (i.e. large nests of cells perforated by ... These cells, which are not myoepithelial cells, have been termed globoid cells. They have eosinophilic cytoplasm (i.e. pink or ... often had tumor cells that are triple negative, i.e. do not express estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or HER2/neu ...
Rubin BP, Tucker RP, Martin D, Chiquet-Ehrismann R (December 1999). "Teneurins: A Novel Family of Neuronal Cell Surface ... of a teneurin molecule can form an intercellular adhesive complex when bound to the adhesion family G-protein coupled receptor ... cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth using atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy". Nano Letters. 13 ... Ten-m3 mRNA is prominently co-expressed with Ten-m2 and Ten-m4 in the Purkinje's cell zone of the cerebellum. Ten-m3 protein is ...
... form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by specific receptors on the cell surface ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ...
It binds to TLR 2 and Dectin-1 (CLEC7A). Zymosan is a ligand found on the surface of fungi, like yeast. Zymosan is prepared ... 2003). "Direct binding of Toll-like receptor 2 to zymosan, and zymosan-induced NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha secretion ... It potentiates acute liver damage after galactosamine injection suggesting that certain types of nonparenchymal cells other ... from yeast cell wall and consists of protein-carbohydrate complexes. It is used to induce experimental sterile inflammation. In ...
When a cytotoxic cell discovers any infected cell the content of the cytotoxic granules is released by receptor-mediated ... both of which can be found as epitopes on the surfaces of pathogens, and its 2nd and 3rd helices are principle players in ... Its expression is restricted to cytotoxic immune cells such as cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Orthologs ... such as NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and in higher concentrations, immature dendritic cells. The 9 kDa form ...
... formation and possesses at least four binding domains which can bind to different cell receptors on the epithelial cell surface ... filamentous protein that serves as a dominant attachment factor for adherence to host ciliated epithelial cells of the ...
In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. Mice ... β-catenin is particularly interesting as it plays a dual role in the cell. First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CD28 and CTLA-4 cell-surface receptor family. It forms homodimers and plays an ... "Follicular B helper T cells express CXC chemokine receptor 5, localize to B cell follicles, and support immunoglobulin ... immune responses and regulation of cell proliferation. Compared to wild-type naïve T cells, ICOS-/- T cells activated with ... "ICOS co-stimulatory receptor is essential for T-cell activation and function". Nature. 409 (6816): 97-101. Bibcode:2001Natur. ...
Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, ... TNF-a binds on the TNFRI receptor, while LT interacts with LTβ-receptor expressed on FDC precursors. In mice lacking B cells, ... FDCs, in turn, attract B cells with chemoattractant CXCL13. B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the ... and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 ...
... type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that ... receptor binds to the cell surface and protects cells from the antiviral effects of IFN". Journal of Virology. 74 (23): 11230-9 ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can protect neighboring ... and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. All interferons share several common effects: ...
This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... Then, the bacteria induce their internalization into host cells via a receptor-mediated invasion mechanism.[citation needed] ... Bacterial replication in host cells causes endothelial cell proliferation and inflammation, resulting in mononuclear cell ... The rickettsiae use the actin to propel themselves throughout the cytosol to the surface of the host cell. This causes the host ...
2005). "Engagement of specific T-cell surface molecules regulates cytoskeletal polarization in HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes". ... By recruiting the receptors and viral particles at the point of contact, these synaptic structures significantly enhance the ... cell to allow cell-to-cell transmission. As viral synapses allow the virus to spread directly from cell to cell, they also ... "Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 Is Required to Trigger Pyroptotic Death of Lymphoid-Tissue-Derived CD4 T Cells". Cell Rep. ...
These cells, together with other immune cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, dendritic cells and ... and they also lose the growth dependency on adhesive surfaces; both these phenomena contribute to the increase in the number of ... various integrins and their receptors. Specific for fibroblast-like synoviocytes is also the expression of CD55; this protein ... These hallmark features of FLS in RA are divided into 7 cell-intrinsic hallmarks and 4 cell-extrinsic hallmarks. The cell- ...
... which are located on the inner surface of the cell membrane and do not cross the membrane, and which are coassembled with the α ... 5-triphosphate receptor Ca2+ channels, transient receptor potential Ca2+ channels, polycystin cation channels, glutamate-gated ... chloride channels contribute to the maintenance of cell resting potential and help to regulate cell volume. Voltage-gated ... In most cells, Ca2+ channels regulate a wide variety of biochemical processes due to their role in controlling intracellular ...
as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ... October 1998). "Peripheral blood-derived CD34+ progenitor cells: CXC chemokine receptor 4 and CC chemokine receptor 5 ... A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as haematopoietic cells, or in ...
The binding of ligands to the androgen receptor (AR) results in a conformational change, this consequentially alters surface ... cytotoxic to cancer cells with fewer negative effects than seen in traditional antiandrogen therapies. Additionally, studies ... Selective receptor modulator Selective estrogen receptor modulator Selective progesterone receptor modulator Selective ... Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators or SARMs are a class of androgen receptor ligands that maintain some of the desirable ...
Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells ... The surface of the cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. ... The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. ORs, which ... Many tiny hair-like non-motile cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrites. The dendrites extend to the ...
The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a "spike" to connect to the ACE2 receptor and enter the host cell. ... The effect of the virus on ACE2 cell surfaces leads to leukocytic infiltration, increased blood vessel permeability, alveolar ... 19 because the virus accesses host cells via the receptor for the enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is most ... is the viral component that attaches to the host receptor via the ACE2 receptors. It includes two subunits: S1 and S2. S1 ...
Treatments need to focus on limiting post-injury cell death, promoting cell regeneration, and replacing lost cells. ... Cervical vertebra A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the ... Also known as the anterior spinocerebellar tract, sensory receptors take in the information and travel into the spinal cord. ... "Spinal Cord-Development and Stem Cells". Stem Cell Development Compendium. Retrieved 2 Dec 2015. Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Bally- ...
Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ... Engagement of the Type I interferon receptor on dendritic cells inhibits promotion of Th17 cells: central role of intracellular ... Glimcher L, Shen FW, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J Exp ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ...
... is a receptor protein which is expressed on T cells and NK cells and shares sequence similarity with CD226 (also known as ... Eriksson EM, Keh CE, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Hecht FM, Nixon DF (2012). "Differential expression of CD96 surface molecule ... promotes NK cell-target cell adhesion by interacting with the poliovirus receptor (CD155)". Journal of Immunology. 172 (7): ... The protein may play a role in the adhesion of activated T and NK cells to their target cells during the late phase of the ...
The outer surface of the glands is covered in peritoneum. Low magnification micrograph of seminal vesicle. H&E stain. High ... Sertoli cells secrete anti-mullerian hormone, which causes the paramesonephric duct to regress. The development and maintenance ... and hence may also be regulated by the ligand of this receptor, luteinizing hormone. The inner lining of the seminal vesicles ( ... The glands are lined with column-shaped and cuboidal cells. The vesicles are present in many groups of mammals, but not ...
NK cells, fibroblasts and platelets. Integrins are involved in cell adhesion and also participate in cell-surface-mediated ... Porter JC, Hogg N (1999). "Integrins take partners: cross-talk between integrins and other membrane receptors". Trends Cell ... They are found on a wide variety of cell types including T cells (the NKT cells), ... Arase H, Saito T, Phillips JH, Lanier LL (August 2001). "Cutting edge: the mouse NK cell-associated antigen recognized by DX5 ...
Then the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin must adhere to the layer of cells found on the internal surface, the epithelial cells ... It is important that these outer-membrane adhesins make physical contact with the receptors found on the host cell. This means ... Once it has done so, it may bind to the ECM of the host cell. TAAs are a type of microbial surface components recognizing ... Function: Their role is to act as spacers by moving the head domains away from the bacterial cell surface and toward the ...
After dissociation, the receptor folds back on itself to obtain a closed conformation and recycles to the cell surface. The ... This leads to a relatively mild phenotype as receptors are still present on the cell surface (but all must be newly synthesised ... Exon 1 contains a signal sequence that localises the receptor to the endoplasmic reticulum for transport to the cell surface. ... It is a cell-surface receptor that recognizes apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), which is embedded in the outer phospholipid layer ...
"Wnt family proteins are secreted and associated with the cell surface". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4 (12): 1267-75. doi: ... Zilberberg A, Yaniv A, Gazit A (April 2004). "The low density lipoprotein receptor-1, LRP1, interacts with the human frizzled-1 ... March 2020). "Wnt-3a Induces Epigenetic Remodeling in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells". Cells. 9 (3): E652. doi:10.3390/ ... Cell. 119 (1): 97-108. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.09.019. PMID 15454084. S2CID 18567677. Capurro MI, Shi W, Sandal S, Filmus J ( ...
... which is produced by a parasite and binds to the specific tuft cells receptor Sucnr1 on their surface. Also, the role of ... Tuft cells are chemosensory cells in the epithelial lining of the intestines. Similar tufted cells are found in the respiratory ... Also during worm infection, the amount of tuft cells dramatically rises. Hyperplasia of tuft cells and goblet cells is a ... For example, tuft cells that are in the urethra respond to bitter compounds, through activation of the taste receptor. This ...
Studies show that BHA peels control sebum excretion, acne as well as remove dead skin cells to a certain extent better than ... "Skeletal muscle PGC-1α controls whole-body lactate homeostasis through estrogen-related receptor α-dependent activation of LDH ... AHAs[citation needed] due to AHAs only working on the surface of the skin. Retinoic acid is a retinoid. This type of facial ...
All the latest science news about cell surface receptor from ... cell surface receptor. News tagged with cell surface receptor. * Date 6 hours 12 hours 1 day 3 days all ...
For this reason, engineering the ECM microenvironment provides clear benefits in studies of cell and tissue engineering and ... Currently existing technology offers simple and merely adequate environments that facilitate simple cell processes such as ... cellular adhesion.1,2 The simple presentation of cell adhesion motifs is not optimal for controlling more integrated processes. ... is a deciding factor in a wide range of cellular processes including cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and ...
