An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Glycoproteins with the electrophoretic mobility of BETA-GLOBULINS, secreted by the placental TROPHOBLASTS into the maternal bloodstream during PREGNANCY. They can be detected 18 days after OVULATION and reach 200 mg/ml at the end of pregnancy. They are associated with fetal well-being.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Thymosin. A family of heat-stable, polypeptide hormones secreted by the thymus gland. Their biological activities include lymphocytopoiesis, restoration of immunological competence and enhancement of expression of T-cell characteristics and function. They have therapeutic potential in patients having primary or secondary immunodeficiency diseases, cancer or diseases related to aging.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.
The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.
Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.

Adenoviral gene transfer of the human V2 vasopressin receptor improves contractile force of rat cardiomyocytes. (1/2944)

BACKGROUND: In congestive heart failure, high systemic levels of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) result in vasoconstriction and reduced cardiac contractility. These effects are mediated by the V1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) coupled to phospholipase C beta-isoforms. The V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), which promotes activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system, is physiologically expressed in the kidney but not in the myocardium. Expression of a recombinant V2R (rV2R) in the myocardium could result in a positive inotropic effect via the endogenous high concentrations of AVP in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant adenovirus encoding the human V2R (Ad-V2R) was tested for its ability to modulate the cardiac Gs/adenylyl cyclase system and to potentiate contractile force in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Ad-V2R infection resulted in a virus concentration-dependent expression of the transgene and led to a marked increase in cAMP formation in rV2R-expressing cardiomyocytes after exposure to AVP. Single-cell shortening measurements showed a significant agonist-induced contraction amplitude enhancement, which was blocked by the V2R antagonist, SR 121463A. Pretreatment of Ad-V2R-infected cardiomyocytes with AVP led to desensitization of the rV2R after short-term agonist exposure but did not lead to further loss of receptor function or density after long-term agonist incubation, thus demonstrating resistance of the rV2R to downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral gene transfer of the V2R in cardiomyocytes can modulate the endogenous adenylyl cyclase-signal transduction cascade and can potentiate contraction amplitude in cardiomyocytes. Heterologous expression of cAMP-forming receptors in the myocardium could lead to novel strategies in congestive heart failure by bypassing the desensitized beta-adrenergic receptor signaling.  (+info)

Evidence for beta3-adrenoceptor subtypes in relaxation of the human urinary bladder detrusor: analysis by molecular biological and pharmacological methods. (2/2944)

The purpose of the present study was to confirm the presence of beta3-adrenoceptor subtype in the relaxation of human urinary bladder detrusor tissue by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR); direct sequencing of the PCR product, in situ hybridization; and isometric contraction. Using reverse transcription-PCR, the mRNAs of three receptor subtypes (beta1, beta2, and beta3) were expressed in the human urinary bladder detrusor tissue. Direct sequencing of the PCR product of the above beta3-adrenoceptor revealed no mutation in the amplified regions. In situ hybridization with digoxygenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe revealed the presence of the mRNA of beta3-adrenoceptor subtype in the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder. The relaxant effects of isoproterenol (a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor agonist); ZD7114, BRL37344, and CGP12177A (putative selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonists); and SR59230A (a putative selective beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist) were tested using an isometric contraction technique. Isoproterenol in either the presence or absence of both atenolol (a beta1-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist) and butoxamine (a beta2-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist) revealed a relaxant effect on the carbachol-induced contraction of the human urinary bladder detrusor. Both BRL37344 and CGP12177A also revealed relaxant effects on the human urinary bladder detrusor, but ZD7114 did not elicit any relaxation. These results suggest that beta3-adrenoceptor may have some role in urine storage in the human urinary bladder.  (+info)

beta3-adrenoceptor control the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through a cAMP/protein kinase A-independent pathway. (3/2944)

In human cardiac myocytes, we have previously identified a functional beta3-adrenoceptor in which stimulation reduces action potential duration. Surprisingly, in cardiac biopsies obtained from cystic fibrosis patients, beta3-adrenoceptor agonists produced no effects on action potential duration. This result suggests the involvement of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride current in the electrophysiological effects of beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation in non-cystic fibrosis tissues. We therefore investigated the control of CFTR activity by human beta3-adrenoceptors in a recombinant system: A549 human cells were intranuclearly injected with plasmids encoding CFTR and beta3-adrenoceptors. CFTR activity was functionally assayed using the 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium fluorescent probe and the patch-clamp technique. Injection of CFTR-cDNA alone led to the expression of a functional CFTR protein activated by cAMP or cGMP. Co-expression of CFTR (but not of mutated DeltaF508-CFTR) with high levels of beta3-adrenoceptor produced an increased halide permeability under base-line conditions that was not further sensitive to cAMP or beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation. Patch-clamp experiments confirmed that CFTR channels were permanently activated in cells co-expressing CFTR and a high level of beta3-adrenoceptor. Permanent CFTR activation was not associated with elevated intracellular cAMP or cGMP levels. When the expression level of beta3-adrenoceptor was lowered, CFTR was not activated under base-line conditions but became sensitive to beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation (isoproterenol plus nadolol, SR 58611, or CGP 12177). This later effect was not prevented by protein kinase A inhibitors. Our results provide molecular evidence that CFTR but not mutated DeltaF508-CFTR is regulated by beta3-adrenoceptors expression through a protein kinase A-independent pathway.  (+info)

The role of the sympathetic nervous system in the regulation of leptin synthesis in C57BL/6 mice. (4/2944)

The objectives of this study were to determine whether leptin synthesis is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and if so whether beta-adrenergic receptors mediate this effect. We show that sympathetic blockade by reserpine increases leptin mRNA levels in brown but not white adipose tissue, while acute cold-exposure decreases leptin expression 10-fold in brown adipose tissue and 2-fold in white adipose tissue. The cold-induced reduction in leptin mRNA can be prevented by a combination of propranolol and SR 59230A but not by either antagonist alone, indicating that beta3-adrenergic receptors and classical beta1/beta2-adrenergic receptors both mediate responses to sympathetic stimulation. Circulating leptin levels reflect synthesis in white adipose tissue but not in brown adipose tissue.  (+info)

Targeted construction of phosphorylation-independent beta-arrestin mutants with constitutive activity in cells. (5/2944)

Arrestin proteins play a key role in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently we proposed a molecular mechanism whereby arrestin preferentially binds to the activated and phosphorylated form of its cognate GPCR. To test the model, we introduced two different types of mutations into beta-arrestin that were expected to disrupt two crucial elements that make beta-arrestin binding to receptors phosphorylation-dependent. We found that two beta-arrestin mutants (Arg169 --> Glu and Asp383 --> Ter) (Ter, stop codon) are indeed "constitutively active." In vitro these mutants bind to the agonist-activated beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) regardless of its phosphorylation status. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes these beta-arrestin mutants effectively desensitize beta2AR in a phosphorylation-independent manner. Constitutively active beta-arrestin mutants also effectively desensitize delta opioid receptor (DOR) and restore the agonist-induced desensitization of a truncated DOR lacking the critical G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) phosphorylation sites. The kinetics of the desensitization induced by phosphorylation-independent mutants in the absence of receptor phosphorylation appears identical to that induced by wild type beta-arrestin + GRK3. Either of the mutations could have occurred naturally and made receptor kinases redundant, raising the question of why a more complex two-step mechanism (receptor phosphorylation followed by arrestin binding) is universally used.  (+info)

beta2-adrenergic receptor-selective agonist clenbuterol prevents Fas-induced liver apoptosis and death in mice. (6/2944)

Stimulation of the cAMP-signaling pathway modulates apoptosis in several cell types and inhibits Jo2-mediated apoptosis in cultured rat hepatocytes. No information is yet available as to whether the hepatic beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) expression level, including beta2-AR-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation, modulates hepatocyte sensitivity to apoptosis in vivo or whether this sensitivity can be modified by beta2-AR ligands. We have examined this using C57BL/6 mice, in which hepatic beta2-AR densities are low, and transgenic F28 mice, which overexpress beta2-ARs and have elevated basal liver adenylyl cyclase activity. The F28 mice were resistant to Jo2-induced liver apoptosis and death. The beta-AR antagonist propranolol sensitized the F28 livers to Jo2. In normal mice clenbuterol, a beta2-AR-specific agonist, considerably reduced Jo2-induced liver apoptosis and death; salbutamol, another beta2-AR-selective agonist, also reduced Jo2-induced apoptosis and retarded death but with less efficacy than clenbuterol; and propranolol blocked the protective effect of clenbuterol. This indicates that the expression level of functional beta2-ARs modulates Fas-regulated liver apoptosis and that this apoptosis can be inhibited in vivo by giving beta2-AR agonists. This may well form the basis for a new therapeutic approach to diseases involving abnormal apoptosis.  (+info)

Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea. (7/2944)

Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization.  (+info)

Norepinephrine stimulates lymphoid cell mobilization from the perfused rat spleen via beta-adrenergic receptors. (8/2944)

