Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (1/7520)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation. (2/7520)

Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity. (3/7520)

Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (4/7520)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection induced by a reduced peptide bond analogue of the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope GP33. (5/7520)

Recent investigations have suggested that pseudopeptides containing modified peptide bonds might advantageously replace natural peptides in therapeutic strategies. We have generated eight reduced peptide bond Psi(CH2-NH) analogues corresponding to the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope (called GP33) of the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. One of these pseudopeptides, containing a reduced peptide bond between residues 6 and 7 (Psi(6-7)), displayed very similar properties of binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and recognition by T cell receptor transgenic T cells specific for GP33 when compared with the parent peptide. We assessed in vitro and in vivo the proteolytic resistance of GP33 and Psi(6-7) and analyzed its contribution to the priming properties of these peptides. The Psi(6-7) analogue exhibited a dramatically increased proteolytic resistance when compared with GP33, and we show for the first time that MHC-peptide complexes formed in vivo with a pseudopeptide display a sustained half-life compared with the complexes formed with the natural peptide. Furthermore, in contrast to immunizations with GP33, three injections of Psi(6-7) in saline induced significant antiviral protection in mice. The enhanced ability of Psi(6-7) to induce antiviral protection may result from the higher stability of the analogue and/or of the MHC-analogue complexes.  (+info)

Clinical significance of decreased zeta chain expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with head and neck cancer. (6/7520)

Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) frequently have impaired immune responses. Alterations in T-cell receptor-associated signaling molecules in tumor-infiltrating as well as circulating lymphocytes have been reported in these patients. Using quantitative flow cytometry analysis, we have demonstrated that expression of the zeta chain is significantly decreased relative to normal controls in both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as CD3- CD56+ CD16+ natural killer cells in the peripheral blood of patients with SCCHN who, as a result of previous therapies, have no evident disease. Patients with a more aggressive type of SCCHN and those who experienced a recurrence or had a second primary cancer within the last 2 years of the study had the lowest zeta chain expression. In addition, SCCHN patients showed a significantly greater spontaneous ex vivo apoptosis, as measured by a terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, in PBMCs, compared to normal controls. The observed decreased expression of zeta in T and natural killer cells coincided but did not directly correlate with significantly increased spontaneous apoptosis of lymphocytes obtained from treated patients with no evident disease. The results suggest that in patients with SCCHN, zeta chain defects and lymphocyte apoptosis are manifestations of long-lasting negative effects of tumor on the immune system.  (+info)

Tyrosine 319, a newly identified phosphorylation site of ZAP-70, plays a critical role in T cell antigen receptor signaling. (7/7520)

Following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement, the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) ZAP-70 is rapidly phosphorylated on several tyrosine residues, presumably by two mechanisms: an autophosphorylation and a trans-phosphorylation by the Src-family PTK Lck. These events have been implicated in both positive and negative regulation of ZAP-70 activity and in coupling this PTK to downstream signaling pathways in T cells. We show here that Tyr315 and Tyr319 in the interdomain B of ZAP-70 are autophosphorylated in vitro and become phosphorylated in vivo upon TCR triggering. Moreover, by mutational analysis, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of Tyr319 is required for the positive regulation of ZAP-70 function. Indeed, overexpression in Jurkat cells and in a murine T cell hybridoma of a ZAP-70 mutant in which Tyr319 was replaced by phenylalanine (ZAP-70-Y319F) dramatically impaired anti-TCR-induced activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells and interleukin-2 production, respectively. Surprisingly, an analogous mutation of Tyr315 had little or no effect. The inhibitory effect of ZAP-70-Y319F correlated with a substantial loss of its activation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and up-regulation of catalytic activity, as well as with a decreased in vivo capacity to phosphorylate known ZAP-70 substrates, such as SLP-76 and LAT. Collectively, our data reveal the pivotal role of Tyr319 phosphorylation in the positive regulation of ZAP-70 and in TCR-mediated signaling.  (+info)

T-cell stimulation through the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex regulates CD2 lateral mobility by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. (8/7520)

T lymphocyte activation through the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex alters the avidity of the cell surface adhesion receptor CD2 for its ligand CD58. Based on the observations that activation-associated increases in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) strengthen interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and that the lateral mobility of cell surface adhesion receptors is an important regulator of cellular adhesion strength, we postulated that [Ca2+]i controls CD2 lateral mobility at the T cell surface. Human Jurkat T leukemia cells were stimulated by antibody-mediated cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex. CD2 was labeled with a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques were used to measure [Ca2+]i and CD2 lateral mobility. Cross-linking of the TCR/CD3 complex caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i and, 10-20 min later, a decrease in the fractional mobility of CD2 from the control value of 68 +/- 1% to 45 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM). One to two hours after cell stimulation the fractional mobility spontaneously returned to the control level. Under these and other treatment conditions, the fraction of cells with significantly elevated [Ca2+]i was highly correlated with the fraction of cells manifesting significantly reduced CD2 mobility. Pretreatment of cells with a calmodulin inhibitor or a calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor prevented Ca2+-mediated CD2 immobilization, and pretreatment of cells with a calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor prevented the spontaneous reversal of CD2 immobilization. These data suggest that T cell activation through the TCR/CD3 complex controls CD2 lateral mobility by a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism, and that this mechanism may involve regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CD2 or a closely associated protein.  (+info)

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

There are several possible causes of lymphopenia, including:

1. Viral infections: Many viral infections can cause lymphopenia, such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and influenza.
2. Bacterial infections: Some bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis and leprosy, can also cause lymphopenia.
3. Cancer: Certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, can cause lymphopenia by destroying lymphocytes.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, can cause lymphopenia by attacking the body's own tissues, including lymphocytes.
5. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy can destroy lymphocytes and cause lymphopenia.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs and antibiotics, can cause lymphopenia as a side effect.
7. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders, such as X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, can cause lymphopenia by affecting the development or function of lymphocytes.

Symptoms of lymphopenia can include recurring infections, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment of lymphopenia depends on the underlying cause and may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Overall, lymphopenia is a condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many people with lymphopenia can experience improved health outcomes and a better quality of life.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

The disease is typically induced in laboratory animals such as mice or rats by immunizing them with myelin proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP) or proteolipid protein (PLP), emulsified in adjuvants. The resulting immune response leads to the production of autoantibodies and activated T cells that cross the blood-brain barrier and attack the CNS.

EAE is used as a model for MS because it shares many similarities with the human disease, including:

1. Demyelination: EAE induces demyelination of nerve fibers in the CNS, which is also a hallmark of MS.
2. Autoimmune response: The immune response in EAE is triggered by autoantigens, similar to MS.
3. Chronic course: EAE is a chronic disease with recurrent relapses, similar to MS.
4. Lesion distribution: EAE lesions are distributed throughout the CNS, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord, which is also true for MS.

EAE has been used extensively in the study of MS to investigate the immunopathogenesis of the disease, to develop new diagnostic markers and treatments, and to test the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

The symptoms of listeriosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Mild cases may present with flu-like symptoms, such as fever, headache, and muscle aches, while severe cases can lead to meningitis, encephalitis, and even death.

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and prompt treatment can significantly reduce the risk of serious complications and death.

Prevention measures include avoiding high-risk foods, such as soft cheeses and hot dogs, and maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands and surfaces regularly. Vaccination against Listeria is not available, but efforts to improve food safety and sanitation can help reduce the risk of listeriosis outbreaks.

Overall, while listeriosis is a serious infection, prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for those affected.

The symptoms of LCM can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but they typically include fever, headache, neck stiffness, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, LCM can cause meningitis, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and even death.

The diagnosis of LCM is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the virus, as well as tests to assess liver function and other organ systems.

Treatment of LCM typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. Antiviral medications may also be used in some cases. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat the patient.

Prevention of LCM primarily involves avoiding contact with infected rodents, particularly during pregnancy and childhood when the risk of infection is higher. Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, can also help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are not available for LCM, but research is ongoing to develop one.

The prognosis for LCM varies depending on the severity of the infection and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the outcome is good for patients with mild symptoms, but those with severe infections may experience long-term neurological problems or death.

2. Our research focuses on identifying the genetic mutations that contribute to experimental melanoma and developing targeted therapies.
3. The patient's experimental melanoma had spread to her lungs and liver, so we recommended chemotherapy and immunotherapy treatments.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.

Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.

There are several types of lymphoma, including:

1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.

The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching

Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can include increased thirst and urination, blurred vision, fatigue, weight loss, and skin infections. If left untreated, type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, and blindness.

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood glucose measurements and autoantibody tests. Treatment typically involves insulin therapy, which can be administered via injections or an insulin pump, as well as regular monitoring of blood glucose levels and appropriate lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

Dermatitis, contact can be acute or chronic, depending on the severity and duration of the exposure. In acute cases, the symptoms may resolve within a few days after removing the offending substance. Chronic dermatitis, on the other hand, can persist for weeks or even months, and may require ongoing treatment to manage the symptoms.

The symptoms of contact dermatitis can vary depending on the individual and the severity of the exposure. Common symptoms include:

* Redness and inflammation of the skin
* Itching and burning sensations
* Swelling and blistering
* Cracks or fissures in the skin
* Difficulty healing or recurring infections

In severe cases, contact dermatitis can lead to complications such as:

* Infection with bacteria or fungi
* Scarring and disfigurement
* Emotional distress and anxiety

Diagnosis of contact dermatitis is typically made based on the patient's medical history and physical examination. Allergic patch testing may also be performed to identify specific allergens that are causing the condition.

Treatment for contact dermatitis usually involves avoiding the offending substance and using topical or oral medications to manage symptoms. In severe cases, systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressants may be prescribed. Phototherapy and alternative therapies such as herbal remedies or acupuncture may also be considered.

Prevention of contact dermatitis involves identifying and avoiding substances that cause an allergic reaction or skin irritation. Individuals with a history of contact dermatitis should take precautions when handling new substances, and should be aware of the potential for cross-reactivity between different allergens.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

The symptoms of MS can vary widely depending on the location and severity of the damage to the CNS. Common symptoms include:

* Weakness, numbness, or tingling in the limbs
* Fatigue
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision, or loss of vision
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Tremors or spasticity
* Memory and concentration problems
* Mood changes, such as depression or mood swings
* Bladder and bowel problems

There is no cure for MS, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments include:

* Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) - These medications are designed to reduce the frequency and severity of relapses, and they can also slow the progression of disability. Examples of DMTs include interferons, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, and alemtuzumab.
* Steroids - Corticosteroids can help reduce inflammation during relapses, but they are not a long-term solution.
* Pain management medications - Pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can help manage pain caused by MS.
* Muscle relaxants - These medications can help reduce spasticity and tremors.
* Physical therapy - Physical therapy can help improve mobility, balance, and strength.
* Occupational therapy - Occupational therapy can help with daily activities and assistive devices.
* Speech therapy - Speech therapy can help improve communication and swallowing difficulties.
* Psychological counseling - Counseling can help manage the emotional and psychological aspects of MS.

It's important to note that each person with MS is unique, and the best treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific symptoms, needs, and preferences. It's essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan.

There are two main forms of TB:

1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.

TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.

Preventive measures against TB include:

1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.

Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.

The two main types of lymphoid leukemia are:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This type of leukemia is most commonly seen in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow.
2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia usually affects older adults and is characterized by the gradual buildup of abnormal white blood cells in the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for lymphoid leukemia can vary depending on the type of cancer and the severity of symptoms, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.

Orthomyxoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which includes influenza A and B viruses, as well as other related viruses. These infections can affect both humans and animals and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.

The most common type of Orthomyxoviridae infection is seasonal influenza, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from person to person through the air or by contact with infected surfaces. Other types of Orthomyxoviridae infections include:

1. Pandemic influenza: This occurs when a new strain of the virus emerges and spreads quickly around the world, causing widespread illness and death. Examples of pandemic influenza include the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957.
2. Avian influenza: This occurs when birds are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected birds or their droppings.
3. Swine influenza: This occurs when pigs are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected pigs or their droppings.
4. H5N1 and H7N9: These are two specific types of bird flu viruses that have caused serious outbreaks in humans in recent years.

Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications, as well as hospitalization and even death.

Diagnosis of Orthomyxoviridae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system, with antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.

Prevention of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include avoiding close contact with infected birds or pigs, wearing protective clothing and gear when handling animals, and practicing good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for some species of birds and pigs to protect against these viruses.

Overall, Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that can cause serious illness in humans and other animals, and it's important to take precautions to prevent exposure and spread of these viruses.

Vaccinia is most commonly associated with smallpox, which is caused by a similar virus and was eradicated in the late 1970s through widespread vaccination. However, there have been occasional outbreaks of vaccinia in the United States and other countries since then, often linked to laboratory accidents or deliberate releases of the virus.

The treatment of vaccinia typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and antipyretic medications to reduce fever. Antiviral medications may also be used in some cases. Prevention of the disease relies on avoiding contact with infected animals or people, and on following proper infection control practices in laboratory and healthcare settings.

Vaccinia is a serious viral infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The symptoms of Arenaviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus causing the infection, but they may include:

* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle pain
* Joint pain
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Rash
* Seizures
* Meningitis
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)

Some Arenaviridae infections can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or other animals, while others are spread by blood transfusions or organ transplantation. There is no specific treatment for Arenaviridae infections, and treatment is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and managing complications.

Examples of Arenaviridae infections include:

* Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV)
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)
* Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE)
* Western equine encephalitis (WEE)
* Sabia virus infection

It's important to note that Arenaviridae infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, so if you suspect you or someone else may have been infected, it's important to seek medical attention immediately.

Herpesviridae infections are caused by the Herpesviridae family of viruses and can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, sexual contact, or from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Symptoms of herpesviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual infected, but may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and skin sores or rashes.

There is no cure for herpesviridae infections, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission to others. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with those who are infected, can also help prevent the spread of these viruses.

Some common types of herpesviridae infections include:

* Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - Causes cold sores and genital herpes.
* Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) - Causes chickenpox and shingles.
* Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) - Associated with certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

CMV infections are more common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or taking immunosuppressive drugs after an organ transplant. In these individuals, CMV can cause severe and life-threatening complications, such as pneumonia, retinitis (inflammation of the retina), and gastrointestinal disease.

In healthy individuals, CMV infections are usually mild and may not cause any symptoms at all. However, in some cases, CMV can cause a mononucleosis-like illness with fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes.

CMV infections are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment is generally not necessary for mild cases, but may include antiviral medications for more severe infections. Prevention strategies include avoiding close contact with individuals who have CMV, practicing good hygiene, and considering immunoprophylaxis (prevention of infection through the use of immune globulin) for high-risk individuals.

Overall, while CMV infections can be serious and life-threatening, they are relatively rare in healthy individuals and can often be treated effectively with supportive care and antiviral medications.

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

There are several different types of uveitis, including:

1. Anterior uveitis: This type affects the front part of the eye and is the most common form of uveitis. It is often caused by an infection or injury.
2. Posterior uveitis: This type affects the back part of the eye and can be caused by a systemic disease such as sarcoidosis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
3. Intermediate uveitis: This type affects the middle layer of the eye and is often caused by an autoimmune disorder.
4. Panuveitis: This type affects the entire uvea and can be caused by a systemic disease such as vasculitis or Behçet's disease.

Symptoms of uveitis may include:

* Eye pain
* Redness and swelling in the eye
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in your vision)
* Flashes of light

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible. Uveitis can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which may include imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medication to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to remove any diseased tissue.

Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness. If you have uveitis, it is important to follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and monitoring to protect your vision.

There are several different types of leukemia, including:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.

Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

The most common type of colitis is ulcerative colitis, which affects the rectum and lower part of the colon. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis can include:

* Diarrhea (which may be bloody)
* Abdominal pain and cramping
* Rectal bleeding
* Weight loss
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting

Microscopic colitis is another type of colitis that is characterized by inflammation in the colon, but without visible ulcers or bleeding. The symptoms of microscopic colitis are similar to those of ulcerative colitis, but may be less severe.

Other types of colitis include:

* Infantile colitis: This is a rare condition that affects babies and young children, and is characterized by diarrhea, fever, and vomiting.
* Isomorphic colitis: This is a rare condition that affects the colon and rectum, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Radiation colitis: This is a condition that occurs after radiation therapy to the pelvic area, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Ischemic colitis: This is a condition where there is a reduction in blood flow to the colon, which can lead to inflammation and symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea.

The diagnosis of colitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Colonoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the colon and rectum.
* Endoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
* Stool tests: These are tests that analyze stool samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Blood tests: These are tests that analyze blood samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Biopsy: This is a test that involves taking a small sample of tissue from the colon and examining it under a microscope for signs of inflammation or infection.

Treatment for colitis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as:

* Aminosalicylates: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the colon and relieve symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Examples include sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) and mesalamine (Asacol).
* Corticosteroids: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the body. They may be used short-term to control acute flares of colitis, or long-term to maintain remission. Examples include prednisone and hydrocortisone.
* Immunomodulators: These are medications that help to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation. Examples include azathioprine (Imuran) and mercaptopurine (Purinethol).
* Biologics: These are medications that target specific proteins involved in the inflammatory response. Examples include infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira).

In addition to medication, lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management techniques may also be helpful in managing colitis symptoms. Surgery may be necessary in some cases where the colitis is severe or persistent, and involves removing damaged portions of the colon and rectum.

It's important to note that colitis can increase the risk of developing colon cancer, so regular screening for colon cancer is recommended for people with chronic colitis. Additionally, people with colitis may be more susceptible to other health problems such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, and liver disease, so it's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to monitor for these conditions and take steps to prevent them.

SAIDS was first identified in the 1980s in monkeys that were being used in research laboratories, and it has since been studied extensively as a model for HIV/AIDS research. Like HIV/AIDS, SAIDS is caused by the transmission of a virus from one animal to another through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood or semen.

The symptoms of SAIDS are similar to those of HIV/AIDS and include fever, fatigue, weight loss, and opportunistic infections. As the disease progresses, animals may also experience neurological symptoms, such as seizures and difficulty coordinating movements.

There is currently no cure for SAIDS, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing complications. Research into the disease has led to a greater understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and has contributed to the development of new therapies for the disease.

SAIDS is important in medical research because it provides a valuable model for studying the immunopathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and for testing new therapies and vaccines. It also serves as a reminder of the importance of strict safety protocols when working with infectious agents, particularly in laboratory settings.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

These animal models allow researchers to study the underlying causes of arthritis, test new treatments and therapies, and evaluate their effectiveness in a controlled environment before moving to human clinical trials. Experimental arthritis models are used to investigate various aspects of the disease, including its pathophysiology, immunogenicity, and potential therapeutic targets.

Some common experimental arthritis models include:

1. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA): This model is induced in mice by immunizing them with type II collagen, which leads to an autoimmune response and inflammation in the joints.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) models: These models are developed by transferring cells from RA patients into immunodeficient mice, which then develop arthritis-like symptoms.
3. Osteoarthritis (OA) models: These models are induced in animals by subjecting them to joint injury or overuse, which leads to degenerative changes in the joints and bone.
4. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) models: These models are developed by inducing psoriasis in mice, which then develop arthritis-like symptoms.

Experimental arthritis models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the disease and have helped to identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of arthritis. However, it is important to note that these models are not perfect representations of human arthritis and should be used as tools to complement, rather than replace, human clinical trials.

There are several types of lymphoproliferative disorders, including:

1. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can arise from either B cells or T cells. There are several subtypes of lymphoma, including Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
2. Leukemia: This is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It occurs when there is an abnormal proliferation of white blood cells, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or malignant cells.
3. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that affect the bone marrow and can lead to an abnormal production of blood cells. MDS can progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): This is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by the accumulation of mature-looking but dysfunctional B cells in the blood.
5. Marginal zone lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that arises from the marginal zone of the spleen, which is the area where the white pulp and red pulp of the spleen meet.
6. Mantle cell lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the mantle zone of the lymph node.
7. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL): This is a rare type of cancer that affects the brain and spinal cord, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the central nervous system.
8. Hairy cell leukemia: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by the accumulation of abnormal B cells with a "hairy" appearance in the blood and bone marrow.
9. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
10. AIDS-related lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects people with HIV/AIDS, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.

It's important to note that these are just some examples of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and there are many other subtypes and variants of this disease. Each type of lymphoma has its own unique characteristics and may require different treatment approaches.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

The symptoms of T-cell leukemia can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but they may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Frequent infections
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the bones or joints
* Headaches
* Confusion or seizures (in severe cases)

T-cell leukemia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill cancer cells and restore the body's normal production of blood cells. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.

The prognosis for T-cell leukemia varies depending on the patient's age and overall health, as well as the aggressiveness of the disease. However, with current treatments, the 5-year survival rate is around 70% for children and adolescents, and around 40% for adults.

It's important to note that T-cell leukemia is relatively rare compared to other types of leukemia, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, it can be a very aggressive and difficult-to-treat form of cancer, and patients with T-cell leukemia often require intensive treatment and close follow-up care.

Symptoms of EBV infection can vary widely, ranging from asymptomatic to severe, and may include:

* Fatigue
* Fever
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
* Swollen liver or spleen
* Rash
* Headaches
* Muscle weakness

In some cases, EBV can lead to more serious complications such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which can cause:

* Enlarged liver and spleen
* Splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen)
* Hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver)
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)

EBV is also associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

There is no specific treatment for EBV infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few weeks. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases or to prevent complications. Rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relief medication can help alleviate symptoms.

Thymoma can be broadly classified into two main types:

1. Benign thymoma: This type of thymoma is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It is usually small in size and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Malignant thymoma: This type of thymoma is cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, liver, and bone marrow. Malignant thymomas are more aggressive than benign thymomas and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

The exact cause of thymoma is not known, but it is believed to arise from abnormal cell growth in the thymus gland. Some risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing thymoma include:

1. Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations, such as those affecting the TREX1 gene, can increase the risk of developing thymoma.
2. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation, such as from radiation therapy, may increase the risk of developing thymoma.
3. Thymic hyperplasia: Enlargement of the thymus gland, known as thymic hyperplasia, may increase the risk of developing thymoma.

The symptoms of thymoma can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:

1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Shortness of breath
3. Coughing
4. Fatigue
5. Weight loss
6. Fever
7. Night sweats
8. Pain in the arm or shoulder

Thymoma is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the thymus gland for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for thymoma depend on the stage and aggressiveness of the tumor, and may include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor through surgery is often the first line of treatment for thymoma.
2. Radiation therapy: High-energy beams can be used to kill cancer cells and shrink the tumor.
3. Chemotherapy: Drugs can be used to kill cancer cells and shrink the tumor.
4. Targeted therapy: Drugs that target specific molecules involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells can be used to treat thymoma.
5. Immunotherapy: Treatments that use the body's immune system to fight cancer, such as checkpoint inhibitors, can be effective for some people with thymoma.

Overall, the prognosis for thymoma is generally good, with a 5-year survival rate of about 70% for people with localized disease. However, the prognosis can vary depending on the stage and aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as the effectiveness of treatment.

Examples of Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes include:

1. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PIDDs): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the immune system's ability to function properly. Examples include X-linked agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, and severe combined immunodeficiency.
2. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): This is a condition that results from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which destroys CD4 cells, a type of immune cell that fights off infections.
3. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP): This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack and destroy platelets, which are blood cells that help the blood to clot.
4. Autoimmune Disorders: These are conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages healthy cells and tissues in the body. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis.
5. Immunosuppressive Therapy-induced Immunodeficiency: This is a condition that occurs as a side effect of medications used to prevent rejection in organ transplant patients. These medications can suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infections.

Symptoms of Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes can vary depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the immune system dysfunction. Common symptoms include recurrent infections, fatigue, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for these syndromes range from medications to suppress the immune system to surgery or bone marrow transplantation.

In summary, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes are a group of disorders that result from dysfunction of the immune system, leading to recurrent infections and other symptoms. There are many different types of these syndromes, each with its own set of symptoms and treatment options.

Examples of experimental leukemias include:

1. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): A rare inherited disorder that leads to a lack of antibody production and an increased risk of infections.
2. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare inherited disorder characterized by a failure of red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow.
3. Fanconi anemia: A rare inherited disorder that leads to a defect in DNA repair and an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.
4. Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT): A rare inherited disorder characterized by progressive loss of coordination, balance, and speech, as well as an increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma.
5. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which increases the risk of developing leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

These experimental leukemias are often used in research studies to better understand the biology of leukemia and to develop new treatments.

A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected sandfly. The most common form of the disease is characterized by skin lesions, which may be painful and disfiguring.

Other forms of leishmaniasis include:

1. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar): A severe and potentially fatal form of the disease that affects several internal organs, including the spleen, liver, and bone marrow.
2. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by skin lesions and mucosal involvement, such as nose ulcers and mouth sores.
3. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by widespread skin involvement, often with a diffuse, papular rash.
4. Recidivans leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by repeated episodes of skin lesions, often triggered by exposure to sandflies.

Symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis may include:

* Skin lesions, which may be painful and disfiguring
* Swelling of the affected limb
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss

Diagnosis is made by identifying the parasite in a skin scraping or biopsy specimen. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications, such as pentavalent antimonials or amphotericin B.

Preventive measures include avoiding sandfly bites, wearing protective clothing and insect repellents, and using screens on windows and doors to prevent sandflies from entering homes.

Viremia is a condition where the virus is present in the bloodstream, outside of infected cells or tissues. This can occur during the acute phase of an infection, when the virus is actively replicating and spreading throughout the body. Viremia can also be seen in chronic infections, where the virus may persist in the blood for longer periods of time.

In some cases, viremia can lead to the development of antibodies against the virus, which can help to neutralize it and prevent its spread. However, if the viremia is not controlled, it can cause serious complications, such as sepsis or organ damage.

Diagnosis of viremia typically involves laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which can detect the presence of virus in the blood. Treatment of viremia depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of any related complications.

Example sentence: The patient was diagnosed with experimental sarcoma and underwent a novel chemotherapy regimen that included a targeted therapy drug.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.

While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.

The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.

AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

There are several different types of tumor viruses, including:

1. Human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus is responsible for causing cervical cancer and other types of cancer, such as anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancer.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV): This virus can cause liver cancer, known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): This virus can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): This virus has been linked to the development of Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV): This virus is responsible for causing Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer.
6. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1): This virus has been linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).

Tumor virus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies. Treatment for these infections often involves antiviral medications, chemotherapy, and surgery. In some cases, tumors may also be removed through radiation therapy.

It's important to note that not all tumors or cancers are caused by viruses, and that many other factors, such as genetics and environmental exposures, can also play a role in the development of cancer. However, for those tumor virus infections that are caused by a specific virus, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Overall, tumor virus infections are a complex and diverse group of conditions, and further research is needed to better understand their causes and develop effective treatments.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

Also known as Burkitt's Lymphoma.

Granulomas are formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and they serve as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent. The granuloma is characterized by a central area of necrosis, surrounded by a ring of immune cells, including macrophages and T-lymphocytes.

Granulomas are commonly seen in a variety of inflammatory conditions, such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and sarcoidosis. They can also occur as a result of infections, such as bacterial or fungal infections, and in the context of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

In summary, granuloma is a term used to describe a type of inflammatory lesion that is formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and serves as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent.

People with SCID are extremely susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by viruses, and often develop symptoms shortly after birth. These may include diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and failure to gain weight or grow at the expected rate. Without treatment, SCID can lead to life-threatening infections and can be fatal within the first year of life.

Treatment for SCID typically involves bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy. Bone marrow transplantation involves replacing the patient's faulty immune system with healthy cells from a donor, while enzyme replacement therapy involves replacing the missing or dysfunctional enzymes that cause the immune deficiency. Both of these treatments can help restore the patient's immune system and improve their quality of life.

In summary, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to fight infections and can be fatal without treatment. Treatment options include bone marrow transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy.

The symptoms of infectious mononucleosis can vary in severity but typically include:

* Fatigue
* Fever
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
* Enlarged spleen
* Headache
* Muscle weakness
* Rash
* Swollen liver or spleen

Infectious mononucleosis is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and other laboratory tests. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and allowing the body to fight the infection on its own.

Prognosis for infectious mononucleosis is generally good, but it can take several weeks to recover fully. Complications are rare but can include inflammation of the spleen, liver disease, and a condition called splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).

Prevention includes avoiding close contact with people who have mononucleosis, washing hands frequently, and not sharing eating or drinking utensils. There is no vaccine available to protect against infectious mononucleosis.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the joints breaks down over time, causing the bones to rub together. It is the most common form of arthritis and typically affects older adults.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that occurs when the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joints, leading to inflammation and pain. It can affect anyone, regardless of age, and is typically seen in women.

Other types of arthritis include psoriatic arthritis, gouty arthritis, and lupus-related arthritis. Treatment for arthritis depends on the type and severity of the condition, but can include medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and weight loss, can also be helpful. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Arthritis is a leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting over 50 million adults in the United States alone. It can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, making everyday activities such as walking, dressing, and grooming difficult and painful. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

The infection occurs when the parasitic worm enters the body through the skin, usually during contact with infected water. The schistosomes migrate to the liver and intestines, where they cause inflammation and damage to the host tissues.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis mansoni can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as anemia, liver and kidney damage, and even death.