Cell surface marker-based capture of neoantigen-reactive CD8+ T-cell receptors from metastatic tumor digests Praveen D Chatani ... Cell surface marker-based capture of neoantigen-reactive CD8+ T-cell receptors from metastatic tumor digests Praveen D Chatani ... Methods: We analyzed the single-cell transcriptomic states of 31 neoantigen-specific T-cell clonotypes to identify cell surface ... PD-1, programmed cell death protein-1; REP, rapid expansion protocol; TCR, T-cell receptor; TIL, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ...
Quach, M. E., Syed, A. K., Li, R. A Uniform Shear Assay for Human Platelet and Cell Surface Receptors via Cone-plate Viscometry ... Quach, M. E., Syed, A. K., Li, R. A Uniform Shear Assay for Human Platelet and Cell Surface Receptors via Cone-plate Viscometry ... Quach, M. E., Syed, A. K., Li, R. A Uniform Shear Assay for Human Platelet and Cell Surface Receptors via Cone-plate Viscometry ... Zimmerman, A., Bai, L., Ginty, D. D. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin. Science. 346 (6212), 950-954 (2014). ...
Cell surface receptors for lymphokines. II. Studies on the carbohydrate composition of the MIF receptor on macrophages using ... Cell surface receptors for lymphokines. II. Studies on the carbohydrate composition of the MIF receptor on macrophages using ... Cell surface receptors for lymphokines. II. Studies on the carbohydrate composition of the MIF receptor on macrophages using ... T1 - Cell surface receptors for lymphokines. II. Studies on the carbohydrate composition of the MIF receptor on macrophages ...
Cell surface biotinylation and Western blots. Oocytes were injected with 9.2 nl of mRNA coding for rP2X2 WT (0.05 µg µl−1), 46 ... Tang, B., & Lummis, S. C. R. (2018). Multiple regions in the extracellular domain of the glycine receptor determine receptor ... In order to assess if this was due to severe gating phenotypes or rather surface expression, we performed a surface ... Purified surface proteins or total cell lysates were separated on a NuPage 3-8 % Tris-acetate protein gel (Thermo Fisher ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Receptors, Cell Surface ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Receptors, Cell Surface ... Receptors, Cell Surface Archival Collection: The Martin Rodbell Papers (Profiles in Science) 3. The Role of Hormone Receptors ... Receptors, Cell Surface. Signal Transduction Archival Collection: The Martin Rodbell Papers (Profiles in Science) 6. Receptors ... Cell Communication. GTP-Binding Proteins. Receptors, Cell Surface. Signal Transduction Archival Collection: The Martin Rodbell ...
EHD1-dependent traffic of IGF-1 receptor to the cell surface is essential for Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. ... EHD1-dependent traffic of IGF-1 receptor to the cell surface is essential for Ewing sarcom ... been linked to tumorigenesis but whether its core function as a regulator of intracellular traffic of cell surface receptors ... Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética; Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo; Membrana Celular/metabolismo; Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia; ...
Cell surface receptors. QU 55. QU 55.8 Metalloproteins QU 55. QU 55.9 Protein phenomena QU 55. ...
Neuropilins (NRP) are cell surface area receptors for VEGF and SEMA3. Neuropilins (NRP) are cell surface area receptors for ... Components and Strategies Cell tradition A431 human being epidermoid SCC cells originally isolated from an 85-yr old female (28 ... P3 pups had been euthanized and pores and skin tissue was useful for major epidermal cell isolation as referred to (38). Cells ... Mouse hemangioendothelioma EOMA cells BMS-833923 (XL-139) (32) had been bought from ATCC and taken care of in high blood sugar ...
Because HIV can enter immune cells by using other cell surface receptors, not all people with the D32/D32 CCR5 genotype are ... CCR5 is a chemokine receptor on cell surfaces. It binds cell-signaling molecules called chemokines (e.g., RANTES, MIP-1a, and ... The deletion of 32 base pairs of DNA in the CCR5 gene results in a CCR5 receptor that does not get to the cell surface. ... HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, has usurped this normal cellular receptor and uses it to enter immune cells. ...
... is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), which is transiently expressed during development of the central and peripheral nervous ... Finally, kinase inactivation of the mutated receptors restored maturation and cell-surface localization. Our results show that ... Although the mutated receptors exhibited a constitutive activation, the minor pool of receptor addressed to the plasma membrane ... The constitutive activity of the ALK mutated at positions F1174 or R1275 impairs receptor trafficking Oncogene. 2011 Apr 28;30( ...
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, ... LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the ... These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors. ... Treatment with a GnRH receptor agonist, but not the GnRH receptor antagonist degarelix, induces atherosclerotic plaque ...
cell surface receptor signaling pathway. 2786. enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathway. 1024. ... protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F. IMP. NGF stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. RGD. PMID:10699984. RGD: ... regulation of neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. 16. negative regulation of neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling ... regulation of neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. 16. negative regulation of neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling ...