The possibility that norepinephrine (NE) influences lymphoid cell outflow independently of its vasoconstrictor action was investigated in the perfused rat spleen. Using agents that affect the vasoconstrictor tonus of the spleen, we observed an inverse correlation between flow resistance and splenic cell output. The curve obtained served as a reference for evaluating effects of different treatments on the number of cells that are mobilized at defined levels of flow resistance. Perfusion of the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol either alone or in combination with NE lowered splenic leukocyte outflow clearly beyond the number of cells expected at the corresponding flow resistance. No comparable effects were observed when the alpha-adrenergic blocker phentolamine was perfused. When the vasoconstrictor effect of NE was counteracted by papaverine, splenic cell outflow was significantly higher than expected for the level of flow resistance attained. Furthermore, when NE was perfused together with endotoxin, which does not inhibit the vasoconstriction induced by catecholamines, splenic cell mobilization was severalfold higher than expected at increased flow resistance. Propranolol abrogated this effect to a large extent. Furthermore, perfusion of the beta-agonist isoproterenol stimulated lymphoid cell outflow from the spleen despite increased flow resistance. These studies show a dual effect of NE on cell mobilization from the spleen: cell retention by decreasing blood flow and stimulation of cell output by a beta-adrenergically mediated, smooth muscle-independent mechanism.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Skin fibroblast beta-adrenergic receptor function in manie-depressive illness. AU - Berrettini, Wade H.. AU - Bardakjian, Josiane. AU - Cappellari, Charles B.. AU - Barnett, Arthur L.. AU - Albright, Allen. AU - Nurnberger, John I.. AU - Gershon, Elliot S.. PY - 1987/12. Y1 - 1987/12. N2 - Beta-adrenergic receptor function was assessed in cultured skin fibroblasts obtained from bipolar patients and normal volunteers by measurement of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response to isoproterenol. No group differences were observed. To assess regulation of receptor desensitization, fibroblasts were incubated for 24 hr with isoproterenol, and then the cAMP response to isoproterenol was determined. Subsensitivity to rechallenge with isoproterenol did not distinguish bipolar patients from controls.. AB - Beta-adrenergic receptor function was assessed in cultured skin fibroblasts obtained from bipolar patients and normal volunteers by measurement of the cyclic adenosine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impaired beta-adrenergic receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase in airway smooth muscle in the basenji-greyhound dog model of airway hyperresponsiveness.. AU - Emala, C.. AU - Black, C.. AU - Curry, C.. AU - Levine, M. A.. AU - Hirshman, C. A.. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - Previous studies in human asthmatics have suggested a defect in the beta-adrenergic pathway leading to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) generation. Although these studies have suggested normal or increased numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors, limitations in the quantity of tissue available have not allowed further delineation of the biochemical or molecular mechanisms of human asthma. The basenji-greyhound (BG) dog model of nonspecific airway hyperreactivity displays similarities to human asthma, and altered functional response to beta-adrenergic agonists has been previously shown in airway tissue from this model. We have now correlated this functional impairment in beta-adrenergic response with a ...
The present study was carried out to determine, first, the cardiac beta -adrenergic receptor characteristics of normal chickens and chickens with heart failure and, second, the characteristics of myocardial beta -adrenergic receptors in non-hypertrophied hearts in broilers exposed to two different altitude and temperature programmes. The density of beta -adrenergic receptors was significantly lower in myocardial cells in right ventricular failure birds compared with healthy birds. The binding capacity of beta -adrenergic receptors was reduced in the non-hypertrophied ventricles after exposure to high altitude in the younger but not in older chickens. At both altitudes, beta -adrenergic receptor binding capacity was not significantly different in low temperature compared with normal temperature birds. These data support the hypothesis of beta -adrenergic receptor downregulation as one of the mechanisms of cardiac cell adaptation to hypertrophy or hypoxia. Second, the acclimatization to high ...
METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the beta-adrenergic receptor-responsive adenylyl cyclase pathway in hearts from pigs subjected to volume-overload hypertrophy with circulatory congestion. Nine pigs underwent initial pharmacological and hemodynamic studies, and, 5 weeks after aortocaval fistula placement, when signs of circulatory congestion were evident, these measurements were repeated. Biochemical analyses of plasma and myocardium from these animals and seven normal animals were compared. Experimental animals showed signs of circulatory congestion (tachypnea, weight gain, pulmonary rales) within 3-4 weeks of fistula placement. Necropsy showed ascites and biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, but no fibrosis or inflammation was present on histological inspection. Heart rate responsiveness to beta AR stimulation was blunted, with ED50, for isoproterenol increased 133% (p less than 0.001) after development of circulatory congestion. Biochemical analyses of the beta AR-responsive adenylyl cyclase ...
Adrenergic beta-blocking agents were given to 7 patients with advanced congestive cardiomyopathy who had tachycardia at rest (98 plus or minus 13 beats/min). The patients were on beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for 2 to 12 months (average 5-4 months). One patient was given alprenolol 50 mg twice daily and the other patients were given practolol 50 to 400 mg twice daily. Virus infection had occurred in 6 of the patients before the onset of symptoms of cardiac disease. All patients were in a steady state or were progressively deteriorating at the start of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. Conventional treatment with digitalis and diuretics was unaltered or reduced during treatment with beta-blocking agents. An improvement was seen in their clinical condition shortly after administration of the drugs. Continued treatment resulted in an increase in physical working capacity and a reduction of heart size. Noninvasive investigations including phonocardiogram, carotid pulse curve, apex cardiogram, ...
DESENSITIZATION OF TURKEY ERYTHROCYTE ADENYLATE-CYCLASE - BETA-ADRENERGIC-RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION IS CORRELATED WITH ATTENUATION OF ADENYLATE-CYCLASE ACTIVITY
Metoprolol is classified as a type of beta blocker. This drug reduces how hard the heart needs to work to get blood pumped throughout the body. This helps to decrease blood pressure and the demand for oxygen. When you important site take this medication, some of the messages going to your heart from the nerves are stopped. This is because the beta-adrenergic receptors are blocked, not allowing these messages to be received by your heart. This reduces the force and workload of your heart by reducing your heart rate ...
Combining with epinephrine or norepinephrine to initiate a change in cell activity via activation of a G protein, with pharmacological characteristics of beta-adrenergic receptors; the activity involves transmitting the signal to the Gs alpha subunit of a…
The focus of work in this laboratory is on the elucidation of the molecular properties and regulatory mechanisms controlling the function of G protein-coupled receptors. As model systems we utilize the so called adrenergic receptors for adrenaline and related molecules. The goal is to learn the general principles of signal transduction from the outside to the inside of the cell which are involved in systems as diverse as sensory perception, neuro- transmitter and hormonal signaling. Studies are performed with isolated protein, whole cells in culture and even in vivo in whole animals.
Dr. Lefkowitzs memoir, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Stockholm, recounts his early career as a cardiologist and his transition to biochemistry, which led to his Nobel Prize win.
The interaction of the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system in patients with congestive heart failure is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can resensitize the beta-adrenergic receptor system. Guinea pigs were given captopril, isoproterenol, or both for 2 weeks. At death, cardiac sarcolemmal and light vesicle fractions and intact mononuclear leukocytes were prepared. Captopril treatment led to an up-regulation of cardiac beta 1- but not mononuclear leukocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptors and an increase in isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the heart. Animals treated with isoproterenol developed cardiac hypertrophy, had increased plasma norepinephrine levels, and had a decreased number and responsiveness of both cardiac and mononuclear leukocyte beta-adrenergic receptors. Concomitant treatment with captopril attenuated alterations of heart weight, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cardiac ...
We have recently described the affinity chromatography purification of the turkey erythrocyte beta-adrenergic receptor. The minute amounts obtained initially precluded extensive biochemical characterization. To improve the yield of the receptor, the erythrocyte membranes have been prepared by a new method. This procedure resulted in a 10-fold higher receptor density in comparison with the membrane preparation used previously. The new membranes also contained a catecholamine-sensitive guanine triphosphatase and an adenylate cyclase sensitive to Gpp(NH)p and l-epinephrine. Solubilization by a double digitonin extraction resulted in a preparation containing 4-6 pmoles of 3H-dihydroalprenolol binding sites per mg of membrane protein. A single step of affinity chromatography on alprenolol-sepharose of the soluble digitonin extract resulted in an additional 1,000-fold purification of the receptor. The overall purification factor was 20,000 relative to the binding activity of the crude membrane ...
Repeated administration of the centrally acting beta adrenoceptor agonist, clenbuterol, to rats reduced the ability of isoproterenol to increase the concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in slices of cerebellum. This reduced responsiveness to isoproterenol was accompanied by a marked reduction in the density of beta adrenoceptors as measured by the binding of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist [125I]iodopindolol. In addition, the agonist-binding properties of remaining cerebellar beta adrenoceptors were altered after clenbuterol treatment. The clenbuterol-induced reduction in the density of beta adrenoceptors in the cerebellum is in marked contrast to its inability to do this in cerebral cortex. Comparison of the ability of clenbuterol to that of isoproterenol to increase levels of cAMP in slices of cerebral cortex or cerebellum showed that clenbuterol is a weakly potent agonist in both brain regions. The increase in cAMP induced by isoproterenol in the cortex was significantly reduced in the ...
TY - THES. T1 - Disease modifiers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. T2 - Interaction between calcium, titin and beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. AU - Najafi, A.. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. KW - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Heart disease; Heart failure. M3 - PhD Thesis - Research VU, graduation VU. ER - ...
Additional patient-specific factors to consider in the development of an individualized treatment plan include the disease stage, disease-related complications, life expectancy, and the risk of adverse drug effects. Major concerns with BG management in older adults are hypoglycemia-which is the most important factor in determining glycemic goals-and hyperglycemia.1. Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia: Too often, tight BG control is inappropriately applied to a frail, vulnerable LTC population, resulting in profound hypoglycemia and ADL impairment, falls, arrhythmias, and death.10-13 Risk factors for developing hypoglycemia include neurologic disease (i.e., stroke, transient ischemic attack, dementia, cognitive impairment), heart failure, depression, sulfonylurea use, insulin, advanced age, impaired renal function, slowed hormonal regulation and counterregulation, decreased hepatic-enzyme activity, reduced beta-adrenergic receptor function, decreased or inconsistent nutritional intake, polypharmacy, ...
G-protein-linked receptor. Illustration of G-protein-mediated intracellular signalling. A chemical signal (ligand, orange, upper left) attaches to a receptor (red) in the cell membrane (blue). This causes the receptor to bind to a G-protein (yellow). A series of reactions is triggered and the G-protein activates a membrane enzyme called adelynate cyclase (red, centre right). Further reactions involving cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), various enzymes, and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), result in the target protein (bottom right, yellow) being phosphorylated, controlling its activity. For this artwork with labels, see C023/8845. - Stock Image C023/8846
Propranolol, the first beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent to receive approval from the Food and Drug Administration for marketing, will soon be available for general use in the United States. Because of the mass of information that has accumulated relating to the physiological, metabolic, and clinical effects of this type of pharmacologic agent (1), great interest has developed in the clinical application of beta-adrenergic receptor inhibition. However, the widespread enthusiasm attendant upon the imminent availability of drugs that can specifically block beta receptors should be tempered. Although these agents have been shown to have considerable therapeutic efficacy, there is ample evidence ...