Diagnosis is based on the presence of schistosome eggs in the urine or stool, and treatment typically involves a combination of antiparasitic drugs and supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water and using snail-killing agents to reduce the number of intermediate hosts.

Leprosy can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Skin lesions: Leprosy can cause skin lesions, including lighter or darker patches on the skin, and thickening of the skin.
2. Nerve damage: The bacteria can damage the nerves, leading to numbness, pain, and muscle weakness.
3. Eye problems: Leprosy can cause eye inflammation, vision loss, and dryness of the eyes.
4. Respiratory problems: In severe cases, leprosy can cause breathing difficulties and respiratory failure.
5. Enlarged lymph nodes: The lymph nodes may become enlarged in some cases.
6. Joint pain and swelling: Leprosy can cause joint pain and swelling.
7. Neuritis: Inflammation of the nerves can occur, leading to pain, numbness, and tingling sensations.
8. Ulcers: Leprosy can cause ulcers on the skin and mucous membranes.

Leprosy is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged nerves.

Leprosy can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, close contact with an infected person, or through contaminated objects such as clothing or bedding. However, leprosy is not highly contagious and the risk of transmission is low if proper precautions are taken.

While there is no cure for leprosy, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and disability. However, due to the stigma surrounding the disease, many people may delay seeking medical attention, leading to a higher risk of long-term complications.

Overall, while leprosy is a serious disease, it is also a preventable and treatable one. With proper awareness and education, we can work towards reducing the stigma surrounding leprosy and ensuring that those affected receive the medical attention they need.

Pulmonary tuberculosis typically affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, or spine. The symptoms of pulmonary TB include coughing for more than three weeks, chest pain, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Pulmonary tuberculosis is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and radiologic imaging, such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for pulmonary TB usually involves a combination of antibiotics and medications to manage symptoms.

Preventive measures for pulmonary tuberculosis include screening for latent TB infection in high-risk populations, such as healthcare workers and individuals with HIV/AIDS, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in countries where it is available.

Overall, pulmonary tuberculosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and death.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare type of cancer that affects the immune system. It is caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is transmitted through breastfeeding or blood transfusions. ATLL typically affects adults and can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes.

If you suspect that you or someone you know may have ATLL, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests to determine if HTLV-1 is present in the body. Diagnostic tests for ATLL may include blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.

There are several treatment options available for ATLL, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation. The choice of treatment will depend on the stage and severity of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be used to achieve the best possible outcome.

Unfortunately, the prognosis for ATLL is poor, with a five-year survival rate of less than 30%. However, early detection and treatment can improve the chances of survival. It is important to note that there is currently no cure for ATLL, but ongoing research is exploring new treatments and therapies to improve outcomes for patients with this disease.

In conclusion, ATLL is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is caused by the HTLV-1 virus and can progress slowly over several years before symptoms appear. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have ATLL, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment. While the prognosis is poor, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Ongoing research is exploring new treatments and therapies to improve outcomes for patients with ATLL.

The condition typically affects older adults and is more common in men than women. The exact cause of Sezary syndrome is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations and environmental factors.

Symptoms of Sezary syndrome can include:

* Skin rashes, lesions, or nodules
* Itching, redness, and dryness of the skin
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Weight loss
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Enlarged spleen

Sezary syndrome is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as biopsies, blood tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options for Sezary syndrome include:

* Chemotherapy
* Radiation therapy
* Phototherapy
* Targeted therapy

Overall, Sezary syndrome is a rare and aggressive form of CTCL that can have severe symptoms and affect multiple organs. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

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There are several subtypes of lymphoma, B-cell, including:

1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): This is the most common type of B-cell lymphoma and typically affects older adults.
2. Follicular lymphoma: This type of lymphoma grows slowly and often does not require treatment for several years.
3. Marginal zone lymphoma: This type of lymphoma develops in the marginal zone of the spleen or other lymphoid tissues.
4. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of B-cell lymphoma that is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, which are abnormal cells that can be identified under a microscope.

The symptoms of lymphoma, B-cell can vary depending on the subtype and the location of the tumor. Common symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Treatment for lymphoma, B-cell usually involves chemotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy may also be used in some cases. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be recommended.

Prognosis for lymphoma, B-cell depends on the subtype and the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. In general, the prognosis is good for patients with early-stage disease, but the cancer can be more difficult to treat if it has spread to other parts of the body.

Prevention of lymphoma, B-cell is not possible, as the exact cause of the disease is not known. However, avoiding exposure to certain risk factors, such as viral infections and pesticides, may help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Early detection and treatment can also improve outcomes for patients with lymphoma, B-cell.

Lymphoma, B-cell is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can be treated with chemotherapy and other therapies. The prognosis varies depending on the subtype and stage of the disease at diagnosis. Prevention is not possible, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

The symptoms of toxoplasmosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. In some cases, it may cause mild flu-like symptoms or no symptoms at all. However, in severe cases, it can lead to complications such as brain inflammation, eye infections, and pneumonia.

Toxoplasmosis is a significant public health concern due to its potential to affect anyone and its ability to cause serious complications, especially in certain populations such as pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and the elderly. It is important for individuals who may be at risk of contracting the disease to take preventive measures such as avoiding undercooked meat, washing hands frequently, and avoiding contact with cat feces.

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in the body. Imaging studies such as ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans may be used to evaluate any complications of the disease.

Treatment for toxoplasmosis typically involves antibiotics to control the infection and manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications. Prevention is key to avoiding this disease, as there is no vaccine available to protect against it.

Mast cell sarcoma is most commonly seen in the skin, but it can also arise in other parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, or gastrointestinal tract. The tumors are usually large, irregularly shaped masses that can be firm or soft to the touch. They may ulcerate and bleed easily, leading to swelling and discomfort.

The symptoms of mast cell sarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. They may include:

* A lump or mass that may be painless or tender to the touch
* Swelling in the affected area
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Fatigue
* Fevers
* Night sweats

Mast cell sarcoma is rare and accounts for only about 1-2% of all skin tumors. It is more common in dogs than cats and tends to affect older animals. The exact cause of mast cell sarcoma is not known, but genetic factors and environmental triggers may play a role.

Treatment options for mast cell sarcoma depend on the location and stage of the tumor. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. Additional therapies such as radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy may be recommended based on the severity of the disease and the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for mast cell sarcoma varies depending on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the effectiveness of treatment, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is guarded and early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes. With prompt and appropriate therapy, some patients with mast cell sarcoma can achieve long-term remission or even cure. However, in advanced cases or those that are resistant to treatment, the prognosis may be poorer.

The exact cause of vitiligo is still unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In people with vitiligo, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys melanocytes, leading to a loss of skin pigmentation. The disease can also be triggered by physical or emotional stress, sun exposure, and certain medications.

The symptoms of vitiligo can vary in severity and progression. They may include:

1. White patches on the skin, which can appear suddenly or gradually over time.
2. Loss of skin pigmentation in specific areas, such as the face, hands, or limbs.
3. Thinning or loss of hair on affected areas.
4. Premature whitening or graying of the hair.
5. Itching, pain, or sensitivity in the affected areas.
6. Emotional distress and reduced quality of life due to the visible appearance of the disease.

There is no cure for vitiligo, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow down its progression. These may include:

1. Topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.
2. Topical immunomodulators to suppress the immune system and promote skin repigmentation.
3. Narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy to slow down the progression of the disease and improve skin appearance.
4. Psoralen photochemotherapy to promote skin repigmentation and reduce inflammation.
5. Surgical skin grafting or blister grafting to cover small areas of depigmentation.
6. Camouflage makeup to cover the affected areas and improve self-esteem.

In addition to these treatments, it is essential for patients with vitiligo to protect their skin from the sun by using broad-spectrum sunscreens, wearing protective clothing, and seeking shade when the sun is strongest.

Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve the quality of life for patients with vitiligo. However, the emotional and psychological impact of the disease should not be underestimated, and patients may require long-term support and counseling to cope with the challenges of living with this condition.

In animals, toxoplasmosis can cause a variety of clinical signs depending on the severity of the infection and the immune status of the host. Some common symptoms include diarrhea, lethargy, loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. In severe cases, toxoplasmosis can lead to respiratory failure, neurological disorders, and death.

Toxoplasmosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serology, and imaging studies such as radiography or ultrasonography. Treatment for toxoplasmosis in animals is largely supportive, aimed at managing symptoms and preventing complications.

Prevention of toxoplasmosis in animals involves good hygiene practices, such as avoiding contact with cat feces and contaminated food or water, and vaccination of cats against toxoplasmosis to reduce the risk of oocyst shedding. In some cases, antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections that arise from the immunosuppression caused by the parasite.

In conclusion, toxoplasmosis is a common and widespread infectious disease that affects many animal species, including humans. It can cause a range of clinical signs and symptoms, and diagnosis requires a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Prevention involves good hygiene practices and vaccination of cats against toxoplasmosis.

The symptoms of lymphoma, T-cell, cutaneous can vary depending on the location and severity of the cancer, but may include:

* Red, scaly patches or lesions on the skin
* Itching, burning, or pain on the skin
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Fatigue

Lymphoma, T-cell, cutaneous is a relatively rare type of cancer, and it can be difficult to diagnose. A doctor will typically perform a biopsy (removing a small sample of tissue from the affected area) to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options may include:

* Topical medications (applied directly to the skin)
* Phototherapy (exposure to specific wavelengths of light)
* Chemotherapy (using drugs to kill cancer cells)
* Radiation therapy (using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells)
* Targeted therapy (using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells)

Overall, the prognosis for lymphoma, T-cell, cutaneous is generally good, especially if the cancer is caught early and treated effectively. However, it can be a challenging condition to treat, and patients may experience significant discomfort and disfigurement.

Here are 10 key points to remember about histoplasmosis:

1) Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum.
2) It primarily affects the lungs and can disseminate to other organs.
3) Inhalation of spores from contaminated soil or bird droppings leads to infection.
4) Symptoms range from mild to severe, including fever, cough, chest pain, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5) Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.
6) Treatment is primarily supportive, with antifungal medications for severe cases.
7) Prevention includes avoiding exposure to contaminated environments and wearing protective clothing during cleanup or construction activities.
8) Histoplasmosis has a global distribution and is found in many parts of the United States.
9) It is an important occupational hazard for workers involved in construction, mining, and agriculture.
10) In severe cases, histoplasmosis can lead to chronic lung disease, heart problems, and meningitis.

There are several types of dermatitis, including:

1. Atopic dermatitis: a chronic condition characterized by dry, itchy skin and a tendency to develop allergies.
2. Contact dermatitis: a localized reaction to an allergen or irritant that comes into contact with the skin.
3. Seborrheic dermatitis: a condition characterized by redness, itching, and flaking skin on the scalp, face, or body.
4. Psoriasis: a chronic condition characterized by thick, scaly patches on the skin.
5. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a chronic autoimmune disorder that can cause skin rashes and lesions.
6. Dermatitis herpetiformis: a rare condition characterized by itchy blisters or rashes on the skin.

Dermatitis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes laboratory tests such as patch testing or biopsy. Treatment options for dermatitis depend on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include topical creams or ointments, oral medications, phototherapy, or lifestyle changes such as avoiding allergens or irritants.

The symptoms of glomerulonephritis can vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease, but may include:

* Blood in the urine (hematuria)
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Swelling in the legs and ankles (edema)
* High blood pressure

Glomerulonephritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as staphylococcal or streptococcal infections
* Autoimmune disorders such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
* Allergic reactions to certain medications
* Genetic defects
* Certain diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and sickle cell anemia

The diagnosis of glomerulonephritis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and kidney biopsy.

Treatment for glomerulonephritis depends on the underlying cause of the disease and may include:

* Antibiotics to treat infections
* Medications to reduce inflammation and swelling
* Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
* Immunosuppressive medications to suppress the immune system in cases of autoimmune disorders
* Dialysis in severe cases

The prognosis for glomerulonephritis depends on the underlying cause of the disease and the severity of the inflammation. In some cases, the disease may progress to end-stage renal disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant. With proper treatment, however, many people with glomerulonephritis can experience a good outcome and maintain their kidney function over time.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

The symptoms of Chagas disease can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the parasites in the body. In the acute phase, which typically lasts for weeks to months after infection, symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, joint pain, and swelling of the eyelids and neck. In some cases, the infection can spread to the heart and digestive system, leading to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and intestinal obstruction.

If left untreated, Chagas disease can enter a chronic phase, which can last for years or even decades. During this phase, symptoms may be less severe but can still include fatigue, joint pain, and cardiac problems. In some cases, the infection can reactivate during pregnancy or after exposure to stress, leading to relapses of acute symptoms.

Chagas disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs, which can be effective in reducing the severity of symptoms and preventing complications. However, the disease can be difficult to diagnose and treat, particularly in remote areas where medical resources are limited.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing Chagas disease. This includes controlling the population of triatomine bugs through measures such as insecticide spraying and sealing homes, as well as educating people about the risks of the disease and how to avoid infection. In addition, blood banks in areas where Chagas disease is common screen donated blood for the parasite to prevent transmission through blood transfusions.

Overall, Chagas disease is a significant public health problem in Latin America and can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for those infected with this disease.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur during a person's lifetime. Some risk factors for developing fibrosarcoma include previous radiation exposure, chronic inflammation, and certain inherited conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

The symptoms of fibrosarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown to a significant size. Common symptoms include pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. If the tumor is near a nerve, it can also cause numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.

Diagnosis of fibrosarcoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for fibrosarcoma may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for fibrosarcoma is generally good if the tumor is caught early and treated aggressively. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized), the prognosis is generally poorer. In some cases, the cancer can recur after treatment, so it is important for patients to follow their doctor's recommendations for regular check-ups and follow-up testing.

Overall, fibrosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. However, with early detection and appropriate treatment, many people with this condition can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.

The symptoms of lupus vulgaris typically include:

* Rough, scaly patches on the skin that may be dark red or purple in color
* Itching or burning sensation on the skin
* Skin thickening or hardening
* Painless ulcers or sores on the skin
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Headache
* Joint pain or swelling

The diagnosis of lupus vulgaris is based on a combination of clinical findings and laboratory tests. A physical examination of the skin and mucous membranes can reveal characteristic signs of the condition, such as scaly patches or ulcers. Laboratory tests, such as blood tests or biopsies, may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.

Treatment of lupus vulgaris typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and reduce symptoms. In severe cases, surgical debridement or laser therapy may be necessary to remove damaged tissue and promote healing. In addition, patients with lupus vulgaris may require supportive care to manage symptoms such as pain, itching, and swelling.

Overall, lupus vulgaris is a chronic skin condition that can cause significant discomfort and disfigurement if left untreated. It is important for individuals in regions where the condition is common to be aware of the signs and symptoms and seek medical attention if they suspect they may have the condition. With proper diagnosis and treatment, however, most patients with lupus vulgaris can experience significant improvement in their symptoms and quality of life.

Respiratory hypersensitivity can be diagnosed through medical history, physical examination, and allergy testing. Treatment options include avoidance of allergens, medication, such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunotherapy, which involves exposing the person to small amounts of the allergen over time to build up their tolerance.

Some people with respiratory hypersensitivity may experience more severe symptoms, such as asthma, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important for individuals with respiratory hypersensitivity to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent complications.

There are several types of retinitis, including:

1. Retinitis pigmentosa: This is a group of inherited conditions that cause progressive vision loss due to degeneration of the retina.
2. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis: This is a type of retinitis caused by the CMV virus, which is common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS.
3. Toxoplasma retinitis: This is a type of retinitis caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can cause vision loss if left untreated.
4. Syphilitic retinitis: This is a type of retinitis caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum, which can cause vision loss if left untreated.
5. Uveitis-related retinitis: This is a type of retinitis that occurs as a complication of uveitis, an inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye.

Symptoms of retinitis can include vision loss, blurred vision, sensitivity to light, and floaters (specks or cobwebs in your vision). If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Retinitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment for retinitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral or antibacterial medications, immunosuppressive drugs, or surgery. In some cases, vision loss may be permanent, but early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve outcomes.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) typically causes cold sores or fever blisters that appear on the lips, mouth, or nose. While herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is responsible for genital herpes which affects the genital area, buttocks, and anal area.

The infection can be spread through direct contact with an infected person's saliva, mucus, or skin, even if there are no visible sores present. Symptoms of herpes simplex may include itching, burning, tingling, redness, and small blisters that burst and ooze fluid.

There is no cure for herpes simplex, but medications can help manage symptoms and shorten the duration of an outbreak. Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir are commonly used to treat herpes simplex.

The symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Enlargement of the liver and spleen
* Pain in the abdomen
* Anemia
* Low blood platelet count
* Low white blood cell count

If left untreated, visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal. Treatment is typically with antiparasitic drugs, such as miltefosine or amphotericin B, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

It is important to note that visceral leishmaniasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, and prompt medical attention is necessary for effective treatment and management.

Falciparum malaria can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can lead to anemia, organ failure, and death.

Diagnosis of falciparum malaria typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of parasites in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) or quinine, which can effectively cure the disease if administered promptly.

Prevention of falciparum malaria is critical to reducing the risk of infection, and this includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and preventive medications for travelers to high-risk areas. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the spread of the disease.

In summary, falciparum malaria is a severe and life-threatening form of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is responsible for the majority of malaria-related deaths worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and death from this disease. Prevention measures include the use of bed nets, indoor spraying, and preventive medications, as well as reducing standing water around homes and communities.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Conclusion
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

1. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus): This is a virus that attacks the body's immune system, making it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. HIV is a type of retrovirus that can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).
2. HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1): This is a virus that affects the immune system and can lead to diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and myelopathy.
3. HBV (Hepatitis B Virus): This is a virus that attacks the liver and can cause inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
4. HCV (Hepatitis C Virus): This is a virus that attacks the liver and can cause inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
5. FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus): This is a virus that affects cats and can cause a variety of diseases, including leukemia and lymphoma.
6. FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus): This is a virus that affects cats and can weaken their immune system, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
7. Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus (BIV): This is a virus that affects cattle and can cause a variety of diseases, including leukemia and lymphoma.
8. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV): This is a virus that affects horses and can cause a variety of diseases, including anemia and swelling of the lymph nodes.

Retroviridae infections are typically diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies or genetic material from the virus. Treatment options vary depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection, but may include antiretroviral medications, immune-suppressive drugs, and supportive care such as blood transfusions or antibiotics for secondary infections.

It is important to note that retroviruses can be transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, and breast milk. Therefore, it is important to take precautions such as using condoms, gloves, and other protective measures when dealing with infected individuals or animals. Additionally, it is important to maintain good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, to reduce the risk of transmission.

A thymus neoplasm is a type of cancer that originates in the thymus gland, which is located in the chest behind the sternum and is responsible for the development and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells) of the immune system.

Types of Thymus Neoplasms

There are several types of thymus neoplasms, including:

1. Thymoma: A slow-growing tumor that is usually benign but can sometimes be malignant.
2. Thymic carcinoma: A more aggressive type of cancer that is less common than thymoma.
3. Thymic lymphoma: A type of cancer that arises from the T-cells in the thymus gland and can be either B-cell or T-cell derived.

Symptoms of Thymus Neoplasms

The symptoms of thymus neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Coughing or shortness of breath
3. Fatigue or fever
4. Swelling in the neck or face
5. Weight loss or loss of appetite

Diagnosis of Thymus Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a thymus neoplasm typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment of Thymus Neoplasms

The treatment of thymus neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, but may include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells
3. Chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy to specific molecules involved in the growth and progression of the cancer.

Prognosis of Thymus Neoplasms

The prognosis for thymus neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis.

Prevention of Thymus Neoplasms

There is no known way to prevent thymus neoplasms, as they are rare and can occur in people of all ages. However, early detection and treatment of the cancer can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

Current Research on Thymus Neoplasms

Researchers are currently studying new treatments for thymus neoplasms, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapy, which use the body's own immune system to fight cancer. Additionally, researchers are working to develop better diagnostic tests to detect thymus neoplasms at an earlier stage, when they are more treatable.

Conclusion

Thymus neoplasms are rare and complex cancers that require specialized care and treatment. While the prognosis for these cancers can be challenging, advances in diagnosis and treatment have improved outcomes for many patients. Researchers continue to study new treatments and diagnostic tools to improve the chances of a successful outcome for those affected by thymus neoplasms.

The symptoms of mycosis fungoides can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include:

* A rash or patches of skin that are red, itchy, and scaly
* Swollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck, armpits, or groin
* Fever, fatigue, or weight loss
* Enlarged liver or spleen
* Night sweats
* Itching or painless skin lesions

Mycosis fungoides can be difficult to diagnose because it can resemble other skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis. A biopsy of the skin is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for mycosis fungoides depend on the stage and severity of the disease, but may include:

* Topical medications or creams to treat mild cases
* Phototherapy with ultraviolet light to reduce inflammation and slow the growth of cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells
* Targeted therapy using drugs that specifically target cancer cells
* Stem cell transplantation in severe cases.

The prognosis for mycosis fungoides is generally good if the disease is caught early and treated aggressively. However, the disease can be challenging to treat and may recur even after successful treatment. Ongoing research is focused on developing new and more effective treatments for this rare and complex condition.

Strongylidae is a family of parasitic nematodes that includes several genera, such as Strongyloides, Ollulanus, and Habronema. These nematodes have a worldwide distribution and can infect a wide range of animals, including humans, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses.

Infection with strongyles can occur through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected animals or their feces. The parasites migrate to the intestines, where they feed on the host's blood and tissues, causing a range of symptoms.

The most common species of strongyles to infect humans are S. stercoralis and S. fuellebornii. Infection with these parasites can lead to a condition known as strongyloidiasis, which can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Diarrhea
* Weight loss
* Anemia
* Poor appetite
* Abdominal pain
* Fatigue

Strongyloidiasis is typically diagnosed through the detection of parasite eggs in stool samples or through the use of serological tests. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, which can kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Preventive measures against strongyles include:

* Avoiding contact with infected animals or their feces
* Properly cooking meat before consumption
* Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat
* Maintaining good personal hygiene
* Using clean water and sanitation facilities.

The symptoms of encephalomyelitis can vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fever, headache, neck stiffness, muscle weakness, confusion, seizures, and loss of sensation or paralysis in parts of the body. In severe cases, encephalomyelitis can lead to life-threatening complications such as brain damage, stroke, and respiratory failure.

The diagnosis of encephalomyelitis is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of inflammatory markers or antibodies against specific infectious agents. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans can help to identify inflammation in the brain and spinal cord.

Treatment of encephalomyelitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to treat infections such as herpes simplex or West Nile virus. In other cases, corticosteroids may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and physical therapy may also be necessary to manage symptoms and promote recovery.

In conclusion, encephalomyelitis is a serious condition that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, from the common cold to severe diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Coronavirus infections are caused by one of the four subtypes of coronaviruses: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta.

The symptoms of coronavirus infections can range from mild to severe and may include:

* Fever
* Cough
* Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Headache
* Sore throat
* Runny nose or stuffy nose
* Body aches or muscle pains
* Diarrhea
* Nausea or vomiting

In severe cases, coronavirus infections can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. The virus is primarily spread through close contact with an infected person, such as touching, shaking hands, or kissing. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and objects, such as door handles, light switches, and countertops.

There are several ways to diagnose coronavirus infections, including:

* Physical examination and medical history
* Chest X-ray or CT scan
* Blood tests
* Nucleic acid test (NAT)

Treatment for coronavirus infections is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the body's immune system. This may include:

* Antiviral medications
* Oxygen therapy
* Pain relief medication
* Rest and hydration

Prevention is key to avoiding coronavirus infections, and this includes:

* Washing hands frequently with soap and water
* Using alcohol-based hand sanitizers
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Staying home when sick

There are also several vaccines currently being developed to protect against coronavirus infections, but these are not yet widely available. It is important to follow the guidance of public health authorities and take precautions to prevent the spread of the virus.

Also known as eczema or atopic eczema.

Dermatitis, Atopic is a common condition that affects people of all ages but is most prevalent in children. It is often associated with other atopic conditions such as asthma and allergies. The exact cause of dermatitis, atopic is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Symptoms of Dermatitis, Atopic:

* Redness and dryness of the skin
* Scaling and flaking of the skin
* Itching and burning sensations
* Thickening and pigmentation of the skin
* Small blisters or weeping sores

Atopic dermatitis can occur anywhere on the body but is most commonly found on the face, neck, hands, and feet.

Treatment for Dermatitis, Atopic:

* Moisturizers to keep the skin hydrated and reduce dryness
* Topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Antihistamines to relieve itching
* Phototherapy with ultraviolet light
* Oral immunomodulators for severe cases

It is important to note that dermatitis, atopic is a chronic condition, and treatment should be ongoing. Flare-ups may occur, and adjustments to the treatment plan may be necessary.

Prevention of Dermatitis, Atopic:

* Avoiding triggers such as soaps, detergents, and stress
* Keeping the skin well-moisturized
* Avoiding extreme temperatures and humidity
* Wearing soft, breathable clothing
* Using mild cleansers and avoiding harsh chemicals

Early diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis, atopic can help improve the quality of life for those affected. It is important to work with a healthcare professional to develop an appropriate treatment plan and manage symptoms effectively.

1. Bubonic plague: This is the most common form of the disease and is characterized by the development of swollen and painful lymph nodes (called buboes) in the groin, armpits, or neck.
2. Pneumonic plague: This form of the disease affects the lungs and can be transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets. It is highly contagious and can be fatal if left untreated.
3. Septicemic plague: This form of the disease occurs when the bacteria enter the bloodstream directly, without going through the lymph nodes or lungs. It can cause fever, chills, abdominal pain, and bleeding into the skin and organs.

Plague has a long history of being a major public health threat, with pandemics occurring in the Middle Ages and other times throughout history. In modern times, plague is still present in some parts of the world, particularly in rural areas of the western United States and in parts of Africa and Asia.

Treatment of plague typically involves antibiotics, which can be effective if started early in the course of the illness. However, resistance to these antibiotics has been a growing concern in recent years, making it increasingly difficult to treat the disease effectively.

Prevention of plague primarily involves controlling the population of infected fleas and other vectors, as well as avoiding contact with infected animals or people. This can be achieved through measures such as using insecticides, wearing protective clothing and gear, and practicing good hygiene. Vaccines are also available for some forms of the disease, but they are not widely used due to their limited effectiveness and the availability of other treatment options.

Overall, plague is a serious and potentially deadly disease that requires prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. While treatment options exist, prevention is key to avoiding infection and controlling the spread of the disease.

Crohn's disease can affect any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, and causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. Ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and rectum and causes symptoms such as bloody stools, abdominal pain, and weight loss.

Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic conditions, meaning they cannot be cured but can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment options for IBD include anti-inflammatory medications, immunosuppressants, and biologics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the GI tract.

There is no known cause of IBD, although genetics, environmental factors, and an abnormal immune response are thought to play a role. The condition can have a significant impact on quality of life, particularly if left untreated or poorly managed. Complications of IBD include malnutrition, osteoporosis, and increased risk of colon cancer.

Preventing and managing IBD requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication, dietary changes, stress management, and regular follow-up with a healthcare provider. With proper treatment and lifestyle modifications, many people with IBD are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

The term splenomegaly is used to describe any condition that results in an increase in the size of the spleen, regardless of the underlying cause. This can be caused by a variety of factors, such as infection, inflammation, cancer, or genetic disorders.

Splenomegaly can be diagnosed through a physical examination, where the doctor may feel the enlarged spleen during an abdominal palpation. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the extent of the splenomegaly.

Treatment for splenomegaly depends on the underlying cause. For example, infections such as malaria or mononucleosis are treated with antibiotics, while cancerous conditions may require surgical intervention or chemotherapy. In some cases, the spleen may need to be removed, a procedure known as splenectomy.

In conclusion, splenomegaly is an abnormal enlargement of the spleen that can be caused by various factors and requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

There are several different forms of leishmaniasis, including:

* Cutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes skin sores, which can be painful and disfiguring.
* Visceral leishmaniasis: Also known as kala-azar, this form of the disease affects the internal organs and can be fatal if left untreated.
* Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes sores on the skin and mucous membranes.
*Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes widespread skin lesions.

Leishmaniasis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:

* Physical examination and medical history: A doctor may look for signs of the disease, such as skin sores or swelling, and ask about the patient's travel history and exposure to sandflies.
* Laboratory tests: Blood and skin samples can be tested for the presence of the parasite using techniques such as microscopy, PCR, and serology.
* Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can be used to visualize the spread of the disease in the body.

Treatment for leishmaniasis typically involves antiparasitic drugs, such as pentavalent antimonials, miltefosine, and amphotericin B. The specific treatment regimen will depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the patient's age, health status, and other factors. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue.

Prevention measures for leishmaniasis include:

* Avoiding sandfly bites: Using insecticides, wearing protective clothing, and staying in well-screened areas can help prevent sandfly bites.
* Eliminating sandfly breeding sites: Removing debris and vegetation, and using insecticides to kill sandflies and their eggs can help reduce the risk of infection.
* Vaccination: There is currently no effective vaccine against leishmaniasis, but research is ongoing to develop one.
* Public education: Raising awareness about the disease and how it is transmitted can help prevent infections and reduce the burden on healthcare systems.