Brown fat cells have β3-adrenergic receptors on their surface. These protein receptors span the cell membrane and serve as ... A new drug called mirabegron activates these receptors and has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat ... Activation of Human Brown Adipose Tissue by a β3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist. Cypess AM, Weiner LS, Roberts-Toler C, Elía EF, ... "Brown adipose tissue, or brown fat, produces β3-adrenergic receptor at levels higher than nearly every other organ in the body ...
HA proteins bind to sialoside receptors on the host cell surface. Avian and human influenza A viruses prefer binding to sialic ... which enables virus particles to be released from the cell surface after assembly and from decoy receptors (e.g., in mucus). ... The presence of 3′SLex−type receptors on intestinal epithelial cells varies between different avian species (Table 2) (36) and ... A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory ...
To show the overall principles focus on the exploitation of induced proximity at the cell surface to therapeutically manipulate ... To show the overall principles focus on the exploitation of induced proximity at the cell surface to therapeutically manipulate ... Modulating Immunity Through Ligand-Receptor Engineering. Download VideoCast. You can download this VideoCast and play it on ... Modulating immunity through ligand-receptor engineering / Christopher Garcia. Author: Garcia, K Christopher. National ...
Tumour cells rich in surface fluorescence contained abundant ribosomes. Receptor silence was noted only in a single case. ... a receptor profile characterized by high frequency of surface fluorescence and a low incidence of IgG and EAG receptors was ... The diífuse lymphomas show predominance of fluorescent cells but some contain numerous B and T cells. These represent co- ... Receptor Studies on 19 Cases of Non-Hodgkin Malignant Lymphocytic Lymphoma Subject Area: Hematology , Oncology ...
I conduct studies on the structure and function of receptors. These are special proteins on the surfaces of cells. These ... Small molecule drug-like ligands for these receptors are not available. Select Publications. TSH/IGF1 receptor crosstalk: ... I conduct studies on the structure-function relationships of G protein-coupled receptors-in particular, receptors for ... Arrestin-β-1 Physically Scaffolds TSH and IGF1 Receptors to Enable Crosstalk.. Krieger CC, Boutin A, Jang D, Morgan SJ, Banga ...
The cell-surface receptor, SIRP-alpha, initiates the innate immune response in hosts.   ... cell & molecular biology. cell surface. genetics. genetics & genomics. lab mice. organ rejection. organ transplant. receptor. ... The cell-surface receptor, SIRP-alpha, initiates the innate immune response in hosts. Diana Kwon. ... a cell-surface receptor that varies across individual mice, was responsible for activating the innate immune response-the ...
Cell Surface Receptor-Ligand Recognition and... Stanford University * Erich D. Jarvis, PhD Investigator Unraveling the ... Stem Cells and Pluripotency (4) Apply Stem Cells and Pluripotency filter *Synthetic Chemistry (1) Apply Synthetic Chemistry ...
In contrast to other chemokine receptors, which are largely recycled to the cell surface within an hour, cell surface ... The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is degraded following internalization and is replenished at the cell surface by de novo synthesis ... receptor CXCR3 is degraded following internalization and is replenished at the cell surface by de novo synthesis of receptor. ... The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is expressed on the surface of both resting and activated T lymphocytes. We describe in this study ...
Canakinumab reduces inflammation by preventing interaction of IL-1 beta with cell surface receptors. ... Ibrutinib inhibits the function of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). BTK is a key signaling molecule of the B-cell receptor- ... Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist. Class Summary. Agents in this category antagonize immune responses activated by interleukin ... Migliorini P, Italiani P, Pratesi F, Puxeddu I, Boraschi D. Cytokines and soluble receptors of the interleukin-1 family in ...
Viral entry into host cells initiates by binding to surface cell receptors. Integrins are considered to be the main receptors ... The lipid bilayer of the viral envelope is about 5 nm thick and is embedded with viral surface proteins to which sugar residues ... with each other and have both an interior tail and an exterior domain that extends to about 6 nm beyond the envelope surface.[ ... clathrin-independent receptor-mediated endocytosis, and micropinocytosis. Viral particles are then transported to late ...
Receptors, Adiponectin; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics* ... Title: Adiponectin receptor 1 variants associated with lower ... However, little is known about the contribution of genetic variation in the adiponectin receptor 1 gene (ADIPOR1) in this ...
Binding of HIV antigens to B-cell surface Immunoglobulin receptors. *Affinity maturation of anti-HIV neutralizing antibodies ... Over the past decade, a large number of high-resolution structures of key HIV and HIV/host cell molecular complexes have been ... HIV Env-mediated receptor binding and membrane fusion. *HIV capsid interactions with cytoplasmic and nuclear transport ... Applications that are not primarily focused on dynamic modeling of HIV/host cell structural data relevant to NIAID research ...
The ACVRL1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called activin receptor-like kinase 1. Learn about this gene and ... This protein is found on the surface of cells, especially in the lining of developing arteries. ... The ACVRL1 protein is a receptor. It acts as a "lock" waiting for a specific protein, called its ligand, to serve as the "key ... Lebrin F, Deckers M, Bertolino P, Ten Dijke P. TGF-beta receptor function in the endothelium. Cardiovasc Res. 2005 Feb 15;65(3 ...
