A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
A polymeric mixture of polyesters of phosphoric acid and phloretin. It blocks some cellular responses to prostaglandins.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
Kynuramine is a biologically active compound that results from the metabolism of tryptophan by the enzyme kynurenine monooxygenase, and it plays a role in the regulation of neurotransmission and immune responses.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.1.25.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, formed by the action of monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and its measurement in urine is often used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis in clinical and research settings.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
A dithiobiurea compound with anti-gonadotropic activity.
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
Tetrahydroisoquinolinol alkaloids in both dextro and levo forms, originally found in SALSOLA plants.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
Histamine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups. Many of these are agonists for the H1, H2, or both histamine receptors.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.

N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. (1/65)

(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences.  (+info)

Polyamine transport in bacteria and yeast. (2/65)

The polyamine content of cells is regulated by biosynthesis, degradation and transport. In Escherichia coli, the genes for three different polyamine transport systems have been cloned and characterized. Two uptake systems (putrescine-specific and spermidine-preferential) were ABC transporters, each consisting of a periplasmic substrate-binding protein, two transmembrane proteins and a membrane-associated ATPase. The crystal structures of the substrate-binding proteins (PotD and PotF) have been solved. They consist of two domains with an alternating beta-alpha-beta topology, similar to other periplasmic binding proteins. The polyamine-binding site is in a cleft between the two domains, as determined by crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis. Polyamines are mainly recognized by aspartic acid and glutamic acid residues, which interact with the NH(2)- (or NH-) groups, and by tryptophan and tyrosine residues that have hydrophobic interactions with the methylene groups of polyamines. The precursor of one of the substrate binding proteins, PotD, negatively regulates transcription of the operon for the spermidine-preferential uptake system, thus providing another level of regulation of cellular polyamines. The third transport system, catalysed by PotE, mediates both uptake and excretion of putrescine. Uptake of putrescine is dependent on membrane potential, whereas excretion involves an exchange reaction between putrescine and ornithine. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene for a polyamine transport protein (TPO1) was identified. The properties of this protein are similar to those of PotE, and TPO1 is located on the vacuolar membrane.  (+info)

Activation of a heterologously expressed octopamine receptor coupled only to adenylyl cyclase produces all the features of presynaptic facilitation in aplysia sensory neurons. (3/65)

Short-term behavioral sensitization of the gill-withdrawal reflex after tail stimuli in Aplysia leads to an enhancement of the connections between sensory and motor neurons of this reflex. Both behavioral sensitization and enhancement of the connection between sensory and motor neurons are importantly mediated by serotonin. Serotonin activates two types of receptors in the sensory neurons, one of which is coupled to the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and the other to the inositol triphosphate/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Here we describe a genetic approach to assessing the isolated contribution of the PKA pathway to short-term facilitation. We have cloned from Aplysia an octopamine receptor gene, Ap oa(1), that couples selectively to the cAMP/PKA pathway. We have ectopically expressed this receptor in Aplysia sensory neurons of the pleural ganglia, where it is not normally expressed. Activation of this receptor by octopamine stimulates all four presynaptic events involved in short-term synaptic facilitation that are normally produced by serotonin: (i) membrane depolarization; (ii) increased membrane excitability; (iii) increased spike duration; and (iv) presynaptic facilitation. These results indicate that the cAMP/PKA pathway alone is sufficient to produce all the features of presynaptic facilitation.  (+info)

Octopamine receptors in the honey bee and locust nervous system: pharmacological similarities between homologous receptors of distantly related species. (4/65)

Honey bees are perhaps the most versatile models to study the cellular and pharmacological basis underlying behaviours ranging from learning and memory to sociobiology. For both aspects octopamine (OA) is known to play a vital role. The neuronal octopamine receptor of the honey bee shares pharmacological similarities with the neuronal octopamine receptor of the locust. Both, agonists and antagonists known to have high affinities for the locust neuronal octopamine receptor have also high affinities for the bee neuronal octopamine receptor. The distribution of receptors is more or less congruent between locusts and bees. Optic lobes and especially the mushroom bodies are areas of greatest octopamine receptor expression in both species, which mirrors the physiological significance of octopamine in the insect nervous system. The neuronal octopamine receptor of insects served as a model to study the pharmacological similarity of homologous receptors from distantly related species, because bees and locusts are separated by at least 330 million years of evolution.  (+info)

Amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and metabolites of the catecholamine neurotransmitters are agonists of a rat trace amine receptor. (5/65)

The trace amine para-tyramine is structurally and functionally related to the amphetamines and the biogenic amine neurotransmitters. It is currently thought that the biological activities elicited by trace amines such as p-tyramine and the psychostimulant amphetamines are manifestations of their ability to inhibit the clearance of extracellular transmitter and/or stimulate the efflux of transmitter from intracellular stores. Here we report the discovery and pharmacological characterization of a rat G protein-coupled receptor that stimulates the production of cAMP when exposed to the trace amines p-tyramine, beta-phenethylamine, tryptamine, and octopamine. An extensive pharmacological survey revealed that psychostimulant and hallucinogenic amphetamines, numerous ergoline derivatives, adrenergic ligands, and 3-methylated metabolites of the catecholamine neurotransmitters are also good agonists at the rat trace amine receptor 1 (rTAR1). These results suggest that the trace amines and catecholamine metabolites may serve as the endogenous ligands of a novel intercellular signaling system found widely throughout the vertebrate brain and periphery. Furthermore, the discovery that amphetamines, including 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy"), are potent rTAR1 agonists suggests that the effects of these widely used drugs may be mediated in part by this receptor as well as their previously characterized targets, the neurotransmitter transporter proteins.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human G-protein-coupled receptors as a tool for the prediction of orphan receptor ligands. (6/65)

BACKGROUND: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most diverse family of transmembrane receptors. They respond to a wide range of stimuli, including small peptides, lipid analogs, amino-acid derivatives, and sensory stimuli such as light, taste and odor, and transmit signals to the interior of the cell through interaction with heterotrimeric G proteins. A large number of putative GPCRs have no identified natural ligand. We hypothesized that a more complete knowledge of the phylogenetic relationship of these orphan receptors to receptors with known ligands could facilitate ligand identification, as related receptors often have ligands with similar structural features. RESULTS: A database search excluding olfactory and gustatory receptors was used to compile a list of accession numbers and synonyms of 81 orphan and 196 human GPCRs with known ligands. Of these, 241 sequences belonging to the rhodopsin receptor-like family A were aligned and a tentative phylogenetic tree constructed by neighbor joining. This tree and local alignment tools were used to define 19 subgroups of family A small enough for more accurate maximum-likelihood analyses. The secretin receptor-like family B and metabotropic glutamate receptor-like family C were directly subjected to these methods. CONCLUSIONS: Our trees show the overall relationship of 277 GPCRs with emphasis on orphan receptors. Support values are given for each branch. This approach may prove valuable for identification of the natural ligands of orphan receptors as their relation to receptors with known ligands becomes more evident.  (+info)

Regulation of chloride permeability by endogenously produced tyramine in the Drosophila Malpighian tubule. (7/65)

The Malpighian (renal) tubule of Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model for studying epithelial transport. The purpose of this study was to identify factors responsible for modulating transepithelial chloride conductance in isolated tubules. I have found that tyrosine and several of its metabolites cause an increase in chloride conductance. The most potent of these agonists is tyramine, which is active at low nanomolar concentrations; the pharmacology of this response matches that of the previously published cloned insect tyramine receptor. In addition, the tubule appears capable of synthesizing tyramine from applied tyrosine, as shown by direct measurement of tyrosine decarboxylase activity. Immunohistochemical staining of tubules with an antibody against tyramine indicates that the principal cells are the sites of tyramine production, whereas previous characterization of the regulation of chloride conductance suggests that tyramine acts on the stellate cells. This is the first demonstration of a physiological role for an insect tyramine receptor.  (+info)

Modulation of early olfactory processing by an octopaminergic reinforcement pathway in the honeybee. (8/65)

Processing of olfactory information in the antennal lobes of insects and olfactory bulbs of vertebrates is modulated by centrifugal inputs that represent reinforcing events. Octopamine release by one such pathway in the honeybee antennal lobe modulates olfactory processing in relation to nectar (sucrose) reinforcement. To test more specifically what role octopamine plays in the antennal lobe, we used two treatments to disrupt an octopamine receptor from Apis mellifera brain (AmOAR) function: (1) an OAR antagonist, mianserin, was used to block receptor function, and (2) AmOAR double-stranded RNA was used to silence receptor expression. Both treatments inhibited olfactory acquisition and recall, but they did not disrupt odor discrimination. These results suggest that octopamine mediates consolidation of a component of olfactory memory at this early processing stage in the antennal lobe. Furthermore, after consolidation, octopamine release becomes essential for recall, which suggests that the modulatory circuits become incorporated as essential components of neural representations that activate odor memory.  (+info)

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Biogenic amine receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to biogenic amines, which are naturally occurring compounds that function as neurotransmitters or hormones in the human body. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, and cognition.