Overall, early diagnosis and treatment are key to preventing complications and improving outcomes for patients with leishmaniasis. In addition, public health measures such as insecticide use and vaccination may help reduce the incidence of the disease.

The primary symptoms of celiac disease include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and bloating. However, some people may not experience any symptoms at all, but can still develop complications if the disease is left untreated. These complications can include malnutrition, anemia, osteoporosis, and increased risk of other autoimmune disorders.

The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown, but it is believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is more common in people with a family history of celiac disease or other autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of blood tests and intestinal biopsy, and treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet.

Dietary management of celiac disease involves avoiding all sources of gluten, including wheat, barley, rye, and some processed foods that may contain hidden sources of these grains. In some cases, nutritional supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate intake of certain vitamins and minerals.

While there is no known cure for celiac disease, adherence to a strict gluten-free diet can effectively manage the condition and prevent long-term complications. With proper management, people with celiac disease can lead normal, healthy lives.

1. Lymphedema: This is a condition in which the lymph vessels are unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the affected limb.
2. Lymphangitis: This is an inflammation of the lymph vessels that can cause pain, redness, and swelling.
3. Lymphadenitis: This is an infection of the lymph nodes that can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Primary lymphedema: This is a rare genetic condition in which the lymph vessels are missing or do not develop properly.
5. Secondary lymphedema: This is a condition that develops as a result of another condition or injury, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or infection.
6. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the development of the lymph vessels and nodes that can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.
7. Lymphocystis: This is a rare condition in which small cysts form in the lymph vessels and nodes.
8. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare condition that causes cysts to form in the lungs and can also affect the lymph vessels and nodes.
9. Lipedema: This is a condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the legs, thighs, and buttocks, which can cause swelling and pain.
10. Pemphigus: This is a group of rare autoimmune disorders that affect the skin and mucous membranes, leading to blistering and scarring.

Treatment for lymphatic diseases depends on the specific condition and may include compression garments, exercises, and manual lymph drainage therapy. In some cases, medications such as antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases to remove blockages or repair damaged vessels.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent swelling or pain, as these can be signs of a lymphatic disease. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

2. Chronic HTLV-I infection: This occurs when the acute phase of HTLV-I infection persists for more than 6 months, leading to the development of chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation.
3. Carrier state: A person who has been infected with HTLV-I but does not show any symptoms can be considered a carrier of the virus.
4. Vertically transmitted HTLV-I infection: This refers to the transmission of the virus from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
5. Horizontally transmitted HTLV-I infection: This occurs when the virus is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, and breast milk.
6. Symptomatic HTLV-I infection: This refers to a condition where the patient shows symptoms of the disease, such as TSP/HAM or ATLL.
7. Asymptomatic HTLV-I infection: This occurs when the patient does not show any symptoms despite being infected with the virus.
8. Latent HTLV-I infection: This refers to a condition where the virus is present in the body but is not actively replicating or causing symptoms.
9. Reactivated HTLV-I infection: This occurs when the virus becomes active again after a period of latency, leading to a recurrence of symptoms.

These categories are important for understanding the progression and management of HTLV-I infection, as well as for determining the risk of transmission to others.

A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.

Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.

Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.

Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.

There are several types of hepatitis, including:

1. Hepatitis A: This type is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or through close contact with someone who has the infection.
2. Hepatitis B: This type is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Hepatitis C: This type is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily spread through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing of needles or receiving a tainted blood transfusion.
4. Alcoholic hepatitis: This type is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and can lead to inflammation and scarring in the liver.
5. Drug-induced hepatitis: This type is caused by certain medications, such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, or chemotherapy agents.
6. Autoimmune hepatitis: This type is caused by an abnormal immune response and can lead to inflammation in the liver.

Symptoms of hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure or even death.

Diagnosis of hepatitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medications to manage symptoms, antiviral therapy, or in severe cases, liver transplantation. Prevention measures for hepatitis include vaccination against certain types of the disease, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, and following proper hygiene practices.

In conclusion, hepatitis is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is important to be aware of the different types of hepatitis and their causes in order to prevent and manage this condition effectively. By taking appropriate measures such as getting vaccinated and practicing safe sex, individuals can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis. In severe cases, early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize damage to the liver and improve outcomes for patients.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.

It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.

1. Autoimmune diseases: These occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes.
2. Allergies: An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance, such as pollen, dust mites, or certain foods. Symptoms can range from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.
3. Immunodeficiency disorders: These are conditions that impair the immune system's ability to fight infections. Examples include HIV/AIDS and primary immunodeficiency diseases.
4. Infectious diseases: Certain infections, such as tuberculosis or bacterial meningitis, can cause immune system dysfunction.
5. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as lymphoma, affect the immune system's ability to fight disease.
6. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack and destroy platelets, leading to bleeding and bruising.
7. Guillain-Barré syndrome: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that occurs when the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
8. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): This is a condition characterized by persistent fatigue, muscle pain, and joint pain, which is thought to be related to an immune system imbalance.
9. Fibromyalgia: This is a chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances, which may be linked to immune system dysfunction.
10. Autoimmune hepatitis: This is a condition in which the immune system attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage to the liver cells.

It's important to note that a weakened immune system can increase the risk of infections and other health problems, so it's important to work with your healthcare provider to identify any underlying causes and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

There are three main forms of anthrax:

1. Cutaneous (skin) anthrax: This is the most common form of the disease and causes skin lesions that can progress to severe inflammation and scarring.
2. Inhalational (lung) anthrax: This is the most deadly form of the disease and causes serious respiratory problems, including fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
3. Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax: This form of the disease causes symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.

Anthrax can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the timing of treatment.

Prevention of anthrax primarily involves vaccination of animals and control of animal products to prevent the spread of the bacteria. In addition, public health measures such as surveillance and quarantine can help prevent the spread of the disease to humans.

The medical management of anthrax involves a combination of antibiotics, supportive care, and wound management. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing serious complications and death.

Causes:

Reactive arthritis is caused by an immune system response to an infection or inflammation in another part of the body. Common causes include bacterial infections such as chlamydia, salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis B.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of reactive arthritis typically develop within 2-4 weeks after the initial infection or inflammation. They can include:

Pain and stiffness in the affected joints, particularly in the knees, ankles, and feet
Swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected joints
Loss of range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints
Fatigue and general feeling of illness

Diagnosis:

To diagnose reactive arthritis, a healthcare provider will typically begin with a physical examination and medical history. They may also order additional tests to rule out other conditions and confirm the presence of an underlying infection or inflammation. These tests can include:

Blood tests to check for the presence of antibodies or other signs of infection
Joint fluid tests to check for the presence of bacteria or other signs of inflammation
Imaging studies such as X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to rule out other conditions and assess joint damage

Treatment:

The goal of treatment for reactive arthritis is to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, and improve range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints. Treatment can include:

Antibiotics to treat any underlying bacterial infections
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain and reduce inflammation
Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected joints
Physical therapy to improve range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints
Joint aspiration to drain fluid from the affected joint and relieve pressure
In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."


The symptoms of myocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the inflammation and the location of the affected areas of the heart muscle. Common symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.

Myocarditis can be difficult to diagnose, as its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions such as coronary artery disease or heart failure. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and blood tests.

Treatment of myocarditis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Mild cases may require only rest and over-the-counter pain medication, while more severe cases may require hospitalization and intravenous medications to manage inflammation and cardiac function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.

Prevention of myocarditis is important, as it can lead to serious complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias if left untreated. Prevention strategies include avoiding exposure to viruses and other infections, managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and getting regular check-ups with a healthcare provider to monitor cardiac function.

In summary, myocarditis is an inflammatory condition that affects the heart muscle, causing symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Diagnosis can be challenging, but treatment options range from rest and medication to hospitalization and surgery. Prevention is key to avoiding serious complications and maintaining good cardiac health.

Respirovirus infections are a group of viral infections that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and lungs. These infections are caused by members of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses, which include the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV).

The symptoms of respirovirus infections can vary depending on the age of the individual and the severity of the infection. In infants and young children, the symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, runny nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. In older children and adults, the symptoms may be more mild and may include a stuffy nose, sore throat, and cough.

Respirovirus infections are usually spread through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva. The viruses can also survive on surfaces for a period of time and be transmitted through touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the face.

There is no specific treatment for respirovirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and managing complications, such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.

Prevention of respirovirus infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals such as infants, young children, and people with weakened immune systems. Preventative measures include frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing good hygiene. Vaccines are also available for some types of respirovirus infections, such as RSV, and can help protect against infection.

There are several possible causes of lymphocytosis, including:

1. Infection: Lymphocytosis can be caused by a variety of infections, such as viral or bacterial infections.
2. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis can cause an abnormal increase in lymphocytes.
3. Cancer: Lymphocytosis can be a symptom of certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
4. Reaction to medication: Certain medications, such as antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause lymphocytosis.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic disorders, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, can cause lymphocytosis.

Symptoms of lymphocytosis may include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, and weight loss. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition, and may involve antibiotics, chemotherapy, or other medications. In some cases, no treatment is necessary, as the condition may resolve on its own over time.

Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.

The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:

1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.

The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:

1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.

It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.

Sjögren's syndrome can affect people of all ages, but it most commonly occurs in women between the ages of 40 and 60. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune response, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks the glands as if they were foreign substances.

Symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome can vary in severity and may include:

* Dry mouth (xerostomia)
* Dry eyes (dry eye syndrome)
* Fatigue
* Joint pain
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Rash
* Sores on the skin
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Sexual dysfunction

There is no cure for Sjögren's syndrome, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Medications to stimulate saliva production
* Eye drops to moisturize the eyes
* Mouthwashes to stimulate saliva production
* Pain relief medication for joint pain
* Anti-inflammatory medication to reduce swelling
* Immunosuppressive medication to suppress the immune system
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat hormonal imbalances.

Sjögren's syndrome can also increase the risk of developing other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. It is important for people with Sjögren's syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and monitor their condition over time.

Benign ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.

Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.

Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

In LLCB, the B cells undergo a mutation that causes them to become cancerous and multiply rapidly. This can lead to an overproduction of these cells in the bone marrow, causing the bone marrow to become crowded and unable to produce healthy red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.

LLCB is typically a slow-growing cancer, and it can take years for symptoms to develop. However, as the cancer progresses, it can lead to a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes.

LLCB is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment options for LLCB include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, stem cell transplantation.

Overall, while LLCB is a serious condition, it is typically slow-growing and can be managed with appropriate treatment. With current treatments, many people with LLCB can achieve long-term remission and a good quality of life.

There are two main types of schistosomiasis:

1. Schistosoma haematobium: This type is most commonly found in Africa and the Middle East, and affects the urinary tract, causing bleeding, kidney damage, and bladder problems.
2. Schistosoma japonicum: This type is found in Asia, and affects the intestines, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
3. Schistosoma mansoni: This type is found in sub-Saharan Africa, and affects both the intestines and the liver, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and liver damage.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis can include:

* Bloody urine
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Rectal bleeding
* Fatigue
* Anemia
* Weight loss

If left untreated, schistosomiasis can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and infertility.

Treatment of schistosomiasis typically involves the use of praziquantel, an antiparasitic drug that is effective against all species of Schistosoma. In addition to treatment, preventive measures such as avoiding contact with contaminated water and using protective clothing when swimming or bathing in areas where the disease is common can help reduce the risk of infection.

Preventive measures for schistosomiasis include:

* Avoiding contact with contaminated water
* Using protective clothing such as long sleeves and pants when swimming or bathing in areas where the disease is common
* Avoiding activities that involve exposure to water, such as swimming or fishing, in areas where the disease is common
* Using clean water for drinking, cooking, and personal hygiene
* Implementing sanitation measures such as building latrines and improving sewage systems in areas where the disease is common

It is important to note that schistosomiasis is a preventable and treatable disease, but it requires awareness and action from individuals, communities, and governments to control and eliminate the disease.

The symptoms of coccidioidomycosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's immune response. Some people may experience mild symptoms, such as fever, cough, and fatigue, while others may develop more severe symptoms, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bone or skin infections. Skin lesions and rashes are also common.

Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may involve antifungal medications and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention is key in avoiding coccidioidomycosis, which includes avoiding areas with high concentrations of the fungus, using respiratory protection when working in areas where the fungus is present, and taking antifungal medications prophylactically for those who are at high risk.

Prognosis for coccidioidomycosis is generally good for those with mild infections, but can be poor for those with severe infections or underlying conditions such as HIV/AIDS or cancer. Long-term effects of the infection can include lung scarring and joint damage.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Types of Infection:

1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

Symptoms of Infection:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Headache
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
8. Coughing
9. Diarrhea
10. Vomiting

Treatment of Infection:

1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.

Prevention of Infection:

1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

The symptoms of dermatitis, allergic contact can vary depending on the severity of the reaction, but may include:

* Redness and swelling of the affected area
* Itching, burning, or stinging sensations
* Small blisters or hives
* Thickening or scaling of the skin
* Crusting or oozing of fluid

Dermatitis, allergic contact can be caused by a variety of substances, including:

* Metals, such as nickel, chrome, and mercury
* Plastics, such as latex and polyethylene
* Certain chemicals, such as perfumes, dyes, and preservatives
* Plant extracts, such as poison ivy or poison oak
* Insect bites or stings

The diagnosis of dermatitis, allergic contact is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and patch testing. Patch testing involves applying small amounts of potential allergens to the skin and observing for any signs of an allergic reaction over a period of time.

Treatment for dermatitis, allergic contact typically focuses on removing the allergen from the affected area and providing relief from symptoms. This may include:

* Avoiding exposure to the allergen
* Applying topical creams or ointments to reduce inflammation and itching
* Taking oral medications, such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, to reduce symptoms
* In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the reaction.

Preventative measures for dermatitis, allergic contact include:

* Avoiding exposure to potential allergens
* Wearing protective clothing or gloves when handling suspected allergens
* Using hypoallergenic products and avoiding fragrances and dyes
* Performing patch testing before introducing new substances into the environment.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as dermatitis, allergic contact can lead to complications such as infection or scarring. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:

* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women

In eye infections, symptoms can include:

* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light

In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:

* Cough
* Fever
* Shortness of breath or wheezing

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.

Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.

Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.

In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

HIV seropositivity is typically diagnosed through a blood test called an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test detects the presence of antibodies against HIV in the blood by using specific proteins on the surface of the virus. If the test is positive, it means that the individual has been infected with HIV.

HIV seropositivity is an important diagnostic criterion for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), which is a condition that develops when the immune system is severely damaged by HIV infection. AIDS is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and laboratory tests, including HIV seropositivity.

HIV seropositivity can be either primary (acute) or chronic. Primary HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual is first infected with HIV and their immune system produces antibodies against the virus. Chronic HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual has been living with HIV for a long time and their immune system has produced antibodies that remain in their bloodstream.

HIV seropositivity can have significant implications for an individual's health and quality of life, as well as their social and economic well-being. It is important for individuals who are HIV seropositive to receive appropriate medical care and support to manage their condition and prevent the transmission of HIV to others.

The condition is often caused by gallstones or other blockages that prevent the normal flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine. Over time, the scarring can lead to the formation of cirrhosis, which is characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.

Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Itching
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, biliary is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and blood tests.

Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove gallstones or repair damaged bile ducts. Medications such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver cirrhosis, biliary is generally poor, as the condition can lead to complications such as liver failure, infection, and cancer. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Plasmacytoma is a type of plasma cell dyscrasia, which is a group of diseases that affect the production and function of plasma cells. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infections. In plasmacytoma, the abnormal plasma cells grow and multiply out of control, leading to a tumor.

There are several subtypes of plasmacytoma, including:

* solitary plasmacytoma: A single tumor that occurs in one location.
* multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the bones and is characterized by an overgrowth of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow.
* extramedullary plasmacytoma: A tumor that occurs outside of the bone marrow, such as in soft tissue or organs.

Plasmacytoma is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and biopsy. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to destroy the abnormal cells. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the tumor.

Plasmacytoma is a relatively rare cancer, but it can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if left untreated. It is important for patients with symptoms of plasmacytoma to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Some of the key features of immediate hypersensitivity include:

1. Rapid onset of symptoms: Symptoms typically occur within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen.
2. IgE antibodies: Immediate hypersensitivity is caused by the binding of IgE antibodies to surface receptors on mast cells and basophils.
3. Mast cell and basophil activation: The activation of mast cells and basophils leads to the release of histamine and other chemical mediators that cause symptoms.
4. Anaphylaxis: Immediate hypersensitivity can progress to anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction that requires immediate medical attention.
5. Specificity: Immediate hypersensitivity is specific to a particular allergen and does not occur with other allergens.
6. Cross-reactivity: There may be cross-reactivity between different allergens, leading to similar symptoms.
7. Prevention: Avoidance of the allergen is the primary prevention strategy for immediate hypersensitivity. Medications such as antihistamines and epinephrine can also be used to treat symptoms.

alveolitis /al?veo?lit?s/ (noun) A type of inflammation affecting the air sacs (alveoli) caused by an allergic reaction to substances inhaled into the lungs.

Synonyms: allergic alveolitis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis

Medicine dictionary

Scientific definition of alveolitis, extrinsic allergic:
Alveolitis, also known as allergic alveolitis, is a type of inflammatory disease that affects the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. It occurs when an individual's immune system overreacts to certain substances inhaled into the lungs, causing an allergic reaction that leads to inflammation and damage to the alveolar tissue.

The term "extrinsic" refers to the fact that the allergen is coming from outside the body, as opposed to "intrinsic" allergies where the allergen is produced within the body.

This condition can be caused by a variety of substances including dust mites, mold, pollen, and animal dander. People with a history of asthma or atopic dermatitis are more likely to develop allergic alveolitis. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Treatment for allergic alveolitis typically involves avoidance of the allergen, medications such as corticosteroids, and immunotherapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Some common types of skin diseases include:

1. Acne: a condition characterized by oil clogged pores, pimples, and other blemishes on the skin.
2. Eczema: a chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin.
3. Psoriasis: a chronic autoimmune skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches on the skin.
4. Dermatitis: a term used to describe inflammation of the skin, often caused by allergies or irritants.
5. Skin cancer: a type of cancer that affects the skin cells, often caused by exposure to UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds.
6. Melanoma: the most serious type of skin cancer, characterized by a mole that changes in size, shape, or color.
7. Vitiligo: a condition in which white patches develop on the skin due to the loss of pigment-producing cells.
8. Alopecia: a condition characterized by hair loss, often caused by autoimmune disorders or genetics.
9. Nail diseases: conditions that affect the nails, such as fungal infections, brittleness, and thickening.
10. Mucous membrane diseases: conditions that affect the mucous membranes, such as ulcers, inflammation, and cancer.

Skin diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsies or blood tests. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include topical creams or ointments, oral medications, light therapy, or surgery.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of skin diseases include protecting the skin from UV radiation, using sunscreen, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding exposure to known allergens or irritants. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for many skin conditions.

During convalescence, patients may be advised to follow specific dietary restrictions, engage in gentle exercise, and avoid strenuous activities that can exacerbate their condition or slow down the healing process. They may also receive medical treatment, such as physical therapy, medication, or other forms of supportive care, to aid in their recovery.

The duration of convalescence varies depending on the individual and the nature of their illness or injury. In general, convalescence can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity and complexity of the condition being treated.

Overall, the goal of convalescence is to allow the body to heal and recover fully, while also minimizing the risk of complications and promoting optimal functional outcomes.

Examples of 'Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental' in a sentence:

1. The researchers studied the effects of hormone therapy on mammary neoplasms in experimental animals to better understand its potential role in human breast cancer.
2. The lab used mice with genetic mutations that predispose them to developing mammary neoplasms to test the efficacy of new cancer drugs.
3. In order to investigate the link between obesity and breast cancer, the researchers conducted experiments on mammary neoplasms in rats with diet-induced obesity.

1. Types of Polyomaviruses: There are several types of polyomaviruses that can infect humans, including the common cold virus (Rhinovirus), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and the newly identified Parechovirus.
2. Infection: Polyomaviruses can be transmitted through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva, or through contaminated surfaces. Inhaling the virus can lead to an infection in the respiratory tract.
3. Symptoms: The symptoms of polyomavirus infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual's age and overall health. Common symptoms include runny nose, cough, fever, sore throat, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, polyomaviruses can cause pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and other respiratory disorders.
4. Diagnosis: A diagnosis of a polyomavirus infection is typically made based on the symptoms and medical history of the individual, as well as through laboratory tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture.
5. Treatment: There is no specific treatment for polyomavirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers, may also be recommended.
6. Prevention: Preventing the spread of polyomaviruses can be challenging, but good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and disinfecting surfaces can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are also being developed to protect against certain types of polyomaviruses.
7. Prognosis: In most cases, polyomavirus infections are mild and self-limiting, with symptoms resolving on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe infections can be life-threatening, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.
8. Epidemiology: Polyomaviruses are common and widespread, with the majority of individuals worldwide being infected at some point in their lives. Outbreaks of polyomavirus infections can occur in settings such as hospitals, long-term care facilities, and daycare centers, where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
9. Research: Research on polyomaviruses is ongoing to better understand the viruses, their transmission, and their clinical impact. This includes development of vaccines and antiviral medications, as well as studies to identify risk factors for severe infections and to improve diagnostic tests.
10. Public health: Polyomaviruses are a public health concern, particularly in settings where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection. Prevention strategies include practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick.

Overall, polyomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that can cause a range of diseases, from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening. Understanding the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, epidemiology, research, and public health implications of polyomavirus infections is essential for providing appropriate care and preventing outbreaks.

The symptoms of CVID can vary from person to person and may include:

1. Frequent or recurring infections, such as sinus infections, ear infections, and pneumonia.
2. Poor response to vaccines.
3. Delayed growth and development in children.
4. Autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis or arthritis.
5. Increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma.

CVID is caused by mutations in several genes that are involved in the immune system. These genes play a role in the development and function of immune cells, such as T cells and B cells. The exact cause of CVID is often not known, but it can be inherited or acquired through genetic mutations.

There is no cure for CVID, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to fight off infections, immunoglobulin replacement therapy to boost the immune system, and medication to manage autoimmune disorders. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be recommended.

The prognosis for CVID varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of any complications. With proper treatment, many people with CVID can lead normal lives and have a good quality of life. However, some individuals may experience ongoing health problems and a higher risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Example sentences:

1. The rhabdoviridae infections in cattle can cause significant economic losses for farmers, as they can lead to reduced milk production and mortality rates.
2. Scientists are working on developing vaccines against rhabdoviridae infections in pigs, which could help reduce the risk of disease transmission to humans.

The diagnosis of BHR is based on a combination of clinical, physiological, and imaging tests. The most common method used to assess BHR is the methacholine or histamine challenge test, which involves inhaling progressively increasing concentrations of these substances to measure airway reactivity. Other tests include exercise testing, hyperventilation, and mannitol challenge.

BHR is characterized by an increased responsiveness of the airways to various stimuli, such as allergens, cold or exercise, leading to inflammation and bronchoconstriction. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

There are several risk factors for BHR, including:

* Allergies
* Respiratory infections
* Exposure to environmental pollutants
* Genetic predisposition
* Obesity
* Smoking

Treatment of BHR typically involves the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and other medications to reduce inflammation and airway constriction. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as lung volume reduction or bronchial thermoplasty may be necessary. Environmental modifications, such as avoiding triggers and using HEPA filters, can also help manage symptoms.

In summary, bronchial hyperreactivity is a condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli, leading to increased smooth muscle contraction and narrowing of the bronchi. It is commonly seen in asthma and other respiratory diseases, and can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Treatment typically involves medications and environmental modifications to reduce inflammation and airway constriction.

Causes:

There are many possible causes of eosinophilia, including:

* Allergies
* Parasitic infections
* Autoimmune disorders
* Cancer
* Medications

Symptoms:

The symptoms of eosinophilia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Swelling of the skin, lips, and eyes
* Hives or itchy skin
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea

Diagnosis:

Eosinophilia is typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the number of eosinophils in the blood. Other tests such as imaging studies, skin scrapings, and biopsies may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the underlying cause.

Treatment:

The treatment of eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and chemotherapy. In some cases, removal of the causative agent or immunomodulatory therapy may be necessary.

Complications:

Eosinophilia can lead to a number of complications, including:

* Anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction)
* Asthma
* Eosinophilic granulomas (collections of eosinophils that can cause organ damage)
* Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (conditions where eosinophils invade the digestive tract)

Prognosis:

The prognosis for eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but in general, the condition is not life-threatening. However, if left untreated, complications can arise and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life.

In conclusion, eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in eosinophils in the body. While it can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, and autoimmune disorders, the underlying cause must be identified and treated in order to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

The term "lepromatous" is derived from the Latin word "leprum," meaning "scale," which refers to the rough, scaly skin lesions that are a hallmark of this type of leprosy. Lepromatous leprosy is the most severe and disfiguring form of the disease, and it is often associated with a high risk of complications and death.

In medical terms, "lepromatous" is used to describe any condition or lesion that resembles lepromatous leprosy, such as certain types of skin cancer or other inflammatory disorders. However, the term is most commonly associated with leprosy and its severe and debilitating effects on the body.

The diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy is typically made based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and skin biopsy. Treatment for this condition typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In addition, individuals with lepromatous leprosy may require surgery to remove deformities and improve function and mobility.

Overall, the term "lepromatous" is used in the medical field to describe a severe and debilitating form of leprosy that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life and longevity.

Polymyositis can affect people of all ages, but it most commonly occurs in adults between the ages of 30 and 60. It is more common in women than men, and the symptoms can vary in severity. The disease may be acute or chronic, and it can affect one or more muscle groups.

The symptoms of polymyositis include:

* Muscle weakness and fatigue
* Pain in the affected muscles
* Wasting of the affected muscles
* Difficulty swallowing (in severe cases)
* Shortness of breath (in severe cases)

The diagnosis of polymyositis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to check for muscle enzymes and inflammatory markers, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can help to confirm the diagnosis and assess the extent of the disease.

There is no cure for polymyositis, but treatment can help to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Treatment options may include:

* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Immunosuppressive drugs to suppress the immune system
* Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and function
* Pain management with analgesics and other medications
* Plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood

The prognosis for polymyositis varies, depending on the severity of the disease and the response to treatment. In general, the prognosis is better for patients who have a mild form of the disease and who respond well to treatment. However, in severe cases, the disease can be life-threatening, and mortality rates are estimated to be as high as 20% to 30%.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

A type of keratitis caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is characterized by the presence of small, discrete ulcers on the surface of the cornea, along with inflammation and edema. The lesions are usually self-limiting but can be painful and may lead to scarring or perforation of the cornea if left untreated.

Synonyms: herpetic keratitis, HSV keratitis

See also: bacterial keratitis, fungal keratitis, avulsive keratitis, neurotrophic keratitis

Source: Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA)

Note: This term is used in the medical field to describe a specific type of inflammation of the cornea caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is important to note that this term is not a diagnosis, but rather a descriptor of the cause of the inflammation. A proper diagnosis can only be made by a qualified medical professional through a comprehensive examination and appropriate testing.

The disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, which introduces the parasite into the host's bloodstream. The parasites then multiply within the host's cells, causing damage to the red blood cells and other organs.

There are several species of Theileria that can cause theileriosis, with different species affecting different regions and livestock populations. The most common species is Theileria parva, which is found in sub-Saharan Africa and causes East Coast fever. Other species include Theileria sergenti, which is found in southern Africa, and Theileria taurotragus, which affects wild buffalo.

Theileriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and observation of the parasites in the host's bloodstream. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as antibiotics to prevent secondary infections, and in some cases, medication to reduce the number of parasites in the host's body.

Prevention is key to controlling theileriosis, and this includes using acaricides to kill ticks, vaccination, and maintaining good herd health practices. In areas where the disease is common, it is important to monitor livestock regularly for signs of the disease and take prompt action if any are detected.

In summary, theileriosis is a parasitic infection caused by Theileria protozoa that affects cattle and other bovines, causing a range of symptoms including fever, anemia, weight loss, and edema. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick and can be diagnosed through laboratory tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves supportive care and medication to reduce the number of parasites in the host's body, while prevention strategies include the use of acaricides, vaccination, and good herd health practices.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

1. Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
2. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Rapid heartbeat
6. Feeling of impending doom or loss of consciousness

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. Treatment for anaphylaxis typically involves administering epinephrine (adrenaline) via an auto-injector, such as an EpiPen or Auvi-Q. Additional treatments may include antihistamines, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy.

Prevention of anaphylaxis involves avoiding known allergens and being prepared to treat a reaction if it occurs. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, it is important to carry an EpiPen or other emergency medication with you at all times. Wearing a medical alert bracelet or necklace can also help to notify others of your allergy and the need for emergency treatment.

In severe cases, anaphylaxis can lead to unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Crohn disease can occur in any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the ileum (the last portion of the small intestine) and the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn disease can lead to the formation of scar tissue, which can cause narrowing or blockages in the intestines. This can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction or abscesses.

The exact cause of Crohn disease is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract. Genetic factors and environmental triggers such as smoking and diet also play a role in the development of the disease.

There is no cure for Crohn disease, but various treatments can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. These may include medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, and biologics, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the GI tract.