These receptors (called chemoreceptors) are nerve cells on the bodys surface which react to certain chemicals. We have similar ... These hairs are attached to nerve cells, and relay information about the touch to the insects brain. Butterflies and moths: ... Butterflies and moths: A butterflys antennae, palps, legs,and many other parts of the body are studded with sense receptors ... They are composed of photoreceptors (light-sensitive cells) and pigments. Most caterpillars have a semi-circular ring of six ...
Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Cells. 2023 Jun 14;12(12):1623. doi: 10.3390/cells12121623. Cells. 2023. PMID: 37371093 Free PMC article. ... Finding memo: versatile interactions of the VPS10p-Domain receptors in Alzheimers disease. Salasova A, Monti G, Andersen OM, ... Independent and epistatic effects of variants in VPS10-d receptors on Alzheimer disease risk and processing of the amyloid ...
  • Cadherins are calcium dependent cell adhesion proteins which are involved in many morphoregulatory processes including the establishment of tissue boundaries, tissue rearrangement, cell differentiation, and metastasis. (
  • The surface of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is covered with spike proteins. (
  • These proteins latch onto human cells, allowing the virus to enter and infect them. (
  • First, they incorporated a segment of the ACE2 receptor into the small proteins. (
  • This technology allowed them to custom build proteins and predict how they would bind to the receptor. (
  • Altered receptor-binding specificity of virus clade H5 proteins might have contributed to emergence and spread of H5Nx viruses. (
  • HA proteins bind to sialoside receptors on the host cell surface. (
  • Although a recent study ( 22 ) reported enhanced avidity of H5N6 viruses for human-type receptors, recombinant clade highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5 proteins from virus isolates in North America show a strict avian receptor-binding preference ( 23 ). (
  • These are special proteins on the surfaces of cells. (
  • These proteins are the location where hormones produced in the brain's hypothalamus and in the pituitary gland interact to control cell function in the thyroid gland and central nervous system. (
  • They contain intracellular compartments called granules, which are filled with proteins that can form holes in the target cell and also cause apoptosis, the process for programmed cell death. (
  • The multiple molecular variant forms of AFP are discussed in relation to published reports of AFP binding proteins and cell surface receptors. (
  • AFP AA sequences are further presented as peptide identification sites for growth factors, receptors, cytoskeletal proteins, and chemokines. (
  • 14. Signal transduction responses to lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate in human prostate cancer cells. (
  • CCR5 is a chemokine receptor on cell surfaces. (
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is expressed on the surface of both resting and activated T lymphocytes. (
  • An important aspect of this research is to discover small molecule ligands for these receptors that can be used as probes in animal models and that can lead to the development of drugs for the treatment of endocrine and neurologic diseases in humans. (
  • Small molecule drug-like ligands for these receptors are not available. (
  • Because CXCR3(+) cells are themselves a source of IFN-gamma, which potently induces the expression of CXCR3 ligands, such tight regulation of CXCR3 may serve as a control to avoid the unnecessary amplification of activated T lymphocyte recruitment. (
  • 9. Novel clusters of receptors for sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingosylphosphorylcholine, and (lyso)-phosphatidic acid: new receptors for "old" ligands. (
  • Given the role of NK cells in immune surveillance, we postulated that NK cell activating receptors and their cognate ligands are involved in LAM pathogenesis. (
  • We found that ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor UL-16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2) and ULBP3 are localized in cystic LAM lesions and pulmonary nodules. (
  • It binds cell-signaling molecules called chemokines (e.g. (
  • The spike binds to ACE2 receptors on the cell surface. (
  • LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. (
  • Igfbp-6 is a secreted factor that specifically binds insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), prevents its binding to the IGF-I receptor, and is thought to regulate the activity of IGF-II in growth and differentiation. (
  • GnRH binds with high affinity to cell surface LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors located on the pituitary gonadotrophs. (
  • Dendritic cells (DC) are an important antigen-presenting cell (APC), and they also can develop from monocytes. (
  • This Research Topic contains nine manuscripts related to different scientific aspects of the "Role of the Antigen Receptor in the Pathogenesis of B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies" . (
  • The notion that antigen selection of B cells through the BcR drives the pathogenesis of B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies, such as CLL, is now well established. (
  • Over the years, immunogenetic studies in several B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies support the theory for antigen drive by identifying distinct biases in the BcR IG gene repertoires. (
  • Overexpression of the EPS15 Homology Domain containing 1 (EHD1) protein has been linked to tumorigenesis but whether its core function as a regulator of intracellular traffic of cell surface receptors plays a role in oncogenesis remains unknown. (
  • Although the mutated receptors exhibited a constitutive activation, the minor pool of receptor addressed to the plasma membrane was much more tyrosine phosphorylated than the intracellular pool. (
  • 1. Bioactive lysophospholipids and mesangial cell intracellular signaling pathways: role in the pathobiology of kidney disease. (