Examples of biogenic amines include:

1. Dopamine (DA): Dopamine receptors are involved in motor control, reward processing, and motivation. They are divided into two main classes: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).
2. Serotonin (5-HT): Serotonin receptors regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception. There are seven distinct families of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), with multiple subtypes within each family.
3. Norepinephrine (NE): Also known as noradrenaline, norepinephrine receptors play a role in the "fight or flight" response, attention, and arousal. They are divided into two main classes: α-adrenergic (α1 and α2) and β-adrenergic (β1, β2, and β3).
4. Histamine (HA): Histamine receptors regulate allergic responses, wakefulness, and appetite. There are four types of histamine receptors (H1 to H4), with distinct functions and signaling pathways.
5. Acetylcholine (ACh): While not a biogenic amine, acetylcholine is often included in this category due to its similar role as a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine receptors are involved in learning, memory, and muscle contraction. They can be further divided into muscarinic (M1-M5) and nicotinic (α and β subunits) receptor classes.

Biogenic amine receptors typically function through G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, although some can also activate ion channels directly. Dysregulation of biogenic amine systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, depression, and schizophrenia.

Octopamine is not primarily used in medical definitions, but it is a significant neurotransmitter in invertebrates, including insects. It is the equivalent to noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vertebrates and has similar functions related to the "fight or flight" response, arousal, and motivation. Insects use octopamine for various physiological processes such as learning, memory, regulation of heart rate, and modulation of muscle contraction. It also plays a role in the social behavior of insects like aggression and courtship.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.

The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

Examples of biogenic monoamines include:

1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.

Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.

Polyphloretin phosphate is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It appears to be a chemical compound that has been studied in the field of pharmacology and biochemistry, particularly for its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as it is not a clinically used medication or a standard diagnostic term.

Polyphloretin phosphate is a derivative of polyphloretin, which is a polyphenolic compound found in the bark of trees such as apple and cherry. It has been suggested that this compound may have various health benefits due to its antioxidant properties, but more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish its safety and efficacy in clinical settings.

Vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of biogenic amines, such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. These proteins are located on the membranes of neurosecretory vesicles and function to regulate the concentration of these neurotransmitters in the cytoplasm and maintain their storage in vesicles until they are released into the synapse during neurotransmission. VMATs are members of the solute carrier family 18 (SLC18) and consist of two isoforms, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and substrate specificity. VMAT1 is primarily found in non-neuronal cells, such as endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, while VMAT2 is predominantly expressed in neurons. Dysregulation of VMATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as norepinephrine transporters (NET), are membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and preventing excessive stimulation of postsynaptic receptors.

The norepinephrine transporter is a member of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and functions as an antiporter, exchanging one intracellular sodium ion for two extracellular sodium ions along with the transport of norepinephrine. This sodium gradient provides the energy required for the active transport process.

Dysregulation of norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these transporters is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Lactobacillales is an order of predominantly gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic or aerotolerant, rod-shaped bacteria. They are non-spore forming and often occur in pairs or chains. Lactobacillales are commonly found in various environments such as plants, sewage, dairy products, and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of humans and animals.

They are known for their ability to produce lactic acid as a major metabolic end product, hence the name "lactic acid bacteria." This characteristic makes them essential in food fermentation processes, including the production of yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, and other fermented foods.

Within Lactobacillales, there are several families, including Aerococcaceae, Carnobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae, and Streptococcaceae. Many species within these families have significant roles in human health and disease, either as beneficial probiotics or as pathogenic agents causing various types of infections.

Kynurenine aminotransferase (also known as Kynuramine transaminase) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of the amino acid tryptophan. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid, which is a neuroprotective compound.

Kynurenine and kynurenic acid are both important components of the kynurenine pathway, which is a major metabolic route for tryptophan in mammals. The kynurenine pathway plays a role in various physiological processes, including the immune response and the regulation of neurotransmission.

Abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Therefore, understanding the enzymes involved in this pathway, including kynuramine transaminase, is important for gaining insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and for developing potential therapeutic strategies.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Tyrosine decarboxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine to form the biogenic amine tyramine. The reaction occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen and requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. Tyrosine decarboxylase is found in various bacteria, fungi, and plants, and it plays a role in the biosynthesis of alkaloids and other natural products. In humans, tyrosine decarboxylase is not normally present, but its activity has been detected in some tumors and is associated with the production of neurotransmitters in neuronal cells.

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC or MEEKC) is a type of chromatographic technique used for the separation and analysis of mixtures. It is a form of capillary electrophoresis, which utilizes an electric field to separate charged analytes based on their electrophoretic mobility. In MECC, micelles, which are aggregates of surfactant molecules, are added to the buffer solution in the capillary. These micelles have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, allowing for the separation of both charged and neutral analytes based on their partitioning between the micellar phase and the bulk buffer solution. This technique is particularly useful for the separation of small molecules, such as drugs, metabolites, and environmental pollutants.

Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine medication that is used to relieve allergic symptoms caused by hay fever, hives, and other allergies. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Chlorpheniramine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, syrup, and injection.

Common side effects of chlorpheniramine include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness. It may also cause more serious side effects such as rapid heartbeat, difficulty breathing, and confusion, especially in elderly people or those with underlying medical conditions. Chlorpheniramine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider, particularly in children, pregnant women, and people with medical conditions such as glaucoma, enlarged prostate, and respiratory disorders.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully when taking chlorpheniramine, as taking too much can lead to overdose and serious complications. If you experience any unusual symptoms or have concerns about your medication, it is best to consult with a healthcare provider.

Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin, formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of serotonin by monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. 5HIAA is primarily excreted in the urine and its measurement can be used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis and metabolism in the body.

Increased levels of 5HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid or urine may indicate conditions associated with excessive serotonin production, such as carcinoid syndrome, while decreased levels may be seen in certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, measuring 5HIAA levels can have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for these conditions.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Metiamide is not generally considered a medical term, but it is a medication that has been used in the past. Medically, metiamide is defined as a synthetic histamine H2-receptor antagonist, which means it blocks the action of histamine at the H2 receptors in the stomach. This effect reduces gastric acid secretion and can be useful in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions associated with excessive stomach acid production.

However, metiamide has largely been replaced by other H2 blockers like cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine due to its association with a rare but serious side effect called agranulocytosis, which is a severe decrease in white blood cell count that can increase the risk of infections.

Methallibure is not a term that has a widely recognized medical definition. It is a chemical compound that was previously used as a research tool in scientific studies, particularly in the field of physiology. Methallibure acts as an antagonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is a type of receptor found in the nervous system that responds to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

In the past, methallibure was also investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for various conditions, including hypertension and asthma. However, it was never developed for clinical use due to its narrow therapeutic index and potential for toxicity. Therefore, it is not commonly mentioned in medical contexts or used in medical practice.

Biogenic polyamines are organic compounds that contain multiple amino groups and are produced by living organisms. The most common biogenic polyamines found in mammalian cells include putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. These molecules play important roles in various cellular processes such as gene expression, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are derived from the decarboxylation of amino acids, particularly ornithine and arginine, through enzymatic reactions involving polyamine biosynthetic pathways. Abnormal levels of biogenic polyamines have been associated with several diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Salsoline alkaloids are a type of natural toxin found in some plants, particularly in the family Solanaceae, which includes nightshades. These alkaloids consist of several compounds, including salsoline, salsolidine, and isosalsolidine. They can be found in various plants such as *Salsola tuberculatiformis*, *Salsola kali*, and *Rhizothera americana*. Salsoline alkaloids have been reported to have a range of pharmacological effects, including vasoconstrictive, diuretic, and stimulant properties. However, they can also be toxic in high concentrations, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and seizures.

Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as serotonin transporters (SERTs), are membrane-spanning proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and allowing for its recycling or degradation.

Structurally, SERTs belong to the family of sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and contain 12 transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The binding site for serotonin is located within the transmembrane domain, while the substrate-binding site is formed by residues from both the transmembrane and extracellular loops.

Serotonin transporters are important targets for various psychotropic medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These drugs act by blocking the SERT, increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of serotonin transporters has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse.

Mazindol is a prescription medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as sympathomimetic amines or anorectics. It has been used in the treatment of obesity, as it works by reducing appetite and increasing the amount of energy that the body uses. Mazindol affects certain chemicals in the brain that control appetite.

It's important to note that mazindol is not commonly used today due to its potential for abuse and serious side effects. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use is typically reserved for individuals with severe obesity who have not responded to other treatment options.

Mianserin is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders. It functions by inhibiting the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline, thereby increasing their availability in the brain and helping to alleviate symptoms of depression.

Mianserin also has additional properties, including antihistamine and anti-cholinergic effects, which can help reduce some side effects commonly associated with other antidepressants, such as insomnia and agitation. However, these same properties can also lead to side effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth, and orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure upon standing).

It's important to note that mianserin is not commonly prescribed due to its narrow therapeutic index and the risk of serious side effects, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), which can increase the risk of infection. As with any medication, it should only be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Phenylacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group) and an acetic acid group. In the context of medicine, sodium phenylacetate is used in the treatment of certain metabolic disorders, such as urea cycle disorders, to help remove excess ammonia from the body. It does this by conjugating with glycine to form phenylacetylglutamine, which can then be excreted in the urine.

It is important to note that the use of phenylacetates should be under the supervision of a medical professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects.

Methylhistamines are not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. However, the term "methylhistamine" may refer to the metabolic breakdown product of the antihistamine drug, diphenhydramine, which is also known as N-methyldiphenhydramine or dimenhydrinate.

Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine that works by blocking the action of histamine, a chemical released during an allergic reaction. When diphenhydramine is metabolized in the body, it is converted into several breakdown products, including methylhistamines.

Methylhistamines are not known to have any specific pharmacological activity or clinical significance. However, they can be used as a marker for the presence of diphenhydramine or its metabolism in the body.

Phenethylamines are a class of organic compounds that share a common structural feature, which is a phenethyl group (a phenyl ring bonded to an ethylamine chain). In the context of pharmacology and neuroscience, "phenethylamines" often refers to a specific group of psychoactive drugs, including stimulants like amphetamine and mescaline, a classic psychedelic. These compounds exert their effects by modulating the activity of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. It is important to note that many phenethylamines have potential for abuse and are controlled substances.

Neurotransmitter agents are substances that affect the synthesis, storage, release, uptake, degradation, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron to another. These agents can be either agonists, which mimic the action of a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor, or antagonists, which block the action of a neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor without activating it. They are used in medicine to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.

Lactobacillus brevis is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in various environments such as plants, soil, and fermented foods like sauerkraut, pickles, and sourdough bread. Lactobacillus brevis is also part of the normal microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina.

This bacterium is known for its ability to produce lactic acid as a metabolic end-product, which contributes to the preservation and fermentation of food. Lactobacillus brevis can also produce other compounds with potential health benefits, such as bacteriocins, which have antibacterial properties against certain pathogenic bacteria.

In some cases, Lactobacillus brevis has been investigated for its probiotic potential, although more research is needed to fully understand its effects on human health. It's important to note that while some strains of Lactobacillus brevis may have beneficial properties, others can cause infections in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

Synephrine is an alkaloid compound that naturally occurs in some plants, such as bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). It is similar in structure to ephedrine and is often used as a dietary supplement for weight loss, as a stimulant, and to treat low blood pressure. Synephrine acts on the adrenergic receptors, particularly the α1-adrenergic receptor, leading to vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. It also has mild stimulatory effects on the central nervous system.

It is important to note that synephrine can have potential side effects, including increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and interactions with other medications. Its use should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as dopamine transporters (DAT), are a type of protein found in the cell membrane that play a crucial role in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transduction of dopamine and regulating the amount of dopamine available for further release.

Dopamine transporters belong to the family of sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and are encoded by the SLC6A3 gene in humans. Abnormalities in dopamine transporter function have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders.

In summary, dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins are essential for the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission by mediating the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron.

Reserpine is an alkaloid derived from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant, which has been used in traditional medicine for its sedative and hypotensive effects. In modern medicine, reserpine is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) due to its ability to lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Reserpine works by depleting catecholamines, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, from nerve terminals in the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and heart rate, ultimately resulting in reduced blood pressure.

Reserpine is available in various forms, such as tablets or capsules, and is typically administered orally. Common side effects include nasal congestion, dizziness, sedation, and gastrointestinal disturbances like diarrhea and nausea. Long-term use of reserpine may also lead to depression in some individuals. Due to its potential for causing depression, other antihypertensive medications are often preferred over reserpine when possible.

Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group from a molecule and releases carbon dioxide (CO2) as a result. In the context of medical chemistry, decarboxylation is a crucial process in the activation of certain acidic precursor compounds into their biologically active forms.

For instance, when discussing phytocannabinoids found in cannabis plants, decarboxylation converts non-psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into psychoactive delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) through the removal of a carboxyl group. This reaction typically occurs when the plant material is exposed to heat, such as during smoking or vaporization, or when it undergoes aging.

In summary, decarboxylation refers to the chemical process that removes a carboxyl group from a molecule and releases CO2, which can activate certain acidic precursor compounds into their biologically active forms in medical chemistry.

"Saguinus" is a genus of small, New World monkeys that are commonly known as tamarins. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. Tamarins have a slender body with long limbs, a specialized claw-like nail on their second digit of the foot, and a distinct coat coloration that varies between species. They primarily feed on fruits, insects, and exudates from trees. Tamarins are also known for their social structure, typically living in family groups consisting of a mated pair and their offspring.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Methyltyrosines" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine or biochemistry. It seems that there might be some misunderstanding or typo in your question.

If you are referring to "3-Methoxytyrosine" or "3-MT," it is a metabolite of dopamine, which is formed in the body by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). 3-MT can be measured in various biological samples, such as urine or plasma, to evaluate the activity of COMT and assess the exposure to drugs that inhibit this enzyme.

If you meant something else by "Methyltyrosines," please provide more context or clarify your question so I can give a more accurate answer.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

Putrescine is an organic compound with the chemical formula NH2(CH2)4NH2. It is a colorless, viscous liquid that is produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living organisms and is often associated with putrefaction, hence its name. Putrescine is a type of polyamine, which is a class of organic compounds that contain multiple amino groups.

Putrescine is produced in the body through the decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine by the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. It is involved in various cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression and cell growth. However, at high concentrations, putrescine can be toxic to cells and has been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as cancer.

Putrescine is also found in various foods, including meats, fish, and some fruits and vegetables. It contributes to the unpleasant odor that develops during spoilage, which is why putrescine is often used as an indicator of food quality and safety.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Imipramine has been found to be effective in treating various types of depression, including major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depression that is resistant to other treatments.

In addition to its antidepressant effects, imipramine is also used off-label for the treatment of several other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enuresis (bedwetting), and chronic pain.

Imipramine was first synthesized in the 1950s and has been widely used since then. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and liquid solutions. As with all medications, imipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and sedation. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or seizures.

It is important to use imipramine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as dosages may need to be adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment. Additionally, imipramine should not be stopped abruptly, as doing so can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a recurrence of depression.

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) is defined in medical terms as a powerful synthetic hallucinogenic drug. It is derived from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on grains such as rye. LSD is typically distributed as a liquid, tablets, or thin squares of gelatin (commonly known as window panes). It is odorless, colorless, and has a slightly bitter taste.

LSD is considered one of the most potent mood-changing chemicals. Its effects, often called a "trip," can be stimulating, pleasurable, and mind-altering or they can lead to an unpleasant, sometimes terrifying experience called a "bad trip." The effects of LSD are unpredictable depending on factors such as the user's personality, mood, expectations, and the environment in which the drug is used.