Mechanism of Action In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that albuterol has a preferential effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. While it is recognized that beta2-adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors on bronchial smooth muscle, data indicate that there is a population of beta2-receptors in the human heart existing in a concentration between 10% and 50% of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors. The precise function of these receptors has not been established. (See WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Effects section.). Activation of beta2-adrenergic receptors on airway smooth muscle leads to the activation of adenylcyclase and to an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic-3,5-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). This increase of cyclic AMP leads to the activation of protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular ionic calcium concentrations, resulting in relaxation. Albuterol ...
BioAssay record AID 47971 submitted by ChEMBL: In vivo beta adrenergic receptor blocking potency was determined by inhibition of tachycardia produced by isoproterenol (0.2 mg/kg iv) in cat preparation.
Synonyms for beta-adrenergic blocking agent in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for beta-adrenergic blocking agent. 3 synonyms for beta-adrenergic blocking agent: beta blocker, beta-adrenergic blocker, beta-blocking agent. What are synonyms for beta-adrenergic blocking agent?
Human serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A] receptors have been transfected in NIH-3T3 cells, and their pharmacology and coupling to adenylyl cyclase have been analyzed. Three cellular preparations were used, 1) monoclonal cell lines (clones 6, 2B, and 4B), expressing 45, 280, and 500 fmol of 5-HT1A receptors/mg of protein, respectively; 2) clones 6, 2B, and 4B in which the concentration of 5-HT1A receptors was increased after stimulation of the glucocorticoid-inducible promoter with dexamethasone; and 3) polyclonal cell lines that expressed an increasing amount of 5-HT1A receptor as a function of cell passage. The transfected 5-HT1A receptors inhibited basal, forskolin-stimulated, and isoproterenol-stimulated adenylyl cyclase. The inhibition was dependent on the receptor density expressed, increasing from 60% at low density (45 fmol/mg) to 90% at a density higher than 280 fmol/mg. The pharmacology of the 5-HT1A receptor was studied, with particular attention being paid to the behavior of ...
In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that albuterol has a preferential effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. While it is recognized that beta2-adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, data indicate that there is a population of beta2-receptors in the human heart existing in a concentration between 10% and 50%. The precise function of these receptors has not been established (see WARNINGS).. The pharmacologic effects of beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, including albuterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation through beta-adrenergic receptors of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3,5-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased cyclic AMP levels are associated with relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells, especially from mast ...
Desipramine-yohimbine combination treatment of refractory depression. Implications for the beta-adrenergic receptor hypothesis of antidepressant action ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Role of beta-adrenergic receptors in counterregulation to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. by Ethan Abramson et al.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Mostly used as a bronchodilator that widens the air passages in your lungs, terbutaline has many other uses because of the fact that it attaches to the beta-adrenergic receptors on any muscle cells and makes them relax. First approved by the FDA in 1974, more.... Brand name(s): Brethine ...
Wet-lab validated real-time PCR primer assays for your biological pathway of interest. Select your gene target of interest using an interactive pathway map, and select your plate.
Wet-lab validated real-time PCR primer assays for your biological pathway of interest. Select your gene target of interest using an interactive pathway map, and select your plate.
My hourly rate is $75 an hour. I do have a sliding scale fee system. I take cash, check and credit cards.. Jane Lefkowitz, LICSW. ...
Beta blockers are used to treat certain types of heart-related problems. Learn about the benefits of using beta blockers from Discovery Health.
ISO 62:1999, ISO 75-2:1993, ISO 178:1993, ISO 179:1993, ISO 180:1993, ISO 293:1986, ISO 294-1:1996, ISO 306:1994, ISO 527-2:1993, ISO 527-4:1997, ISO 899-1:1993, ISO 1133:1997, ISO 1183:1987, ISO 1656:1996, ISO 2561:1974, ISO 2580-1, ISO 2818:1994, ISO 3167:1993, ISO 4581:1994, ISO 4589:1984, ISO 8256:1990, ISO 10350:1993, ISO 11357-2:1999, IEC 60093:1980, IEC 60112:1979, IEC 60243-1:1998, IEC 60250:1969, IEC 60296:1982, IEC 60695-11-10:1999, EN ISO 62:1999, EN ISO 75-2:1996, EN ISO 293:2003, EN ISO 294-1:1998, EN ISO 306:1996, EN ISO 527-2:1996, EN ISO 527-4:1997, EN ISO 1133:1999, EN ISO 2818:1996, EN ISO 8256:1996 ...
ISO 3166-2:BR - стандарт ISO, який визначає геокоди для Бразилії. Він є частиною стандарту ISO 3166-2. Перша частина коду - код ISO 3166 для Бразилії (BR), друга частина - двоцифровий код регіону. ...
Iso Sunibutol in Malayalam - ന്റെ ഉപയോഗങ്ങൾ, ഡോസേജ്, പാർശ്വഫലങ്ങൾ, പ്രയോജനങ്ങൾ, പ്രതിപ്രവർത്തനങ്ങൾ, മുന്നറിയിപ്പ് എന്നിവ കണ്ടെത്തുക - Iso Sunibutol upayogangal, dossge, parswafalangal, prayojanangal, prathipravarthanangal, munnariyippu
Purified sarcolemmal and light vesicle (intracellular) fractions of beta-adrenergic receptors were used to examine the effects of propranolol on receptor translocation in guinea pig heart. Guinea pigs were given propranolol (0.15 mg/kg/hr) via minipumps for 7 days and either killed or made ischemic for 1 hour via a coronary ligature. Propranolol treatment led to an externalization of beta-receptors from light vesicle to sarcolemmal fractions. This externalization increased the number of surface beta-adrenergic receptors that were functional, as assessed by isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. After chronic propranolol treatment, ischemia did not further alter receptor distribution. These results suggest that externalization of beta-adrenergic receptors from a light vesicle fraction to the sarcolemma contributes to up-regulation of beta-receptors that occur in response to both propranolol treatment and ischemia. Because propranolol-treated animals show blunting in externalization ...
Treatment of rats with chemical carcinogens, including 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), leads to a strong increase in the hepatic catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism for the development of this increase. We report that hepatocytes isolated from rats which had been fed 2-AAF (0.025% w/w) for 8-12 weeks had an increased number of β-adrenoceptors, as determined by [3H]dihydroalprenolol binding to whole cells and [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding to washed particles. For both ligands the number of binding sites was about 4-fold higher in hepatocytes from 2-AAF-treated rats than in those from controls. The adenylate cyclase activity of the carcinogen-fed animals showed both a general increase manifested in the basal level (2-fold) and in the activities obtained by stimulation with guanine nucleotides (2-3-fold), cholera toxin (1.5-fold), and glucagon (1.3-fold) and a selective, larger increase in the β-adrenoceptor-linked ...
Exercise training and beta-blocker treatment ameliorate age-dependent impairment of beta-adrenergic receptor signaling and enhance cardiac responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 293: H1596-H1603, 2007. First published June 8, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00308.2007.- Cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor (*-AR) signaling and left ventricular (LV) responses to beta-AR stimulation are impaired with aging. It is shown that exercise and beta-AR blockade have a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular *-AR signaling in several cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of these two different strategies on *-AR dysregulation and LV inotropic reserve in the aging heart. Forty male Wistar-Kyoto aged rats were randomized to sedentary, exercise (12 wk treadmill training), metoprolol (250 mg kg-1 day-1 for 4 wk), and exercise plus metoprolol treatment protocols. Ten male Wistar- Kyoto sedentary young rats were also used as a control group. Old ...
Minaprine is an amino-phenylpyridazine antidepressant reported to be relatively free of cardiotoxicity, drowsiness, and weight gain. Similar to other antidepressant treatments, minaprine attenuates the beta-adrenergic receptor function. Studies have also shown that minaprine improves memory consolidation and that repeated drug administration leads to potentiation of this effect. Moreover, the effects of minaprine on memory consolidation are related to its dopaminergic action ...
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase carboxyl-terminus (also βARKct) is a peptide composed of the last 194 amino acid residues of the carboxyl-terminus of beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (βARK1). It binds the βγ subunits of G proteins located in the plasma membrane of cells. It is currently an experimental gene therapy for the treatment of heart failure. During heart failure, the heart is not able to pump enough blood to the rest of the body and will begin to undergo processes in order to compensate for its decreased function. These processes will attempt to increase the hearts output; however, the heart may become overstressed and eventually dysfunctional as a result. The sympathetic nervous system increases norepinephrine release to stimulate β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) located on heart cell (cardiomyocyte) membranes to increase the hearts rate and force of contraction. If the heart is already stressed or damaged, this will cause the heart to work above its capacity. Continuous ...
Macrophages play an integral role in eliminating infection during the inflammatory response. Catecholamines are known to alter macrophage function by binding to adrenergic receptors on the macrophage membrane. Stimulation through β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) is known to decrease macrophage function while stimulation through the α-adrenergic receptor (α-AR) is thought to have a stimulatory effect on immune function. The RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line is used as a model of macrophage function, but little is known about the expression of adrenergic receptors on these cells. In these studies, macrophages were treated with the catecholamine norepinephrine, the non-selective α-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine, or the selective α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist RS79948 (RS), prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation, and then analyzed for the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Low concentrations of clonidine increased cytokine production while RS reversed these
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potentiated anaphylaxis in patients with drug-induced beta-adrenergic blockade. AU - Jacobs, Robert L.. AU - Rake, Geoffrey W.. AU - Fournier, Donald C.. AU - Chilton, Robert J. AU - Culver, William G.. AU - Beckmann, Charles H.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Anaphylaxis to known allergens occurred in two patients under treatment for hypertension with propranolol. The clinical course of both cases was similar. Bradycardia associated with an undetectable blood pressure, unusual severity, and sluggish response to treatment were major common factors in which blockade of the beta-adrenergic system may have had a role. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist that acts competitively by blocking the adenylate cyclase receptor on efferent cells, is well recognized to cause increased airways resistance in some asthmatic and normal subjects. It is postulated that propranolol potentiated anaphylaxis in these patients by inhibition of adenylate cyclase, resulting in lowered intracellular ...
To more fully characterize the alterations in myocardial adrenergic and cholinergic receptors induced by the diabetic state, we investigated the binding characteristics of (-) [3H] dihydroalprenolol to beta adrenergic receptors (bAR), [3H] prazosin to alpha adrenergic receptors (aAR), and [3H] quinuclidinyl-benzilate to muscarinic cholinergic receptors (MCR) in myocardial membranes derived from rats 8 wk after treatment with streptozotocin. We also studied an equal number of animals from three control groups: free-eating nondi-abetics, pair-weighted nondiabetics, and streptozoto-cin-treated animals treated daily with insulin.. Diabetic hearts demonstrated 27% fewer bAR (P , 0.01) and 31% fewer aAR (P , 0.01) than free-eating controls, without changes in MCR, and without changes in antagonist affinity, agonist affinity, or agonist slope factor (pseudo-Hill coefficient) for any class of receptors. Food restriction had no effect on receptor characteristics, and treatment of diabetic rats with ...
Brodde OE, Karad K, Zerkowski HR, Rohm N, Reidemeister JC (1983). „Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in human right atrium. Direct identification by (+/-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol binding. Circulation Research. 53 (6): 752-758. PMID 6139182 ...
RECONSTITUTION OF BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS INTO LIPID VESICLES - AFFINITY-CHROMATOGRAPHY PURIFIED RECEPTORS CONVEY CATECHOLAMINE RESPONSIVENESS TO A HETEROLOGOUS ADENYLATE-CYCLASE SYSTEM
Sobolev A., Rosenkranz A., Kazarov A. A study of mechanisms of post-irradiation changes in adenylate-cyclase activity // International journal of radiation biology and related studies in physics, chemistry, and medicine. - 1983. - Vol. 44, no. 1. - P. 31-39. Hormone-stimulated adenylate-cyclase activity (via beta-adrenergic receptors) is reduced after in vitro irradiation of plasma membranes of frog erythrocytes, at a dose (650 Gy) which does not change the number of beta-adrenergic receptors but causes an oxidative degradation of membrane lipids. Peroxidation of membrane lipids without irradiation also results in a lesser stimulation of adenylate cyclase by the beta-agonist. A possible mechanism of change in adenylate-cyclase functioning is discussed. [ DOI ...