  • We found that this exaggerated transport of the human receptor is mediated by two functional arginine clusters, one in the third intracellular loop and one in the C-terminus. (
  • An ECM Mimetic Library for Engineering Surfaces to Direct Cell Surface Receptor Binding Specificity and Signaling Laminin derived peptide (α1 ~ α5, β, γ chains) Fibronectin naturally exists as a dimer, consisting of two nearly identical monomers. (
  • Knowledge of the evolution of receptor-binding specificity of these viruses, which might affect host range, is urgently needed. (
  • We report that emergence of these viruses is accompanied by a change in receptor-binding specificity. (
  • Type and number of internal monosaccharides and their linkages determine fine specificity of virus receptors ( 19 , 20 ). (
  • The extracellular (ECM) microenvironment, defined by biochemical cues and physical cues, is a deciding factor in a wide range of cellular processes including cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and expression of phenotype specific functions. (
  • Crosstalk among signaling pathways act synergistically to enhance cellular responses such as cell adhesion or proliferation 3 . (
  • The combinatorial presentation of ECM peptides on cell growth surfaces may also promote elevated proliferation rates of primary or stem cells 4,5,6 . (
  • Integrin binding sites for αvβ3 have antitumor activity, and may inhibit the activation of human neutrophil or the proliferation of capillary endothelial cells. (
  • 11. Common signaling pathways link activation of murine PAR-1, LPA, and S1P receptors to proliferation of astrocytes. (
  • CD5 is considered among the most relevant ones in the context of CLL, which is located close to the BcR IG on the surface of the B cells and promotes cell survival and proliferation. (
  • To discover and develop probes or drugs for receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). (
  • I conduct studies on the structure-function relationships of G protein-coupled receptors-in particular, receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). (
  • P3 pups had been euthanized and pores and skin tissue was useful for major epidermal cell isolation as referred to (38). (
  • Currently existing technology offers simple and merely adequate environments that facilitate simple cell processes such as cellular adhesion. (
  • Integrins, dystroglycan, syndecans, and several other cell surface molecules are cellular receptors for laminins. (
  • The globular domains located in the N- and C-terminus of the laminin alpha chains are critical for interactions with the cellular receptors. (
  • Approaches affording insight at all cellular scales, from atomistic to whole-cell resolutions, are encouraged. (
  • 5. Diversity of cellular receptors and functions for the lysophospholipid growth factors lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate. (
  • Macrophages also have important non-immune functions, such as recycling dead cells, like red blood cells, and clearing away cellular debris. (
  • Dr. Johannes Hofer was selected MedUni Vienna Researcher of the Month, August 2017, for the work „Ig-like transcript 4 as a cellular receptor for soluble complement fragment C4d", published in „FASEB Journal" (IF 5.5). (
  • The present study identifies Ig-like transcript (ILT)4 and ILT5v2 as cellular receptors for C4d. (
  • described a novel peptide-based single-cell sorting methodology using the clonotypic BcR IG as bait. (
  • Such AFP peptide segments could potentially serve as delivery agents which could target vascular, neuroendocrine, or gastrointestinal cells. (
  • The carbohydrate composition of the surface receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on guinea pig macrophages has been studied by examining the interaction of MIF with different saccharides and by testing the ability of plant lectins with known saccharide binding affinities to bind to macrophages and block their response to MIF. (
  • The role of fucosyl residues in the binding of MIF by macrophages is discussed with reference to the possible composition of the MIF receptor and the role of fucose-containing glycolipids as receptors for this lymphokine. (
  • Upon activation, monocytes and macrophages coordinate an immune response by notifying other immune cells of the problem. (
  • Their coordinated movement and exchange of signals then instructs other innate immune cells called macrophages and monocytes to surround the neutrophil cluster and form a tight wound seal. (
  • In opsonization, an antibody-bound pathogen serves as a red flag to alert immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages, to engulf and digest the pathogen. (
  • Modulating immunity through ligand-receptor engineering / Christopher Garcia. (
  • Mechanistically, we demonstrate a requirement of EHD1 for endocytic recycling and Golgi to plasma membrane traffic of IGF-1R to maintain its surface expression and downstream signaling. (
  • In contrast, rat and mouse α 2C -AR plasma membrane levels are less sensitive to decrease in temperature, whereas the opossum α 2C -AR cell surface levels are not changed in these conditions. (
  • Although these motifs do not affect the receptor subcellular localization at 37°C, deletion of the arginine clusters significantly enhanced receptor plasma membrane levels at reduced temperature. (
  • Inhibition of pontin activity enhanced human receptor plasma membrane levels and signaling at 37°C. Our results demonstrate that human α 2C -AR has a unique temperature-sensitive traffic pattern within the G protein-coupled receptor class due to interactions with different molecular chaperones, mediated in part by strict spatial localization of specific arginine residues. (
  • As the genetic engineering of T cells with tumor-reactive T-cell receptors (TCRs) comes to the forefront of clinical investigation, the rapid, scalable, and cost-effective detection of patient-specific neoantigen-reactive TIL remains a top priority. (
  • They are important for recognizing and killing virus-infected cells or tumor cells. (
  • Mature NK cells (either DP or CD27 − ) are more cytotoxic than immature ones against tumor targets 8 and express a distinct set of trafficking molecules that allow them to circulate in the blood. (