In the medical field, LSD has been studied for its potential benefits in treating certain mental health conditions, such as anxiety and depression associated with life-threatening illnesses, but further research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy. It's important to note that the use of LSD outside of approved medical settings and supervision is not legal in most countries and can lead to serious legal consequences.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

'Wine' is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice. It contains ethanol and can have varying levels of other compounds depending on the type of grape used, the region where it was produced, and the method of fermentation.

In a medical context, wine might be referred to in terms of its potential health effects, which can vary. Moderate consumption of wine, particularly red wine, has been associated with certain health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health. However, heavy or excessive drinking can lead to numerous health problems, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and an increased risk of various types of cancer.

It's important to note that while moderate consumption may have some health benefits, the potential risks of alcohol consumption generally outweigh the benefits for many people. Therefore, it's recommended that individuals who do not currently drink alcohol should not start drinking for health benefits. Those who choose to drink should do so in moderation, defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Phenelzine is a type of medication known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which breaks down certain chemicals in the brain such as neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine). This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Phenelzine is primarily used off-label for the treatment of depression that has not responded to other antidepressant medications. It is also used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like phenelzine have several dietary restrictions and potential serious drug interactions due to their mechanism of action. Therefore, they are typically considered a last resort when other antidepressants have failed.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about the term "cheese" in a general and food science context. Cheese is a dairy product made from the curdled milk of various animals, most commonly cows, goats, or sheep. The process involves enzymes (such as rennet) to coagulate milk proteins (casein), which then separate from the liquid whey. The curds are then aged, treated, and processed in various ways to create different types of cheese with unique flavors, textures, and appearances.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition related to health issues or conditions, I would recommend consulting a reliable medical resource or speaking with a healthcare professional.

Malpighian tubules are specialized excretory structures found in the circulatory system of many arthropods, including insects. They are named after Marcello Malpighi, an Italian physician and biologist who was one of the first to describe them. These tubules play a crucial role in eliminating waste products and maintaining water and ion balance within the insect's body.

Functionally, Malpighian tubules are analogous to the vertebrate kidneys as they filter the hemolymph (insect blood) and reabsorb necessary substances while excreting waste materials. The main waste product excreted by these tubules is uric acid, which is a less toxic form of nitrogenous waste compared to urea or ammonia, making it more suitable for terrestrial arthropods.

Malpighian tubules originate from the midgut epithelium and extend into the hemocoel (insect body cavity). They are lined with a single layer of epithelial cells that contain microvilli, increasing their surface area for efficient filtration. The tubules receive nutrient-rich hemolymph from the hemocoel through open-ended or blind-ended structures called ostia.

The filtrate formed by Malpighian tubules passes through a series of cellular transport processes involving both active and passive transport mechanisms. These processes help in reabsorbing water, ions, and nutrients back into the hemolymph while concentrating waste products for excretion. The final waste-laden fluid is then released into the hindgut, where it gets mixed with fecal material before being eliminated from the body through the anus.

In summary, Malpighian tubules are vital excretory organs in arthropods that filter hemolymph, reabsorb essential substances, and excrete waste products to maintain homeostasis within their bodies.

Dihydroxyphenylalanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that is often referred to in the context of biochemistry and neuroscience. It is also known as levodopa or L-DOPA for short.

L-DOPA is a precursor to dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in regulating movement, emotion, and cognition. In the brain, L-DOPA is converted into dopamine through the action of an enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase.

L-DOPA is used medically to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). In Parkinson's disease, the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain gradually degenerate, leading to a deficiency of dopamine. By providing L-DOPA as a replacement therapy, doctors can help alleviate some of the symptoms of the disease.

It is important to note that L-DOPA has potential side effects and risks, including nausea, dizziness, and behavioral changes. Long-term use of L-DOPA can also lead to motor complications such as dyskinesias (involuntary movements) and fluctuations in response to the medication. Therefore, it is typically used in combination with other medications and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Agmatine is a natural decarboxylated derivative of the amino acid L-arginine. It is formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is involved in various biological processes, including serving as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system. It has been shown to play roles in regulating pain perception, insulin secretion, cardiovascular function, and cell growth. Agmatine can also interact with several receptors, such as imidazoline receptors, α2-adrenergic receptors, and NMDA receptors, which contributes to its diverse physiological effects.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a chemical compound that is produced by the body as a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain sensation. 5-HTP is not present in food but can be derived from the amino acid tryptophan, which is found in high-protein foods such as turkey, chicken, milk, and cheese.

5-HTP supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions related to low serotonin levels, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraines, and fibromyalgia. However, the effectiveness of 5-HTP for these conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects and interact with certain medications. Therefore, it's important to consult a healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP supplements.

Equilibrative nucleoside transport proteins (ENTs) are a type of membrane transporter that regulate the bidirectional movement of nucleosides across the cell membrane. They facilitate the diffusion of nucleosides down their concentration gradient, hence the term "equilibrative." These transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining intracellular nucleoside concentrations and ensuring proper nucleotide synthesis for various cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and gene expression. There are two major families of ENTs: the human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs) and the concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs). The hENT family includes four members (hENT1-4), while the CNT family consists of three members (CNT1-3). These transport proteins have been identified as potential targets for cancer therapy, as inhibiting their function can selectively sensitize tumor cells to nucleoside analog-based chemotherapies.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