Crohn disease can have a significant impact on quality of life, and it is important for individuals with the condition to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with Crohn disease are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are several causes of hypergammaglobulinemia, including:

1. Chronic infections: Prolonged infections can cause an increase in the production of immunoglobulins to fight off the infection.
2. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis can cause the immune system to produce excessive amounts of antibodies.
3. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, can cause an increase in immunoglobulin production.
4. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, can lead to a deficiency or excess of immunoglobulins.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as corticosteroids and chemotherapy drugs, can suppress the immune system and reduce the production of immunoglobulins.

Symptoms of hypergammaglobulinemia can include:

1. Infections: Recurring infections are a common symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, as the excessive amount of antibodies can make it difficult for the body to fight off infections effectively.
2. Fatigue: Chronic infections and inflammation can cause fatigue and weakness.
3. Weight loss: Recurring infections and chronic inflammation can lead to weight loss and malnutrition.
4. Swollen lymph nodes: Enlarged lymph nodes are a common symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, as the body tries to fight off infections.
5. Fever: Recurring fevers can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, as the body tries to fight off infections.
6. Night sweats: Excessive sweating at night can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia.
7. Skin rashes: Certain types of skin rashes can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, such as a rash caused by allergic reactions to medications or infections.
8. Joint pain: Pain and stiffness in the joints can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, particularly if the excessive amount of antibodies is causing inflammation in the joints.
9. Headaches: Chronic headaches can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, particularly if the excessive amount of antibodies is causing inflammation in the brain or other parts of the body.
10. Swollen liver and spleen: Enlarged liver and spleen can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, as the body tries to filter out excess antibodies and fight off infections.

It is important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other medical conditions, so it is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. A healthcare professional may perform blood tests and other diagnostic procedures to determine the underlying cause of the symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment for hypergammaglobulinemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as infections, allergies, or autoimmune disorders, and may include medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes, and can cause a range of symptoms including skin lesions, numbness and loss of sensation, and muscle weakness.

Tuberculoid leprosy is one of the four main forms of leprosy, along with borderline tuberculoid, dimorphic, and paucibacillary. The form of the disease a person develops depends on their immune response to the bacteria. Tuberculoid leprosy is characterized by a strong immune response, which leads to the formation of tubercles on the skin and mucous membranes.

Tuberculoid leprosy can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions such as skin cancer or tuberculosis. However, a diagnosis of tuberculoid leprosy can be confirmed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and biopsy.

Treatment for tuberculoid leprosy typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery to remove the tubercles. In some cases, the disease may progress to other forms, such as borderline tuberculoid or dimorphic, and treatment may need to be adjusted accordingly.

Prevention of tuberculoid leprosy primarily involves avoiding close contact with people who have the disease, as well as taking measures to reduce the risk of infection, such as wearing protective clothing and washing hands regularly. Vaccination is also an important prevention strategy, as it can help to protect against infection with Mycobacterium leprae.

Overall, tuberculoid leprosy is a chronic and debilitating disease that requires careful management and treatment to prevent complications and improve quality of life for those affected.

Hodgkin Disease can spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system, and it can affect people of all ages, although it is most common in young adults and teenagers. The symptoms of Hodgkin Disease can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and itching.

There are several types of Hodgkin Disease, including:

* Classical Hodgkin Disease: This is the most common type of Hodgkin Disease and is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
* Nodular Lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by the presence of nodules in the lymph nodes.
* Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by a mixture of Reed-Sternberg cells and other immune cells.

Hodgkin Disease is usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected lymph node or other area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment for Hodgkin Disease typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary.

The prognosis for Hodgkin Disease is generally good, especially if the disease is detected and treated early. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for people with Hodgkin Disease is about 85%. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.

Hodgkin Disease is a rare form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is most commonly diagnosed in young adults and is usually treatable with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of treatment can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.

There are several types of pemphigus, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: This is the most common form of the disease and is characterized by the formation of large, painful blisters on the skin and mucous membranes.
2. Pemphigus foliaceus: This type of pemphigus is characterized by the formation of smaller, crusting sores on the skin.
3. Pemphigus erythematosus: This type of pemphigus is characterized by the formation of flat, red sores on the skin.
4. Bullous pemphigoid: This is a rare form of pemphigus that is characterized by the formation of large, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.

Treatment for pemphigus typically involves the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as infection and fluid loss.

Prevention of pemphigus is difficult, but avoiding exposure to known triggers such as certain medications and taking steps to maintain good skin care can help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with pemphigus.

Symptoms of Kidney Neoplasms can include blood in the urine, pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, fever, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT scans or ultrasound, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, ablation therapy, targeted therapy, or chemotherapy.

It is important for individuals with a history of Kidney Neoplasms to follow up with their healthcare provider regularly for monitoring and check-ups to ensure early detection of any recurrences or new tumors.

The disease typically presents with symptoms such as fever, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats, and can progress to severe respiratory, cutaneous, and disseminated forms if left untreated. The infection is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, radiological studies, and laboratory tests such as PCR and culture.

Treatment options for paracoccidioidomycosis include antifungal medications such as amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole, which are often associated with significant side effects and variable efficacy. Surgical debulking may also be considered in certain cases.

The prognosis for paracoccidioidomycosis is generally poor, especially in advanced stages of the disease, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. However, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes.

A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.

It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.

UC can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and there is no known cure. However, with proper management, it is possible for people with UC to experience long periods of remission and improve their quality of life. Treatment options include medications such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunomodulators, as well as surgery in severe cases.

It's important for individuals with UC to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that takes into account their specific symptoms and needs. With the right treatment and support, many people with UC are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.

A type of encephalitis caused by a virus that inflames the brain and spinal cord, leading to fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death. Viral encephalitis is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito or tick, but can also be spread through contact with infected blood or organs. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and seizures, as well as antiviral medications in severe cases.

Synonyms: viral encephalitis

Antonyms: bacterial encephalitis

Similar term: meningitis

Lyme disease is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.

Prevention of Lyme disease involves protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease can help to prevent long-term complications, such as joint inflammation and neurological problems.

In this definition, we have used technical terms such as 'bacterial infection', 'blacklegged tick', 'Borrelia burgdorferi', and 'antibiotics' to provide a more detailed understanding of the medical concept.

Sarcoidosis is characterized by an abnormal immune response, which leads to the formation of granulomas. These granulomas are made up of a mix of immune cells, including macrophages, lymphocytes, and epithelioid cells. The exact cause of sarcoidosis is not known, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its development.

There are several types of sarcoidosis, each with different symptoms and characteristics:

* Cutaneous sarcoidosis affects the skin and can cause red or purple patches on the face, arms, or legs.
* Lung sarcoidosis is the most common form of the disease and can cause shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
* Ocular sarcoidosis can affect the eyes and cause blurred vision, sensitivity to light, and eye pain.
* Cardiac sarcoidosis can affect the heart and cause arrhythmias, heart failure, or cardiac arrest.

There is no cure for sarcoidosis, but treatment options are available to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and biologics, as well as lifestyle changes such as exercise and stress management. In severe cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to remove affected tissue or organs.

Overall, sarcoidosis is a complex and debilitating disease that can affect various parts of the body. While there is no cure, with proper treatment and self-care, many people with sarcoidosis are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

Grave's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and affects about 1 in 200 people. It can occur at any age but is more common in women and tends to run in families. The exact cause of Grave's disease is not known, but it may be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Symptoms of Grave's disease can vary from person to person, but common signs include:

* Weight loss
* Nervousness or anxiety
* Irregular heartbeat (palpitations)
* Increased sweating
* Heat intolerance
* Fatigue
* Changes in menstrual cycle in women
* Enlargement of the thyroid gland, known as a goiter
* Bulging eyes (exophthalmos)

Grave's disease can be diagnosed through blood tests and scans. Treatment options include medication to reduce the production of thyroxine, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part of the thyroid gland, and surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of Grave's disease, as untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to complications such as heart problems, osteoporosis, and eye problems. With proper treatment, most people with Grave's disease can manage their symptoms and lead a normal life.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

The most common demyelinating diseases include:

1. Multiple sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disease that affects the CNS, including the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. MS causes inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath, leading to a range of symptoms such as muscle weakness, vision problems, and cognitive difficulties.
2. Acute demyelination: A sudden, severe loss of myelin that can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other factors. This condition can result in temporary or permanent nerve damage.
3. Chronic inflammatory demyelination (CIDP): A rare autoimmune disorder that causes progressive damage to the myelin sheath over time. CIDP can affect the CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
4. Moore's disease: A rare genetic disorder that results in progressive demyelination of the CNS, leading to a range of neurological symptoms including muscle weakness, seizures, and cognitive difficulties.
5. Leukodystrophies: A group of genetic disorders that affect the development or function of myelin-producing cells in the CNS. These conditions can cause progressive loss of myelin and result in a range of neurological symptoms.

Demyelinating diseases can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to other conditions and the disease progression can be unpredictable. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and its severity, and may include medications to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune system, as well as rehabilitation therapies to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Eimeria species are obligate intracellular parasites that infect the epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract of animals, causing damage to the gut mucosa and leading to diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, and even death. The disease can be acute or chronic, depending on the severity of the infection and the host's immune response.

There are several species of Eimeria that can infect ruminants, with different species affecting different parts of the intestinal tract. For example, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii infect the caecum and abomasum, respectively, while Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria falciformis infect the small intestine.

Coccidiosis is typically diagnosed through fecal examination, where the presence of oocysts (eggs) in the feces is indicative of an infection. Treatment options include anticoccidial drugs, which can be administered orally or parenterally, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as diarrhea and dehydration.

Prevention is key to managing coccidiosis, and this includes the use of vaccines, cleanliness and hygiene practices, and controlling the parasite's environmental survival. In some cases, a combination of these methods may be necessary to effectively prevent and control coccidiosis in ruminant populations.

There are several subtypes of B-cell leukemia, including:

1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): This is the most common type of B-cell leukemia, and it typically affects older adults. CLL is a slow-growing cancer that can progress over time.
2. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): This is a fast-growing and aggressive form of B-cell leukemia that can affect people of all ages. ALL is often treated with chemotherapy and sometimes with bone marrow transplantation.
3. Burkitt lymphoma: This is an aggressive form of B-cell leukemia that typically affects older adults in Africa and Asia. Burkitt lymphoma can be treated with chemotherapy and sometimes with bone marrow transplantation.
4. Hairy cell leukemia: This is a rare type of B-cell leukemia that is characterized by the presence of hair-like projections on the surface of cancer cells. Hairy cell leukemia can be treated with chemotherapy and sometimes with bone marrow transplantation.

The diagnosis of B-cell leukemia is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options for B-cell leukemia include chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, and in some cases, targeted therapy with drugs that specifically target cancer cells. The prognosis for B-cell leukemia varies depending on the subtype of the disease and the patient's overall health.

Myeloid leukemia can be classified into several subtypes based on the type of cell involved and the degree of maturity of the abnormal cells. The most common types of myeloid leukemia include:

1. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This is the most aggressive form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by a rapid progression of immature cells that do not mature or differentiate into normal cells. AML can be further divided into several subtypes based on the presence of certain genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This is a slower-growing form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by the presence of a genetic abnormality known as the Philadelphia chromosome. CML is typically treated with targeted therapies or bone marrow transplantation.
3. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of immature blood cells in the bone marrow. MDS can progress to AML if left untreated.
4. Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML): This is a rare form of myeloid leukemia that is characterized by the accumulation of immature monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. CMML can be treated with chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.

The symptoms of myeloid leukemia can vary depending on the subtype and severity of the disease. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options for myeloid leukemia can include chemotherapy, targeted therapies, bone marrow transplantation, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for myeloid leukemia varies depending on the subtype of the disease and the patient's overall health. With current treatments, many patients with myeloid leukemia can achieve long-term remission or even be cured.

The symptoms of bovine tuberculosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:

* Coughing or difficulty breathing
* Weight loss and loss of condition
* Fever
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Enlarged liver or spleen
* Poor milk production in lactating cows
* Intestinal problems, such as diarrhea or constipation

If left untreated, bovine tuberculosis can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, pleurisy, and peritonitis. It can also spread to other animals in the herd, making it important to identify and isolate infected animals promptly.

Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Skin tests, such as the Mantoux test or the single-dose intradermal test, can detect exposure to the bacteria, but they may not always provide accurate results in animals with low levels of antibodies. Blood tests, such as the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test or the QuantiFERON® test, can detect the presence of TB antigens in the blood, but these tests may also have limitations.

Treatment of bovine tuberculosis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The most commonly used antibiotics include isoniazid, streptomycin, and pyrazinamide. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Prevention of bovine tuberculosis primarily involves controlling the spread of the disease through control of the mycobacteria that cause it. Measures such as testing and removal of infected animals, use of clean needles and equipment, and proper disposal of animal carcasses can help prevent the spread of the disease. Additionally, vaccination of animals with a live bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing TB infections.

In conclusion, bovine tuberculosis is a significant health concern for cattle and other animals, as well as humans who may be exposed to infected animals or contaminated products. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent the spread of the disease and manage symptoms in affected animals. Prevention measures such as testing and removal of infected animals, use of clean needles and equipment, and proper disposal of animal carcasses can help control the spread of the disease.

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.

Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:

1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several types of vasculitis, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of vasculitis include:

1. Giant cell arteritis: This is the most common form of vasculitis, and it affects the large arteries in the head, neck, and arms. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and loss of appetite.
2. Takayasu arteritis: This type of vasculitis affects the aorta and its major branches, leading to inflammation in the blood vessels that supply the heart, brain, and other vital organs. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
3. Polymyalgia rheumatica: This is an inflammatory condition that affects the muscles and joints, as well as the blood vessels. It often occurs in people over the age of 50 and is frequently associated with giant cell arteritis. Symptoms include pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, and other joints, as well as fatigue and fever.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare condition that affects children under the age of 5, causing inflammation in the blood vessels that supply the heart and other organs. Symptoms include high fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, and irritability.

The exact cause of vasculitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own blood vessels. Genetic factors may also play a role in some cases.

Diagnosis of vasculitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies (e.g., MRI or CT scans), and biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific type of vasculitis and its severity, but may include medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery or organ transplantation may be necessary.

In addition to these specific types of vasculitis, there are other conditions that can cause similar symptoms and may be included in the differential diagnosis, such as:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the joints and can cause inflammation in blood vessels.
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is another autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, joints, and blood vessels.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa: This is a condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, often in association with hepatitis B or C infection.
4. Takayasu arteritis: This is a rare condition that affects the aorta and its branches, causing inflammation and narrowing of the blood vessels.
5. Giant cell arteritis: This is a condition that causes inflammation of the large and medium-sized blood vessels, often in association with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).
6. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare condition that affects children, causing inflammation of the blood vessels and potential heart complications.
7. Henoch-Schönlein purpura: This is a rare condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in the skin, joints, and gastrointestinal tract.
8. IgG4-related disease: This is a condition that can affect various organs, including the pancreas, bile ducts, and blood vessels, causing inflammation and potentially leading to fibrosis or tumor formation.

It is important to note that these conditions may have similar symptoms and signs as vasculitis, but they are distinct entities with different causes and treatment approaches. A thorough diagnostic evaluation, including laboratory tests and imaging studies, is essential to determine the specific diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

There are several types of brucellosis, including:

1. Brucella abortus: This type is primarily found in cattle and is the most common form of the disease in humans.
2. Brucella suis: This type is found in pigs and is less common in humans.
3. Brucella melitensis: This type is found in sheep, goats, and other animals, and is more virulent than B. abortus.
4. Brucella canis: This type is found in dogs and is rare in humans.

The symptoms of brucellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Joint pain
4. Muscle pain
5. Swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen
6. Fatigue
7. Loss of appetite
8. Weight loss

In severe cases, brucellosis can cause complications such as:

1. Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
2. Meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord)
3. Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone)
4. Testicular inflammation in men
5. Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that carries sperm from the testicle to the penis)
6. Inflammation of the heart muscle and valves
7. Pneumonia
8. Inflammation of the liver and spleen

Brucellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent complications. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals and ensuring proper hygiene practices when handling livestock or wild game.

Types of Adenoviridae Infections:

1. Respiratory adenovirus infection (bronchiolitis, pneumonia)
2. Gastroenteric adenovirus infection (gastroenteritis)
3. Eye adenovirus infection (conjunctivitis)
4. Skin adenovirus infection (keratoconjunctivitis)
5. Intestinal adenovirus infection (diarrhea, vomiting)
6. Adenovirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis
7. Adenovirus-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
8. Adenovirus-associated myocarditis

Symptoms of Adenoviridae Infections:

1. Respiratory symptoms (cough, fever, difficulty breathing)
2. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain)
3. Eye symptoms (redness, discharge, sensitivity to light)
4. Skin symptoms (rash, blisters, skin erosion)
5. Intestinal symptoms (abdominal cramps, fever, chills)
6. Cardiovascular symptoms (hypertension, tachycardia, myocarditis)

Diagnosis of Adenoviridae Infections:

1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Laboratory tests (rapid antigen detection, PCR, electron microscopy)
3. Imaging studies (chest X-ray, CT scan, MRI)
4. Biopsy (tissue or organ biopsy)

Treatment of Adenoviridae Infections:

1. Supportive care (fluids, oxygen therapy, pain management)
2. Antiviral medications (ribavirin, cidofovir)
3. Immune modulators (immunoglobulins, corticosteroids)
4. Surgical intervention (in severe cases of adenovirus-associated disease)

Prevention of Adenoviridae Infections:

1. Good hygiene practices (handwashing, surface cleaning)
2. Avoiding close contact with individuals who are infected
3. Properly storing and preparing food
4. Avoiding sharing of personal items (utensils, drinking glasses, towels)
5. Immunization (vaccination against adenovirus)

Incubation Period:
The incubation period for adenoviruses is typically between 3-7 days, but it can range from 1-2 weeks in some cases.

Contagious Period:
Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted before symptoms appear and during the entire course of illness. The virus can be shed for several weeks after infection.

Risk Factors:
Individuals with weakened immune systems (children, elderly, those with chronic illnesses) are at a higher risk of developing severe adenovirus infections. Additionally, those who live in crowded or unsanitary conditions and those who engage in behaviors that compromise their immune system (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption) are also at a higher risk.

Complications:
Adenovirus infections can lead to a variety of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis, and other respiratory, gastrointestinal, and eye infections. In severe cases, adenovirus infections can be fatal.

Recovery Time:
The recovery time for adenovirus infections varies depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Mild cases of adenovirus may resolve within a few days to a week, while more severe cases may take several weeks to recover from. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for individuals with severe infections or those who experience complications.

Contraception:
There is no specific contraceptive measure that can prevent adenovirus infections. However, practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick, can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Pregnancy:
Adenovirus infections during pregnancy are rare but can be severe. Pregnant women who develop adenovirus infections may experience complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight. It is essential for pregnant women to seek medical attention immediately if they suspect they have an adenovirus infection.

Diagnosis:
Adenovirus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), electron microscopy, and culture. A healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and take a medical history to determine the likelihood of an adenovirus infection.

Treatment:
There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with supportive care such as hydration, rest, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases or for individuals with compromised immune systems.

Prevention:
Preventing the spread of adenovirus is essential, especially in high-risk populations such as young children and those with weakened immune systems. Practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick, can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are also available for some types of adenovirus.

Prognosis:
The prognosis for adenovirus infections is generally good, especially for mild cases. However, severe cases can lead to complications such as pneumonia, meningitis, and encephalitis, which can be life-threatening. In some cases, long-term health problems may persist after recovery from an adenovirus infection.

Complications:
Adenovirus infections can lead to various complications, including:

1. Pneumonia: Adenovirus can cause pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs that can lead to fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Meningitis: Adenovirus can cause meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include headache, stiff neck, and sensitivity to light.
3. Encephalitis: Adenovirus can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain that can lead to confusion, seizures, and coma.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Adenovirus can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
5. Long-term health problems: In some cases, adenovirus infections can lead to long-term health problems such as asthma, allergies, and autoimmune disorders.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

Symptoms of influenza include:

* Fever (usually high)
* Cough
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Headache
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)

Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).

Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.

Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.

The term "Salmonella Infections, Animal" is used to distinguish these infections from Salmonella infections that are caused by contaminated food or water, which are referred to as "Salmonella Infections, Human."

The most common deltaretrovirus infection is HIV, which has become a major global health concern since its discovery in the early 1980s. HIV primarily infects CD4+ T cells, which are essential for cell-mediated immunity and immune responses. As HIV progressively destroys these cells, the body becomes less able to fight off infections and cancers.

Other deltaretrovirus infections include SIV, which affects nonhuman primates such as monkeys and chimpanzees, and FIV, which affects domestic cats. These viruses are similar to HIV in terms of their molecular structure and replication strategies but have some differences in their host range and disease progression.

Deltaretrovirus infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of viral antigens or genetic material. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which combines several drugs to suppress viral replication and slow disease progression. However, the virus can develop resistance to these drugs over time, making it essential to monitor treatment response and adjust medications as needed.

Prevention strategies for deltaretrovirus infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) medication for high-risk individuals, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent HIV and other deltaretrovirus infections.

There are several subtypes of NHL, including:

1. B-cell lymphomas (such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma)
2. T-cell lymphomas (such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides)
3. Natural killer cell lymphomas (such as nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma)
4. Histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma
5. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
6. Mantle cell lymphoma
7. Waldenström macroglobulinemia
8. Lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma
9. Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) related lymphoma

These subtypes can be further divided into other categories based on the specific characteristics of the cancer cells.

Symptoms of NHL can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include:

* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching
* Abdominal pain
* Swollen spleen

Treatment for NHL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of NHL, the stage of the cancer, and other individual factors.

Overall, NHL is a complex and diverse group of cancers that require specialized care from a team of medical professionals, including hematologists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and other support staff. With advances in technology and treatment options, many people with NHL can achieve long-term remission or a cure.

The symptoms of Behcet syndrome can vary widely, but may include:

* Skin lesions, such as ulcers or rashes
* Eye inflammation (uveitis)
* Joint pain and swelling
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea and abdominal pain
* Nervous system problems such as seizures and headaches
* Inflammation of the blood vessels, which can lead to aneurysms or blood clots

The exact cause of Behcet syndrome is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no cure for the disease, but various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. These may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and antibiotics, as well as lifestyle modifications such as avoiding triggers like spicy foods or stress.

Behcet syndrome is rare in the United States, but it is more common in certain parts of the world, including Turkey, Japan, and other countries with high prevalence of autoimmune disorders. It affects both men and women equally, and typically begins during adulthood, although it can sometimes begin in childhood or adolescence.

Overall, Behcet syndrome is a complex and multifaceted disease that requires careful management by a healthcare team to prevent complications and improve quality of life for patients.

A viral infection that affects the liver and is transmitted to animals through contact with infected feces, urine, or saliva. The condition can be caused by several different viruses, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Symptoms of animal hepatitis may include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, the infection can cause liver failure and death.

Prevention:

* Avoid contact with infected animals
* Practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Keep pets up to date on vaccinations and preventatives
* Avoid drinking water or eating food that may be contaminated with feces or urine from infected animals
* Use protective clothing and equipment when handling animals that may be infected

Treatment:

* Supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration and maintain blood pressure
* Antiviral medications in severe cases
* Hospitalization for severe cases or those that do not respond to treatment

Prognosis:

* Depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying health status of the animal. In general, the prognosis is good for animals that receive prompt and appropriate treatment.

Complications:

* Liver failure
* Sepsis (blood infection)
* Kidney failure
* Death

Prevalence:

* Widespread in animals, especially in those that are kept in close quarters or have poor living conditions.

Affected Organ:

* Liver

There are two main types of systemic scleroderma: diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (DCSS) and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (LCSS). DCSS is characterized by skin thickening and scar formation over the trunk, arms, and legs, while LCSS is characterized by skin tightening and patches of scaly skin on the hands and face.

The symptoms of systemic scleroderma can include:

* Skin hardening and tightening
* Fatigue
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Muscle weakness
* Swallowing difficulties
* Heartburn and acid reflux
* Shortness of breath
* Raynaud's phenomenon (pale or blue-colored fingers and toes in response to cold temperatures or stress)

The exact cause of systemic scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options for systemic scleroderma include medications to manage symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swallowing difficulties, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications to improve quality of life.

In summary, systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple systems in the body, causing skin hardening and thickening, fatigue, joint pain, and other symptoms. While there is no cure for systemic scleroderma, treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

The diagnosis of pulmonary eosinophilia is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis.

Treatment of pulmonary eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as corticosteroids, antihistamines, or antibiotics, as well as lifestyle modifications such as avoiding allergens and managing stress. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

Some common symptoms of pulmonary eosinophilia include:

* Coughing
* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Fatigue
* Wheezing
* Recurrent respiratory infections

Complications of pulmonary eosinophilia can include:

* Respiratory failure
* Asthma exacerbation
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Pneumonia or other respiratory infections
* Airway obstruction

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Symptoms of oophoritis may include:

* Pelvic pain or discomfort
* Fever
* Abdominal tenderness
* Vaginal discharge
* Painful urination
* Nausea and vomiting

To diagnose oophoritis, a healthcare provider may perform a physical exam, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as a pelvic exam, ultrasound, or blood tests to check for infection markers.

Treatment of oophoritis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain management medication, and other supportive care. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. It's important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated oophoritis can lead to complications such as infertility or chronic pelvic pain.

Berylliosis is characterized by inflammation and scarring in the lungs, which can lead to shortness of breath, coughing, and fatigue. It can also cause lung collapse and respiratory failure. In severe cases, berylliosis can be fatal.

The symptoms of berylliosis can vary depending on the extent of exposure to beryllium, the duration of exposure, and individual susceptibility. Some people may experience mild symptoms, while others may develop more severe disease.

Berylliosis is diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, lung function tests, and imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans. There is no cure for berylliosis, but treatment options include medications to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease, as well as pulmonary rehabilitation.

Prevention is key in avoiding berylliosis, and this includes minimizing exposure to beryllium in workplaces and ensuring proper ventilation and safety measures. Workers handling beryllium should wear protective gear such as masks and gloves, and employers must adhere to strict safety protocols to prevent exposure.

In summary, berylliosis is a serious lung disease caused by exposure to beryllium, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Diagnosis is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging studies, and treatment involves managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. Prevention is crucial in avoiding berylliosis, which includes minimizing exposure to beryllium in workplaces and ensuring proper ventilation and safety measures.

The symptoms of myasthenia gravis can vary in severity and may include:

* Weakness in the arms and legs
* Fatigue and muscle tiredness
* Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
* Difficulty speaking or slurred speech (dysarthria)
* Drooping eyelids (ptosis)
* Double vision (diplopia)
* Weakness in the muscles of the face, arms, and legs

The exact cause of myasthenia gravis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues. It can also be caused by other medical conditions such as thyroid disease, vitamin deficiencies, or infections.

There is no cure for myasthenia gravis, but there are various treatments available to manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These include:

* Medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and cholinesterase inhibitors
* Plasmapheresis, a procedure that removes harmful antibodies from the blood
* Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which contains antibodies that can help block the immune system's attack on the nerve-muscle junction
* Surgery to remove the thymus gland, which is believed to play a role in the development of myasthenia gravis

It is important for individuals with myasthenia gravis to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with myasthenia gravis are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

Types of Mycobacterium Infections:

1. Tuberculosis (TB): This is the most common Mycobacterium infection and is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body such as the brain, kidneys, and spine.
2. Leprosy: This is a chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, which primarily affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes. It is also known as Hansen's disease.
3. Buruli ulcer: This is a skin infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium ulcerans, which is found in wet environments such as rivers, lakes, and swamps.
4. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): This is a group of bacteria that can cause a variety of diseases, including lung disease, disseminated disease, and cardiovascular disease.
5. Mycobacterium abscessus: This is a type of bacteria that can cause skin and soft tissue infections, as well as respiratory and disseminated diseases.

Symptoms of Mycobacterium Infections:

The symptoms of Mycobacterium infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. Some common symptoms include:

* Coughing or difficulty breathing (in TB infections)
* Skin lesions or ulcers (in leprosy and Buruli ulcer)
* Fever, chills, and fatigue (in all types of Mycobacterium infections)
* Swollen lymph nodes (in all types of Mycobacterium infections)
* Joint pain or swelling (in some cases)
* Weight loss and loss of appetite (in severe cases)

Diagnosis of Mycobacterium Infections:

Diagnosing a Mycobacterium infection can be challenging, as the bacteria are slow-growing and require specialized culture techniques. Some common methods for diagnosing Mycobacterium infections include:

* Skin scrapings or biopsies (for leprosy and Buruli ulcer)
* Sputum or lung biopsy (for TB)
* Blood tests (for disseminated disease)
* Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans (to evaluate the extent of the infection)

Treatment of Mycobacterium Infections:

The treatment of Mycobacterium infections depends on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. Some common treatments include:

* Antibiotics: For TB, the standard treatment is a combination of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for at least 6 months. For leprosy, the standard treatment is a combination of rifampin, dapsone, and clofazimine for at least 12 months.
* Surgery: For Buruli ulcer, surgical debridement of the affected skin and tissue is often necessary.
* Supportive care: Patients with severe forms of the disease may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and wound care.