  • Antigens are molecules from pathogens, host cells, and allergens that may be recognized by adaptive immune cells. (
  • APCs like DCs are responsible for processing large molecules into "readable" fragments (antigens) recognized by adaptive B or T cells. (
  • However, antigens alone cannot activate T cells. (
  • B cells have two major functions: They present antigens to T cells, and more importantly, they produce antibodies to neutralize infectious microbes. (
  • More specifically, the study of immune cell (B and T cells) receptor repertoires revealed important differences between MBL and CLL, alluding to distinct selection forces, both in terms of the nature of the selective antigens as well as the persistence of these interactions. (
  • An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS. (
  • Since human cells also express SIRP-alpha, sequencing this gene to identify donors with matching molecules could help reduce rejection rates, Lakkis says in the statement. (
  • molecules on the surface of cells that bind chemokines, which are signals produced by the immune system. (
  • The use of antagonist monoclonal antibodies suggested that the constitutive activity of the mutated receptors did not require the dimerization of the receptor, whereas adequate dimerization triggered by agonist monoclonal antibodies increased this activity. (
  • Treatment with a GnRH receptor agonist, but not the GnRH receptor antagonist degarelix, induces atherosclerotic plaque instability in ApoE(-/-) mice. (
  • Desloratadine is a long-acting tricyclic histamine antagonist that is selective for H 1 receptors. (
  • Levocetirizine is an H 1 -receptor antagonist, an active enantiomer of cetirizine. (
  • The cell-surface receptor, SIRP-alpha, initiates the innate immune response in hosts. (
  • Using positional cloning, a method that can identify genetic mutations, Lakkis and colleagues discovered that SIRP-alpha, a cell-surface receptor that varies across individual mice, was responsible for activating the innate immune response-the body's first-line, nonspecific defense mechanism. (
  • Neutrophils, the most numerous innate immune cell, patrol for problems by circulating in the bloodstream. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells have features of both innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • These data suggest a role for NK cells, sNKG2DL, and the innate immune system in LAM pathogenesis. (
  • Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. (
  • These hairs are attached to nerve cells, and relay information about the touch to the insect's brain. (
  • These receptors (called chemoreceptors) are nerve cells on the body's surface which react to certain chemicals. (
  • Nociceptors- To sense pain, thousands of specialized sensory nerve cells or neurons (nociceptors) throughout the body trigger a series of responses to a noxious (painful) stimulus. (
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support computational dynamic modeling of molecular complexes regulating the HIV life cycle, immune responses, and therapeutic interventions in HIV/AIDS using existing and new HIV and HIV/host cell structural datasets. (
  • ALPS is characterized by the production of an abnormally large number of immune system cells (lymphocytes), resulting in enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), the liver (hepatomegaly), and the spleen (splenomegaly). (
  • People with ALPS have an increased risk of developing cancer of the immune system cells (lymphoma). (
  • One can imagine these interactions being critical in providing a constant trigger that poises the immune response to reject the organ, and thus new therapies that limit the function of these receptors may promote organ survival," Anita Chong, a professor of surgery at the University of Chicago who was not involved in the study, told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette . (
  • OSM sends immune signals to cells by stimulating protein receptors on their surfaces. (
  • MHC provides a checkpoint and helps immune cells distinguish between host and foreign cells. (
  • Through apoptosis, immune cells can discreetly remove infected cells and limit bystander damage. (
  • 6. Lysophospholipid receptors: signalling, pharmacology and regulation by lysophospholipid metabolism. (
  • Finally, kinase inactivation of the mutated receptors restored maturation and cell-surface localization. (
  • Our data thus suggest that EOMES and T-BET may distinctly govern, via differential expression and co-factors recruitment, NK cell maturation by inserting partially overlapping epigenetic regulations. (
  • NK cells then operate a process of maturation that starts in the bone marrow (BM) and continues in the periphery. (
  • however, this integrin-ligand interaction is only sufficient for cell attachment and spreading. (
  • Background and Purpose P2X receptors (P2XRs) are trimeric ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that open a cation-selective pore in response to ATP binding to their large extracellular domain (ECD). (
  • Cell Surface Receptor-Ligand Recognition and. (
  • In contrast to other chemokine receptors, which are largely recycled to the cell surface within an hour, cell surface replenishment of CXCR3 occurred over several hours and was dependent upon mRNA transcription, de novo protein synthesis, and transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. (
  • By contrast, T-BET is dominant in mature NK cells, where it induces responsiveness to IL-12 and represses the cell cycle, likely through transcriptional repressors. (
  • INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors. (
  • Here, we studied stably transfected cell lines expressing wild-type or F1174L- or R1275Q-mutated ALK in parallel with a neuroblastoma cell line (CLB-GE) in which the allele mutated at position F1174 is amplified. (
  • This particular allele has a mutation: a deletion of 32 nucleotides which renders the receptor non-functional. (