riverbabble, a short story and poetry literary journal and e-zine (published June and January), features the work of writer.
The Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania is committed to the tripartite mission of providing the highest level of care to patients, conducting innovative research, and educating the future leaders in the field.
Snow BE, Hall RA, Krumins AM, Brothers GM, Bouchard D, Brothers CA, Chung S, Mangion J, Gilman AG, Lefkowitz RJ, Siderovski DP (August 1998). GTPase activating specificity of RGS12 and binding specificity of an alternatively spliced PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain. J Biol Chem. 273 (28): 17749-55. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.28.17749. PMID 9651375 ...
p66 beta 兔多克隆抗体(ab76925)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
引用Abcams Anti-GSK3 beta抗体[Y174] (ab32391)的参考文献列表。为您列举引用本产品的发表文章,并提供信息包括论文文献数据库中的检索编号以便您搜寻文章
EN482, EN45544-2:1999, EN45544-3:1999, EN50270, EN60073, EN60068-2-6, ISO 3534-1, ISO 6141, ISO 6142, ISO 6143, ISO 6144, ISO 6145-1, ISO 6145-3, ISO 6145-4, ISO 6145-6, ISO 6147, ISO 6879:1995, ISO 7504 ...
Implications for beta2-adrenergic receptor regulation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (16): 10677-80. doi:10.1074/ ... "The AMPA receptor GluR2 C terminus can mediate a reversible, ATP-dependent interaction with NSF and alpha- and beta-SNAPs". ... Another neuronal role for NSF is indicated by its direct binding to the GluR2 subunit of AMPA type glutamate receptors (which ... McDonald PH, Cote NL, Lin FT, Premont RT, Pitcher JA, Lefkowitz RJ (Apr 1999). "Identification of NSF as a beta-arrestin1- ...
Different studies have indicated that adrenocortical carcinoma have beta-adrenergic receptor-binding sites that are not usually ... Bylund DB, Snyder SH (July 1976). "Beta adrenergic receptor binding in membrane preparations from mammalian brain". Molecular ... Williams LT, Gore TB, Lefkowitz RJ (February 1977). "Ectopic beta-adrenergic receptor binding sites. possible molecular basis ... which is used to label beta-adrenergic receptors for isolation. It has a XLogP3 value of 3.4. Its hydrogen bond donor count is ...
... he called beta adrenotropic receptor (now β-adrenoceptor or β-adrenergic receptor). ″This concept of two fundamental types of ... he called alpha adrenotropic receptor (now α-adrenoceptor or α-adrenergic receptor), while the receptor with the second rank ... J. W. Black; A. F. Crowther; R. G. Shanks; A. C. Dornhorst (1964). "A new adrenergic beta-receptor antagonist". The Lancet. 283 ... that both are beta type receptors. … It is suggested that this terminology be extended to the realm of adrenergic blocking ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Stache, U; Fritsch, W; Fehlhaber, HW (1987). "Synthesis of the highly ... cardioselective beta-sympatholytic pacrinolol". Arzneimittel-Forschung. 37 (11): 1217-21. PMID 2894210. v t e v t e. ...
Jefferson, James W. (1974). "Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocking Drugs in Psychiatry". Archives of General Psychiatry. 31 (5): ... Beta-receptor blockers such as propranolol and oxprenolol, although not anxiolytics, can be used to combat the somatic symptoms ... The alpha1 antagonist prazosin could be effective for PTSD The Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and guanfacine ... Noyes, Russell (1982). "Beta-blocking drugs and anxiety". Psychosomatics. 23 (2): 155-70. doi:10.1016/s0033-3182(82)73433-4. ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Lombardi, F; Terranova, P (2006). "Pharmacological treatment of atrial ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Curtis-Prior, PB; Gadd, AL (1990). "Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and human ...
... is a beta-adrenergic receptor inhibitor (beta blocker). It is indicated for intraocular pressure reduction in ... Levobetaxolol inhibits the beta-1-adrenergic receptor. When applied topically, it reduces intra-ocular pressure (IOP) by 16-23 ... Levobetaxolol has fewer cardiovascular side effects than other beta blockers. Levobetaxolol should not be used by people who ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Lennernäs, H; Regårdh, CG (1993). "Dose-dependent intestinal absorption and ... significant intestinal excretion (exsorption) of the beta-blocker pafenolol in the rat". Pharmaceutical Research. 10 (5): 727- ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Mahé, N; Do, B; Nicolaï, B; Rietveld, IB; Barrio, M; Tamarit, JL; Céolin, ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. The methyl group on a sulfoxide is sufficiently acidic to substitute for ... "Studies on the mechanism of the acute antihypertensive and vasodilator actions of several beta-adrenoceptor antagonists". J. ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Allen, JD; Shanks, RG (1974). "Effects of tiprenolol, practolol and ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Mostaghim, R; Maddox, YT; Ramwell, PW (1986). "Endothelial potentiation ... of relaxation response to beta adrenoceptor blocking agents". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 239 (3 ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Mannucci, C; Caviglioli, G; Perico, A; Triolo, A (1992). "High-performance ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Stephenson, KA; Wilson, AA; Meyer, JH; Houle, S; Vasdev, N (2008). "Facile ... radiosynthesis of fluorine-18 labeled beta-blockers. Synthesis, radiolabeling, and ex vivo biodistribution of 18F-(2S and 2R)-1 ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Gries, J; Unger, L; Einig, H; Friedrich, L; Hofmann, HP; Kreiskott, H; ... "Pharmacological characterization of the new highly potent beta-adrenergic receptor blocker soquinolol". Arzneimittel-Forschung ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. J. Augstein, D. A. Cox and A. L. Ham., DE 2238504 (1973). Chem. Abstr. jte ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Ban, T; Sada, S; Takahashi, Y; Sada, H; Fujita, T (1985). "Effects of para- ... substituted beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents and methyl-substituted phenoxypropanolamine derivatives on maximum upstroke ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Hugues, FC; Julien, D; Bors, V; Mougeot, G; Marche, J (1980). "Determination ... in man of the beta blocking properties and the pharmacological half of pargolol (Author's transl)". Thérapie. 35 (4): 475-81. ...
"Epac mediates beta-adrenergic receptor-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy". Circulation Research. 102 (8): 959-65. doi:10.1161/ ... Cheng X, Ji Z, Tsalkova T, Mei F (July 2008). "Epac and PKA: a tale of two intracellular cAMP receptors". Acta Biochimica et ... Since the landmark discovery of the prototypic second messenger cAMP in 1957, three families of eukaryotic cAMP receptors have ...
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase pathway "PDB101: Molecule of the Month: G Proteins". RCSB: PDB-101. Retrieved 24 August 2020. ... Sodeman W, Sodeman T (2005). "Physiologic- and Adenylate Cyclase-Coupled Beta-Adrenergic Receptors". Sodeman's Pathologic ... Neve KA, Seamans JK, Trantham-Davidson H (August 2004). "Dopamine receptor signaling". Journal of Receptor and Signal ... The inactive or inhibitory form exists when the complex consists of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, with GDP bound to the ...
Desglymidodrine does not stimulate cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors. Desglymidodrine diffuses poorly across the blood-brain ... which is an α1-receptor agonist and exerts its actions via activation of the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the arteriolar and ...
... is a beta-adrenergic selective antagonist tagged with radioisotopic iodine. It has been used to map beta receptors ... a new beta adrenergic receptor probe". Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research. 7 (1): 13-26. PMID 6265511. v t e. ...
Métrich M, Lucas A, Gastineau M, Samuel JL, Heymes C, Morel E, Lezoualc'h F (Apr 2008). "Epac mediates beta-adrenergic receptor ... In heart, chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor is known to progress to arrhythmia through an Epac2-dependent mechanism ... and is involved in the development of hypertrophic events by chronic cAMP stimulation through β-adrenergic receptors. In ... ryanodine receptor, and IP3 receptor. In neurons, Epac is involved in neurotransmitter release in glutamatergic synapses from ...
"RGS2 inhibits beta-adrenergic receptor-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy". Cell. Signal. 22 (8): 1231-9. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig. ... Increased stimulation of Gs coupled β1-adrenergic receptors and Gq coupled α1-adrenergic receptors in the heart can result in ... Vidal M, Wieland T, Lohse MJ, Lorenz K (November 2012). "β-Adrenergic receptor stimulation causes cardiac hypertrophy via a Gβγ ... The M3 muscarinic receptor normally activates delayed rectifier potassium channels in the atria, thus increased Gαq activity is ...
"Human fat cell beta-adrenergic receptors: beta-agonist-dependent lipolytic responses and characterization of beta-adrenergic ... ICI-118,551 is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist or beta blocker. ICI binds to the β2 subtype with ... Hillman KL, Doze VA, Porter JE (August 2005). "Functional characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes expressed ... "Molecular characterization of the human beta 3-adrenergic receptor". Science. 245 (4922): 1118-21. Bibcode:1989Sci...245.1118E ...
beta-Adrenergic and PGE1 receptors in parental and hybrid cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 252 (4): 1293-302. doi: ... Haga, T; Haga, K; Gilman, AG (1977). "Hydrodynamic properties of the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase from wild ... Ross, EM; Maguire, ME; Sturgill, TW; Biltonen, RL; Gilman, AG (1977). "Relationship between the beta-adrenergic receptor and ... Sprang, S. R. (2007). "The crystal structure of β2-adrenergic receptor, a classic GPCR was at last revealed". Nature. 450 (7168 ...
... is a short-acting beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Acylation of glycidol (2) with the acid chloride 1 produces ... 1. Novel .beta.-blockers with ultrashort duration of action". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 27 (8): 1007. doi:10.1021/ ...
Schindler, C; Dobrev, D; Grossmann, M; Francke, K; Pittrow, D; Kirch, W (January 2004). "Mechanisms of beta-adrenergic receptor ... Some sympathetic stimulation of arterioles in skeletal muscle is mediated by epinephrine acting on β-adrenergic receptors of ... The vasodilating action of activation of beta-2 receptors (such as by adrenaline) appears to be endothelium-independent. ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers ACE inhibitors Calcium channel blockers Drugs that appear to work by activating the α2A ...
It is also an agonist to beta-adrenergic receptors. A cascade of events will then be initiated to increase protein synthesis, ... In October 2006, Taiwan banned ractopamine along with other beta-adrenergic agonists. In a 2012 climb-down, its legislature ... it is a phenol-based TAAR1 agonist and β adrenoreceptor agonist that stimulates β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors. It is most ... "Beta-agonists hog the limelight". The Star. November 5, 2006. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved January 25 ...
Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-3 adrenergic ... The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor ... "Insulin stimulates sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptors and enhanced association of beta-adrenergic receptors with Grb2 ... Frielle T, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ (May 1989). "Properties of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes revealed by ...
Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic ... The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3-adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... "Molecular characterization of the mouse beta 3-adrenergic receptor: relationship with the atypical receptor of adipocytes". ... "Entrez Gene: ADRB3 adrenergic, beta-3-, receptor". Ferrer-Lorente R, Cabot C, Fernández-López JA, Alemany M (September 2005). " ...
Goat polyclonal beta 1 Adrenergic Receptor antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human and Rat. Referenced in 4 ... Anti-beta 1 Adrenergic Receptor antibody. See all beta 1 Adrenergic Receptor primary antibodies. ... Homologous desensitization of the receptor is mediated by its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. ... Anti-beta 1 Adrenergic Receptor antibody (ab77189) at 2 µg/ml + Human heart lysate (in RIPA buffer) at 35 µg. Predicted band ...
We now document that subtype 2 of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) is also involved in this process. By using ... A beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-like enzyme is involved in olfactory signal termination.. S Schleicher, I Boekhoff, J Arriza ... A beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-like enzyme is involved in olfactory signal termination. ... A beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-like enzyme is involved in olfactory signal termination. ...
The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine. ... Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. ...
... as well as the conditions favoring enhancement of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by ... To identify the protein kinases regulating synaptic NMDA receptors, ... Beta-adrenergic regulation of synaptic NMDA receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase Neuron. 1996 Feb;16(2):415-21. doi: ... Thus, stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors during excitatory synaptic transmission can increase charge transfer and Ca2+ ...
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor. Details. Name. Beta-1 adrenergic receptor. Kind. protein. Organism. Human. Polypeptides. Name. ... Beta-1 adrenergic receptor. P08588. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological ...
Rabbit polyclonal beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Rat. Cited in 1 publication(s). Immunogen ... Anti-beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor antibody. See all beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor primary antibodies. ... Anti-beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor antibody (ab101095) + Rat kidney tissue lysate. Predicted band size: 44 kDa. ... Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. ...
The beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are members of the large family of G protein-coupled receptors. There are three betaAR ... The beta-adrenergic receptors and the control of adipose tissue metabolism and thermogenesis.. Collins S1, Surwit RS. ...
The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine. ... Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. ... "Antithetic regulation by beta-adrenergic receptors of Gq receptor signaling via phospholipase C underlies the airway beta- ... "beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95. Inhibition of receptor internalization and facilitation of beta 1- ...
Thus, we have examined the role of beta-arrestin2 in the betaAR-mediated ERK signaling pathways. Isoprotereno … ... Beta-arrestin mediates desensitization and internalization of beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs), but also acts as a scaffold ... Beta-arrestin mediates desensitization and internalization of beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs), but also acts as a scaffold ... Beta-arrestin2 enhances beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated nuclear translocation of ERK Cell Signal. 2005 Oct;17(10):1248-53. ...
This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)- ... Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. ... alpha-2A adrenergic receptor binding Source: MGI. *beta1-adrenergic receptor activity Source: MGI ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay ... Homologous desensitization of the receptor is mediated by its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. ...
Effects of gender, age and hypertension on beta-adrenergic receptor function in rat urinary bladder.. Frazier EP1, Schneider T ... We speculate that beta-adrenoceptor agonists may be effective in the treatment of bladder dysfunction under all of these ... beta-Adrenoceptors mediate urinary bladder relaxation, and gender, age and hypertension have been linked to bladder dysfunction ... Therefore, we have studied whether any of these factors affects the ability of beta-adrenoceptor agonists to relax rat bladder ...
3D structure of β-2 adrenergic receptor Adrenergic receptor References *↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Brents LK, Prather PL. ... The CB1 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor located primarily in the nervous system [8]. The primary function of the CB1 ... In contrast, CB1 receptors have a lesser influence on gross motor control due to the lower concentration of receptors in the ... The function of CB1 receptors thus depends on the location of the receptor as well as the type of ligand binding to the ...
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important ... Adrenergic, beta" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Receptors, Adrenergic, beta" was a major or ... "Receptors, Adrenergic, beta" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Receptors, Adrenergic, beta*Receptors, Adrenergic, beta. *Receptors, beta-Adrenergic. *Receptors, beta Adrenergic ...
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (Receptors, Adrenergic, Beta). The adrenergic beta-1 ... receptors are equally sensitive to Epinephrine and Norepinephrine and bind the agonist Dobutamine and the antagonist Metoprolol ...
All patients were in a steady state or were progressively deteriorating at the start of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. ... The patients were on beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for 2 to 12 months (average 5-4 months). One patient was given ... Adrenergic beta-blocking agents were given to 7 patients with advanced congestive cardiomyopathy who had tachycardia at rest ( ... The present study indicates that adrenergic beta-blocking agents can improve heart function in at lease some patients with ...
... cardiac beta adrenergic receptor , beta 1 adrenergic receptor , adrenergic receptor, beta 1 , beta 1-adrenergic receptor beta 1 ... beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 , adrenergic, beta-1-, receptor , adrenoceptor beta 1 , adrenoceptor beta 3 , beta adrenergic ... beta 1 adrenergic protein , Beta-1 adrenergic receptor , G-protein-coupled hormone receptor , beta 1-adrenergic receptor ... beta-1-adrenergic receptor , beta-1 adrenergic receptor , tripartite motif-containing 75 , adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1 ...
... and combined alpha and beta receptor blockade. Activation of both types of adrenergic receptors occurs with exercise, and ... Exercise-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction during combined blockade of nitric oxide synthase and beta adrenergic receptors.. D ... synthase in combination with alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockade on pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. In paired ... alpha receptor blockade (phentolamine 5 mg i.v.), beta receptor blockade (propranolol 1 mg i.v.), ...
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to ... Receptors, Adrenergic, beta [D12.776.543.750.070.300.300.340]. *Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 [D12.776.543.750.070.300.300.340. ... Receptors, Adrenergic, beta [D12.776.543.750.100.150.300.340]. *Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 [D12.776.543.750.100.150.300.340. ... Receptors, Adrenergic, beta [D12.776.543.750.720.300.300.300.340]. *Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 [D12.776.543.750.720.300. ...
Captopril treatment led to an up-regulation of cardiac beta 1- but not mononuclear leukocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptors and an ... Regulation of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors by captopril. Implications for congestive heart failure.. A S Maisel, C ... Regulation of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors by captopril. Implications for congestive heart failure. ... Regulation of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors by captopril. Implications for congestive heart failure. ...
... a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. The beta-mediated regulation of alpha 2-receptor sensitivity at brain norepinephrine ... beta-Adrenergic regulation of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system ... beta-Adrenergic regulation of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system ... beta-Adrenergic regulation of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system ...
To clarify changes in beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) density in spontaneously occurring acute asthma, BAR binding studies were ... To clarify changes in beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) density in spontaneously occurring acute asthma, BAR binding studies were ... beta; 13523-86-9/Pindolol; 83498-72-0/Iodocyanopindolol From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ...
... with pharmacological characteristics of beta-adrenergic receptors; the activity involves transmitting the signal to the Gs ... Differential effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in basolateral amygdala or insular cortex … ... Effect of cleistanthin A and B on adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. * Regulation of contractility and metabolic signaling ... by the β2-adrenergic receptor in rat ventricular… * Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia decreases beta-adrenoceptor activity ...
... beta]2.(Report) by Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan; Chemistry Adrenergic receptors Research Epinephrine Receptors ... 2 receptors; [beta] receptors are divided into [beta]1, [beta]2, [beta]3 receptors. [alpha]1 receptors [16] are mainly ... Summary: The interactions of [beta]-phenylethylamine ([beta]-PEA) and tyramine with adrenergic receptor [beta]2 (ADR[beta]2) ... beta]-PEA and protonated Hie 65 of ADR[beta]2.. Keywords: Tyramine; [beta]-phenylethylamine; Adrenergic receptor [beta]2; ...
Compare beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... adrenergic receptor beta-2 , adrenergic, beta-2-, receptor, surface , beta-2 adrenergic receptor , beta-2b-adrenergic receptor ... Adrenergic beta 2- receptor surface , adrenergic receptor, beta 2 , Beta-2 adrenergic receptor , Beta-2 adrenoceptor , Beta-2 ...
Beta 2 adrenergic receptor · Beta 2 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · Beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating agent · ... beta 2 adrenergic receptor · beta 2 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating agent · ... beta 1 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · beta 2 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating ... beta 2 adrenergic receptor · beta 2 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating agent · ...
... beta..sub.3 adrenergic receptor agonists of structural Formula (I), ##STR1##the stereoisomers and prodrugs thereof, and the ... beta..sub.3 adrenergic receptor-mediated diseases, conditions, or disorders in a mammal which methods comprise administering to ... beta..sub.3 Receptor Selectivity Over .beta..sub.1 and .beta..sub.2 Adrenergic Receptors. In vitro .beta..sub.3 receptor ... beta..sub.1, .beta..sub.2, or .beta..sub.3 adrenergic receptor. Thenon-selective, full .beta.-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol ...
Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockade Propranolol and Related Drugs STEPHEN E. EPSTEIN, M.D.; EUGENE BRAUNWALD, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... Propranolol, the first beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent to receive approval from the Food and Drug Administration for ... Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockade Propranolol and Related Drugs. Ann Intern Med. 1967;67:1333-1337. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-67-6 ... Tachyphylaxis with Amrinone Therapy: Association with Sequestration and Down-Regulation of Lymphocyte Beta-Adrenergic Receptors ...
For live-cell receptor internalization studies a,Screening,for,potential,beta,2-adrenergic,receptor,antagonists,using,CypHer5E, ... used to obtain dose-response and rank-order potency data for both agonist and antagonist treatment of β2-adrenergic receptor ... Introduction CypHer ™ 5 a pH sensitive dye has shown utility in β2-adrenergic receptor agonist screening (1). CypHer5 has been ... Screening for potential beta 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists using CypHer5E and IN Cell Analyzer 1000 ...
  • Conversely, elevation of PKA activity by forskolin, cAMP analogs, or the beta-adrenergic receptor agonists norepinephrine and isoproterenol overcame the ability of calcineurin to depress the amplitude of NMDA EPSCs. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we have studied whether any of these factors affects the ability of beta-adrenoceptor agonists to relax rat bladder detrusor muscle in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Comparisons were done using KCl-precontracted bladder strips (length about 15-20 mm) and the endogenous agonist noradrenaline, the synthetic non-subtype-selective agonist isoprenaline, and the prototypical beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonists BRL 37,344 and CGP 12,177. (nih.gov)
  • We speculate that beta-adrenoceptor agonists may be effective in the treatment of bladder dysfunction under all of these conditions. (nih.gov)
  • None of these receptor subtype agonists showed significant suppressive effect on TNFα release. (tudelft.nl)
  • Cells were treated with various novel beta-adrenergic receptor agonists at specific dosages and time points. (arvojournals.org)
  • The elevation of TH activity elicited in SCG by beta adrenergic receptor agonists is always preceded by an increase of cAMP concentration lasting 90 minutes or longer. (aspetjournals.org)
  • beta-Adrenergic receptor (beta AR) subtypes differ in their affinities for some agonists and antagonists and thus may potentially impart different cellular effects based on this ligand-binding specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • beta-Adrenergic agonists also competed for the binding sites. (duke.edu)
  • Stereoisomers of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists were 9- to 300-fold more potent than their corresponding (+) stereoisomers. (duke.edu)
  • Our preliminary data showed that several mAb clones speci cally bound to the receptor while increasing the receptor function by acting as agonists. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Dobutamine is a β 1 adrenergic receptor agonists that specifically acts on cardiac muscle increasing both rate and force of contraction. (egpat.com)
  • Pharmacologically, beta-1 antagonists are important in the chronic management of high blood pressure and heart failure, while beta-1 agonists treat shock and decompensated heart failure in the acute setting. (pixorize.com)
  • In such cases, beta-2 stimulation with its consequent increase in humour production is highly contra-indicated, and conversely, a topical beta-2 antagonist such as timolol may be employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ro40-2148 Solabegron (GW-427,353) Vibegron (MK-4618) L-748,328 L-748,337 SR 59230A was thought to be a selective β3 antagonist but later found to also be an antagonist of the α1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects are rapid and reversible, show a parallel time course, and are blocked by sotalol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. (sciencemag.org)
  • CypHer5 has been used to obtain dose-response and rank-order potency data for both agonist and antagonist treatment of β2-adrenergic receptor expressing cells (2). (bio-medicine.org)
  • This application note describes the validation of antagonist-format CypHer5E receptor internalization assays for high-throughput screening. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A β2adrenergic receptor antagonist screen was performed using the LOPAC ™ compound library, which consists of 640 well-characterized, pharmaceutically diverse compounds with known drug or drug-like activity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The data demonstrate that the β2-adrenergic receptor CypHer5E antagonist assay used in conjunction with IN Cell Analyzer 1000 was able to identify all specific β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists and additional structurally related compounds present in the LOPAC compound library. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. (curehunter.com)