Prevention of Mycobacterium Infections:

Preventing the spread of Mycobacterium infections is crucial for controlling these diseases. Some common prevention measures include:

* Vaccination: For TB, vaccination with the BCG vaccine is recommended for infants and young children in high-risk areas.
* Screening: Screening for TB and leprosy is important for early detection and treatment of cases.
* Contact tracing: Identifying and testing individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has been diagnosed with TB or leprosy can help prevent the spread of the disease.
* Infection control measures: Healthcare workers should follow strict infection control measures when caring for patients with Mycobacterium infections to prevent transmission to others.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick: Avoiding close contact with people who are sick with TB or leprosy can help prevent the spread of the disease.
* Covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing: Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing can help prevent the spread of TB bacteria.
* Properly disposing of contaminated materials: Properly disposing of contaminated materials, such as used tissues and surfaces soiled with respiratory secretions, can help prevent the spread of TB bacteria.

It is important to note that while these measures can help control the spread of Mycobacterium infections, they are not foolproof and should be combined with other prevention measures, such as early detection and treatment of cases, to effectively control these diseases.

The symptoms of cryptococcosis vary depending on the location and severity of the infection. In lung infections, patients may experience fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. In CNS infections, patients may experience headaches, confusion, seizures, and loss of coordination. Skin infections can cause skin lesions, and eye infections can cause vision problems.

Cryptococcosis is diagnosed by culturing the fungus from body fluids or tissue samples. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B or fluconazole, which may be given intravenously or orally, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Preventive measures for cryptococcosis include avoiding exposure to fungal spores, practicing good hygiene, and maintaining a healthy immune system. For individuals with HIV/AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help reduce the risk of developing cryptococcosis.

Overall, while rare, cryptococcosis is a serious opportunistic infection that can affect individuals with compromised immune systems. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

In animals, hepatitis can be caused by a variety of agents, including:

1. Viral hepatitis: Caused by viruses such as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats and canine infectious hepatitis (CIH) in dogs.
2. Bacterial hepatitis: Caused by bacteria such as Leptospira spp., which can be transmitted through contact with contaminated water or soil.
3. Parasitic hepatitis: Caused by parasites such as liver flukes (Fasciola spp.) and tapeworms (Taenia spp.).
4. Toxic hepatitis: Caused by exposure to certain drugs, chemicals, or environmental toxins.
5. Genetic hepatitis: Caused by inherited genetic disorders such as hemophilia in dogs and cats.

The clinical signs of animal hepatitis can vary depending on the cause and severity of the disease, but may include lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is based on a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood tests and liver biopsy), and imaging studies.

Treatment of animal hepatitis depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and in some cases, surgery or liver transplantation. In severe cases, animal hepatitis can be fatal if left untreated, so early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for a successful outcome.

There are many different types of liver diseases, including:

1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.

Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.

There are several types of lupus nephritis, each with its own unique characteristics and symptoms. The most common forms include:

* Class I (mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis): This type is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells in the glomeruli (blood-filtering units of the kidneys).
* Class II (active lupus nephritis): This type is characterized by widespread inflammation and damage to the kidneys, with or without the presence of antibodies.
* Class III (focal lupus nephritis): This type is characterized by localized inflammation in certain areas of the kidneys.
* Class IV (lupus nephritis with crescentic glomerulonephritis): This type is characterized by widespread inflammation and damage to the kidneys, with crescent-shaped tissue growth in the glomeruli.
* Class V (lupus nephritis with sclerotic changes): This type is characterized by hardening and shrinkage of the glomeruli due to scarring.

Lupus Nephritis can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Swelling (edema)
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Joint pain

Lupus Nephritis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and kidney biopsy. Treatment options for lupus nephritis include medications to suppress the immune system, control inflammation, and prevent further damage to the kidneys. In severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.

Hepatitis, chronic is a type of liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver, which can lead to scarring, cirrhosis, and potentially liver failure. It is caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as hepatitis B and C), alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders.

Chronic hepatitis can be challenging to diagnose, as its symptoms are often nonspecific and may resemble those of other conditions. However, some common signs and symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

If left untreated, chronic hepatitis can lead to serious complications, such as liver failure, liver cancer, and esophageal varices. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation.

Preventing Chronic Hepatitis:

While some forms of chronic hepatitis are incurable, there are steps you can take to prevent the development of this condition or slow its progression. These include:

* Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
* Practicing safe sex to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
* Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
* Seeking medical attention if you suspect you have been exposed to hepatitis

Managing Chronic Hepatitis:

If you have chronic hepatitis, managing the condition is crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life. This may involve:

* Medications to treat the underlying cause of the hepatitis (e.g., antiviral drugs for hepatitis B or C)
* Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet
* Regular monitoring of liver function and viral load
* In some cases, liver transplantation

Living with Chronic Hepatitis:

Living with chronic hepatitis can be challenging, but there are resources available to help you cope. These may include:

* Support groups for people with hepatitis and their families
* Counseling to address emotional and mental health concerns
* Educational resources to help you understand the condition and its management
* Legal assistance to navigate insurance and disability benefits

Conclusion:

Chronic hepatitis is a complex and multifactorial condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. However, with early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and lifestyle changes, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of chronic hepatitis, you can take an active role in your healthcare and make informed decisions about your care.

Wasting syndrome is characterized by weight loss, muscle wasting, and a decrease in body condition score. It can also lead to a range of other health problems such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and decreased immune function.

To diagnose wasting syndrome in your cat, your veterinarian will need to perform a series of tests to rule out other potential causes of weight loss and muscle wasting. These tests may include blood work, urinalysis, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound.

Treatment for wasting syndrome will depend on the underlying cause of the condition. For example, if the condition is caused by chronic kidney disease, treatment may involve managing the symptoms of the disease and providing supportive care such as fluid therapy and medication to help slow the progression of the disease.

In addition to medical treatment, there are several things you can do at home to help your cat feel more comfortable and manage their weight loss. These include:

* Providing a high-quality, nutrient-rich diet that is appropriate for your cat's age, health status, and lifestyle.
* Encouraging your cat to drink plenty of water by placing multiple water bowls around the house and making water more appealing through the use of flavored or scented water.
* Providing a safe and comfortable environment for your cat to rest and relax.
* Monitoring your cat's weight and body condition score regularly and working with your veterinarian to adjust their diet and treatment plan as needed.

It is important to work closely with your veterinarian to manage wasting syndrome in your cat, as this condition can have a significant impact on their quality of life and longevity. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cats are able to recover from wasting syndrome and lead happy, healthy lives.

Legionnaires' disease is typically acquired by inhaling aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella bacteria. The most common sources of exposure are cooling towers, hot tubs, and plumbing systems in large buildings. The risk of infection increases with age, and people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or chronic lung disease, are at greater risk for severe illness and death.

The symptoms of Legionnaires' disease can resemble those of pneumonia and include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the disease can lead to respiratory failure, septic shock, and even death.

Legionnaires' disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood cultures and urinary antigen tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can be effective if started early in the course of the illness. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to provide supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key to avoiding Legionnaires' disease, and this includes regularly cleaning and disinfecting cooling towers and plumbing systems, maintaining proper water temperatures, and ensuring that the system is properly designed and maintained. Testing for Legionella bacteria can also be performed to ensure that the system is free of contamination.

In summary, Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, typically acquired through inhalation of contaminated aerosolized water droplets. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing severe illness and death, and prevention measures include regular cleaning and maintenance of cooling towers and plumbing systems, as well as testing for Legionella bacteria.

Symptoms of gastritis may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and difficulty swallowing. In severe cases, bleeding may occur in the stomach and black tarry stools may be present.

Diagnosis of gastritis is typically made through endoscopy, during which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the inside of the stomach. Biopsies may also be taken during this procedure to examine the stomach tissue under a microscope for signs of inflammation or infection.

Treatment of gastritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications, and lifestyle modifications such as avoiding alcohol, losing weight, and eating smaller more frequent meals. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair any ulcers that have developed.

Symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure, sepsis, and even death.

There are several types of pneumonia, including:

1. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): This type of pneumonia is caused by bacteria or viruses and typically affects healthy people outside of hospitals.
2. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP): This type of pneumonia is caused by bacteria or fungi and typically affects people who are hospitalized for other illnesses or injuries.
3. Aspiration pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by food, liquids, or other foreign matter being inhaled into the lungs.
4. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): This type of pneumonia is caused by a fungus and typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS.
5. Viral pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by viruses and can be more common in children and young adults.

Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment may involve antibiotics, oxygen therapy, and supportive care to manage symptoms and help the patient recover. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive care and monitoring.

Prevention of pneumonia includes vaccination against certain types of bacteria and viruses, good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for those affected by pneumonia.

Symptoms of orchitis may include:

* Scrotal pain
* Swelling of the scrotum
* Redness and tenderness of the scrotum
* Fever
* Chills
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting

Treatment for orchitis typically involves antibiotics to clear up any bacterial infections, as well as supportive care such as rest, ice packs, and over-the-counter pain medication. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

Prevention of orchitis includes avoiding close contact with people who have the infection, practicing safe sex, and maintaining good hygiene. Vaccination against certain types of bacteria that can cause orchitis, such as the H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, can also help prevent the condition.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of orchitis are present, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The hallmark of Wegener Granulomatosis is the formation of granulomas, which are clusters of immune cells that form in response to infection or inflammation. In this condition, however, the granulomas are not caused by an infectious agent but rather by the body's own immune system attacking its own tissues.

The symptoms of Wegener Granulomatosis can vary depending on the organs affected and can include:

* Fever
* Joint pain
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain
* Coughing up blood
* Abdominal pain
* Blood in urine or stool
* Headache

The exact cause of Wegener Granulomatosis is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment typically involves the use of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the body. In some cases, plasmapheresis (plasma exchange) may also be used to remove harmful antibodies from the blood.

Wegener Granulomatosis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-4 people per million each year. It can occur at any age but is most commonly diagnosed in adults between the ages of 40 and 60. With early diagnosis and proper treatment, many people with Wegener Granulomatosis can experience a good outcome and improved quality of life. However, if left untreated, the condition can be fatal.

T-ALL typically occurs in children and young adults, although it can also occur in older adults. The symptoms of T-ALL can include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and an enlarged spleen. If left untreated, T-ALL can progress rapidly and lead to life-threatening complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

The exact cause of T-ALL is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the T cells. The diagnosis of T-ALL typically involves a combination of physical examination, blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies such as CT scans or PET scans.

Treatment for T-ALL usually involves a combination of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill the abnormal T cells. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may also be recommended. The prognosis for T-ALL depends on several factors, including the age of the patient, the severity of the disease, and the response to treatment. Overall, the survival rate for T-ALL is relatively low, but with intensive treatment, many patients can achieve long-term remission.

The term "immune complex disease" was first used in the 1960s to describe a group of conditions that were thought to be caused by the formation of immune complexes. These diseases include:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): an autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple organ systems and is characterized by the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints and can lead to joint damage.
3. Type III hypersensitivity reaction: a condition in which immune complexes are deposited in tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue damage.
4. Pemphigus: a group of autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against desmosomal antigens.
5. Bullous pemphigoid: an autoimmune disease that affects the skin and is characterized by the formation of large blisters.
6. Myasthenia gravis: an autoimmune disorder that affects the nervous system, causing muscle weakness and fatigue.
7. Goodpasture's syndrome: a rare autoimmune disease that affects the kidneys and lungs, characterized by the presence of immune complexes in the glomeruli of the kidneys.
8. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and waste products accumulate in the kidneys, leading to kidney failure.

Immune complex diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and exposure to certain drugs or toxins. Treatment options for these diseases include medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, and plasmapheresis, which is a process that removes harmful antibodies from the blood. In some cases, organ transplantation may be necessary.

In conclusion, immune complex diseases are a group of disorders that occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues and organs, leading to inflammation and damage. These diseases can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and its severity, but may include medications that suppress the immune system and plasmapheresis.

The infection occurs when the parasite migrates through the body and reaches the CNS, where it forms cysticerci, which are fluid-filled structures that can cause inflammation and damage to brain tissue. The symptoms of neurocysticercosis can vary depending on the location and size of the cysts, but they often include seizures, headaches, weakness, and vision problems.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is based on a combination of clinical findings, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and serological tests to detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs to kill the parasites, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of neurocysticercosis primarily involves controlling the transmission of the parasite, which can be done by improving food hygiene and avoiding consumption of undercooked or raw pork. In areas where the infection is common, mass drug administration programs have also been implemented to reduce the prevalence of the parasite.

In summary, neurocysticercosis is a severe and potentially debilitating parasitic infection that affects the central nervous system, with symptoms ranging from seizures to vision problems. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical findings and imaging studies, and treatment involves antiparasitic drugs and supportive care. Prevention primarily involves controlling the transmission of the parasite through improved food hygiene and mass drug administration programs.

Spondylitis, ankylosing can affect any part of the spine, but it most commonly affects the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). The condition can also affect other joints, such as the hips, shoulders, and feet.

The exact cause of spondylitis, ankylosing is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the joints. Genetics may also play a role in the development of the condition.

Symptoms of spondylitis, ankylosing can include:

* Back pain and stiffness
* Pain and swelling in the joints
* Limited mobility and flexibility
* Redness and warmth in the affected area
* Fatigue

If you suspect that you or someone you know may have spondylitis, ankylosing, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as X-rays or MRIs, to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.

Treatment for spondylitis, ankylosing typically involves a combination of medications and physical therapy. Medications may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy can help improve mobility and flexibility, as well as strengthen the muscles supporting the affected joints.

In severe cases of spondylitis, ankylosing, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints. In some cases, the condition may progress to the point where the joints become fused and immobile, a condition known as ankylosis.

While there is no cure for spondylitis, ankylosing, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper care and support, individuals with spondylitis, ankylosing can lead active and fulfilling lives.

The fungus is found in soil and water and is typically contracted through the inhalation of contaminated dust or the ingestion of contaminated food or water. The symptoms of blastomycosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Cough
* Shortness of breath
* Skin lesions
* Joint pain
* Swollen lymph nodes

In severe cases, blastomycosis can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory failure, cardiovascular problems, and meningitis.

Diagnosis of blastomycosis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be effective in resolving symptoms and preventing complications. However, the disease can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and long-term follow-up is often necessary to ensure that the infection has been fully cleared.

Preventive measures for blastomycosis include avoiding contact with contaminated soil and water, wearing protective clothing and equipment when working outdoors in areas where the fungus is prevalent, and taking antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare provider. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing severe complications and improving outcomes for patients with blastomycosis.

Schistosomiasis japonica is caused by the Schistosoma japonicum parasite, which is transmitted through contact with infected freshwater snails. Once infected, individuals can experience a range of symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage and bladder cancer.

The diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and the identification of the parasite in stool samples or tissue biopsies. Treatment typically involves the use of praziquantel, an antiparasitic drug that is effective against schistosomiasis japonica.

Preventive measures for schistosomiasis japonica include avoiding contact with infected freshwater snails and wearing protective clothing when working or playing in areas where the parasite is present. In endemic regions, community-based interventions such as snail control programs and health education campaigns can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Overall, schistosomiasis japonica is a significant public health problem in many parts of Asia, and continues to be an important focus of research and control efforts globally.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

The parasite forms cysts in various organs of the body, including the brain, liver, lungs, and muscles. Symptoms of cysticercosis can vary depending on the location and size of the cysts, and may include seizures, headaches, vision problems, and movement disorders.

Diagnosis of cysticercosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of antibodies or parasitic elements in the body. Treatment generally involves surgical removal of the cysts, and may also involve antiparasitic drugs to kill any remaining parasites.

In some cases, cysticercosis can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the brain (meningitis) or blockage of blood vessels, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent these complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Overall, cysticercosis is a significant health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in areas where sanitation and hygiene are poor, and can have serious consequences if left untreated.

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, which can be acute or chronic.
2. Peptic ulcer disease: Ulcers in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that are caused by H. pylori infection.
3. Gastric adenocarcinoma: A type of stomach cancer that is associated with long-term H. pylori infection.
4. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma: A rare type of cancer that affects the immune cells in the stomach and small intestine.
5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation.
6. Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis: A type of chronic inflammation of the stomach lining that can lead to stomach ulcers and stomach cancer.
7. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS): A condition that develops after a gastrointestinal infection, characterized by persistent symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.

Helicobacter infections are typically diagnosed through endoscopy, where a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the stomach and small intestine to visualize the mucosa and look for signs of inflammation or ulcers. Laboratory tests such as breath tests and stool tests may also be used to detect the presence of H. pylori bacteria in the body. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the infection and reduce symptoms.

Preventing Helicobacter Infections:

While it is not possible to completely prevent Helicobacter infections, there are several measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions:

1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands regularly, especially before eating and after using the bathroom.
2. Avoid close contact with people who have Helicobacter infections.
3. Avoid sharing food, drinks, or utensils with people who have Helicobacter infections.
4. Avoid consuming undercooked meat, especially pork and lamb.
5. Avoid consuming raw shellfish, especially oysters.
6. Avoid consuming unpasteurized dairy products.
7. Avoid alcohol and caffeine, which can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of developing Helicobacter infections.
8. Maintain a healthy diet that is high in fiber and low in fat.
9. Manage stress, as stress can exacerbate symptoms of Helicobacter infections.
10. Practice good oral hygiene to prevent gum disease and other oral infections that can increase the risk of developing Helicobacter infections.

Conclusion:

Helicobacter infections are a common cause of stomach ulcers, gastritis, and other gastrointestinal disorders. These infections are caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which can be found in the stomach lining and small intestine. While these infections can be difficult to diagnose, a combination of endoscopy, blood tests, and stool tests can help confirm the presence of Helicobacter bacteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the infection and reduce symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who have Helicobacter infections, and maintaining a healthy diet.

There are several subtypes of RCC, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, and collecting duct carcinoma. The most common subtype is clear cell RCC, which accounts for approximately 70-80% of all RCC cases.

RCC can be difficult to diagnose as it may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, some common symptoms of RCC include blood in the urine (hematuria), pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, and fatigue. RCC is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment for RCC depends on the stage and location of the cancer. Surgery is the primary treatment for localized RCC, and may involve a partial or complete nephrectomy (removal of the affected kidney). For more advanced cases, treatment may involve a combination of surgery and systemic therapies such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Targeted therapy drugs, such as sunitinib and pazopanib, work by blocking specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs, such as checkpoint inhibitors, work by stimulating the body's immune system to attack cancer cells.

The prognosis for RCC is generally good if the cancer is detected early and treated promptly. However, the cancer can be aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body (metastasize) if left untreated. The 5-year survival rate for RCC is about 73% for patients with localized disease, but it drops to about 12% for those with distant metastases.

There are several risk factors for developing RCC, including:

* Age: RCC is more common in people over the age of 50.
* Gender: Men are slightly more likely to develop RCC than women.
* Family history: People with a family history of RCC or other kidney diseases may be at increased risk.
* Chronic kidney disease: Patients with chronic kidney disease are at higher risk for developing RCC.
* Hypertension: High blood pressure is a common risk factor for RCC.
* Smoking: Smoking may increase the risk of developing RCC.
* Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing RCC.

There are several complications associated with RCC, including:

* Metastasis: RCC can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, liver, and bones.
* Hematuria: Blood in the urine is a common complication of RCC.
* Pain: RCC can cause pain in the flank or abdomen.
* Fatigue: RCC can cause fatigue and weakness.
* Weight loss: RCC can cause weight loss and loss of appetite.

There are several treatment options for RCC, including:

* Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for RCC that is localized and has not spread to other parts of the body.
* Ablation: Ablation therapies, such as cryotherapy or radiofrequency ablation, can be used to destroy the tumor.
* Targeted therapy: Targeted therapies, such as sunitinib or pazopanib, can be used to slow the growth of the tumor.
* Immunotherapy: Immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors, can be used to stimulate the immune system to attack the tumor.
* Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with other treatments or as a last resort for patients with advanced RCC.

The prognosis for RCC varies depending on the stage and location of the cancer, but in general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the outcome. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for RCC is about 73% for patients with localized disease (cancer that has not spread beyond the kidney) and about 12% for patients with distant disease (cancer that has spread to other parts of the body).

A group of autoimmune blistering diseases that are characterized by the formation of large, tense bullae on the skin and mucous membranes. These diseases are caused by abnormal immunological responses to certain antigens, which lead to the production of autoantibodies that attack the basement membrane zone of the skin and mucous membranes, causing damage and blister formation.

There are several types of pemphigoid, bullous diseases, including:

* Pemphigoid, benign chronic
* Pemphigoid, severe
* Bullous pemphigoid
* Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

Symptoms of pemphigoid, bullous diseases may include:

* Blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
* Redness and swelling around the blisters
* Itching or pain
* Fever

Diagnosis of pemphigoid, bullous diseases is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsy. Treatment involves the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and antibiotics to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Symptoms of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis include:

* Ulcers on the face, mouth, or nose
* Nosebleeds
* Difficulty swallowing
* Skin lesions on the face, arms, or legs
* Fever
* Swelling of the liver or spleen

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or direct agglutination test (DAT).

Treatment for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications such as miltefosine, amphotericin B, or pentavalent antimonials. In severe cases, surgical debridement of skin lesions may be necessary.

Preventive measures for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis include avoiding sandfly bites and using insecticides to control sandfly populations.

Prognosis for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is generally good if treated promptly and effectively, but can be poor if left untreated or if there is significant damage to the mucous membranes or skin.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare form of leishmaniasis that affects both the mucous membranes and the skin, causing ulcers, nosebleeds, and skin lesions. Prompt treatment with antiparasitic medications can improve the prognosis. Preventive measures include avoiding sandfly bites and using insecticides to control sandfly populations.

Sources:

1. Dictionary of Medical Microbiology, Second Edition. Edited by A. S. Chakrabarti and S. K. Das. Springer, 2012.
2. Medical Microbiology, Fourth Edition. Edited by P. R. Murray, K. S. N air, and M. J. Laurence. Mosby, 2014.

Anterior uveitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, autoimmune disorders, and trauma. It is often diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and laboratory tests to rule out other conditions. Treatment options for anterior uveitis depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and surgery to remove any affected tissue.

In summary, anterior uveitis is a type of inflammation that occurs in the front part of the eye, which can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. It can be caused by a variety of factors and diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests, and laboratory tests. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and surgery.

People with agammaglobulinemia are more susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b. They may also experience recurrent sinopulmonary infections, ear infections, and gastrointestinal infections. The disorder can be managed with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, which provides antibodies to help prevent infections. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Agammaglobulinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder, meaning that a person must inherit two mutated copies of the BTK gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. It is relatively rare, affecting approximately one in 1 million people worldwide. The disorder can be diagnosed through genetic testing and a complete blood count (CBC) that shows low levels of immunoglobulins.

Treatment for ag

Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental: A condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own nerve tissue, leading to damage and disruption of normal nerve function. This type of condition is often referred to as an autoimmune disease because the body's immune system is attacking its own tissues rather than foreign substances.

The term 'experimental' is used to indicate that this is a research-based definition, and not all of the information may be fully established or widely accepted by the medical community at this time. It is important to note that an experimental condition is one that has not yet been proven through rigorous scientific study, and more research is needed to determine its validity and potential clinical applications.

Examples of Nervous System Autoimmune Diseases include:

* Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A chronic autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. The immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
* Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS): A rare autoimmune disorder that causes damage to the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in muscle weakness, paralysis, and other symptoms. GBS is thought to be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection that stimulates an immune response.
* Peripheral Neuropathy: A condition affecting the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the hands and feet. Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, autoimmune disorders, infections, and certain medications.
* Myasthenia Gravis (MG): An autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. MG can cause a variety of symptoms, including double vision, drooping eyelids, difficulty swallowing, and weakness in the arms and legs.
* Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO): A rare autoimmune disease that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, leading to vision loss, pain, and muscle weakness. NMO is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, but it has a distinct set of symptoms and requires different treatment approaches.

These are just a few examples of nervous system autoimmune diseases, and there are many others that can affect the body in different ways. It's important to note that each condition has its unique set of symptoms and diagnostic criteria, and treatment options may vary depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of the disease. If you suspect that you or a loved one may have an autoimmune disease affecting the nervous system, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and care.



The symptoms of pulmonary sarcoidosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest pain or discomfort (granulomas)
* Coughing up blood or mucus
* Fatigue
* Fevers
* Weight loss

Pulmonary sarcoidosis can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms are similar to other conditions such as tuberculosis or cancer. A diagnosis is typically made based on a combination of the following tests:

* Chest X-rays: To look for abnormalities in the lungs
* Computed tomography (CT) scans: To provide detailed images of the lungs
* Pulmonary function tests: To assess lung function and identify any damage to the lungs
* Biopsy: To collect a sample of tissue from the lungs for examination under a microscope

There is no cure for pulmonary sarcoidosis, but treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options may include:

* Corticosteroids: To reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system
* Immunosuppressive medications: To prevent further damage to the lungs
* Oxygen therapy: To help improve oxygen levels in the blood
* Antibiotics: To treat any accompanying bacterial infections

The prognosis for pulmonary sarcoidosis varies depending on the severity of the condition and the response to treatment. In general, most people with pulmonary sarcoidosis experience a good prognosis, but some may experience persistent inflammation and scarring. With proper treatment and follow-up care, many people with pulmonary sarcoidosis are able to lead active lives with minimal symptoms.

SCC typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on the skin, and may be pink, red, or scaly. The cancer cells are usually well-differentiated, meaning they resemble normal squamous cells, but they can grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissues if left untreated.

SCC is more common in fair-skinned individuals and those who spend a lot of time in the sun, as UV radiation can damage the skin cells and increase the risk of cancer. The cancer can also spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.

Treatment for SCC usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, and may also include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes for patients with SCC.

Encephalitis can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, encephalitis can lead to brain damage, coma, and even death.

The diagnosis of encephalitis is based on a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens specific to the causative agent, as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to look for inflammatory markers and/or bacteria or viruses in the CSF. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to visualize the brain and identify any areas of damage or inflammation.

Treatment of encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and pain. Antiviral or antibacterial drugs may be used to target the specific causative agent, if identified. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) may be necessary to monitor and manage the patient's condition.

Prevention of encephalitis includes vaccination against certain viruses that can cause the condition, such as herpes simplex virus and Japanese encephalitis virus. Additionally, avoiding exposure to mosquitoes and other insects that can transmit viruses or bacteria that cause encephalitis, as well as practicing good hygiene and sanitation, can help reduce the risk of infection.

Overall, encephalitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate care, many patients with encephalitis can recover fully or partially, but some may experience long-term neurological complications or disability.

Hematologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, or lymphatic system. These types of cancer can originate from various cell types, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and lymphoid cells.

There are several subtypes of hematologic neoplasms, including:

1. Leukemias: Cancers of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or abnormal white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
2. Lymphomas: Cancers of the immune system, which can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or other organs. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow that can lead to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Examples include polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an underproduction of normal blood cells.

The diagnosis of hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests (such as complete blood counts and bone marrow biopsies), and imaging studies (such as CT scans or PET scans). Treatment options for hematologic neoplasms depend on the specific type of cancer, the severity of the disease, and the overall health of the patient. These may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy with drugs that specifically target cancer cells.

The hallmark of anti-GBM disease is the presence of circulating anti-GBM antibodies and immune complexes, which are deposited in the glomeruli and lung alveoli, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. The disease can progress rapidly and lead to ESRD if left untreated.

The symptoms of anti-GBM disease vary depending on the severity of the disease and may include:

* Hematuria (blood in urine)
* Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Shortness of breath
* Cough

The diagnosis of anti-GBM disease is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and kidney biopsy. Laboratory tests may include:

* Detection of anti-GBM antibodies in the blood
* Presence of immune complexes in the urine or lung tissue
* Abnormal liver enzymes
* Low complement levels

Treatment of anti-GBM disease typically involves a combination of steroids, immunosuppressive medications, and plasmapheresis (a process that removes harmful antibodies from the blood). In severe cases, kidney transplantation may be necessary. The prognosis for anti-GBM disease is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of approximately 50%.

Some common horse diseases include:

1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.

These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

Coxsackievirus infections are a group of viral diseases caused by enteroviruses, primarily Coxsackie A and B viruses. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and nervous system.

Types of Coxsackievirus Infections:

1. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD): This is a common viral illness that affects children under the age of 10, causing fever, mouth sores, and a rash with blisters on the hands and feet.
2. Herpangina: A severe form of HFMD characterized by small ulcers in the mouth and throat.
3. Aseptic Meningitis: An inflammation of the meninges (protective membranes) around the brain and spinal cord, often caused by Coxsackievirus B.
4. Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle caused by Coxsackievirus B.
5. Pericarditis: Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium) caused by Coxsackievirus B.
6. Pleurodynia (also known as Coxsackievirus pleurisy): A sudden onset of chest pain, fever, and cough caused by Coxsackievirus A.
7. Meningoradiculitis: Inflammation of the meninges and spinal nerves caused by Coxsackievirus B.