  • Transgenic mice expressing the human being papillomavirus type 16 early area genes beneath the control of the keratin 14 promoter (K14-HPV16 mice) (38 39 had been euthanized at different time points throughout BMS-833923 SOS2 (XL-139) their disease development from hyperplastic to dysplastic to squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Sun T, Miao X, Zhang X, Tan W, Xiong P, Lin D. Polymorphisms of death pathway genes FAS and FASL in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. (
  • Scientists studying mice have now identified a key cell receptor that triggers this process. (
  • The scientists showed that itch-sensing neurons in both mice and humans produce the receptor for OSM. (
  • By generating two gene-modified mice facilitating chromatin immunoprecipitation of endogenous EOMES and T-BET, we show a strong overlap in their DNA binding targets, as well as extensive epigenetic changes during NK cell differentiation. (
  • The lymphoproliferative defect in CTLA-4-deficient mice is ameliorated by an inhibitory NK cell receptor. (
  • 15. Lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathways and their receptors are differentially regulated during decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. (
  • However, they differ from ILC1s by their capacity to circulate in the blood, by their expression of multiple receptors of the Ly49 family, by their higher cytotoxic potential and by their expression of integrin subunits. (
  • Additional signaling through the cell surface proteoglycan such as syndecan-4 is required for focal adhesion formation and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton into bundled stress fibers. (
  • Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. (
  • To show the overall principles focus on the exploitation of induced proximity at the cell surface to therapeutically manipulate signaling. (
  • The FAS gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in cell signaling. (
  • Researchers believe that these variations may affect the signaling that initiates apoptosis, increasing the risk that cells will multiply out of control and result in cancer. (
  • 3. Cell surface receptors in lysophospholipid signaling. (
  • Antibodies coat the surface of a pathogen and serve three major roles: neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation. (
  • Neutralization occurs when the pathogen, because it is covered in antibodies, is unable to bind and infect host cells. (
  • B cells also secrete antibodies to diffuse and bind to pathogens. (
  • The activated B cell responds by secreting antibodies, essentially the BCR but in soluble form. (
  • Two regions in each fibronectin subunit possess cell binding activity: III9-10 and III14-V (refer to the modular structure of fibronectin below). (
  • Experimental Approach Here we examine the impact of P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) inter-subunit interface missense variants identified in the human population or through structural predictions. (
  • The Kollodis ECM Library provides a means to regulate a variety of cell surface receptors for your cell studies with the highlighted features provided below. (
  • Primary normal human being umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) had been bought from Lonza and cultured in EGM2 (Lonza). (
  • We developed an efficient method to capture neoantigen-reactive TCRs directly from resected human tumors based on cell surface co-expression of CD39, programmed cell death protein-1, and TIGIT dysfunction markers (CD8 + TIL TP ). (
  • Components and Strategies Cell tradition A431 human being epidermoid SCC cells originally isolated from an 85-yr old female (28) had been bought from American Type Tradition Collection (ATCC). (
  • Porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells overexpressing human being NRP1 or NRP2 had been from Dr. Michael Klagsbrun (Harvard Medical College) and cultured in Ham's F12 press (Life Systems) supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% Gps navigation. (
  • Human being SCC cells (1 × 106) had been injected subdermally (33) on the proper dorsal flank. (
  • Researchers designed "miniproteins" that bound tightly to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and prevented the virus from infecting human cells in the lab. (
  • Blocking entry of SARS-CoV-2 into human cells can prevent infection. (
  • All protected lab-grown human cells from infection. (
  • Rieux-Laucat F. Inherited and acquired death receptor defects in human Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome. (
  • The human α 2C -adrenergic receptor ( α 2C -AR) is localized intracellularly at physiologic temperature. (
  • Reinsertion of these residues in the rat α 2C -AR restored the same temperature sensitivity as in the human receptor. (
  • The α2β1 integrin recognizes GXO/SGER such as GFPGER or GFOGER, and these sites are for endothelial cell binding and activation, and for angiogenesis. (
  • 12. Neutrophil sphingosine 1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid receptors in pneumonia. (
  • 1,2 The simple presentation of cell adhesion motifs is not optimal for controlling more integrated processes. (
  • Mast cells are found in tissues and can mediate allergic reactions by releasing inflammatory chemicals like histamine. (
  • A recent study showed that a combination of extracellular matrix derived peptides presented on a surface may enhance cell adhesion strength and focal adhesion assembly. (
  • TSH/IGF1 receptor crosstalk: Mechanism and clinical implications. (
  • The caspase cascade is a series of steps that results in the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis) when they are not needed. (
  • Interference with apoptosis allows cells to multiply without control, leading to the lymphomas that occur in people with this disorder. (
  • It is important to distinguish between apoptosis and other forms of cell death like necrosis. (
  • These 7-transmembrane, cell surface G protein-coupled receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC). (
  • Although freshly isolated T lymphocytes expressed moderate cell surface levels of CXCR3, they were only responsive to CXCL11 with CXCL9 and CXCL10 only having significant activity on activated T lymphocytes. (