... are a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that are sensitive to biogenic amine neurotransmitters. ... The biogenic amine receptors include the monoamine receptors. Lawrence I. Gilbert (18 September 2009). Insect development: ... "Biogenic amines in neural signaling". Institute for Biological Information Processing. Archived from the original on 2006-07-15 ... They mostly belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family of transmembrane receptors, specifically within GPCR "Family ...
ISBN 978-0-203-33776-9. Iversen L (2012). Biogenic Amine Receptors. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4684- ... D1-receptor agonists, D2-receptor agonists, D3 receptor agonists, D4 receptor agonists, D5 receptor agonists, Erectile ... The members of the D2 subfamily, consisting of D2, D3, and D4 receptors, are inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors. The D4 ... D1-like receptors. It also acts as an antagonist of 5-HT2 and α-adrenergic receptors with high affinity. The compound is ...
This receptor is activated by the biogenic amine histamine. It is expressed in smooth muscles, on vascular endothelial cells, ... Histamine receptor antagonists H1-receptor antagonist Histamine H2-receptor Histamine H3-receptor Histamine H4-receptor GRCh38 ... The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors. ... The H1-receptor is a transmembrane protein belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor family. Signal transduction from the ...
Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines. Springer. pp. 1-35. ISBN 978-1-4684-3171-1. Griffith RK (2013). "Chapter 10: Adrenergic ... known as alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. Alpha receptors are divided into subtypes α1 and α2; beta receptors into subtypes ... depending on whether they primarily block alpha-1 receptors, alpha-2 receptors, or both. Alpha-2 receptors, as described ... Alpha-1 receptors and all three types of beta receptors usually have excitatory effects. Inside the brain norepinephrine ...
"Interaction of psychoactive tryptamines with biogenic amine transporters and serotonin receptor subtypes". Psychopharmacology. ... "Quasi-atomistic Receptor Surrogates for the 5-HT2A Receptor: A 3D-QSAR Study on Hallucinogenic Substances". Quantitative ... 5-MeO-DET inhibits serotonin reuptake with an IC50 value of 2.4 μM and activates 5-HT2A receptors with an EC50 value of 8.11 nM ... Glennon RA, Gessner PK (April 1979). "Serotonin receptor binding affinities of tryptamine analogues". Journal of Medicinal ...
"Interaction of psychoactive tryptamines with biogenic amine transporters and serotonin receptor subtypes". Psychopharmacology. ... This side effect has been attributed to their additional action of potent agonism of the 5-HT2B receptor. The designer drug 4- ... Many tryptamines, such as DMT, DET, DPT, DiPT, psilocin, and bufotenin, are SRAs as well as non-selective serotonin receptor ... These drugs are serotonergic psychedelics, which is a consequence of their ability to activate the 5-HT2A receptor. αET and αMT ...
"Biogenic amines activate blood leukocytes via trace amine-associated receptors TAAR1 and TAAR2". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. ... Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), sometimes referred to as trace amine receptors (TAs or TARs), are a class of G ... "Trace Amine Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology ... Olfactory receptor Odorant Pheromone Pheromone receptor Psychostimulant Thyronamine Trace amine Borowsky B, Adham N, Jones KA, ...
Khan MZ, Nawaz W (October 2016). "The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) ... A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with one or more amine groups. They are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by ... However, food containing high amounts of biogenic amines may have toxicological effects. Biogenic amines are naturally present ... In this sense, biogenic amines in wines have been widely studied. The determination of amines in wines is commonly achieved by ...
Cikos S, Gregor P, Koppel J (Nov 2001). "Cloning of a novel biogenic amine receptor-like G protein-coupled receptor expressed ... The protein encoded by this gene is most closely related to biogenic amine receptors. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... This gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. G protein-coupled receptors contain 7 transmembrane domains and ... 2005). "A key role for transmembrane prolines in calcitonin receptor-like receptor agonist binding and signalling: implications ...
GPCRs respond to extracellular signals mediated by a huge diversity of agonists, ranging from proteins to biogenic amines to ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptors, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... G protein-coupled receptors database List of MeSH codes (D12.776) Metabotropic receptor Orphan receptor Pepducins, a class of ... is a receptor that can bind with stimulative signal molecules, while inhibitory hormone receptor (Ri) is a receptor that can ...
These can include purines and biogenic amines. Due to Enthemonae not having a centralised gland system, it makes it difficult ... However, the exact receptors they target are either unknown or incomplete. All cnidarians lack a centralised venom system and ... Interact with the receptors causing an altered neural transmission through interacting with voltage-gated and ligated ion ...
"Biogenic amines activate blood leukocytes via trace amine-associated receptors TAAR1 and TAAR2". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. ... TAAR1 trace amine associated receptor 1". Maguire JJ, Davenport AP (20 February 2018). "Trace amine receptor: TA1 receptor". ... Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the ... "Actions of Trace Amines in the Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis via Trace Amine-Associated Receptor-1 (TAAR1)". Cellular and Molecular ...
"Biogenic amines activate blood leukocytes via trace amine-associated receptors TAAR1 and TAAR2". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. ... Trace amine-associated receptor 2 (TAAR2), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor 58 (GPR58), is a protein that in humans ... Trace amine Trace amine-associated receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000146378 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... Khan MZ, Nawaz W (October 2016). "The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) ...
Biogenic Amines. 18 (3): 319-328. doi:10.1163/1569391041501933. Blier P, Curet O, Chaput Y, de Montigny C (July 1991). " ... receptors, and is essentially inactive at the 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, β-adrenergic, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, serotonin ... Tandospirone acts as a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, with a Ki affinity value of 27 ± 5 nM and ... Levine LR, Potter WZ (2012). "The 5-HT1A receptor: an unkept promise". In Briley M, Nutt D (eds.). Anxiolytics. Milestones in ...
In mammals, histamine is an important biogenic amine with regulatory roles in neurotransmission, gastric acid secretion and ... West RE, Zweig A, Shih NY, Siegel MI, Egan RW, Clark MA (November 1990). "Identification of two H3-histamine receptor subtypes ... Histamine is an important biogenic amine that moderates numerous physiologic processes. There are four different histamine ... Histamine Receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 67 (3): 601-55. doi:10.1124/pr.114.010249. PMC 4485016. PMID 26084539. Canonica ...
... particularly biogenic amines such as dopamine and serotonin. These neuromodulators use G-protein coupled receptors which ... Much like the serotonin receptors in Aplysia, dopamine receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that activate cAMP production ... Commonly, this plasticity leads to long-term depression, LTD, mediated by dopamine D1 class receptors. These receptors' ... NMDAR subunits also change as neurons mature, increasing the receptor's conductance property. These mechanisms facilitate Ca2+ ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... threohydrobupropion has also been reported to inhibit α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, with an IC50 value of 14 μM. ... Secondary amines, Secondary alcohols, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ... Bupropion is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor negative allosteric modulator, ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... It is also an antagonist of the histamine H1 receptor, α1-adrenergic receptor, serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, and muscarinic ... being a secondary amine. Other tertiary amine TCAs include amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, doxepin, and trimipramine. ... Richelson E, Nelson A (1984). "Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro". J. ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... hydroxybupropion is also a non-competitive antagonist of nACh receptors, such as α4β2 and α3β4, but is even more potent in ... effects of hydroxy metabolites of bupropion on behavior and on function of monoamine transporters and nicotinic receptors". ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... H1 receptor antagonists, Muscarinic antagonists, Serotonin receptor antagonists, Sigma agonists, Sodium channel blockers, ... Jang SW, Liu X, Chan CB, Weinshenker D, Hall RA, Xiao G, Ye K (June 2009). "Amitriptyline is a TrkA and TrkB receptor agonist ... Schmuck K, Ullmer C, Kalkman HO, Probst A, Lubbert H (1996). "Activation of meningeal 5-HT2B receptors: an early step in the ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... Unlike other tertiary amine TCAs, lofepramine has a bulky 4-chlorobenzoylmethyl substituent on its amine instead of a methyl ... Lofepramine is a tertiary amine TCA, with its side chain-demethylated metabolite desipramine being a secondary amine. ... and is more similar to secondary amine TCAs in its effects. Other secondary amine TCAs besides desipramine include ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... Bupropion acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor and a nicotinic receptor antagonist. However, its effects on ... and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The occupancy of dopamine transporter (DAT) by bupropion (300 mg/day) and its ... Bupropion has no meaningful direct activity at a variety of receptors, including α- and β-adrenergic, dopamine, serotonin, ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... Sigma receptor: activity on sigma receptors is present, but it is very weak (Ki = 520 nM) and it is about half that of ... Imipramine is a tertiary amine TCA, with its side chain-demethylated metabolite desipramine being a secondary amine. Other ... Glycine receptor antagonists, H1 receptor antagonists, Muscarinic antagonists, Nicotinic antagonists, Novartis brands, ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... It also has high affinity for the α1-adrenergic receptor and serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, and relatively lower affinity for the ... Nefazodone acts primarily as a potent antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor and to a lesser extent of the serotonin 5- ... Millan MJ (2005). "Serotonin 5-HT2C receptors as a target for the treatment of depressive and anxious states: focus on novel ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... a secondary amine, and hence is more similar in profile to the secondary amines than to the tertiary amines. Amoxapine does not ... and NMDA receptors, and as agonists at the sigma receptors (σ1 and σ2), some of which may contribute to their therapeutic ... With the exception of the sigma receptors, the TCAs act as antagonists or inverse agonists of the receptors and as inhibitors ...