Symptoms of Coxsackievirus Infections:

The symptoms of coxsackievirus infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the individual affected. Common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle pain
* Sore throat
* Mouth sores (in HFMD)
* Rash (in HFMD)
* Blisters (in HFMD)
* Seizures (in severe cases)
* Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord)
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
* Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle)
* Pericarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart)
* Pleurodynia (chest pain, fever, and cough)
* Meningoradiculitis (inflammation of the meninges and spinal nerves)

Diagnosis of Coxsackievirus Infections:

The diagnosis of coxsackievirus infections is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

* Blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the virus
* PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to detect the genetic material of the virus in respiratory or gastrointestinal secretions
* Culture of the virus from respiratory or gastrointestinal secretions
* Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans to evaluate the extent of inflammation or damage to organs.

Treatment and Management of Coxsackievirus Infections:

There is no specific treatment for coxsackievirus infections, but supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care may include:

* Rest and hydration
* Pain management with over-the-counter pain medications or prescription medications
* Antihistamines to reduce fever and relieve itching
* Antiviral medications in severe cases
* Oxygen therapy if necessary
* Intravenous fluids if dehydration is present.

Prevention of Coxsackievirus Infections:

Prevention of coxsackievirus infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals such as children and people with weakened immune systems. Prevention measures include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items with people who are sick
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are experiencing symptoms of a coxsackievirus infection
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of the virus through sexual contact.

Complications of Coxsackievirus Infections:

Coxsackievirus infections can lead to complications, especially in high-risk individuals. Complications may include:

* Meningitis or encephalitis, which can be life-threatening
* Myocarditis, which can lead to heart failure
* Pericarditis, which can cause chest pain and difficulty breathing
* Retinitis, which can cause blindness
* Gastrointestinal bleeding
* Kidney damage or failure.

Prognosis for Coxsackievirus Infections:

The prognosis for coxsackievirus infections is generally good for most people, especially those with mild symptoms. However, high-risk individuals, such as children and people with weakened immune systems, may experience more severe illness and have a poorer prognosis.

Prevention of Coxsackievirus Infections:

Prevention is key to avoiding coxsackievirus infections. Some ways to prevent the spread of the virus include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding sharing personal items with people who are sick
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are experiencing symptoms of a coxsackievirus infection
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of the virus through sexual contact.

Treatment of Coxsackievirus Infections:

There is no specific treatment for coxsackievirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter medications and home remedies. Some ways to manage symptoms include:

* Taking over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to reduce fever and relieve headache and body aches
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities until symptoms improve
* Using a humidifier to relieve dryness and discomfort in the throat and nose.

Complications of Coxsackievirus Infections:

Coxsackievirus infections can lead to complications, such as:

* Meningitis: an inflammation of the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
* Encephalitis: an inflammation of the brain
* Myocarditis: an inflammation of the heart muscle
* Pericarditis: an inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
* Pleurodynia: a painful inflammation of the lining of the chest cavity.

It's important to seek medical attention if you or your child experiences any of these complications, as they can be serious and potentially life-threatening.

Conclusion:

Coxsackievirus infections are common and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. Prevention is key, and taking steps such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and keeping children home from school or daycare when they are ill can help reduce the risk of transmission. If you suspect that you or your child has a coxsackievirus infection, it's important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or if complications develop. With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with coxsackievirus infections recover fully.

Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells are exposed to excessive stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to damage to the cell membrane and the release of cellular contents into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to the formation of gangrene, which is the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply.

There are several types of necrosis, including:

1. Coagulative necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the tissues, leading to the formation of a firm, white plaque on the surface of the affected area.
2. Liquefactive necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is an infection or inflammation that causes the death of cells and the formation of pus.
3. Caseous necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, and the affected tissue becomes soft and cheese-like.
4. Fat necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is trauma to fatty tissue, leading to the formation of firm, yellowish nodules.
5. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a severe and life-threatening form of necrosis that affects the skin and underlying tissues, often as a result of bacterial infection.

The diagnosis of necrosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the necrosis and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement, or amputation in severe cases.

AML is a fast-growing and aggressive form of leukemia that can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 60, but it can also occur in children.

There are several subtypes of AML, including:

1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the PML-RARA fusion gene. It is usually responsive to treatment with chemotherapy and has a good prognosis.
2. Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype of AML and does not have any specific genetic abnormalities. It can be more difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. It can progress slowly over time and may require ongoing treatment.
4. Juvenile myeloid leukemia (JMML): This is a rare subtype of AML that occurs in children under the age of 18. It is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called blasts in the blood and bone marrow.

The symptoms of AML can vary depending on the subtype and the severity of the disease, but they may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Bone pain
* Headache
* Confusion or seizures

AML is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: This test involves removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the hipbone or breastbone to examine under a microscope for signs of leukemia cells.
3. Genetic testing: This test can help identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with AML.
4. Immunophenotyping: This test uses antibodies to identify the surface proteins on leukemia cells, which can help diagnose the subtype of AML.
5. Cytogenetics: This test involves staining the bone marrow cells with dyes to look for specific changes in the chromosomes that are associated with AML.

Treatment for AML typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of AML, the patient's age and overall health, and other factors. Some common treatments for AML include:

1. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for AML are cytarabine (Ara-C) and anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and idarubicin (Idamycin).
2. Targeted therapy: This involves using drugs that specifically target the genetic abnormalities that are causing the cancer. Examples of targeted therapies used for AML include midostaurin (Rydapt) and gilteritinib (Xospata).
3. Bone marrow transplantation: This involves replacing the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor. This is typically done after high-dose chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
4. Supportive care: This includes treatments to manage symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, such as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Examples of supportive care for AML include blood transfusions, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions.
5. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments for AML. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.

It's important to note that the treatment plan for AML is highly individualized, and the specific treatments used will depend on the patient's age, overall health, and other factors. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific needs.

1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): This is a severe respiratory disease caused by the hantavirus, which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms of HPS can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Leptospirosis: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Leptospira, which is found in the urine of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
3. Rat-bite fever: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Streptobacillus moniliformis, which is found in the saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM): This is a viral infection caused by the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
5. Tularemia: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes.

These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can be transmitted to humans through contact with rodents. It is important to take precautions when handling or removing rodents, as they can pose a serious health risk. If you suspect that you have been exposed to a rodent-borne disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Some common examples of CNSVD include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis: This is an inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus. It can cause fever, headache, confusion, and seizures.
2. West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis: This is an infection of the brain caused by the West Nile virus, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and confusion.
3. Japanese encephalitis (JE): This is a viral infection that affects the brain and is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms can include fever, headache, seizures, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
4. Rabies: This is a viral infection that affects the brain and is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, usually a dog, bat, or raccoon. Symptoms can include fever, headache, agitation, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
5. Enteroviral encephalitis: This is an infection of the brain caused by enteroviruses, which are common viruses that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms can include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.

The diagnosis of CNSVD typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood tests or lumbar puncture), and imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans). Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and rehabilitation.

Prevention of CNSVD includes avoiding exposure to mosquitoes and other vectors that can transmit disease, maintaining good hygiene practices (such as washing hands frequently), and getting vaccinated against diseases such as rabies and measles. In addition, taking steps to prevent head trauma and using protective equipment when engaging in activities that involve risk of head injury can help reduce the risk of CNSVD.

Overall, while central nervous system viral diseases can be serious and potentially life-threatening, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and prevent long-term complications. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Note: This definition is an excerpt from the "Merck Manual" home edition, which is available online. It may not be current or complete information, and should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or diagnosis.

The tumor cells are typically small, uniform, and well-differentiated, with a distinct cell border and a central nucleus. The tumor cells are often arranged in a glandular or tubular pattern, which is characteristic of this type of cancer.

Carcinoma, Lewis lung usually affects older adults, with the median age at diagnosis being around 60 years. Men are slightly more likely to be affected than women. The main risk factor for developing this type of cancer is smoking, although it can also occur in people who have never smoked.

The symptoms of Carcinoma, Lewis lung can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Chest pain or discomfort
* Coughing up blood
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Weight loss

If you suspect you may have Carcinoma, Lewis lung or are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The post Definition of 'Carcinoma, Lewis Lung' in the medical field appeared first on Healthy Life Tips.

Treatment options include medications such as alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, minimally invasive therapies such as transurethral microwave therapy or laser therapy, and surgical intervention such as a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

There are also lifestyle changes that can help manage Prostatic Hyperplasia, including limiting fluid intake before bedtime, avoiding caffeine and alcohol, and following a healthy diet. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

In simpler terms, Prostatic Hyperplasia is an enlargement of the prostate gland which can cause urinary problems and discomfort. Treatment options include medication, minimally invasive therapies, and surgery, and lifestyle changes can also help manage the condition.

Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:

1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.

Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.

There are several types of food hypersensitivity, including:

1. Food Allergy: An immune system reaction to a specific food that can cause symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Common food allergies include reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy.
2. Non-Allergic Food Hypersensitivity: Also known as non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, this type of reaction does not involve the immune system. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headaches. Common culprits include gluten, dairy, and high-FODMAP foods.
3. Food Intolerance: A condition where the body cannot properly digest or process a specific food. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gas. Common food intolerances include lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, and celiac disease.
4. Food Aversion: An emotional response to a specific food that can cause avoidance or dislike of the food. This is not an allergic or physiological reaction but rather a psychological one.

The diagnosis of food hypersensitivity typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as skin prick testing or blood tests. Treatment options for food hypersensitivity depend on the type and severity of the reaction and may include avoidance of the offending food, medication, or immunotherapy.

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

Cardiovirus infections are a type of viral infection that affects the heart muscle, leading to cardiomyopathy and potentially heart failure. The most common cause of cardiovirus infections is the adenovirus, which is a common virus that can infect people of all ages.

Symptoms of Cardiovirus Infections:

The symptoms of cardiovirus infections can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Common symptoms include:

* Chest pain or discomfort
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet
* Fast or irregular heartbeat
* Low blood pressure

Diagnosis of Cardiovirus Infections:

To diagnose a cardiovirus infection, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask about the individual's symptoms. They may also order one or more diagnostic tests, such as:

* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the heart's electrical activity
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and its function
* Blood tests to look for signs of inflammation or cardiac damage

Treatment of Cardiovirus Infections:

There is no specific treatment for cardiovirus infections, but the following treatments may be recommended to manage symptoms and prevent complications:

* Rest and avoiding strenuous activities
* Medications to control heart rate and rhythm
* Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
* Oxygen therapy to improve oxygen levels in the blood

Prevention of Cardiovirus Infections:

Preventing cardiovirus infections is challenging, but taking steps to avoid exposure can help reduce the risk. These steps include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items with people who are sick
* Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Staying home from work or school if experiencing symptoms

It is important to note that cardiovirus infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, especially for certain populations such as older adults, young children, and people with underlying heart conditions. If you suspect you or someone else may have a cardiovirus infection, it is essential to seek medical attention right away.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

A type of inflammatory kidney disease that affects the interstitial tissue surrounding the tubules of the kidney. It is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis (scarring) of the interstitium, leading to impaired kidney function. The exact cause of interstitial nephritis is not always known, but it can be triggered by a variety of factors, including infections, allergic reactions, and certain medications. Symptoms may include fever, joint pain, and loss of appetite, and the condition can progress to end-stage renal disease if left untreated. Treatment typically involves medication to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as supportive care to help the kidneys function properly.

The symptoms of trichinellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the number of parasites consumed. Mild cases may not exhibit any symptoms at all, while more severe cases can cause a range of symptoms including:

* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle pain
* Skin rash
* Swelling of the face and eyelids

In severe cases, trichinellosis can lead to complications such as inflammation of the heart, brain, and liver, and can be fatal if left untreated.

Trichinellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or biopsies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs to kill the parasite, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention of trichinellosis primarily involves proper food handling and cooking practices, such as cooking meat to an internal temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) to kill any Trichinella parasites that may be present. Avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly from wild game animals, can also help prevent the infection.

Types of fungal lung diseases include:

1. Aspergillosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus, which is commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which is found in soil and decaying wood. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, which is found in soil and decaying organic matter. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
4. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): This is an infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii, which is found in soil and decaying organic matter. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
5. Sporotrichosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii, which is found in soil and decaying organic matter. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs.

Symptoms of fungal lung diseases can include:

* Cough
* Fever
* Chest pain
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue

Diagnosis of fungal lung diseases is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and fungal cultures. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications and may also include supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention of fungal lung diseases includes:

1. Avoiding exposure to fungal spores by wearing protective clothing and gear when working with soil or decaying organic matter.
2. Maintaining good indoor air quality by using ventilation systems and reducing humidity.
3. Reducing the risk of infection by avoiding close contact with people who are at high risk of developing fungal lung diseases, such as those with weakened immune systems.
4. Avoiding smoking and other tobacco products, which can increase the risk of developing fungal lung diseases.
5. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs, to reduce the risk of developing fungal lung diseases.

Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle and joint pain
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)

In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:

* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock

Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.

Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:

* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly

Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Symptoms of hemophilia A can include spontaneous bleeding, easy bruising, and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing factor VIII with infusions of clotting factor concentrate, which helps to restore the blood's ability to clot and stop bleeding. Regular infusions are often needed to prevent bleeding episodes, and patients with severe hemophilia A may require lifelong treatment.

Complications of hemophilia A can include joint damage, muscle weakness, and chronic pain. In severe cases, the condition can also increase the risk of bleeding in the brain or other internal organs, which can be life-threatening. However, with proper treatment and management, most patients with hemophilia A can lead active and relatively normal lives.

It is important to note that there is no cure for hemophilia A, but advances in medical technology and treatment have significantly improved the quality of life for many patients with the condition.

Most nasopharyngeal neoplasms are rare and tend to affect children and young adults more frequently than older adults. The most common types of nasopharyngeal neoplasms include:

1. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): This is the most common type of malignant nasopharyngeal neoplasm and tends to affect young adults in Southeast Asia more frequently than other populations.
2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a rare, slow-growing tumor that usually affects the nasopharynx and salivary glands.
3. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma: This is a type of cancer that originates in another part of the body (usually the head and neck) and spreads to the nasopharynx.
4. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can occur in the nasopharynx.
5. Benign tumors: These include benign growths such as papillomas, fibromas, and meningiomas.

Symptoms of nasopharyngeal neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor but may include:

* Difficulty swallowing
* Nosebleeds
* Headaches
* Facial pain or numbness
* Trouble breathing through the nose
* Hoarseness or voice changes
* Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck

Diagnosis of nasopharyngeal neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, endoscopy (insertion of a flexible tube with a camera into the nose and throat), and biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope).

Treatment of nasopharyngeal neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor but may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Targeted therapy to attack specific molecules on cancer cells

Prognosis for nasopharyngeal neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor but in general, early detection and treatment improve the chances of a successful outcome.

The symptoms of chronic hepatitis C may be mild or absent, but some people experience fatigue, joint pain, muscle aches, nausea, loss of appetite, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).

Chronic hepatitis C is usually diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and liver biopsy may also be performed to assess the extent of liver damage.

Treatment for chronic hepatitis C typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can help clear the virus from the body. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prevention of the spread of HCV includes avoiding sharing of needles or other sharp objects, practicing safe sex, and getting tested for the virus before donating blood or organs.

See also: Hepatitis C; Liver; Virus

There are different types of hyperplasia, depending on the location and cause of the condition. Some examples include:

1. Benign hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It can occur in various tissues and organs, such as the uterus (fibroids), breast tissue (fibrocystic changes), or prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
2. Malignant hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious health problems. Examples include skin cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
3. Hyperplastic polyps: These are abnormal growths that occur in the gastrointestinal tract and can be precancerous.
4. Adenomatous hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of glandular cells in a specific organ, such as the colon or breast. It can be a precursor to cancer.

The symptoms of hyperplasia depend on the location and severity of the condition. In general, they may include:

* Enlargement or swelling of the affected tissue or organ
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal bleeding or discharge
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Unexplained weight loss or gain

Hyperplasia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.

Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.

The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.




Yersinia Infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and manage symptoms.

Prevention of Yersinia Infections is difficult, but good hygiene practices, proper food handling and storage, and avoiding contact with contaminated fecal matter can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are not available for Yersinia infections.

Some common symptoms of Yersiniosis include fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash. In severe cases, Yersinia infections can cause inflammation of the joints, spleen, and liver, as well as bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream) and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord).

Yersinia Infections can be transmitted through contaminated food or water, contact with infected animals or people, and from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. People at higher risk for Yersiniosis include young children, older adults, pregnant women, and those with weakened immune systems.

Complications of Yersinia Infections can include reactive arthritis (arthritis that develops as a result of an infection), chronic kidney disease, and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone). In rare cases, Yersinia infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as septicemia (blood poisoning) or meningitis.

The term "Murine" refers to the fact that the condition occurs in mice and other rodents. "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" (AIDS) is a similar condition in humans caused by HIV. The similarity between MAIDS and AIDS lies in their shared origins as retroviral infections, but there are significant differences in the viruses themselves and the symptoms they cause.

The diagnosis of typhoid fever is based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can significantly reduce the duration of illness and the risk of complications. Prevention measures include vaccination against typhoid fever, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.

Symptoms:

* High fever
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Vomiting
* Rash
* Delirium
* Intestinal hemorrhage
* Multi-organ failure

Causes:

* Salmonella Typhi bacteria
* Contaminated food or water
* Poor sanitation and hygiene practices
* International travel or contaminated food imports

Treatment:

* Antibiotics
* Supportive care (fluids, electrolytes, pain management)

Prevention:

* Vaccination against typhoid fever
* Proper sanitation and hygiene practices
* Avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.

There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:

1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.

These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

Prevention of Salmonella Infections includes proper food handling and storage practices, such as cooking foods to the correct temperature, storing foods at the right refrigerator temperature, and washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of developing severe Salmonella infections.

Complications of a Salmonella Infection can include dehydration, bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). In rare cases, a Salmonella infection can lead to long-term health problems such as irritable bowel syndrome or reactive arthritis.

Overall, prompt treatment and proper prevention measures are important for reducing the risk of complications from a Salmonella infection.

Symptoms of dengue fever typically begin within 2-7 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can include:

* High fever
* Severe headache
* Pain behind the eyes
* Severe joint and muscle pain
* Rash
* Fatigue
* Nausea
* Vomiting

In some cases, dengue fever can develop into a more severe form of the disease, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which can be life-threatening. Symptoms of DHF include:

* Severe abdominal pain
* Vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin
* Easy bruising
* Petechiae (small red spots on the skin)
* Black stools
* Decreased urine output

Dengue fever is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests. Treatment for dengue fever is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and managing fluid and electrolyte imbalances. There is no specific treatment for the virus itself, but early detection and proper medical care can significantly lower the risk of complications and death.

Prevention of dengue fever relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the breeding of mosquitoes. Vaccines against dengue fever are also being developed, but none are currently available for widespread use.

In summary, dengue is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes and can cause a range of symptoms from mild to severe. Early detection and proper medical care are essential to prevent complications and death from dengue fever. Prevention of dengue relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites and eliminating standing water around homes and communities.

References:

1. World Health Organization. (2020). Dengue and severe dengue. Retrieved from
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Dengue fever: Background. Retrieved from
3. Mayo Clinic. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from
4. MedlinePlus. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from

Symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis typically begin soon after exposure to the allergen and may last for several days or weeks. In addition to nasal congestion and discharge, other common symptoms include:

* Itchy eyes and throat
* Sneezing and coughing
* Headaches and facial pain
* Fatigue and general malaise
* Loss of sense of smell (hyposmia)

Seasonal allergic rhinitis is most commonly caused by exposure to airborne pollens from trees, grasses, and weeds. Treatment typically involves avoiding exposure to the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or decongestants, and immunotherapy (allergy shots) in severe cases.

The symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be managed with over-the-counter or prescription medications, and home remedies like saline nasal sprays, humidifiers, and steam inhalers. In addition to these treatments, avoiding exposure to the allergen and taking steps to reduce nasal congestion can also help alleviate symptoms.

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1. Polymyositis: This is an inflammatory disease that affects the muscles and can cause muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness.
2. Dercum's disease: This is a rare condition that causes fatty degeneration of the muscles, leading to muscle pain, weakness, and wasting.
3. Inflammatory myopathy: This is a group of conditions that cause inflammation in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and pain.
4. Dermatomyositis: This is an inflammatory condition that affects both the skin and the muscles, causing skin rashes and muscle weakness.
5. Juvenile myositis: This is a rare condition that affects children and can cause muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness.

The symptoms of myositis can vary depending on the type of condition and its severity. Common symptoms include muscle weakness, muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue. Other symptoms may include skin rashes, fever, and joint pain.

The diagnosis of myositis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and muscle biopsies. Treatment for myositis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected muscle tissue.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Hairy cell leukemia typically affects older adults, and it is usually slow-growing and progresses gradually over many years. Symptoms of hairy cell leukemia can include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes.

Hairy cell leukemia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment for hairy cell leukemia typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, the disease may go into remission with treatment, but it can also be a chronic condition that requires ongoing management.

Prevention: There is no known prevention for hairy cell leukemia, as the cause of the disease is not fully understood. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

Prognosis: The prognosis for hairy cell leukemia varies depending on the individual patient and the aggressiveness of the disease. In general, the condition tends to be slow-growing and progresses gradually over many years. With appropriate treatment, some patients can achieve long-term remission or even be cured. However, in more advanced cases, the disease can be more difficult to treat and may have a poorer prognosis.

Symptoms: Symptoms of hairy cell leukemia can include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes. These symptoms can develop gradually over time, and they may be mild at first but become more severe as the disease progresses.

Treatment: Treatment for hairy cell leukemia typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. The specific treatment plan will depend on the individual patient and the severity of their condition. In some cases, watchful waiting may be appropriate, especially if the disease is not causing significant symptoms.

Lifestyle Changes: There are no lifestyle changes that can cure hairy cell leukemia, but they can help improve overall health and well-being. These changes may include eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, getting enough rest, and managing stress. In addition, avoiding exposure to certain chemicals and toxins may be beneficial for some patients.

Medications: There are several medications that can be used to treat hairy cell leukemia. These include chemotherapy drugs such as pentostatin and cladribine, which can help kill cancer cells and slow the progression of the disease. In addition, some patients may receive radiation therapy to help shrink swollen lymph nodes or other affected tissues.

Supportive Care: Supportive care is an important part of treatment for hairy cell leukemia. This type of care focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life, rather than directly targeting the cancer cells. Supportive care may include medications to manage pain, fatigue, or infection, as well as blood transfusions to help improve anemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant: In some cases, bone marrow transplant may be an option for patients with hairy cell leukemia. This involves replacing the patient's bone marrow with healthy cells from a donor, which can help cure the disease. However, this is typically reserved for patients who have not responded to other treatments or who have experienced significant complications from the disease.

Overall, the prognosis for hairy cell leukemia is generally good, with many patients experiencing a good response to treatment and a low risk of complications. However, it is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan that meets their individual needs and helps them achieve the best possible outcome.

In NAE, the immune system mistakenly attacks the nerves, leading to inflammation and damage. This can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. The condition is often triggered by exposure to certain environmental factors or by a genetic predisposition.

Some of the key features of NAE include:

* Inflammation of the nerves: The immune system releases chemicals that cause inflammation in the nerves, leading to damage and disruption of normal nerve function.
* Nerve damage: The inflammation can cause damage to the nerves, leading to a loss of function and potentially permanent damage.
* Pain: One of the most common symptoms of NAE is pain in the affected area. This can range from mild to severe and can be persistent or intermittent.
* Numbness and tingling: The inflammation can also cause numbness and tingling sensations in the affected area.
* Weakness: In some cases, NAE can cause weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the affected area.

There is currently no cure for NAE, but various treatments are being studied to manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include medications to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications.

The infection occurs when a person ingests undercooked or raw meat containing the tapeworm larvae, which then migrate to the intestines and mature into adult worms. The adult tapeworms can live for up to 20 years in the host's intestine, causing no symptoms in some cases, while in others, they may cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.

If left untreated, taeniasis can lead to complications such as intestinal blockages, perforation of the intestines, and anemia due to blood loss. Treatment typically involves anti-parasitic drugs to kill the adult worms and larvae. Prevention measures include proper cooking of meat, especially beef, to an internal temperature of at least 160°F (71°C) for a few minutes, as well as good hygiene practices when handling raw meat.

The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition can occur in people of all ages, although it is most common in women between the ages of 20 and 40.

Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). If left untreated, the condition can lead to liver failure and even death.

Treatment for autoimmune hepatitis typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation in the liver. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

A type of pneumonia caused by a viral infection. The most common viruses that cause pneumonia are the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, and adenovirus.

Symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and loss of appetite.

Treatment typically involves antiviral medications and supportive care to manage symptoms and improve lung function. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include vaccination against the flu and RSV, good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

A type of arthritis that is caused by an infection in the joint, typically bacterial or viral. The most common form of infectious arthritis is Lyme disease, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. Other types of infectious arthritis include septic arthritis (caused by bacterial infection) and reactive arthritis (caused by a bacterial or viral infection in another part of the body).

Symptoms: Pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limited range of motion in the affected joint. Fever may also be present.

Diagnosis: A diagnosis is made based on symptoms, physical examination, blood tests (such as a complete blood count or a polymerase chain reaction test to detect the presence of bacteria or viruses), and imaging studies (such as X-rays or ultrasound).

Treatment: Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as medication to manage symptoms such as pain and inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or joints.

The most common demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS are:

1. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A chronic and often disabling disease that affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. MS is caused by an abnormal response of the immune system, leading to inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath.
2. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO): A rare autoimmune disorder that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, causing inflammation and demyelination. NMO is often associated with a specific type of antibody in the blood.
3. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM): A rare autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord, causing widespread inflammation and demyelination. ADEM is often triggered by a viral infection.
4. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP): A rare autoimmune disorder that affects the peripheral nerves, causing weakness, numbness, and pain. CIDP is characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the nerve fibers.

The symptoms of demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS can vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

* Weakness, numbness, or tingling sensations in the limbs
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or loss of vision
* Difficulty with coordination and balance
* Fatigue, fever, and general malaise
* Cognitive impairment and memory loss

The diagnosis of demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood tests to rule out other conditions and measure the levels of specific antibodies and immune cells.
2. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to detect inflammatory markers and specific antibodies.
3. Imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans, to visualize the lesions and assess the extent of the damage.
4. Evoked potentials testing to evaluate the function of the nerves.

Treatment for demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS depends on the specific disease and the severity of the condition. Common treatments include:

1. Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response.
2. Immunoglobulins to block the activity of harmful antibodies.
3. Plasmapheresis to remove harmful antibodies from the blood.
4. Disease-modifying therapies, such as interferons or glatiramer acetate, to reduce the frequency and severity of relapses.
5. Physical therapy and rehabilitation to help restore lost function and improve quality of life.

In conclusion, demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but with a comprehensive approach that includes clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies, it is possible to identify the underlying cause and develop an effective treatment plan.

The symptoms of ectromelia can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but they typically include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes. In severe cases, the disease can lead to meningitis, pneumonia, and even death.

Ectromelia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which can help to clear the infection and reduce symptoms.

Preventive measures for ectromelia include avoiding contact with infected fleas and rodents, wearing protective clothing and insect repellent when working in areas where the disease is common, and using effective flea control methods, such as using insecticides or removing infested bedding. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the disease, such as those who work with rodents or live in areas where the disease is endemic.

1. Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV): This is a highly contagious virus that weakens the immune system, making cats more susceptible to other infections and cancer.
2. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV): Similar to HIV in humans, this virus attacks the immune system and can lead to a range of secondary infections and diseases.
3. Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP): A viral disease that causes fluid accumulation in the abdomen and chest, leading to difficulty breathing and abdominal pain.
4. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD): A group of conditions that affect the bladder and urethra, including urinary tract infections and kidney stones.
5. Feline Diabetes: Cats can develop diabetes, which can lead to a range of complications if left untreated, including urinary tract infections, kidney disease, and blindness.
6. Feline Hyperthyroidism: An overactive thyroid gland that can cause weight loss, anxiety, and heart problems if left untreated.
7. Feline Cancer: Cats can develop various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and skin cancer.
8. Dental disease: Cats are prone to dental problems, such as tartar buildup, gum disease, and tooth resorption.
9. Obesity: A common problem in cats, obesity can lead to a range of health issues, including diabetes, arthritis, and heart disease.
10. Behavioral disorders: Cats can develop behavioral disorders such as anxiety, stress, and aggression, which can impact their quality of life and relationships with humans.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or managed with proper care, including regular veterinary check-ups, vaccinations, parasite control, a balanced diet, exercise, and mental stimulation. Additionally, early detection and treatment can significantly improve the outcome for cats with health issues.

The primary symptoms of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome include:

1. Eczema and skin rashes
2. Immune system dysfunction, leading to recurrent infections
3. Bleeding disorders, including easy bruising and nosebleeds
4. Delayed development and growth retardation
5. Short stature
6. Poor muscle tone and coarse facial features
7. Heart defects, such as ventricular septal defects
8. Kidney disease or dysfunction
9. Increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the condition typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications through medications, immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and other supportive measures.

The prognosis for individuals with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome varies depending on the severity of their symptoms and the presence of any comorbidities. With appropriate medical care, many individuals with this condition can lead relatively normal lives, but they may require lifelong monitoring and treatment to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.