  • ISOP-induced 6-keto-PGF 1α synthesis was attenuated by C 2 -ceramide, an inhibitor of phospholipase D (PLD) by propranolol, a beta -AR antagonist that also inhibits phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and by the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor 1,6-bis-(cyclohexyloximinocarbonylamino)-hexane (RHC 80267). (aspetjournals.org)
  • To identify directly and to quantitate these beta-adenergic receptors in human lymphocytes, (-) [3H] alprenolol, a potent beta-adrenergic antagonist, was used to label binding sites in homogenates of human mononuclear leukocytes. (duke.edu)
  • The beta-adrenergic antagonist, (-) propranolol, potently competed for the binding sites, causing half-maximal inhibition of binding at 9 nM. (duke.edu)
  • beta-Adrenergic receptor subtypes were localized and differentiated in rat kidney slices by in vitro autoradiography using the nonselective beta-antagonist [125I]iodocyanopindolol in the presence of the selective agents betaxolol (beta 1) and zinterol (beta 2). (ahajournals.org)
  • The beta-adrenergic antagonist ligand (+/-)-[125I] iodocyanopindolol binds to 2 X 10(5) receptors per purified adult rat cardiomyocyte, with a dissociation constant of 70 pM. (ahajournals.org)
  • Importance of Alpha - adrenergic Receptor Subtypes in Regulating of Airways Tonus at Patients with Bronchial Asthma In this work, effect of Tamsulosin hydrochloride as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B- adrenergic receptor and effect of Salbutamol as agonist of beta2- adrenergic receptor in patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactibility was studied.Parameters of the lung function are determined by Body plethysmography. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Interestingly, β2- adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) antagonist ICI 118551 attenuated ischemia-induced BBB damage by regulating HIF-1α expression. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Synonyms : (+-)-Practolol, 1-(4-Acetamidophenoxy)-3-isopropylamino-2-propanol, 4′-(2-Hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino)propoxy)acetanilide, N-(4-(2-Hydroxy-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)propoxy)phenyl)acetamide, Practololum, Tocris-0831 Status : approved Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Anti-Arrhythmia Agents A beta-adrenergic antagonist that has been used in the emergency treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. (pharmakb.com)
  • Synonyms : 1-(4-(2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)ethyl)phenoxy)-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)-2-propanol, 1-(Isopropylamino)-3-[P-(cyclopropylmethoxyethyl)phenoxy]-2-propanol, Betaxololum Status : approved Antihypertensive Agents BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity. (pharmakb.com)
  • The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that binds epinephrine (adrenaline), a hormone and neurotransmitter whose signaling, via adenylate cyclase stimulation through trimeric Gs proteins, increased cAMP, and downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase A then goes on to phosphorylate (and thus inactivate) myosin light-chain kinase, which causes smooth muscle relaxation, accounting for the vasodilatory effects of beta 2 stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, Beta-1 adrenergic receptors are coupled only to Gs, and stimulation of these results in a more diffuse cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the normal eye, beta-2 stimulation by salbutamol increases intraocular pressure via net: Increase in production of aqueous humour by the ciliary process, Subsequent increased pressure-dependent uveoscleral outflow of humour, despite reduced drainage of humour via the Canal of Schlemm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin, an inhibitor of beta ARK, as well as anti-beta ARK-2 antibodies, (i) completely prevents the rapid decline of second-messenger signals (desensitization) that follows odorant stimulation and (ii) strongly inhibits odorant-induced phosphorylation of olfactory ciliary proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors during excitatory synaptic transmission can increase charge transfer and Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Pertussis toxin treatment and blockade of Gbetagamma action inhibited beta-arrestin2-enhanced nuclear activation of ERK, suggesting that beta-arrestin2 promotes nuclear ERK localization in a Gbetagamma dependent mechanism upon receptor stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanism of adrenergic CaV1.2 stimulation revealed by proximity proteomics. (harvard.edu)
  • Upon agonist stimulation, a fluorescent signal is observed as the CypHer5E-antibody conjugate is internalized alongside the receptor into acidic endosomal vesicles. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bbeta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 levels in catecholamine-induced myocardial hypertrophy: regulation by beta- but not alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. (duke.edu)
  • Heart rate responsiveness to beta AR stimulation was blunted, with ED50, for isoproterenol increased 133% (p less than 0.001) after development of circulatory congestion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nous avons ensuite pu mettre en évidence par qPCR que la stimulation par l'ISO entrainait une augmentation du niveau d'ARNr 18S ainsi qu'une diminution de l'expression d'ARNm de NFκB. (umontreal.ca)
  • Acute and chronic intrarenal alpha- and beta- adrenergic receptor stimulation of renin release in the conscious dog. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the heart, cAMP, or agents that increase cAMP accumulation also do not alter basal production of PGI 2 but inhibit that elicited by stimulation of beta -AR with ISOP ( Williams and Malik, 1989 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation with dobutamine on isovolumic relaxation in the normal and failing human left ventricle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • alpha(1)-Adrenergic receptor activation caused phosphorylation of PLC-beta(1) but not PLC-beta(3), whereas stimulation by ATP induced phosphorylation of PLC-beta(3) but not PLC-beta(1. (garvan.org.au)
  • Although stimulation of beta 2AR also activates adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A, activation of KGA via beta 2AR is not mediated by this second messenger pathway, because direct elevation of intracellular cAMP levels had no effect on KGA currents. (rupress.org)
  • steps 1) Upon stimulation of the Beta adrenergic receptor by epinephrine , Gs will be activated. (wikidoc.org)
  • Betaxolol selectively blocks catecholamine stimulation of beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle. (pharmakb.com)
  • Pulmonary Clearance of Inhaled Particles 24 to 48 Hours Post Deposition: Effect of Beta-Adrenergic Stimulation. (epa.gov)
  • Regulation of Postnatal beta-Adrenergic Receptor/Adenylate Cyclase Development by Prenatal Agonist Stimulation and Steroids: Alterations in Rat Kidney and Lung after Exposure to Terbutaline or Dexamethasone. (epa.gov)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 48 Adrenergic, beta-1-, Receptor (ADRB1) Antikörper von 16 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • ADRB1 is an beta-adrenergic receptor. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1). (mybiosource.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1) and analogues was observed. (mybiosource.com)
  • 3 samples with low, middle and high level Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (mybiosource.com)
  • 3 samples with low, middle and high level Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (mybiosource.com)
  • MBS2019231 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Double-antibody Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1). (mybiosource.com)
  • Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1). (mybiosource.com)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (mybiosource.com)
  • Beta adrenergic receptors are involved in the epinephrine- and norepinephrine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of the G proteins of the type Gs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. (abcam.com)
  • The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine. (rcsb.org)
  • The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. (harvard.edu)
  • Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are members of the 7-transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily that bind the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Adrenoceptors (also called adrenergic receptors) are the receptors for the catecholamines adreline and noradreline (called epinephrine and norepinephrine in the United States). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This partial cardiovascular tolerance to amrinone was accompanied by a 126% increase in the plasma epinephrine, a 182% increase in norepinephrine, a 31% decrease in the number of β-adrenergic receptors on lymphocytes, and a 36% decrease in isoproterenol-stimulated cyclicadenosine monophosphate on lymphocytes. (annals.org)
  • The ability of isoproterenol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and salbutamol to desensitize the beta receptor-coupled cyclic 3',5'-AMP response of human diploid fibroblasts in tissue culture correlates well with their activity as beta stimulants. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A subcutaneous injection of an oil suspension of l-epinephrine (270 mumol/kg), dopamine (270 mumol/kg) or l-norepinephrine (270 mumol/kg), when administered with phenoxybenzamine (32 mumol/kg i.p.) to blocl alpha adrenergic effects, increases the cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content in superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, we examined physical and functional coupling of beta 1- and beta 2ARs to Gs using the agonist epinephrine, which also has equal binding affinity for both receptor subtypes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As with isoproterenol, epinephrine was more potent in stimulating adenylyl cyclase and promoted a higher affinity ternary complex for the beta 2AR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As such, we sought to determine if the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) subtypes and their associated signalling machinery are functionally localized to nuclear membranes. (umontreal.ca)
  • Nine receptor subtypes have been identified thus far including three alpha-1 AR subtypes (1A/D, 1B, and 1C), three alpha-2 ARs (2A, 2B, and 2C), and three beta AR subtypes (1, 2, and 3). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In particular, although beta ARs stimulate adenylyl cyclase by coupling to the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs, no studies have directly assessed the coupling efficiencies among isolated beta AR subtypes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We, therefore, permanently transfected the mammalian fibroblast cell line CHW-1102 with beta 1- or beta 2AR cDNAs and studied the coupling characteristics of these two receptor subtypes, each expressed at approximately 335 fmol/mg of protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results indicate that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes are differentially distributed within the kidney: beta 1, predominantly contained in juxtaglomerular granule cells and glomeruli, and beta 2, predominantly in medullary tubules. (ahajournals.org)
  • Direct analysis of beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes on intact adult ventricular myocytes of the rat. (ahajournals.org)
  • Papers V and VI detail the modeling strategy followed during the GPCR Dock 2013 assessment to blindly predict the structure of two serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT 1B and 5-HT 2B ) bound to ergotamine. (diva-portal.org)
  • title=Properties of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes revealed by molecular cloning. (enacademic.com)
  • Structural similarities of beta 1 and beta 2 receptor subtypes demonstrated by photoaffinity labeling. (enacademic.com)
  • Captopril treatment led to an up-regulation of cardiac beta 1- but not mononuclear leukocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptors and an increase in isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Animals treated with isoproterenol developed cardiac hypertrophy, had increased plasma norepinephrine levels, and had a decreased number and responsiveness of both cardiac and mononuclear leukocyte beta-adrenergic receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast to its cardiac effects, captopril treatment did not diminish the down-regulation of mononuclear leukocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptors by isoproterenol. (ahajournals.org)
  • Incubation of rat cerebral cortical slices with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol causes an increase in alpha 2-adrenergic receptor binding in addition to a decrease in beta-adrenergic receptor binding. (sciencemag.org)
  • Co-application of the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (10 mu M) largely increased S845 (but not S831) phosphorylation. (rug.nl)
  • At the end of the chronic isoproterenol infusion period, beta-adrenergic receptor refractoriness was demonstrated, as PRA did not increase significantly in response to a fourfold increase in the dose of isoproterenol. (ahajournals.org)
  • Caspase-3 and TNF-α levels were significantly reduced at 50nM in cultured cells, a dose lower than that of a non-specific beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recovery of beta adrenergic sensitivity is a slow process and is delayed by extremely low concentrations of isoproterenol (picomolar). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if activation of beta adrenergic receptors in cultured coronary endothelial cells (CEC) of rabbit heart with isoproterenol (ISOP) stimulates PGI 2 synthesis and if cAMP inhibits the synthesis of this prostanoid and to investigate the underlying mechanism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, at the submaximal isoproterenol concentration of 30 nM, the beta 2AR stimulated adenylyl cyclase approximately 50% more than did the beta 1AR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This finding was not due to a difference in the affinities of isoproterenol for these receptors, which were found to be the same, as determined by competition binding studies with 125I-cyanopindolol in the presence of GTP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Stereoselective inhibition of photolabeling by the (-)enantiomers of alprenolol and isoproterenol indicated that the Mr 40 000 protein contains a beta-adrenergic binding site. (mpg.de)