Monoamine reuptake inhibitor Monoamine receptor Monoamine oxidase Monoamine transporter Monoamine Hypothesis Biogenic amine ... Khan MZ, Nawaz W (October 2016). "The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) ... "The emerging role of trace amine-associated receptor 1 in the functional regulation of monoamine transporters and dopaminergic ... Trace amines are metabolized in the mammalian body via monoamine oxidase (MAO; EC 1.4.3.4) (Berry, 2004) (Fig. 2) ... It ...
... biogenic amines, steroid hormones, auxins, gibberellins etc. These first messengers interact with cellular receptors which are ... This is because venom constituents (peptides, enzymes, nucleotides, lipids, biogenic amines etc.) often have very specific ... Cellular receptors in turn activate second messengers are used to relay the extracellular message to intracellular targets. ... Because of these specific chemical-target interactions, venom constituents have proved important tools for studying receptors, ...
"Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding". ... Desipramine is a secondary amine TCA, with its N-methylated parent imipramine being a tertiary amine. Other secondary amine ... Secondary amines, Serotonin receptor antagonists, Sodium channel blockers, Stimulants, Tricyclic antidepressants). ... The chemical name of desipramine is 3-(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-1-amine and its free base form ...
"Modulation of Monoamine Transporters by Common Biogenic Amines via Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 and Monoamine ... The D2sh autoreceptor has been shown recently to interact with the trace amine-assorted receptor 1 (TAAR1), a G-Coupled Protein ... Xie z, W. S. (2007). "Rhesus Monkey Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Signaling: Enhancement by Monoamine Transporters and ... Xie Z, Miller GM (2009). "Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 as a Monoaminergic Modulator in Brain". Biochemical Pharmacology. ...
"Modulation of monoamine transporters by common biogenic amines via trace amine-associated receptor 1 and monoamine ... Khan MZ, Nawaz W (October 2016). "The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) ... They propose projects of regulations aimed to enact control of biogenic amines in food by various strategies, including usage ... Navarro HA, Gilmour BP, Lewin AH (September 2006). "A rapid functional assay for the human trace amine-associated receptor 1 ...
Biogenic amine receptor are a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that are sensitive to biogenic amine neurotransmitters. ... The biogenic amine receptors include the monoamine receptors. Lawrence I. Gilbert (18 September 2009). Insect development: ... "Biogenic amines in neural signaling". Institute for Biological Information Processing. Archived from the original on 2006-07-15 ... They mostly belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family of transmembrane receptors, specifically within GPCR "Family ...
G protein-coupled receptors [BR:rno04030]. Rhodopsin family. Biogenic amine. Serotonin. 24473 (Htr1a). ... 04080 Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. 24473 (Htr1a). 09150 Organismal Systems. 09156 Nervous system. 04726 ... 04030 G protein-coupled receptors [BR:rno04030]. 24473 (Htr1a). ...
Its diversity of pharmacologic actions is related to a wide variety of receptors and effector mechanisms. Seven seroto … ... is an important biogenic amine that fulfills the role of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It has been a focus of interest ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is an important biogenic amine that fulfills the role of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. ... The majority of these are G-protein-coupled, except the 5-HT3 receptors, which are directly ligand gated to fast ion channels. ...
... including odorant receptors (ORs), trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs), sweet and umami ... Approximately half of the members of the human GPCR superfamily are chemosensory receptors, ... taste receptors (TAS1Rs). Interestingly, these chemosensory GPCRs (csGPCRs) are expressed in several tissues of the body where ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to the largest class of drug targets. ...
"Deorphanization of novel biogenic amine-gated ion channels identifies a new serotonin receptor for learning." Current biology ... Changes in glycine receptor subunit expression in forebrain regions of the Wistar rat over development.. Jonsson S, Morud J, ... Interleukin-6 receptor α is co-localised with melanin-concentrating hormone in human and mouse hypothalamus.. Schéle E, Fekete ... Regulation of androgen receptor expression alters AMPK phosphorylation in the endometrium: in vivo and in vitro studies in ...
The degree to which an amphetamine can stimulate the receptors of these biogenic amines depends on the chemical substituents on ... 5] Long-term use can lead to a depletion of biogenic amine stores and a paradoxical reverse effect of the drug-a wash out. ... Amphetamine compounds cause a general efflux of biogenic amines from neuronal synaptic terminals (indirect sympathomimetics). ... Amphetamines also inhibit monoamine oxidase, which degrades biogenic amine neurotransmitters intracellularly. The net effect is ...
Neuropeptides and biogenic amines mainly act through what receptors?. Definition. 1) GPCRs (metabotropic). ... What biogenic amine is hypothesized to be at the heart of the mechanisms of all addictive drugs?. ... receptors belong to the large super family of seven transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptors. ... Acetylcholine binds to cholinergic receptors also known as __________ or __________ receptors.. Definition. 1) Nicortinic. 2) ...
Slikker W Jr Biogenic amines as biomarkers for neurotoxicity Biomed Environ Sci 1991 4(1-2):207-16 ... concentrations by HPLC/EC and dopamine receptor binding by radioligand receptor techniques. A review of the background, ... Our findings indicate that components of the biogenic amine systems can be used as sensitive neurochemical biomarkers of ... In our present presentation, two biogenic amine systems were selected as examples of biomarkers for neurotoxicity. To ...
Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and ... the biogenic amines octopamine, dopamine and glutamate) are also involved in the regulation of CA activity16. However, although ... BgSvp nuclear receptors play a central role in the adult stage of B. germanica. To examine the role of BgSvp isoforms, we used ... Consistently, we found that this 20E-induced cascade of nuclear receptors, composed by BgE75A, BgHR3-A, BgHR4, and BgFTZ-F1 was ...
This biogenic amine is fermented by microorganisms from histidine through the activity of histidine decarboxylase. Drosophila ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in insects and also the target site ... Annotation and Analysis of 3902 Odorant Receptor Protein Sequences from 21 Insect Species Provide Insights into the Evolution ... specifically the heterodimeric binding between a JH receptor (JHR) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC), the induction of ...
... the highest similarity to M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and overall low homology to all other biogenic amine receptors ... that had significant homology to biogenic amine receptors. The GPCR97 clone was used to probe a human thalamus library, which ... but not to acetylcholine or any other biogenic amine. Subsequent analysis revealed a pharmacological profile practically ... Cloning and Functional Expression of the Human Histamine H3 Receptor. Timothy W. Lovenberg, Barbara L. Roland, Sandy J. Wilson ...
This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines, Their Receptors and Transporters in Health and Disease: ... G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Selectively Enhances β-Arrestin Recruitment to the D2 Dopamine Receptor through Mechanisms ... GPCR kinases (GRKs) are the primary drivers of GPCR phosphorylation, and for many receptors, receptor phosphorylation is ... However, GRK-mediated receptor phosphorylation is not required for β-arrestin recruitment to the D2R, and the role of GRKs in ...
Tyramine is a biogenic amine that signals through trace amine-associated receptors. Bacteria can synthesize tyramine from ... Actions of trace amines in the brain-gut-microbiome axis via trace amine-associated receptor-1 (TAAR1). Cell Mol Neurobiol. ... Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature. Br J Nutr. 2009;101(11):1645-52. ...
Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines. Springer. pp. 1-35. ISBN 978-1-4684-3171-1. .. ... known as alpha and beta adrenergic receptors.[13] Alpha receptors are divided into subtypes α1 and α2; beta receptors into ... depending on whether they primarily block alpha-1 receptors, alpha-2 receptors, or both. Alpha-2 receptors, as described ... Adrenergic receptors in the mammal brain and body[13]. Family Receptor Type Mechanism ...
Modulation of monoamine transporters by common biogenic amines via trace amine-associated receptor 1 and monoamine ... Beta-phenylethylamine alters monoamine transporter function via trace amine-associated receptor 1: implication for modulatory ... roles of trace amines in brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 May; 325(2):617-28. ...
... and the biogenic amine Serotonin. Three GPCRs clustered with recently identified putative CHH receptors (CHHRs), and ... Three putative CHH receptors were identified and could include an MIH receptor whose activation negatively regulates molting. ... Phylogenetic analysis classified 49 as class A (Rhodopsin-like receptor), 35 as class B (Secretin receptor), and 9 as class C ( ... including LGR3 and Corazonin receptor, the latter of which was expressed at much higher level than all other receptors, ...
... is a biogenic amine that is also called a tissue hormone. After the discovery of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) in 2000, the ... Investigation on the role of histamine H4 receptor as compared to other receptors in allergic inflammation of the skin. This ... TRPV1 (the receptor activated by the active ingredient of hot chilies (capsaicin)) is an important calcium channel involved in ... The histamine H4 receptor has been functionally characterized in several immune cells involved in allergic diseases. Another ...
Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals ... Neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic cells change to match the identity of the newly expressed neurotransmitter. ... I then discuss the influence of several biogenic amines and neuropeptides on aggressive behavior. One striking characteristic ... In these cases, neurotransmitter switching and receptor matching thus change the polarity of the circuit in which they take ...
Biogenic Amine Receptor Biogenic Amine Receptors Biogenic Amines Receptors Receptor, Biogenic Amine Receptors, Biogenic Amines ... Biogenic Amine Receptor. Biogenic Amine Receptors. Biogenic Amines Receptors. Receptor, Biogenic Amine. Receptors, Biogenic ... Receptors, Biogenic Amine - Preferred Concept UI. M0027156. Scope note. Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with ... Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, ...