Some common autoimmune diseases of the nervous system include:

1. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A chronic condition that affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves, causing a range of symptoms including numbness, weakness, and vision problems.
2. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO): A rare condition that causes inflammation in the optic nerves and spinal cord, leading to vision loss and muscle weakness.
3. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A rare autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness and paralysis, often after a viral infection.
4. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP): A chronic condition that affects the peripheral nerves, causing numbness, weakness, and pain in the hands and feet.
5. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM): A rare condition that causes inflammation in the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.

The exact cause of autoimmune diseases of the nervous system is not fully understood, but they are believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition, but may include medications to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune system, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications.

There are two main forms of echinococcosis: cystic and alveolar. Cystic echinococcosis is the most common form and is characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the liver, lungs, or other organs. Alveolar echinococcosis is a more aggressive form of the disease and is characterized by the formation of solid tumor-like masses in the liver, lungs, or other organs.

The symptoms of echinococcosis vary depending on the location and size of the cysts or tumors. They may include abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and by examining a sample of the cyst contents under a microscope.

Treatment for echinococcosis usually involves surgery to remove the cysts or tumors, followed by antiparasitic medication to kill any remaining parasites. In some cases, chemotherapy may be necessary to treat the disease. Prevention of echinococcosis primarily involves controlling the spread of dog tapeworms, which can be done through measures such as regularly deworming dogs and avoiding contact with dog feces.

Echinococcosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, but with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, many people are able to recover fully or partially.

The symptoms of toxocariasis can vary depending on the location of the parasite in the body, but they may include:

* Eye problems, such as blurred vision, eye pain, and inflammation of the retina
* Skin rashes or lesions
* Joint pain and swelling
* Neurological symptoms, such as headaches, seizures, and loss of coordination
* Diarrhea and abdominal pain

Toxocariasis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications, which can help to eliminate the parasites from the body. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as eye inflammation or neurological problems.

Preventive measures for toxocariasis include:

* Avoiding contact with contaminated soil or feces
* Washing hands and food thoroughly
* Keeping pets free of parasites through regular deworming and proper sanitation
* Avoiding eating undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game

While toxocariasis is generally not life-threatening, it can cause significant morbidity and vision loss if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Symptoms of fascioliasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and may include:

1. Abdominal pain
2. Diarrhea
3. Vomiting
4. Fatigue
5. Weight loss
6. Anemia
7. Elevated liver enzymes
8. Inflammation of the liver, bile ducts, or pancreas

If left untreated, fascioliasis can lead to serious complications such as:

1. Cholangiohepatitis (inflammation of the bile ducts and liver)
2. Hepatic cysts or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver)
3. Biliary obstruction or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)

Diagnosis of fascioliasis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as:

1. Blood tests to detect antibodies against the parasite
2. Detection of the parasite in stool or bile samples
3. Imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans to visualize the liver and bile ducts

Treatment of fascioliasis usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as triclabendazole or nitazoxanide, to eliminate the parasite from the body. Supportive care may also be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of fascioliasis primarily involves measures to avoid ingesting contaminated food or water, such as:

1. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly pork or lamb
2. Properly cooking and storing food
3. Avoiding consumption of untreated water
4. Using proper sanitation and hygiene practices
5. Avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water

In areas where fascioliasis is common, it is important to be aware of the risk and take appropriate precautions to prevent infection. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with fascioliasis.

1. Chronic diarrhea
2. Fever
3. Fatigue
4. Night sweats
5. Weight loss
6. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, or groin
7. Rashes or skin lesions
8. Muscle aches and joint pain
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Yeast infections in the mouth, throat, or vagina

ARC is a stage of HIV infection that occurs before the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is characterized by a decline in CD4 cell counts and an increase in HIV viral load. If left untreated, ARC can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that affects the body's ability to fight off opportunistic infections and cancers.

The diagnosis of ARC is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests (such as CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load), and medical imaging studies. Treatment for ARC typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART) to suppress the virus, manage symptoms, and prevent complications.

It's important to note that the term "AIDS-related complex" is no longer used in modern medicine, as it has been replaced by the term "HIV disease." This change reflects the understanding that HIV infection is a continuous spectrum of illness, rather than a distinct set of conditions.

There are several types of JA, including:

1. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA): A severe form of JA that affects the entire body, causing fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes in addition to joint inflammation.
2. Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (PJIA): A common form of JA that affects multiple joints, especially in the hands and feet.
3. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (OJIA): A mild form of JA that affects only a few joints.
4. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA): A type of JA that is associated with psoriasis, a skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches.
5. Enthesitis-related juvenile idiopathic arthritis (ER-JIA): A rare form of JA that affects the areas where tendons and ligaments attach to bones.
6. Undifferentiated arthritis: A type of JA that does not fit into any of the other categories.

The symptoms of JA can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Joint pain and stiffness
* Swelling and redness in the affected joints
* Fatigue and fever
* Loss of mobility and range of motion
* Difficulty walking or standing

The exact cause of JA is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no cure for JA, but treatment options are available to help manage symptoms and prevent long-term joint damage. These may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications.

Once infected, humans can experience a range of symptoms including fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bones and joints, causing swelling and pain. Brucellosis can also lead to complications such as endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves) and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord).

Brucellosis in cows is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and blood samples. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but it is important to detect and treat the infection early to prevent complications. Prevention measures include vaccination of animals, proper handling and disposal of animal products, and avoiding contact with infected animals or their products.

In addition to its medical significance, brucellosis has also been associated with significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to reduced milk production and fertility issues in infected animals.

The virus that causes Marek disease is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected birds, as well as through contact with contaminated feathers, bedding, or other objects. Infected birds may not show any symptoms until they are stressed, exposed to cold weather, or experience a weakened immune system.

The symptoms of Marek disease can vary depending on the strain of the virus and the age and health of the bird. Some common symptoms include:

* Paralysis of the legs, wings, or beak
* Loss of coordination and balance
* Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing
* Swelling of the eyes or neck
* Weight loss
* Decreased egg production in laying hens

There is no cure for Marek disease, and it is usually fatal. However, vaccines are available to help prevent the disease in healthy birds. If you suspect that your bird has Marek disease, it is important to isolate it immediately and seek veterinary care as soon as possible.

There are several types of stomach neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of stomach cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. It begins in the glandular cells that line the stomach and can spread to other parts of the body.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer begins in the squamous cells that cover the outer layer of the stomach. It is less common than adenocarcinoma but more likely to be found in the upper part of the stomach.
3. Gastric mixed adenocarcinomasquamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer is a combination of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
4. Lymphoma: This is a cancer of the immune system that can occur in the stomach. It is less common than other types of stomach cancer but can be more aggressive.
5. Carcinomas of the stomach: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial cells lining the stomach. They can be subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and others.
6. Gastric brunner's gland adenoma: This is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the Brunner's glands in the stomach.
7. Gastric polyps: These are growths that occur on the lining of the stomach and can be either benign or malignant.

The symptoms of stomach neoplasms vary depending on the location, size, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging studies (such as CT or PET scans), and biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for stomach neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

The symptoms of aspergillosis depend on the location and severity of the infection. In the lungs, it may cause coughing, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. In the sinuses, it can cause headaches, facial pain, and nasal congestion. In the brain, it can cause seizures, confusion, and weakness.

Aspergillosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of Aspergillus fungi.

Treatment of aspergillosis depends on the severity and location of the infection. In mild cases, treatment may involve antifungal medications and supportive care such as oxygen therapy and pain management. In severe cases, treatment may require hospitalization and intravenous antifungal medications.

Preventive measures for aspergillosis include avoiding exposure to dusty or damp environments, managing chronic conditions such as asthma and COPD, and taking antifungal medications as prescribed.

Aspergillosis can be a serious condition, especially in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking immunosuppressive drugs. In severe cases, aspergillosis can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and organ damage.

In conclusion, aspergillosis is a common fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, and it can be serious and potentially life-threatening, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Smallpox symptoms include fever, headache, and fatigue, followed by a characteristic rash that spreads from the face to other parts of the body. The disease is highly infectious and can be fatal, especially among young children and immunocompromised individuals. There is no specific treatment for smallpox, and vaccination is the most effective method of prevention.

The last naturally occurring case of smallpox was reported in 1977, and since then, there have been only a few laboratory-confirmed cases, all related to research on the virus. The WHO declared that smallpox had been eradicated in 1980, making it the first and only human disease to be completely eliminated from the planet.

While the risk of smallpox is currently low, there is concern that the virus could be used as a bioterrorism agent, and efforts are being made to maintain surveillance and preparedness for any potential outbreaks.

During relapses, new symptoms may appear or existing ones may worsen, such as vision problems, muscle weakness, coordination and balance difficulties, and cognitive impairment. The immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.

During remissions, the inflammation and symptoms may subside, but the disease is still active, and some residual disability may persist. RRMS is the most common form of MS, accounting for approximately 85% of all cases.

There are several possible causes of synovitis, including:

1. Infection: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can cause synovitis.
2. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and gout can cause chronic synovitis.
3. Overuse injuries: Repetitive strain injuries, such as those caused by repetitive jumping or throwing, can lead to synovitis in the affected joint.
4. Trauma: A sudden injury, such as a fall or a blow to the joint, can cause acute synovitis.

Symptoms of synovitis may include:

1. Pain: Pain is the most common symptom of synovitis, and it can range from mild to severe.
2. Swelling: The affected joint or limb may become swollen and warm to the touch.
3. Limited range of motion: Synovitis can cause stiffness and limited mobility in the affected joint.
4. Redness: The affected area may become red and inflamed.
5. Fever: In some cases, synovitis may be accompanied by a fever.

Treatment for synovitis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Conservative treatments such as rest, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications are often effective in managing mild to moderate cases of synovitis. In more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

In conclusion, synovitis is a common condition that can cause pain and limited mobility in the affected joint or limb. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

Symptoms of filarial elephantiasis include swelling and thickening of the skin, especially in the legs, feet, and hands, as well as a loss of sensation in the affected areas. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs to kill the worms, but surgery may be necessary in some cases to remove severely affected tissue.

Preventive measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing, as well as taking antiparasitic medications to prevent infection. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent the development of severe complications and improve quality of life for individuals with filarial elephantiasis.

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The disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected blackfly of the genus Simulium. The parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus is deposited into the skin of the human host, where it forms nodules that can migrate to various parts of the body, including the eye and skin.

The symptoms of onchocerciasis can vary depending on the location and severity of the infection. Skin symptoms include a rash, papules, and nodules, while eye symptoms can include vision loss, blurred vision, and blindness. The disease can also cause joint pain and fever.

Onchocerciasis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as skin biopsy or blood testing for antigens. Treatment involves administering the drug ivermectin, which kills the adult worms and reduces symptoms. However, the drug does not kill the microfilariae, which can continue to cause disease for years after treatment.

Prevention of onchocerciasis involves controlling the population of blackflies that transmit the disease. This is achieved through measures such as using insecticides, wearing protective clothing and applying repellents, and draining standing water where blackflies breed. Elimination of the disease requires mass drug administration to all individuals in endemic areas, followed by repeated treatment every 6-12 months for at least 10-15 years.

1. Bullous pemphigoid: This is a rare autoimmune disease that causes large, fluid-filled blisters to form on the skin.
2. Pemphigus: This is another group of rare autoimmune diseases that cause blisters and sores to form on the skin.
3. Impetigo: This is a highly contagious bacterial infection that causes red sores or blisters to form on the skin, often around the nose and mouth.
4. Herpes simplex: This is a viral infection that causes small, painful blisters to form on the skin, often around the mouth or genitals.
5. Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection that causes small, firm bumps to form on the skin, which can become inflamed and itchy.

These conditions can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsies or blood tests. Treatment for skin diseases, vesiculobullous depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, surgical removal of the blisters or sores may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a skin disease, vesiculobullous, as these conditions can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and can lead to complications such as infection or scarring.

The symptoms of West Nile Fever typically develop within 3-14 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can range from mild to severe. Mild symptoms may include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and joint pain. Severe symptoms can include high fever, stiff neck, confusion, loss of consciousness, and in rare cases, death.

There is no specific treatment for West Nile Fever, but supportive care such as rest, hydration, and pain relief medications may be provided to help manage the symptoms. The prognosis for most people with West Nile Fever is generally good, but it can be more severe in older adults and those with underlying health conditions.

Prevention of West Nile Fever involves protecting oneself against mosquito bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus.

In conclusion, West Nile Fever is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause mild to severe symptoms. Prevention involves protecting oneself against mosquito bites and eliminating standing water to reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus.

There are several forms of HFRS, including:

1. Severe Hemorrhagic Fever (SHF): This form of the disease is characterized by rapid onset of severe symptoms, including fever, hemorrhaging, and renal failure.
2. Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF): This form of the disease is similar to SHF but has a milder course.
3. African Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF): This form of the disease is found primarily in sub-Saharan Africa and is characterized by a severe course with high mortality rates.
4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF): This form of the disease is found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa and is transmitted through tick bites or contact with infected animals.

The symptoms of HFRS can include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and hemorrhaging. In severe cases, the disease can lead to kidney failure, shock, and death.

Diagnosis of HFRS is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests (such as PCR and ELISA), and serology. Treatment is primarily supportive, with management of symptoms and fluid replacement. Antiviral medications may be used in some cases.

Prevention of HFRS includes tick control measures, protective clothing, and avoiding contact with potentially infected animals or ticks. Vaccines are available for some forms of the disease, particularly CCHF.

Treatment of tularemia typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment is important to prevent complications and reduce the risk of death. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with wild animals and taking precautions when handling or disposing of carcasses or contaminated materials.

Examples of 'Tularemia' in a sentence:

1. The hunter developed tularemia after being bitten by an infected tick while hunting in the woods.
2. The outbreak of tularemia in the rural area was caused by the ingestion of contaminated water from a nearby stream.
3. The patient was diagnosed with tularemia and started on antibiotic treatment to prevent the disease from spreading.
4. The public health department issued warnings about the risk of tularemia in the region after several cases were reported among people who had visited a local lake.

Examples of AROIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): a type of pneumonia caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.
2. Tuberculosis (TB): a bacterial infection that can affect the lungs, brain, or other organs.
3. Toxoplasmosis: an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii that can affect the brain, eyes, and other organs.
4. Cryptococcosis: a fungal infection that can affect the lungs, brain, or skin.
5. Histoplasmosis: a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum that can affect the lungs, skin, and other organs.
6. Aspergillosis: a fungal infection caused by Aspergillus species that can affect the lungs, sinuses, and other organs.
7. Candidiasis: a fungal infection caused by Candida species that can affect the mouth, throat, vagina, or skin.
8. Kaposi's sarcoma: a type of cancer that is caused by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and can affect the skin and lymph nodes.
9. Wasting syndrome: a condition characterized by weight loss, fatigue, and diarrhea.
10. Opportunistic infections that can affect the gastrointestinal tract, such as cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis.

AROIs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with HIV/AIDS, and they can be prevented or treated with antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and other interventions.

There are several subtypes of PTCL, each with different characteristics and treatment options. Some common subtypes of PTCL include:

1. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL): This is a type of PTCL that often affects the skin or soft tissues, but can also involve other parts of the body. It is characterized by the presence of large, abnormal cells in the lymph nodes or other tissues.
2. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL): This is a rare and aggressive form of PTCL that affects the blood and bone marrow. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature T cells in the blood and bone marrow.
3. Primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: This is a group of rare conditions that involve the skin and are characterized by the presence of abnormal T cells in the skin.
4. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL): This is a rare and aggressive form of PTCL that is caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is most common in people who are infected with HTLV-1.

The symptoms of PTCL can vary depending on the subtype and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies.

Treatment options for PTCL depend on the subtype and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. In some cases, a combination of these treatments may be used.

Overall, while PTCL is a rare and aggressive form of cancer, there are many different subtypes and treatment options available. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many people with PTCL can achieve long-term remission or even be cured.

The term "paraneoplastic" refers to the fact that these conditions are parallel to, or associated with, neoplasms (abnormal growths) in the body. The exact cause of paraneoplastic syndromes is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to the immune system's response to cancer cells.

Some common features of paraneoplastic syndromes include:

1. Autoantibodies: The immune system produces antibodies that attack the body's own tissues and organs.
2. Inflammation: The immune system causes inflammation in various parts of the body.
3. Nerve damage: Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect the nerves, leading to symptoms such as numbness, weakness, and pain.
4. Muscle weakness: Some paraneoplastic syndromes can cause muscle weakness and wasting.
5. Skin rashes: Some patients with paraneoplastic syndromes may develop skin rashes or lesions.
6. Eye problems: Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect the eyes, leading to symptoms such as double vision, blindness, and eye pain.
7. Endocrine dysfunction: Some paraneoplastic syndromes can disrupt the normal functioning of the endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances.

Examples of paraneoplastic syndromes include:

1. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the nerves and muscles, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. It is often associated with small cell lung cancer.
2. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: This is a severe autoimmune disorder that affects the brain and can cause symptoms such as seizures, confusion, and memory loss. It is often associated with ovarian teratoma.
3. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD): This is a rare condition that affects the cerebellum and can cause symptoms such as coordination problems, balance difficulties, and difficulty with movement. It is often associated with lung cancer or other types of cancer.
4. Stiff-person syndrome: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system and can cause symptoms such as muscle stiffness, spasms, and autonomy dysfunction. It is often associated with ovarian teratoma.
5. Polymyositis: This is a rare inflammatory condition that affects the muscles and can cause muscle weakness and wasting. It is often associated with cancer, particularly lung cancer.
6. Dercum's disease: This is a rare condition that affects the adipose tissue and can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and limited mobility. It is often associated with cancer, particularly breast cancer.
7. Multiple myeloma: This is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow and can cause symptoms such as bone pain, fatigue, and weakness. It is often associated with ovarian teratoma.
8. Painless thyroiditis: This is a rare condition that affects the thyroid gland and can cause symptoms such as thyroid gland inflammation, fatigue, and weight gain. It is often associated with cancer, particularly breast cancer.
9. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries and can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, bloating, and irregular menstrual periods. They are often associated with ovarian teratoma.
10. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus and can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and infertility. It is often associated with ovarian teratoma.

It's important to note that these conditions are rare and not all cases of ovarian teratoma are associated with them. If you suspect you may have ovarian teratoma, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Pre-B ALL is characterized by the abnormal growth of immature white blood cells called B lymphocytes. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and are normally present in the blood. In Pre-B ALL, the abnormal B cells accumulate in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs, crowding out normal cells and causing a variety of symptoms.

The symptoms of Pre-B ALL can vary depending on the individual patient, but may include:

* Fatigue
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Frequent infections
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Enlarged liver or spleen
* Bone pain
* Headaches
* Confusion or seizures (in severe cases)

Pre-B ALL is most commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also occur in adults. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and sometimes bone marrow transplantation. The prognosis for Pre-B ALL is generally good, especially in children, with a high survival rate if treated promptly and effectively. However, the cancer can be more difficult to treat in adults, and the prognosis may be less favorable.

Overall, Pre-B ALL is a rare and aggressive form of leukemia that requires prompt and specialized treatment to improve outcomes for patients.

Examples of syndromes include:

1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that affects intellectual and physical development.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a missing or partially deleted X chromosome that affects physical growth and development in females.
3. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder affecting the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and cardiovascular problems.
4. Alzheimer's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality and behavior.
5. Parkinson's disease: A neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement.
6. Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to infertility and other physical characteristics.
7. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, characterized by cardiovascular problems, developmental delays, and a distinctive facial appearance.
8. Fragile X syndrome: The most common form of inherited intellectual disability, caused by an expansion of a specific gene on the X chromosome.
9. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a defect in the hypothalamus, leading to problems with appetite regulation and obesity.
10. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dry eyes and mouth.

Syndromes can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for a syndrome depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms and signs presented by the patient.

There are several different types of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Maculopapular exanthema (MPE): This is a type of allergic reaction that causes a red, itchy rash to appear on the skin. It can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
2. Exfoliative dermatitis: This is a more severe form of MPE that can cause widespread scaling and peeling of the skin. It is often associated with reactions to antibiotics and other medications.
3. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS): This is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by certain medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. SJS can cause blisters to form on the skin and mucous membranes, as well as fever and fatigue.
4. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN): This is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by certain medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. TEN can cause widespread peeling of the skin, as well as fever and fatigue.
5. Anaphylaxis: This is a severe allergic reaction that can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. It can cause symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.

Drug hypersensitivity reactions can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the medication that is causing the reaction, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, itching, and pain. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the reaction.

Prevention of drug hypersensitivity reactions can be challenging, but there are several strategies that can help reduce the risk. These include:

1. Gradual dose escalation: When starting a new medication, it is important to gradually increase the dose over time to allow the body to adjust.
2. Monitoring for signs of a reaction: Patients should be monitored closely for signs of a reaction, such as hives, itching, or difficulty breathing.
3. Avoiding certain medications: In some cases, it may be necessary to avoid certain medications that are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions.
4. Skin testing: Skin testing can be used to determine whether a patient is allergic to a particular medication before starting treatment.
5. Desensitization: In some cases, desensitization therapy may be used to gradually expose the patient to the medication that is causing the reaction, with the goal of reducing the risk of an adverse event.

There are two main types of mastocytoma: cutaneous mastocytoma, which affects the skin, and systemic mastocytosis, which can affect multiple organs throughout the body. Cutaneous mastocytoma typically appears as a firm, raised bump or nodule on the skin, and may be accompanied by itching or other symptoms. Systemic mastocytosis is more serious and can cause a wide range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and anemia.

The exact cause of mastocytoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations and environmental factors such as exposure to toxins or allergens. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, biopsy, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for mastocytoma include surgery, chemotherapy, and medications to reduce histamine levels.

Prognosis for mastocytoma varies depending on the type and severity of the disease, but in general, the prognosis is good for most patients with this condition. With proper treatment, many patients can achieve long-term remission or even be cured. However, in some cases, mastocytoma can progress to more aggressive forms of cancer, such as mast cell leukemia, which can be difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis.

Giardiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, which is found in contaminated water, food, or direct contact with infected individuals. The parasite enters the small intestine and feeds on the mucosal lining, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.

Prevalence:

Giardiasis is a common disease worldwide, affecting approximately 500 million people annually, with higher prevalence in developing countries. In the United States, it is estimated that over 1.5 million people are infected each year, with the highest incidence rates found among children and travelers to endemic areas.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of giardiasis can vary in severity but typically include:

* Diarrhea (sometimes bloody)
* Abdominal cramps
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever
* Headache

In some cases, the infection can lead to more severe complications such as:

* Malabsorption (deficiency of essential nutrients)
* Inflammation of the intestine
* Rectal prolapse

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis of giardiasis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and medical history. The most common diagnostic techniques include:

* Microscopic examination of stool samples for the presence of Giardia eggs or trophozoites
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antigens or antibodies against Giardia in stool or blood samples
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in stool samples

Treatment:

The treatment of giardiasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. These medications are effective against the parasite and can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. The duration of treatment varies depending on the individual case, but it is generally between 5-10 days.

Prevention:

Preventing giardiasis involves avoiding exposure to contaminated water or food sources. Some measures that can be taken to prevent the infection include:

* Avoiding consumption of untreated water, especially when traveling to areas with poor sanitation
* Avoiding contact with people who have diarrhea or are infected with Giardia
* Properly storing and cooking food to kill any parasites that may be present
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food

It is important to note that giardiasis can be a recurring infection, so it is important to take preventive measures consistently.

Measles is caused by a virus that is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can also be spread through direct contact with an infected person's saliva or mucus.

The symptoms of measles usually appear about 10-14 days after exposure to the virus, and may include:

* Fever
* Cough
* Runny nose
* Red, watery eyes
* Small white spots inside the mouth (Koplik spots)
* A rash that starts on the head and spreads to the rest of the body

Measles can be diagnosed through a physical examination, laboratory tests, or by observing the characteristic rash. There is no specific treatment for measles, but it can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve fever and pain.

Complications of measles can include:

* Ear infections
* Pneumonia
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
* Seizures
* Death (rare)

Measles is highly contagious and can spread easily through schools, workplaces, and other communities. Vaccination is the best way to prevent measles, and the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine is recommended for all children and adults who have not been previously infected with the virus or vaccinated.

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The symptoms of mesothelioma can vary depending on the location of the cancer, but they may include:

* Shortness of breath or pain in the chest (for pleural mesothelioma)
* Abdominal pain or swelling (for peritoneal mesothelioma)
* Fatigue or fever (for pericardial mesothelioma)
* Weight loss and night sweats

There is no cure for mesothelioma, but treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for mesothelioma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of about 5% to 10%. However, the outlook can vary depending on the type of mesothelioma, the stage of the cancer, and the patient's overall health.

Asbestos exposure is the primary risk factor for developing mesothelioma, and it is important to avoid exposure to asbestos in any form. This can be done by avoiding old buildings and products that contain asbestos, wearing protective clothing and equipment when working with asbestos, and following proper safety protocols when handling asbestos-containing materials.

In summary, mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that develops in the lining of the heart or abdomen due to exposure to asbestos. It can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and the prognosis is generally poor. However, with proper medical care and avoidance of asbestos exposure, patients with mesothelioma may have a better chance of survival.

The term "immunoblastic" refers to the fact that the proliferating cells are immature or primitive, and have not yet differentiated into fully mature T or B cells. The term "lymphadenopathy" refers to the involvement of the lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes and spleen.

Immunoblastic lymphadenopathy can present in various ways, depending on the underlying cause. Symptoms may include swelling of the lymph nodes, fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.

Treatment of immunoblastic lymphadenopathy depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics for infections, immunosuppressive drugs for autoimmune disorders, or chemotherapy for malignancies. In some cases, surgical removal of the affected lymph nodes may be necessary.

Prognosis for immunoblastic lymphadenopathy depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, with appropriate treatment, the prognosis is good for most patients, but in cases where the condition is caused by a malignancy, the prognosis may be poorer.

The main causes of periodontitis are poor oral hygiene, smoking, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. The symptoms of periodontitis include:

* Redness and swelling of the gums
* Bad breath
* Bleeding while brushing or flossing
* Pocket formation between the teeth and gums
* Loose teeth or changes in the bite
* Changes in the color or shape of the gums

If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to serious complications such as:

* Tooth loss
* Bone loss around the teeth
* Infection of the dental implant or prosthetic tooth
* Spread of bacteria to other parts of the body, leading to systemic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.

Periodontitis can be treated by a dentist or periodontist with a combination of non-surgical and surgical procedures, including:

* Scaling and root planing (deep cleaning of the teeth and roots)
* Antibiotics to treat infection
* Bone grafting to restore lost bone tissue
* Gum grafting to cover exposed roots
* Dental implants or prosthetic teeth to replace missing teeth.

It is important to practice good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing regularly, to prevent periodontitis. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the progression of the disease and save teeth from being lost.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

The main cause of ABPA is exposure to airborne spores of the fungus Aspergillus, which are commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. Individuals with a pre-existing allergic condition may be more susceptible to developing an allergic reaction to these spores, leading to inflammation and damage to the airways.

Diagnosis of ABPA typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and bronchoscopy with biopsy. Treatment for ABPA typically involves corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and antifungal medications to treat any underlying infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy and other supportive care.

Prevention of ABPA includes avoiding exposure to known allergens and maintaining good respiratory hygiene. This can involve regularly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and objects, using HEPA filters in air purifiers, and wearing a mask when working with or around potentially contaminated materials.

Prognosis for ABPA is generally good if treated promptly and effectively, but untreated cases can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure and other organ damage. With proper management and prevention strategies in place, individuals with ABPA can lead active and fulfilling lives.

Precancerous changes in the uterine cervix are called dysplasias, and they can be detected by a Pap smear, which is a routine screening test for women. If dysplasia is found, it can be treated with cryotherapy (freezing), laser therapy, or cone biopsy, which removes the affected cells.

Cervical cancer is rare in developed countries where Pap screening is widely available, but it remains a common cancer in developing countries where access to healthcare and screening is limited. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical precancerous changes and cancer.

Cervical cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. The prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer is good, but advanced-stage cancer can be difficult to treat and may have a poor prognosis.

The following are some types of uterine cervical neoplasms:

1. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when glandular cells on the surface of the cervix become abnormal and grow out of control.
2. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. There are several types of CIN, ranging from mild to severe.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cervical cancer and arises from the squamous cells that line the cervix.
4. Adnexal carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the glands or ducts near the cervix.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cervical cancer that grows rapidly and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
6. Micropapillary uterine carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that grows in a finger-like shape and can be difficult to diagnose.
7. Clear cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from clear cells and can be more aggressive than other types of cervical cancer.
8. Adenocarcinoma: This is a type of cervical cancer that arises from glandular cells and can be less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma.
9. Sarcoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the connective tissue of the cervix.

The treatment options for uterine cervical neoplasms depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. The following are some common treatments for uterine cervical neoplasms:

1. Hysterectomy: This is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus and may be recommended for early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
2. Cryotherapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
3. Laser therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laser to remove or destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
4. Cone biopsy: This is a surgical procedure to remove a small cone-shaped sample of tissue from the cervix to diagnose and treat early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
5. Radiation therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
6. Chemotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
7. Immunotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
8. Targeted therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to target specific genes or proteins that contribute to cancer growth and development and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.

It is important to note that the choice of treatment will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Patients should discuss their treatment options with their doctor and develop a personalized plan that is right for them.