  • This appears to be mediated by cAMP induced PKA phosphorylation of the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous desensitization of the receptor is mediated by its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. (abcam.com)
  • To identify the protein kinases regulating synaptic NMDA receptors, as well as the conditions favoring enhancement of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by phosphorylation, we studied the effects of kinase activation and inhibition in hippocampal neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Since both noradrenaline and corticosterone are known to quickly affect properties of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR), we here examined - in hippocampal neurons - three parameters which give insight in the functionality of AMPARs: phosphorylation, surface expression and spontaneous synaptic transmission. (rug.nl)
  • We conclude that AMPAR phosphorylation, surface expression and mEPSC inter-event interval respond most strongly to a combination of corticosterone and beta-adrenergic receptors. (rug.nl)
  • Phosphorylation of GTP-binding-regulatory (G)-protein-coupled receptors by specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) is a major mechanism responsible for agonist-mediated desensitization of signal transduction processes. (duke.edu)
  • Agonist-promoted desensitization of adenylate cyclase is intimately associated with phosphorylation of the beta-adrenergic receptor in mammalian, avian, and amphibian cells. (duke.edu)
  • PKA-cat phosphorylation of Beta-2 adrenergic receptor leads to its activation switch from G-protein alpha-i family to G-protein alpha-s . (bio-rad.com)
  • PKA-cat phosphorylation of Ryanodine receptor 2 leads to elevated Ca('2+) flux to cytoplasm. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • In this assay system, a CypHer5E-conjugated anti-VSV-G epitope antibody is incubated with a clonal stable HEK 293 cell line expressing N-terminally epitope tagged β2-adrenergic receptor. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This peptide was used for the production of goat polyclonal anti-beta 1 Adrenergic Receptor antibody (GTX89376). (genetex.com)
  • Western blot (WB) analysis of AR-beta 2 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Boster Bio Anti-beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor/ADRB3 Antibody Picoband™ catalog # A02104-3. (bosterbio.com)
  • Our Boster Quality Guarantee for Anti-beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor/ADRB3 Antibody Picoband™ covers its use in the following applications. (bosterbio.com)
  • Mouse anti Human beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor antibody, clone R11E1 recognizes human beta 2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse Adrenergic Receptor Beta 3 (ADRb3) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (thescientistconnect.com)
  • The 3D crystallographic structure (see figure and links to the right) of the β2-adrenergic receptor has been determined by making a fusion protein with lysozyme to increase the hydrophilic surface area of the protein for crystal contacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor-channel complex is coupled to the Gs G protein, which activates adenylyl cyclase, catalysing the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) which then activates protein kinase A, and counterbalancing phosphatase PP2A. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. (abcam.com)
  • Inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) prevented recovery of NMDA receptors from calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation induced by synaptic activity, suggesting that tonically active PKA phosphorylates receptors during quiescent periods. (nih.gov)
  • The beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are members of the large family of G protein-coupled receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-arrestin mediates desensitization and internalization of beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs), but also acts as a scaffold protein in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. (nih.gov)
  • K2 and other newly popularized drugs laced with synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic those found in marijuana, bind similarly to G protein-coupled receptors found throughout the body and nervous system. (proteopedia.org)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Adrenergic, beta-1-, Receptor Kits (31) und Adrenergic, beta-1-, Receptor Proteine (3) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Additionally we are shipping beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Antibodies (280) and beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Proteins (4) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Such translocation is a key element of receptor trafficking and activation, particularly in G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (4). (bio-medicine.org)
  • CypHer5E, consequently, can be used to screen for novel antagonists of known receptors and for potential ligands of non-G-protein coupled receptors (5) and orphan receptors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • An approach to the study of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases: an in vitro-purified membrane assay reveals differential receptor specificity and regulation by G beta gamma subunits. (duke.edu)
  • Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase: identification of a novel protein kinase that phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the receptor. (duke.edu)
  • cDNA for the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor: a protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains and encoded by a gene whose chromosomal location is shared with that of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor. (duke.edu)
  • Recently several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to localize to intracellular membranes, in particular the nuclear membrane. (umontreal.ca)
  • Here, we show that beta(2)-AR was transiently down-regulated both at mRNA- and protein levels when hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cells, LNCaP, were cultured in steroid stripped medium (charcoal-stripped fetal calf serum) or when the cells were treated with the anti-androgen, bicalutamide (Casodex). (lu.se)
  • The Adrenoceptors are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily of membrane proteins. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • 1. Rekawiecki R, Nowocin A, Kotwica J. Relationship between concentrations of progesterone, oxytocin, noradrenaline, gene expression and protein level for their receptors in corpus luteum during estrous cycle in the cow. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 8p12 that encodes beta-1-adrenergic receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, which mediates catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The focus of work in this laboratory is on the elucidation of the molecular properties and regulatory mechanisms controlling the function of G protein-coupled receptors. (duke.edu)
  • For example, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor activate GNAS complex locus ( G-protein alpha-s )/ Adenylate cyclases, which leads to Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate ( cAMP ) production. (bio-rad.com)
  • G-protein alpha-i family activation releases complex of G-protein beta/gamma , which activates c-src tyrosine kinase ( c-Src ) [ 12 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • c-Src phosphorylates SHC transforming protein 1 ( Shc ) and Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 ( GRB2 ), activating Son of sevenless homolog ( SOS )/ H-Ras / c-Raf-1 and subsequent MEK and Erk activation [ 12 ], [ 13 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), one of the most commonly used and successful targets for drugs, are a large family of multi-transmembrane proteins and an important class of receptors. (technologynetworks.com)
  • E.coli-derived human beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor/ADRB3 recombinant protein (Position: R179-S250). (bosterbio.com)
  • A G protein-gated K channel is activated via beta 2-adrenergic receptors and G beta gamma subunits in Xenopus oocytes. (rupress.org)
  • The G protein-gated K channel from rat atrium, KGA/GIRK1, was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with various receptors and G proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Experiments with other coexpressed G protein alpha and beta gamma subunits showed that (a) a constitutively active G alpha s mutant did not suppress basal KGA currents and was only partially as effective as wild type G alpha s in coupling beta 2AR to KGA, and (b) beta gamma subunits increased basal KGA currents. (rupress.org)
  • Achieving a molecular-level understanding of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation has been a long-standing goal in biology and could be important for the development of novel drugs. (diva-portal.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest superfamily of eukaryotic membrane proteins and are responsible for the action of nearly 30% of all marketed drugs. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ligand binding of the B2A receptor leads to the activation of adenylyl cyclase through interaction with the GTP-binding protein Gs. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein - G s , which activate an adenylyl cyclase , cAMP-dependent kinase , and the counterbalancing phosphatase , PP2A . (enacademic.com)
  • The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor. (enacademic.com)
  • Beta-1 adrenergic receptors are G-protein coupled receptors associated with a Gs protein subunit. (pixorize.com)
  • [1] It is a G-protein coupled receptor associated with the Gs heterotrimeric G-protein and is expressed predominantly in cardiac tissue. (worldheritage.org)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 46 Adrenergic, beta-2-, Receptor, Surface (ADRB2) ELISA Kits from 13 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • To investigate the association of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of β2-adrenergic receptor gene ( ADRB2 ) with the occurrence of asthma and overweight and the gene's influence on anthropometric, clinic, biochemical and physical fitness variables in children and adolescents. (scielo.br)
  • Investigar a associação dos polimorfismos Arg16Gly e Gln27Glu do gene receptor β2-adrenérgico ( ADRB2 ) com a ocorrência de asma e sobrepeso, bem como a influência do gene sobre variáveis antropométricas, clínicas, bioquímicas e de aptidão física em crianças e adolescentes. (scielo.br)
  • The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β 2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2 , is an beta-adrenergic receptor , and also denotes the human gene encoding it. (enacademic.com)
  • Genetic polymorphisms of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor in nocturnal and nonnocturnal asthma. (jci.org)
  • Polymorphisms in the beta-1 adrenergic receptor gene have been linked to clinical response of systemic beta-blockers for blood pressure control. (arvojournals.org)
  • We conclude that the beta(2)AR polymorphisms Ile164, Gly16, and the combination of Gly16 and Gln27 are associated with depressed exercise performance in HF and represent a genetically determined factor in the pathophysiology of HF. (eurekamag.com)
  • Beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms Gln27Glu, Arg16Gly and Thr164Ile were suggested to have an effect in heart failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study sample, we were not able to demonstrate an overall influence of polymorphisms Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly of beta-2 receptor gene on prognosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings substantiate the hypotheses that polymorphisms Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu and Thr164Ile of beta-2 receptor gene might be functional and might be associated with differences in the survival rate of patients with heart failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We performed this study to evaluate the polymorphisms Gln27Glu, Arg16Gly, and Thr164Ile of the beta-2 receptor gene relative to demographic and clinical variables, as well as, survival rate in a series of patients with heart failure of different etiologies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because dysfunctional [small beta, Greek]ARs play a role in the pathogenesis of the failing ventricle, we tested the hypothesis that [small beta, Greek] 2 AR polymorphisms alter the outcome of congestive heart failure. (ovid.com)
  • In contrast, polymorphisms at amino acid positions 16 (Arg or Gly) or 27 (Gln or Glu), which also alter receptor phenotype, did not appear to have an influence on the course of heart failure. (ovid.com)
  • Moore JD, Mason DA, Green SA, Hsu J, Liggett SB: Racial differences in the frequencies of cardiac beta(1)-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: analysis of c145A>G and c1165G>C. Hum Mutat. (drugbank.com)
  • Nucleic acid sequences are provided that are useful as amplification primers, hybridization probes, and as a portion of molecular beacon probes for amplifying and detecting polymorphisms of the β2 adrenergic receptor gene, compositions and kits incorporating the same, and methods employing the same. (google.com)
  • The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3-adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trp64Arg (W64R)] of the lipolysis regulator beta-3-adrenergic receptor ( ADRB3 ) was identified as a marker in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia. (jrheum.org)
  • The beta-3-adrenergic receptor ( ADRB3 ), located on human chromosome 8p12-p11.2, is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis 3 . (jrheum.org)
  • Should the Human Adrenergic Receptor Beta 3 (ADRb3) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (thescientistconnect.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Adrenergic Receptor Beta 3 (ADRb3) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates or other biological fluids. (thescientistconnect.com)
  • cAMP stimulates transcription of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene in response to short-term agonist exposure. (duke.edu)