Hicks TP The mysterious trace amines: protean neuromodulators of synaptic transmission in mammalian brain Prog Neurobiol 2006 ... While binding sites or receptors for a few of the trace amines have been advanced, the absence of cloned receptor protein has ... A substantial body of evidence suggests that the trace amines may play very significant roles in the coordination of biogenic ... The recent discovery and characterization of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors responsive to trace amines such ...
Dopamine is a biogenic amine synthesized in the hypothalamus, in the arcuate nucleus, the caudad, and various areas of the ... Antagonists of DA 1 receptors are SCH23390 and clozapine. Clozapine is used for treating schizophrenia. D4. RDS. D1+D2. ... Among DA 2 receptor antagonists, we can mention metoclopramide, domperidone, sulpiride, and haloperidol. From a therapeutic ... Among DA 1 receptor agonists, we can mention fenoldopam, piribedil, ibopamine, SKF 3893, and apomorphine (nonspecific). ...
... receptors should be separated into two different classes among the subgroup of biogenic amine receptors of the rhodopsin-like ... The GPCR-A17 class includes all 5-HT2 and 5-HT6 receptors, while 5-HT1, 5-HT4 5HT-5 and 5HT7 receptors form an individual class ... Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human G-protein-coupled receptors as a tool for the prediction of orphan receptor ligands. Gen. ... 5-HT receptor subtypes listed: 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2 ,5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, 5-HT7. ...
Receptors, Biogenic Amine [D12.776.543.750.670]. *Receptors, Histamine [D12.776.543.750.670.450]. *Receptors, Histamine H1 [ ... A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate ... "Receptors, Histamine H1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, Histamine H1" by people in this website by year, ...
... vesicles are rendered dysfunctional as a result of their interaction with reserpine and the depletion of biogenic amines ... The reserpine receptor. Life Sci 1978;23:82-92.. 18. Gogte VM. Medicinal Plants, Part III in Ayurvedic Pharmacology and ... on H 1 and H 2 receptors as well as on the gastric H+K+-ATPase or the proton pump of the parietal cell, by the reverse ... and H 2 receptor blockers and so on.[11],[12],[13] The alkaloids of R. serpentina, reserpine and ajmalcine, have served as ...
Receptors and neurotransmitters important in the actions of psychopharmacological agents *Biogenic amines ...
Aminergic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that transduce signals from small endogenous biogenic amines to ... GPR61 is an orphan GPCR related to biogenic amine receptors. Its association with phenotypes relating to appetite makes it of ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large family of cell surface receptors, contain unstructured regions in the form of the ... Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina , Transdução de Sinais , beta-Arrestinas/genética , beta-Arrestinas/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo ...
Biogenic amines and their receptors in insects. . Comp. Biochem. Physiol.. 107C. , 1 ... Mianserin, a serotonin receptor antagonist, and SKF83566, a dopamine receptor antagonist, effectively blocked the rotational ... Molecular cloning studies of invertebrate receptors have established that members of specific receptor families as determined ... In H. trivolvis embryos, cilia contain at least two different serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Hel and 5-HT7Hel, and it has been ...
Biogenic amines in the nervous system of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana: association of octopamine with mushroom bodies ... Localization of biogenic amine-containing neurones in the ventral nerve cord of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana) ... The insect receptor and the Lymnaea receptors studied by Audesirk (1989), however, do have a number of characteristics in ... If receptors sensitive to dopamine in the insect CNS have similar properties to mammalian dopamine receptors, the effects of ...
  • Biogenic amine receptor are a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that are sensitive to biogenic amine neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is an important biogenic amine that fulfills the role of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. (nih.gov)
  • Histamine regulates neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous systems through H 3 presynaptic receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic cells change to match the identity of the newly expressed neurotransmitter. (deepdyve.com)
  • In these cases, neurotransmitter switching and receptor matching thus change the polarity of the circuit in which they take place. (deepdyve.com)
  • While some are synthesized in their parent amine neurotransmitter systems, there is also evidence to suggest other trace amines may comprise their own independent neurotransmitter systems. (erowid.org)
  • Until recently, insect central neuropharmacology has focused mainly upon receptors for acetylcholine (ACh) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are both major neurotransmitter candidates in the insect central nervous system (CNS) (see Pitman, 1985 ). (silverchair.com)
  • In the human brain, 2-phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter (a trace amine). (hmdb.ca)
  • Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a biogenic amine which acts as a neurotransmitter within the CNS and ENS. (healthaid.co.uk)
  • 2007 ) All aglow about presynaptic receptor regulation of neurotransmitter transporters. (academictree.org)
  • Blakely RD, Defelice LJ, Galli A. ( 2005 ) Biogenic amine neurotransmitter transporters: just when you thought you knew them. (academictree.org)
  • The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to receptor proteins on the postsynaptic membrane. (utoronto.ca)
  • Amphetamines also inhibit monoamine oxidase, which degrades biogenic amine neurotransmitters intracellularly. (medscape.com)
  • The trace amines also possess electrophysiological effects that are in opposition to these neurotransmitters, indicating to some researchers the existence of receptors specific for the trace amines. (erowid.org)
  • Several selective agonists and particularly many selective antagonists have been developed for serotonin, which helped the serotonin receptor subtype classification. (nih.gov)
  • The phenylethylamine structure of amphetamines (see the image below) is similar to catecholaminergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic agonists (biogenic amines), which may explain their actions. (medscape.com)
  • It has been widely established that dopamine and its agonists play an important role in cardiovascular, renal, hormonal, and central nervous system regulation through stimulation of alpha and beta adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • From a therapeutic point of view, the above-mentioned agonists are used for treating Parkinson's disease, acting over DA 2 dopaminergic receptors of the nigrostriatal system. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Bromocriptine and the other dopaminergic agonists mentioned act over DA 2 receptors of the tuberoinfundibular system, inhibiting prolactin release and decreasing hyperprolactinemia and tumor size. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • The neurochemical biomarkers measured were dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolite (DOPAC and 5-HIAA) concentrations by HPLC/EC and dopamine receptor binding by radioligand receptor techniques. (erowid.org)
  • Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these. (bvsalud.org)
  • Like dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin the trace amines have been implicated in a vast array of human disorders of affect and cognition. (erowid.org)
  • Responses to dopamine were suppressed by a number of D-l and D-2 receptor antagonists, indicating that the pharmacological profile of the dopaminesensitive receptor in this insect preparation is different from that of vertebrate dopamine receptors. (silverchair.com)
  • Interestingly, PEA's molecular mechanism of action differs from other biogenic amines, such as serotonin or dopamine. (performaxlabs.com)
  • G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ancient, ubiquitous, constitute the largest family of transducing cell surface proteins, and are integral to cell communication via an array of ligands/neuropeptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I suggest a consensus effect of each neuromodulatory molecule on Drosophila aggression, as well as effects of receptor proteins where relevant data are available. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • They act as "fishing lines", expanding the radius of interaction and enabling GPCRs to tether scaffolding proteins, thus facilitating receptor stability during cell membrane movements. (bvsalud.org)
  • Salei OA receptors remains in the α-adrenergic-like OARα clade that includes well characterized insect OAMB receptors that are normally coupled to Gq and/or Gs proteins (Han et al. (link-insta.xyz)
  • Salei sequences remained in the OARβ clade that has several invertebrate receptors that are combined to Gs proteins and also have actually been shown to promote cAMP production (Verlinden et al. (link-insta.xyz)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to the largest class of drug targets. (mdpi.com)
  • Three GPCRs clustered with recently identified putative CHH receptors (CHHRs), and differential expression over the molt cycle suggests that they are associated with ecdysteroidogenesis regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two putative Corazonin receptors showed much higher expression in the YOs compared with all other GPCRs, suggesting an important role in molt regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the family of serotonin (5-HT) receptors should be separated into two different classes among the subgroup of biogenic amine receptors of the rhodopsin-like family of GPCRs . (axonmedchem.com)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large family of cell surface receptors, contain unstructured regions in the form of the i3 loop and C-terminus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additionally, the i3 loop may be involved in domain swapping between GPCRs, generating novel receptor dimers with distinct binding and coupling characteristics. (bvsalud.org)
  • Homology analysis showed the highest similarity to M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and overall low homology to all other biogenic amine receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A notable exception is the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor, which is a ligand-gated ion channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Axon Ligands™ in this category of compounds are labeled antipsychotic (typical, or atypical), since many of the common drugs to treat this class of mental disorders show affinity for both dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors (among several others). (axonmedchem.com)