The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen-experienced T cells than in naive T cells. Naive T cells pass through the process ... T cells expressing this receptor are referred to as α:β (or αβ) T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate ... T cells move on quickly from antigens that do not trigger responses, rapidly scanning pMHC on an antigen-presenting cell (APC) ... UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T-cell receptor T-Cell+Receptor at the US ...
"Infection mobilizes hematopoietic stem cells through cooperative NOD-like receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling". Cell Host ... PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... The mannose receptor (MR) is a PRR primarily present on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells. It belongs into the ... and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Cytoplasmic PRRs include NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). PRRs ...
Targeting of TNRF2 in tumor cells is associated with increased tumor cell death and decreased progression of tumor cell growth ... CD120b+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e v t e (Articles with short ... April 1990). "Molecular cloning and expression of a receptor for human tumor necrosis factor". Cell. 61 (2): 361-370. doi: ... Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) and ...
A B cell is activated by its first encounter with an antigen (its "cognate antigen") that binds to its receptor, resulting in ... The B cell receptor (BCR) is a transmembrane protein on the surface of a B cell. A B cell receptor is composed of a membrane- ... B cells are able to gather and grab antigens by engaging biochemical modules for receptor clustering, cell spreading, ... Corcos D (1990). "Oncogenic potential of the B cell antigen receptor and its relevance to heavy chain diseases and other B-cell ...
When antigen binds to T-cell receptor, Lck becomes autophosphorylated and phosphorylates the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor ... Signaling by many receptors is dependent on nRTKs including T-cell receptors (TCR), B-cell receptors (BCR), IL-2 receptors (IL- ... Thirty-two non-receptor tyrosine kinases have been identified in human cells (EC 2.7.10.2). Non-receptor tyrosine kinases ... Another Src family member Lyn is involved in signaling mediated by B-cell receptor. Lyn is activated by stimulation of B-cell ...
Weiss A, Littman DR (January 1994). "Signal transduction by lymphocyte antigen receptors". Cell. 76 (2): 263-74. doi:10.1016/ ... These immune cells include T cells, B cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and mast cells. ITIMs have similar ... the activating NK cell receptor NKp44 contains an ITIM, but this seems to be non-functional. Some of the important receptors ... containing receptors, resulting in an innate inhibition mechanism within cells. ITIM bearing receptors have important role in ...
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR-T) are predominantly used in cancer immunotherapy. T-cells are harvested from patients' ... Main articles: Cytokine release syndrome; chimeric antigen receptor T cell. IgE-mediated anaphylactic reaction CAR derived from ... These tumors often express chemokine receptors and combine with the tumor-specific T-cell receptors presented on them. This ... CAR-T kill tumor cells specifically by targeting the tumor-associated antigens to keep the damage to healthy tissue at a ...
"Antigen Recognition by B-cell and T-cell Receptors". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Van Laethem, ... T-cells will recognize foreign peptides through T-cell receptors (TCRs) on the surface of the T cells, and then perform ... The selection model suggests that not all T cell receptors show MHC restriction, however only the T cell receptors with MHC ... In contrast with T cell receptors which recognize linear peptide epitopes, B cell receptors recognize a variety of ...
A5 antigen (a developmentally-regulated cell surface protein; Xenopus nrp1; P28824); and receptor-like tyrosine protein ... It is an extracellular domain found in many receptors. A 170 amino acid domain, the so-called MAM (meprin, A-5 protein, and ... Takagi S, Hirata T, Agata K, Eguchi G, Fujisawa H, Mochii M (1991). "The A5 antigen, a candidate for the neuronal recognition ... These proteins have a modular, receptor-like architecture comprising a signal peptide, an N-terminal extracellular domain, a ...
McGreal E, Miller J, Gordon S (2005). "Ligand recognition by antigen-presenting cell C-type lectin receptors". Curr Opin ... a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells". Cell. 100 (5): 587-97. doi:10.1016/ ... DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor present on the surface of both macrophages and dendritic cells. DC-SIGN on macrophages ... Cambi A, Figdor CG (2004). "Dual function of C-type lectin-like receptors in the immune system". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5 ...
2001). "Ch3 Antigen Recognition by B-Cell and T-cell Receptors". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease (5th ed ... antigens can cause systemic anaphylaxis in mice through classic pathway by cross-linking IgE bound to the mast cell receptor Fc ... IgG antibodies can prevent IgE mediated anaphylaxis by intercepting a specific antigen before it binds to mast cell-associated ... IgG affinity to Fc receptors on phagocytic cells is specific to individual species from which the antibody comes as well as the ...
1996). "REceptors in proximal tubular epithelial cells for tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen". Kidney Int. 49 (1): 153-7. ... Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TINAG gene. TINAG is a basement membrane ... 1999). "Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN-ag) is expressed in distinct segments of the developing human nephron". ... Kim SH, Kaminker P, Campisi J (1999). "TIN2, a new regulator of telomere length in human cells". Nat. Genet. 23 (4): 405-12. ...
PHA and ConA bind and cross-link components of the T cell receptor, and their ability to activate T cells is dependent on ... de Petris S (April 1975). "Concanavalin A receptors, immunoglobulins, and theta antigen of the lymphocyte surface. Interactions ... It was demonstrated that transformed cells and trypsin-treated normal cells do not agglutinate at 4 °C, thereby suggesting that ... Similar to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), it is a selective T cell mitogen relative to its effects on B cells. ...
Kurosaki T (1999). "Genetic analysis of B cell antigen receptor signaling". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17 (1): 555-92. doi:10.1146/ ... protein encoded by this gene functions as a docking protein acting downstream of Tec tyrosine kinase in B cell antigen receptor ... A mouse ortholog, stem cell adaptor protein 1, shares 83% identity with its human counterpart. STAP1 has been shown to interact ... the stem-cell-specific adaptor protein containing PH and SH2 domains". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 268 (3): 697-703. doi: ...
Another method combines iPSC and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technologies to generate human T cells targeted to CD19, an ... May 2013). "TAP-deficient human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen- ... "Regeneration of human tumor antigen-specific T cells from iPSCs derived from mature CD8(+) T cells". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (1): 31 ... June 2014). "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03 ...
Brady BL, Steinel NC, Bassing CH (October 2010). "Antigen receptor allelic exclusion: an update and reappraisal". Journal of ... Chess A, Simon I, Cedar H, Axel R (September 1994). "Allelic inactivation regulates olfactory receptor gene expression". Cell. ... Studies that distinguish fixed and dynamic aRME require single-cell analyses of clonally related cells. Allelic exclusion is a ... depending whether or not the allele-specific expression is conserved in daughter cells after mitotic cell division. Fixed aRME ...
This creates an enormous diversity of T cells bearing antigen receptors. Afterward some T cells leave the thymus to migrate to ... B cells Large Pre-B cells => Small Pre-B cells Immature B cells B Cells => (B1 cells; B2 cells) Plasma cells Pro-T cells T- ... T Cells, B Cells and NK Cells (and all other Innate lymphoid cells) are unique to the lymphocyte family, but dendritic cells ... NK cells Dendritic cells (lymphoid lineage; DC2 ) Progenitor B cells Pro-B cells => Early Pro (or pre-pre)-B cells => Late Pro ...
Antigens are recognized by antigen receptors, including antibodies and T-cell receptors. Diverse antigen receptors are made by ... An antigen binds the highly variable immunoreceptor products (B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor) once these have been ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly. Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ... B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can ... T cells may recognize these complexes using their T cell receptors (TCRs). APCs process antigens and present them to T-cells. ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen bound by major histocompatibility complex ( ...
June 2010). "Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction". Immunity. 32 (6): 766-77 ... "What controls T cell receptor phosphorylation?". Cell. 142 (5): 668-9. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.08.018. PMID 20813251. Davis SJ ... A prominent member of this receptor family is the T-cell receptor. Members of the Non-catalytic tyrosine-phosphorylated ... Similar findings have been reported for NK cell receptors, CD28 family receptors, Dectin-1. Phosphorylated tyrosine residues in ...
March 2017). "Targeting the adenosine 2A receptor enhances chimeric antigen receptor T cell efficacy". The Journal of Clinical ... Finally, inhibition of A2AR, either through pharmacologic or genetic targeting, in chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells ... In addition, A2A receptor can suppress immune cells, thereby protecting tissue from inflammation. The A2A receptor is also ... As a result, Adenosine receptor A2A decreases activity in the Dopamine D2 receptors. The adenosine A2A receptor has also been ...
Her clinical trials focus on exploring and optimizing chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T cell) based strategies and other ... "T cells expressing CD19 chimeric antigen receptors for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children and young adults: a phase 1 ... "Anti-CD22-chimeric antigen receptors targeting B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Blood. 121 (7): 1165-1174. doi: ... "Acute GVHD in patients receiving IL-15/4-1BBL activated NK cells following T-cell-depleted stem cell transplantation". Blood. ...
Davis, Mark M.; Bjorkman, Pamela J. (1988). "T-cell antigen receptor genes and T-cell recognition". Nature. 334 (6181): 395-402 ... Davis is well known for identifying the first T-cell receptor genes, which are responsible for T lymphocytes ability to "see" ... "2021 Szent-Györgyi Prize Awarded to Pioneering Research Duo Who Have Paved the Path to Life-Saving T-Cell Receptor-Based Cancer ... the demonstration that T cells are able to detect and respond to even a single molecule of their ligand-fragments of antigens ...
Kit (CD117) is the receptor of Stem Cell Factor. Sca-1 is a murine hematopoietic stem cell antigen. Lin is a series of lineage ... KSL cells in cell biology are an early form of mouse/murine hematopoietic stem cells. Characteristics are Kit (+), Sca-1 (+) ... Biology portal Science portal Cell biophysics Cell disruption Cell physiology Cellular adaptation Cellular microbiology Outline ... Hematopoitic stem cells are of interest because of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into every types of blood cell ...
CD44 antigen, the main cell surface receptor for HA. Hyaladherin "Link domain signature and profile". PROSITE. December 2004. ... which may be involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions during inflammation and tumourigenesis; ... a hyaluronan-binding domain involved in extracellular matrix stability and cell migration". Cell. 86 (5): 767-75. doi:10.1016/ ... It is important in blood cell migration and apoptosis. The link domain is found in some extracellular proteins in vertebrates ...
... a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 receptor on the surface of B cells, thus destroying the self-reactive B cells. ... The recruitment of the complement cascade via the classical pathway (antibody-antigen interaction). Membrane attack complex ( ... These can be produced by cross reactivity with NMDA receptors in teratomas, which contain many cell types, including brain ... The cell subsequently lyses. Notably, this mechanism is unlikely as it causes the cell to die, which is inconsistent with ...
Antigen-bound IgE then activates FcεRI receptors on mast cells and basophils. This leads to the release of inflammatory ... It is due to the release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines from mast cells and basophils, typically due to an immunologic ... The coronary spasm is related to the presence of histamine-releasing cells in the heart. Gastrointestinal symptoms may include ... Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are cytokines important in the initial generation of antibody and inflammatory cell responses to ...
... when the B-cell receptor binds antigen. This results in the B cell having greatly enhanced response to the antigen. Epstein- ... B cells express CR2 receptors on their surfaces, allowing the complement system to play a role in B-cell activation and ... 1976) found complete overlapping of EBV receptors and C3 receptors on human B cells. The canonical Cr2/CD21 gene of subprimate ... 1992). "T lymphocyte expression of complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21): a role in adhesive cell-cell interactions and ...
"DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines express androgen receptor: implications for the androgen receptor functions ... DU145 are not hormone-sensitive and do not express prostate-specific antigen (PSA). DU145 cells have moderate metastatic ... DU145 cells are androgen receptor positive. Alimirah F, Chen J, Basrawala Z, Xin H, Choubey D (April 2006). " ... DU145, PC3, and LNCaP are considered to be the standard prostate cancer cell lines used in therapeutic research. The DU145 cell ...
Yang, Jianying; Reth, Michael (September 2010). "Oligomeric organization of the B-cell antigen receptor on resting cells". ... thus forming the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). This occurs in a similar manner to the association of CD3 with the T-cell ... Engels N, Wollscheid B, Wienands J (Jul 2001). "Association of SLP-65/BLNK with the B cell antigen receptor through a non-ITAM ... Flaswinkel H, Reth M (1992). "Molecular cloning of the Ig-alpha subunit of the human B-cell antigen receptor complex". ...
These are made into synthetic receptors for T-Cells collected from the patient that are used to combat the disease. Competing ... Instead, one could cleave in a section between the bead and the antigen to elute. Since the pIII is intact it does not matter ... Then the expression of single chain Fv's (scFv), and single chain T cell receptors (scTCR) were expressed both with and without ... "CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers". National Cancer Institute. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 9 ...
The ABH-antigen produced is thought to act as a receptor for human norovirus: A non-functional fucosyltransferase FUT2 provides ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Positive-stranded RNA virus ... which contains antigen-presenting sites and carbohydrate-receptor binding regions. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 last shared a common ... "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen Receptors". J. Virol. 78 (12): 6233 ...
... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ... It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor ... At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well ... Another important cell death-property of Daxx is the association with PML-NB. It was shown that Daxx associates with Pml only ...
Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), ... an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions ... and dendritic cells involved in antigen processing". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 185 (10): 1743-51. doi:10.1084/jem. ... "A common inhibitory receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells ...
When a cytotoxic cell discovers any infected cell the content of the cytotoxic granules is released by receptor-mediated ... 15 kDa plays other roles in immunological processes, such as in antigen-presenting cell maturation and in immune cell migration ... Its expression is restricted to cytotoxic immune cells such as cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Orthologs ... such as NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and in higher concentrations, immature dendritic cells. The 9 kDa form ...
UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ... proteins are digested into peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation. To meet such complicated demands in biological ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
β-catenin is particularly interesting as it plays a dual role in the cell. First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor ... Peyriéras N, Louvard D, Jacob F (December 1985). "Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. These antigens are then taken ... Noncognate (not antigen specific) B cells play a significant role in the transport of antigens to FDCs. They capture immune ... Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, ... TNF-a binds on the TNFRI receptor, while LT interacts with LTβ-receptor expressed on FDC precursors. In mice lacking B cells, ...
... or the part of an antigen to which B cell and T cell receptors recognize and bind. There is a large diversity of epitopes ... B and T cells are presented with self antigen after developing receptors while they are still in the primary lymphoid organs. ... This occurs after the functional B-cell receptor (BCR) is assembled. It is possible for B cells with high self affinity to go ... In immunology, clonal deletion is the removal through apoptosis of B cells and T cells that have expressed receptors for self ...
... type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that ... such as natural killer cells and macrophages, and they increase host defenses by up-regulating antigen presentation by virtue ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can protect neighboring ... receptor binds to the cell surface and protects cells from the antiviral effects of IFN". Journal of Virology. 74 (23): 11230-9 ...
Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ... Then, the bacteria induce their internalization into host cells via a receptor-mediated invasion mechanism.[citation needed] ... Bacterial replication in host cells causes endothelial cell proliferation and inflammation, resulting in mononuclear cell ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ...
"Cell cycle regulated expression of nucleolar antigen P120 in normal and transformed human fibroblasts". J. Cell. Physiol. 154 ( ... Jallal B, Mossie K, Vasiloudis G, Knyazev P, Zachwieja J, Clairvoyant F, Schilling J, Ullrich A (1997). "The receptor-like ... The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. It is not detectable in non- ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e (Genes on human chromosome 12, All ...
A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of ... October 1998). "Peripheral blood-derived CD34+ progenitor cells: CXC chemokine receptor 4 and CC chemokine receptor 5 ... as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as haematopoietic cells, or in ...
It is important in maintaining basic cellular functions such as DNA replication, RNA transcription, cell division and cell ... Pra1 (pH regulated antigen 1) is a candida albicans protein that scavenges host zinc. Diagnosis is typically made based on ... These effects may be mediated by the defective functioning of estrogen via the estrogen receptor, which contains a zinc finger ... Maret W (2013). "Chapter 14 Zinc and the Zinc Proteome". In Banci L (ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life ...
... uteroglobin-like antigen (UGL), blastokinin, club-cell secretory protein (CCSP), Clara-cell 16 kD protein (17 in rat/mice), ... 2001). "A two-receptor pathway for catabolism of Clara cell secretory protein in the kidney". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (16): 13295- ... "Clara cell secretory protein deficiency alters clara cell secretory apparatus and the protein composition of airway lining ... Cell Mol. Biol. 27 (3): 273-85. doi:10.1165/rcmb.2002-0014oc. PMID 12204889. v t e v t e (Genes on human chromosome 11, ...
Finally, NADA can prevent the degranulation and release of TNF from RBL- 2H3 mast cells treated with an IgE-antigen complex. ... N-Arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endocannabinoid that acts as an agonist of the CB1 receptor and the transient receptor ... Additionally, NADA has been observed to suppress inflammatory activation of human Jurkat T cells and to inhibit the release of ... NADA was first described as a putative endocannabinoid (agonist for the CB1 receptor) in 2000 and was subsequently identified ...
Normally, the PD-1 receptor on activated T-cells binds to the PD-L1 or PD-L2 ligands present on normal cells in the body, ... in microsatellite instability allowing the tumor to generate numerous mutant proteins that could serve as tumor antigens, ... It targets the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor of lymphocytes. It works by targeting the cellular pathway of ... deactivating any potential cell-mediated immune response against these cells. Many cancers make proteins such as PD-L1 that ...
Cell 36:879-888. Rao A, Faas S and H. Cantor. Analogues which compete for antigen binding to an arsonate-reactive T cell clone ... Engagement of the Type I interferon receptor on dendritic cells inhibits promotion of Th17 cells: central role of intracellular ... Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ... Glimcher L, Shen FW, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J Exp ...
... is a receptor protein which is expressed on T cells and NK cells and shares sequence similarity with CD226 (also known as ... "Enhanced ADCC activity of affinity maturated and Fc-engineered mini-antibodies directed against the AML stem cell antigen CD96 ... promotes NK cell-target cell adhesion by interacting with the poliovirus receptor (CD155)". Journal of Immunology. 172 (7): ... The protein may play a role in the adhesion of activated T and NK cells to their target cells during the late phase of the ...
... the mouse NK cell-associated antigen recognized by DX5 monoclonal antibody is CD49b (alpha 2 integrin, very late antigen-2)". ... Porter JC, Hogg N (1999). "Integrins take partners: cross-talk between integrins and other membrane receptors". Trends Cell ... They are found on a wide variety of cell types including T cells (the NKT cells), NK cells, fibroblasts and platelets. ... Integrins are involved in cell adhesion and also participate in cell-surface-mediated signalling. Expression of CD49b in ...
... including killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) that predominantly recognize antigens of class I human leukocyte ... KIR2DL3, Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL3 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by the natural killer cells ... "KIR2DL3 - Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL3 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - KIR2DL3 gene & protein". www.uniprot ... Have the ability to lyse target cells without prior sensitization antigen and regulate the immune responses by secreting ...
In Drosophila testicles, the Leukocyte-antigen-related (LAR) receptor tyrosine phosphatase targets selection and synapse ... cells continuously duplicate their genetic information without division into two cells. This creates very large cells, but ... These stem cells are important to the reproduction of Drosophila as they turn into sperm cells. ... the receptor expression is increased in the analysis of testicles containing higher numbers of early germ cells and cyst cells ...
Médicale Retinal gene therapy using lentiviral vectors Viral vector Lentiviral vector in gene therapy Chimeric antigen receptor ... "Novartis receives first ever FDA approval for a CAR-T cell therapy, Kymriah(TM) (CTL019), for children and young adults with B- ... This discovery enabled the development of lentiviral vectors that can infect non-dividing cells, contrary to other types of ... "Kite Pharma and bluebird bio Announce Strategic Collaboration to Advance Second Generation TCR Cell Therapy Products to Treat ...
For example, tuft cells that are in the urethra respond to bitter compounds, through activation of the taste receptor. This ... and as pulmonary brush cells in the respiratory tract, from nose to alveoli. A loss of tolerance to antigens that appear in the ... Tuft cells are chemosensory cells in the epithelial lining of the intestines. Similar tufted cells are found in the respiratory ... Also during worm infection, the amount of tuft cells dramatically rises. Hyperplasia of tuft cells and goblet cells is a ...
"NK cell activation by dendritic cells is dependent on LFA-1-mediated induction of calcium-calmodulin kinase II: inhibition by ... "Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current". Mol. Pharmacol. 59 (5): 960 ... "Characterization and expression of multiple alternatively spliced transcripts of the Goodpasture antigen gene region. ... In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied. The use of nanotrap ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ...
In addition to GPCRs, arrestins bind to other classes of cell surface receptors and a variety of other signaling proteins. ... Arrestin-1 was originally identified as the S-antigen (SAG) causing uveitis (autoimmune eye disease), then independently ... Increased accessibility of these sites in receptor-bound arrestin targets the arrestin-receptor complex to the coated pit. ... Arrestin binding to the receptor blocks further G protein-mediated signaling and targets receptors for internalization, and ...
... and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis". Tissue Antigens. 12 (5): 381-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978. ... In 1975, association with "HL-A1,8" (Current name: HLA A1-B8) was confirmed by serological typing of cells from myasthenics. ... "Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody titer and HLA-B8 and HLA-DRw3 antigens in myasthenia gravis". Trans Am ... An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ...
These cells include T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, epithelial cells and Paneth ... IL-25 has a heterodimeric receptor. The receptor is composed of two subunits IL-17RA and IL-17RB. The IL-17RA subunit is also ... promotes efficient protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection by enhancing the antigen-specific IL-9 response ... Th9 cells can arise not only from naive T cells but also from differentiated Th2 cells. Another function of IL-25 is the ...
A potential pathway for CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in oral LP is described as follows: Antigens presented on MHC 1 ... El Tawdy A, Rashed L (July 2012). "Downregulation of TLR-7 receptor in hepatic and non-hepatic patients with lichen planus". ... An immune-mediated mechanism where basal keratinocytes are being targeted as foreign antigens by activated T cells, especially ... Chemokines are produced by activated CD8+ T cells that attract additional inflammatory cells, thereby promoting continued ...
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World Trade Center Health Program news article regarding updated coverage for Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) Therapy ... Updated Coverage for Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) Therapy July 05, 2023 ... White blood cells are removed from the blood, then T-cells are separated and sent to the laboratory so that the cells can be ... for Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) Therapy, outlining coverage details and criteria. Below is a summary. Full details ...
Cell SurfaceReceptors, ImmunologicReceptors, AntigenReceptors, Antigen, T-CellReceptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta ... Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta. T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and ... Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major ... Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino Acids, Peptides, and ProteinsProteinsMembrane ...
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapies for Hematological Malignancies ...
... antigen-binding domains play an important role in shaping T-cell r … ... T cells has been advancing steadily in clinical trials. Since the ability of engineered T cells to recognize intended tumor- ... Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells (CAR T-Cells) for Cancer Immunotherapy - Moving Target for Industry? Salmikangas P, Kinsella ... Development of T cells carrying two complementary chimeric antigen receptors against glypican-3 and asialoglycoprotein receptor ...
Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola Virus ... Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola Virus ... Statistical comparison of all inhibitory and activating killer cell immunoglobulin receptors (KIRs) between controls, survivors ...
T-cell therapy is estimated to grow from $1.5 bln in 2021 to reach $7.6 bln by 2026, at a CAGR of 39.1% ... BCC Research Market Report says market for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) ... Current Research & Development Status of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy. Jan 2022, BIO162B, BCC Publishing ... The global market for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is estimated to grow from $1.5 billion in 2021 to reach $ ...
More specifically, the study of immune cell (B and T cells) receptor repertoires revealed important differences between MBL and ... CLL is always preceded by monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL), defined by a clonal B cell population of less than 5 × 10 9 /L ... Furthermore, the study of residual B cells revealed an impaired B cell production in the bone marrow, already at the stage of ... CLL, alluding to distinct selection forces, both in terms of the nature of the selective antigens as well as the persistence of ...
A therapeutic T cell receptor mimic antibody targets tumor-associated PRAME peptide/HLA-I antigens. ... A therapeutic T cell receptor mimic antibody targets tumor-associated PRAME peptide/HLA-I antigens. ... is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of ... Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias ...
Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ... Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ... Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ... Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ...
A Study of JNJ-68284528, a Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (CAR-T) Therapy Directed Against B-cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) ... A Study of JNJ-68284528, a Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (CAR-T) Therapy Directed Against B-cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) ... JNJ-68284528 is an autologous chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy that targets B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA). ... A Phase 2, Multicohort Open-Label Study of JNJ-68284528, a Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (CAR-T) Therapy Directed Against ...
B cells expressing high affinity B cell receptors (BCRs) internalise, process and present more antigen, obtain better T cell ... AVI video (Supplement: Movie 1: B1 8 B cells on antigen) Movie_1_B1_8_B_cells_on_antigen_loaded_PLB.avi Download (2MB) ... AVI video (Supplement: Movie 2: B16 B cells on antigen) Movie_2_Bl6_B_cells_on_antigen_loaded_PMS.avi Download (12MB) ... B16 B cells expressing LifeAct on DiD stained Antigen loaded PMS) Movie_6_Bl6_B_cells_expressing_LifeAct_on_DiD_stained_Antigen ...
Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ... Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ... Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ... Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ...
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are special receptors that are designed to bind to certain proteins on cancer cells. Genetic ... Human iPSC-Derived Natural Killer Cells Engineered with Chimeric Antigen Receptors Enhance Anti-tumor Activity.. Journal: Cell ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) significantly enhance the anti-tumor activity of immune effector cells. Although most studies ... NK cells derived from human iPSCs that express this CAR (NK-CAR-iPSC-NK cells) have a typical NK cell phenotype and demonstrate ...
CAR T-Cell therapy, a significant breakthrough in cancer treatment, for patients with blood cancers ... In the lab, scientists modify the T-cells by adding a special receptor called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) which enables the ... CAR T-Cell therapy is a type of immunotherapy that uses a patients own immune cells to fight cancer. Doctors collect T-cells ... Adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and ...
1959 Therapeutic Targeting of Mesothelin in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy Program: Oral ... Given that T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are extremely effective at eradicating ... GM6001 treatment did not significantly impact cell viability of Nomo-1 cells in the absence of CAR T cells (data not shown). ... We show that MSLN CAR T cells were highly effective in eliminating MSLN-positive AML cells in vitro and in vivo. Shedding ...
Mut06 CAR T cells remain sensitive to antigen in vivo. CAR T-cell phenotype after antigen challenge in vivo. Rag1−/− mice were ... Mut06 CAR T cells remain sensitive to antigen in vivo. CAR T-cell phenotype after antigen challenge in vivo. Rag1−/− mice were ... A, B-cell and CAR T-cell counts in the blood in weeks 1 to 6. B, B-cell and CAR T-cell percentage in BM after 8 weeks. C, CD28 ... A, B-cell and CAR T-cell counts in the blood in weeks 1 to 6. B, B-cell and CAR T-cell percentage in BM after 8 weeks. C, CD28 ...
Gene Rearrangement, alpha-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor * Subject Areas on Research. * A T cell-specific transcriptional ... T-cell receptor α enhancer is inactivated in αβ T lymphocytes. * Temporal and lineage-specific control of T cell receptor alpha ... Posttranslational regulation of TCR Valpha allelic exclusion during T cell differentiation. * Regulation of T cell receptor ... Regulation of T cell receptor-alpha gene recombination by transcription. * Regulation of TCR delta and alpha repertoires by ...
Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola Virus ... Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola Virus ... Title : Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola ... 2021). Human Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles and Ebola Virus ...
N2 - Certain B and T cell lines respond to activation signals, e.g. through the antigen receptor, by undergoing apoptotlc cell ... AB - Certain B and T cell lines respond to activation signals, e.g. through the antigen receptor, by undergoing apoptotlc cell ... Certain B and T cell lines respond to activation signals, e.g. through the antigen receptor, by undergoing apoptotlc cell death ... through the antigen receptor, by undergoing apoptotlc cell death. In T cells it has been recently shown that TCR-mediated ...
... upregulation of PD-L1 on T-cell escape cells, and the use of PD-L1 CAR-engineered NK cells to target and eliminate resistant ... These results describe the underlying mechanisms governing synergistic antitumor activity between T cell-based immunotherapy ... Chimeric antigen receptor engineered NK cellular immunotherapy overcomes the selection of T-cell escape variant cancer cells ... Chimeric antigen receptor engineered NK cellular immunotherapy overcomes the selection of T-cell escape variant cancer cells ...
Antigen immunogenicity and the specificity of binding of T-cell receptors to antigens are key properties underlying effective ... A transfer-learning approach to predict antigen immunogenicity and T-cell receptor specifi ... A transfer-learning approach to predict antigen immunogenicity and T-cell receptor specificity. ... and on the other hand the T-cell receptors ability to bind to a given antigen. We show that the patterns learnt by diffRBM ...
T cell antigen receptor recognition of antigen-presenting molecules.. Rossjohn, Jamie; Gras, Stephanie; Miles, John J; Turner, ... These Ag-bound molecules are subsequently recognized by T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) expressed on the surface of T ... The architecture of these molecules is ideally suited to capture and present an array of peptide antigens (Ags). In addition, ... Ags have been mostly confined to TCRs from innate-like natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells, ...
Expression of the Type 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Protein in T Cells Prevents Antigen Receptor-Mediated Induction of ...