  • Approximately half of the members of the human GPCR superfamily are chemosensory receptors, including odorant receptors (ORs), trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs), sweet and umami taste receptors (TAS1Rs). (mdpi.com)
  • Modulation of monoamine transporters by common biogenic amines via trace amine-associated receptor 1 and monoamine autoreceptors in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and brain synaptosomes. (harvard.edu)
  • Beta-phenylethylamine alters monoamine transporter function via trace amine-associated receptor 1: implication for modulatory roles of trace amines in brain. (harvard.edu)
  • The trace amines are a structurally related group of amines and their isomers synthesized in mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues. (erowid.org)
  • The trace amines are unique as they are present in trace concentrations, exhibit high rates of metabolism and are distributed heterogeneously in mammalian brain. (erowid.org)
  • A substantial body of evidence suggests that the trace amines may play very significant roles in the coordination of biogenic amine-based synaptic physiology. (erowid.org)
  • While binding sites or receptors for a few of the trace amines have been advanced, the absence of cloned receptor protein has impeded significant development of their detailed mechanistic roles in the coordination of catecholamine and indolamine synaptic physiology. (erowid.org)
  • Researchers believe that PEA binds to the novel G protein-coupled receptor called TAAR (trace amine-associated receptor). (performaxlabs.com)
  • A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. (uchicago.edu)
  • Understanding their functional roles enhances our comprehension of GPCR structure and signaling complexity and holds promise for advancements in receptor pharmacology and drug development. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, the possible roles of adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors were also studied. (technoplus.ro)
  • They mostly belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family of transmembrane receptors, specifically within GPCR "Family A" (Rhodopsin-like receptors). (wikipedia.org)
  • They inhibit specific transporters responsible for reuptake of biogenic amines from the synaptic nerve ending and presynaptic vesicles. (medscape.com)
  • The selective D-l receptor agonist SK&F 82526 and the D-2 agonist LY171555, however, were both inactive on the preparation. (silverchair.com)
  • SSRIs are selective to the 5-HT system but not specific for the different 5-HT receptors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Amphetamine compounds cause a general efflux of biogenic amines from neuronal synaptic terminals (indirect sympathomimetics). (medscape.com)
  • The whole idea of undruggability exists in comparison to the known pharmacopoeia, which is heavy with compounds targeting biogenic amine receptors and various enzyme active sites. (chemistryworld.com)
  • In situ hybridization in rat brain revealed high levels of mRNA in all neuronal systems (such as the cerebral cortex, the thalamus, and the caudate nucleus) previously associated with H 3 receptor function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Subsequent analysis revealed a pharmacological profile practically indistinguishable from that for the histamine H 3 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Currently, three pharmacological targets, JAK-STAT-inhibitors, the histamine H4 receptor and the chemokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are studied with emphasis on treating allergic skin diseases. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Transfection of GPCR97 into a variety of cell lines conferred an ability to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in response to histamine, but not to acetylcholine or any other biogenic amine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Once released, the acetylcholine stays in the cleft and can continually bind and unbind to postsynaptic receptors. (utoronto.ca)
  • Salei series in the TAR2 clade and also GenBank did not have arachnid receptors in this clade either, recommending that these stimulatory tyramine receptors are lacking in arachnids. (link-insta.xyz)
  • N-methyl-tyramine (NMT) is formed by adding a "methyl" group to the well-known biogenic amine, L-Tyramine. (crossthelimits.co.uk)
  • Regardless of how and where it is released, norepinephrine acts on target cells by binding to and activating adrenergic receptors located on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005). Salei as well as other invertebrates also have receptors in the same clades with human α1- as well as α2-adrenergic receptors. (link-insta.xyz)
  • Our evaluation shows that the invertebrate β-adrenergic receptors are phylogenetically far-off from the human β-adrenergic receptors. (link-insta.xyz)
  • I then discuss the influence of several biogenic amines and neuropeptides on aggressive behavior. (deepdyve.com)
  • Therefore, the anorexigenic effect exerted by the CBD could be the result of a multitarget mechanism, involving the whole endocannabinoid receptor system, particularly in the hypothalamus. (researchgate.net)
  • D opamine is a biogenic amine synthesized in the hypothalamus, in the arcuate nucleus, the caudad, and various areas of the central and peripheral nervous system. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human G-protein-coupled receptors as a tool for the prediction of orphan receptor ligands. (axonmedchem.com)
  • They're thin on the ground compared to the natural product enzyme inhibitors and receptor ligands. (chemistryworld.com)
  • Three putative CHH receptors were identified and could include an MIH receptor whose activation negatively regulates molting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of these receptors decreases peripheral resistance, inducing lowering of arterial blood pressure and increases in heart rate, sympathetic tone, and activity of the renin aldosterone system. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated through the binding and activation of melatonin receptors. (selfdecode.com)
  • After the discovery of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) in 2000, the role of histamine in the formation of the (allergic) inflammation and itching has to be re-visited. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The GPCR97 clone was used to probe a human thalamus library, which resulted in the isolation of a full-length clone encoding a putative G protein-coupled receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Orthologs of receptors that were found to be involved in molt regulation in insects were also identified, including LGR3 and Corazonin receptor, the latter of which was expressed at much higher level than all other receptors, suggesting a key role in YO regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beta blockers , which counter some of the effects of noradrenaline by blocking their receptors, are frequently used to treat glaucoma , migraine , and a range of cardiovascular problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although histamine is well known for its role in allergy and for its effects on immunity and inflammation, little is known about its role or specific histamine receptors during the host response to bacterial infection. (wustl.edu)
  • Some biogenic amine like Histamine, cadaverine and putrescine have been confirmed as useful chemical indicators to estimate bacterial spoilage of foods, particularly fish and fish products, cheese, meat and fermented foods. (ijpsr.com)
  • To estimate bacterial spoilage, biogenic amines, especially putrescine, cadaverine and histamine, have been confirmed as useful chemical indicators 1 . (ijpsr.com)
  • By preventing reuptake of 5-HT presynaptically, SSRIs result in more 5-HT to stimulate postsynaptic 5-HT receptors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • They stimulate 5-HT 1 receptors, with antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, but they also stimulate 5-HT 2 receptors, commonly causing anxiety, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction, and 5-HT 3 receptors, commonly causing nausea and headache. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To discover which receptors were shared in mechanosensory neurons, we evaluated details mRNA probes for every receptor making use of sitting hybridization on the hypodermis of the leg patella. (link-insta.xyz)
  • Melatonin is a biogenic amine that is found in animals, plants and microbes. (selfdecode.com)
  • Salei biogenic amine receptor series match partly to the Drosophila residues that were made use of to create this antibody. (link-insta.xyz)
  • Its diversity of pharmacologic actions is related to a wide variety of receptors and effector mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis classified 49 as class A (Rhodopsin-like receptor), 35 as class B (Secretin receptor), and 9 as class C (metabotropic glutamate). (biomedcentral.com)
  • HDC is the enzyme solely responsible for the production of the biogenic amine histamine. (wustl.edu)
  • The availability of the human H 3 receptor cDNA should greatly aid in the development of chemical and biological reagents, allowing a greater appreciation of the role of histamine in brain function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The evaluation of the biogenic amine steady state level is currently considered a useful tool to predict the effect of a drug on the activity in the brain, particularly in in vivo studies [44,45]. (researchgate.net)
  • By implicating E2 in control of retinal sensitivity, our data add to growing evidence that the targets of gonadal steroid feedback loops include sensory receptor organs, where stimulus sensitivity may be modulated, rather than more central brain nuclei, where modulation may affect mechanisms involved in motivation. (nsf.gov)
  • Transcripts for all 10 biogenic amine receptors were discovered in both C. Salei brain and peripheral worried system transcriptomes. (link-insta.xyz)
  • Caffeine keeps you awake by blocking sleep-promoting adenosine receptors in the brain. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Neonatal exposure to a Type-I pyrethroid (bioallethrin) induces dose-response changes in brain muscarinic receptors and behaviour in neonatal and adult mice. (cdc.gov)
  • The existence of the histamine H 3 receptor was demonstrated pharmacologically 15 years ago, yet despite intensive efforts, its molecular identity has remained elusive. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Antiallergic effects of H1-receptor antagonists. (uchicago.edu)
  • Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic commonly used in pediatrics, and MK-801/Dizocilpine, a potent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist commonly used for research purposes, are structural analogues of PCP that possess varying degrees of adverse clinical effects. (medscape.com)
  • Histamine (2 - (4-imidazolyl) ethylamine) is a biogenic amine that is also called a tissue hormone. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (uchicago.edu)
  • The majority of these are G-protein-coupled, except the 5-HT3 receptors, which are directly ligand gated to fast ion channels. (nih.gov)
  • They can act as autoregulators, adopting conformations that, by restricting G protein access, modulate receptor coupling specificity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The histamine H4 receptor has been functionally characterized in several immune cells involved in allergic diseases. (fu-berlin.de)