  • The association of Arg16 allele with the occurrence of asthma and of the Glu27 allele with overweight asthmatic adolescents evidenced the contribution of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene to the development of obesity and asthma. (scielo.br)
  • Further studies are necessary to confirm these results, to explore a possible correlation regarding codon 49 of the receptor gene, and to explore possible correlations in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. (arvojournals.org)
  • Functional regions of beta ARK are described with respect to their location within the exon-intron organization of the gene. (wikidoc.org)
  • Effect of chronic beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in congestive cardiomyopathy. (bmj.com)
  • The patients were on beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for 2 to 12 months (average 5-4 months). (bmj.com)
  • All patients were in a steady state or were progressively deteriorating at the start of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. (bmj.com)
  • Exercise-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction during combined blockade of nitric oxide synthase and beta adrenergic receptors. (jci.org)
  • We studied the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) (endothelium-derived relaxation factor) synthase in combination with alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockade on pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. (jci.org)
  • In paired studies, we exercised sheep on a treadmill at a speed of 4 mph, and measured blood flow and pressures across the pulmonary circulation with and without inhibition of NO synthase (N omega-nitro-L-arginine 20 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.]), alpha receptor blockade (phentolamine 5 mg i.v.), beta receptor blockade (propranolol 1 mg i.v.), and combined alpha and beta receptor blockade. (jci.org)
  • The second rise in PRA was increased by 30% with alpha-adrenergic blockade. (ahajournals.org)
  • Direct effects of chronic beta-adrenergic receptor blockade on left ventricular and myocyte function in a model of tachycardia-induced congestive heart failure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • however, whether the mechanisms for the effects of beta-blockade in CHF are due to modulating chronotropy, inotropy, or both remains unknown. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To address this issue, left ventricular function and isolated myocyte function were examined with chronic beta-blockade in a rapid pacing model of CHF, thereby eliminating potential chronotropic effects of beta-blockade. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This dosage schedule for beta-blockade was chosen because catecholamines are persistently elevated by day 14 in this model of CHF. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 05). Thus, institution of beta-1-selective blockade during the development of SVT-induced CHF altered the temporal characteristics of the myocyte contraction process, which resulted in improved myocyte shortening. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In a model of CHF due to the maintenance of a chronically elevated heart rate, institution of beta-1-selective blockade during the progression of the CHF process minimally affected left ventricular size and function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • At the level of the myocyte, chronic beta-1-receptor blockade prolonged the contraction interval and thereby increased myocyte shortening. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These unique results suggest that a contributory mechanism for the effects of beta-blockade in the setting of CHF is chronotropic modulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study was carried out to examine the effects of acute and chronic stress on hematological parameters in combination with β-adrenergic receptor blockade in rats. (tjh.com.tr)
  • The results indicate that hematological parameters differed under acute and chronic stress conditions in combination with adrenergic receptor blockade. (tjh.com.tr)
  • β-adrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol enhances the total number of erythrocytes under acute stress influences and the total number of thrombocytes under chronic stress influences. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Acute and chronic stress in combinaton with β-adrenergic blockade has no significant effect on erythrocyte indexes. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Observational Study in Patients Suffering From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated With Alpha - adrenergic Blockade Observational Study in Patients Suffering From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated With Alpha - adrenergic Blockade - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Their mechanism of action in tocolysis involves the blockade of L-type Ca 2+ channels, influenced by the Ca 2+ -activated K + channels, beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and sexual hormones. (mdpi.com)
  • S1928A KI mice failed to induce long-term potentiation in response to prolonged theta-tetanus (PTT- LTP (show SCP2 ELISA Kits )), a form of synaptic plasticity that requires Cav1.2 (show CACNA1C ELISA Kits ) and enhancement of its activity by the beta2-adrenergic receptor ( beta2AR )-cAMP-PKA cascade. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Beta-3 is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis. (abcam.com)
  • Regulation of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors by captopril. (ahajournals.org)
  • The beta-mediated regulation of alpha 2-receptor sensitivity at brain norepinephrine synapses may be a mechanism for the homeostatic control of central noradrenergic activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The number of sequestered receptors doubled during the treatment, and the extent of sequestration correlated well with the extent of receptor down-regulation. (annals.org)
  • This tolerance was accompanied by increased plasma catecholamines, and a down-regulation, desensitization, and sequestration of β-adrenergic receptors on lymphocytes. (annals.org)
  • In patients harboring alleles Gly16 and Glu27, previoulsy associated with increased down regulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors, a statistically significant difference relative to prognosis has not been demonstrated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of the importance of leptin (a novel peptide hormone released by fat cells which regulates appetite and metabolism), and b3AR (a novel metabolic beta receptor important in lipolysis and thermogenesis] in metabolic regulation, we hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and other cytokines induced during the inflammatory response result in the transcriptional regulation of leptin and the b3AR. (elsevier.com)
  • Nebivolol selective beta(1)-blocker and beta(3)-agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Downregulation was selective for beta 1-receptors, and remaining receptors in the right and left ventricles showed low-affinity agonist binding, suggesting an uncoupling from Gs. (ahajournals.org)
  • These data suggest that beta adrenergic receptors activation promotes PGI 2 synthesis in the CEC by selective activation of PLD and that cAMP decreases PGI 2 synthesis by decreasing PLD activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors display subtype-selective coupling to Gs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We conclude that coupling to Gs by beta 1- and beta 2ARs is subtype selective and is a potentially important distinguishing feature among these members of the beta AR family. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The subtype-selective antagonists betaxolol (beta 1), practolol (beta 1), and zinterol (beta 2) compete for [125I]iodocyanopindolol-binding sites on intact myocytes in monophasic manners with dissociation constants of 46, 845, and 923 nM, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • The reduced NE response was associated with a selective loss of PLC-beta(1) expression in Ad-PLC-delta(1) NCM. (garvan.org.au)
  • The serum gamma-globulin fraction from patients with allergic bronchial asthma (8/8), in contrast to the fraction from nonatopic control subjects (10/10), was found to inhibit the positive chronotropic action of the beta 2-selective adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol, on pyruvate- or lactate-treated cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes. (mysciencework.com)
  • denotes selective agonist s to the receptor. (enacademic.com)
  • Combivent Respimat (ipratropium bromide and albuterol) Inhalation Spray is a combination of an anticholinergic bronchodilator and a selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator that open airways in the lungs to help patients with COPD breathe better indicated for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (rxlist.com)
  • Albuterol sulfate, chemically known as (1,3-benzenedimethanol, α'-[[(1,1dimethylethyl) amino] methyl]-4-hydroxy, sulfate (2:1)(salt), (±)- is a relatively selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator. (rxlist.com)
  • Effects of selective beta! (weight-loss-tips-and-secrets.com)
  • Propranolol, the first beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent to receive approval from the Food and Drug Administration for marketing, will soon be available for general use in the United States. (annals.org)
  • Three of these, corresponding to molecular weights of 170,000, 33,000, and 30,000, respectively, were not affected by reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol and were not observed when the digitonin extracts were loaded on the affinity gel in the presence of an excess of l-propranolol. (scripps.edu)
  • A fourth 52,000-dalton component (60,000 daltons after reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol) remained apparent even when affinity purification was prevented by addition of l-propranolol. (scripps.edu)
  • Synonyms : 1-p-Carbamoylmethylphenoxy-3-isopropylamino-2-propanol, 2-(p-(2-Hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino)propoxy)phenyl)acetamide, 4-(2-Hydroxy-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)propoxy)benzeneacetamide, Atenololum Status : approved Antihypertensive Agents BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists A cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to propranolol, but without a negative inotropic effect. (pharmakb.com)
  • A beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-like enzyme is involved in olfactory signal termination. (pnas.org)
  • We now document that subtype 2 of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) is also involved in this process. (pnas.org)
  • Beta-agonist- and prostaglandin E1-induced translocation of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase: evidence that the kinase may act on multiple adenylate cyclase-coupled receptors. (duke.edu)
  • beta-Adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-AR kinase) is a cytosolic enzyme that phosphorylates the beta-adrenergic receptor only when it is occupied by an agonist [Benovic, J. Strasser, R. H., Caron, M. G. & Lefkowitz, R. J. (duke.edu)
  • Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (also referred to as βARK or BARK ) is a serine/threonine intracellular kinase . (wikidoc.org)
  • step 7) βARK, itself a serine/threonine kinase, will then phosphorylate serine and threonine residues on the β-adrenergic receptor itself. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the rhodopsin system, which regulates rod cell function in the retina , rhodopsin kinase will phosphorylate serine and threonine residues on the rhodopsin receptor. (wikidoc.org)
  • Concomitant treatment with captopril attenuated alterations of heart weight, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cardiac beta-receptor density and function. (ahajournals.org)
  • The effects of norepinephrine are mediated through activation of β 2 adrenergic receptors. (neurology.org)
  • Chromosomal organization of adrenergic receptor genes. (duke.edu)
  • We conclude that factors associated with bladder dysfunction, such as gender, age and hypertension, can be associated with impaired beta-adrenoceptor-mediated bladder relaxation. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we propose that beta-adrenoceptor dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of such conditions, but is unlikely to be the only or even the major factor in this regard. (nih.gov)
  • beta-Arrestin-mediated PDE4 cAMP phosphodiesterase recruitment regulates beta-adrenoceptor switching from Gs to Gi. (duke.edu)
  • Also known as Beta-1 adrenergic receptor (Beta-1 adrenoreceptor) (Beta-1 adrenoceptor). (mybiosource.com)
  • title=Genetic variation of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor: its functional and clinical importance in bronchial asthma. (enacademic.com)
  • Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. (abcam.com)
  • beta-Adrenoceptors mediate urinary bladder relaxation, and gender, age and hypertension have been linked to bladder dysfunction. (nih.gov)
  • B2A receptors have a higher affinity for adrenaline and mediate the relaxation of smooth muscle including bronchus, intestine & uterus. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Actions of the β3 receptor include Enhancement of lipolysis in adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • β3 receptors are found in the gallbladder, urinary bladder, and in brown adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beta-adrenergic receptors and the control of adipose tissue metabolism and thermogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Thus the Gly16 polymorphism of the beta 2AR, which imparts an enhanced downregulation of receptor number, is overrepresented in nocturnal asthma and appears to be an important genetic factor in the expression of this asthmatic phenotype. (jci.org)
  • Myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor expression and signal transduction after chronic volume-overload hypertrophy and circulatory congestion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, changes in beta-adrenergic receptor (beta AR) expression should reflect more directly the influence of neurohumoral adrenergic tone, clarifying the manner in which peripheral (neurohumoral) versus primary myocardial factors are operative in decreased beta AR-dependent signal transduction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, a primary defect in intrinsic contractile function is not a necessary component for abnormalities of the myocardial beta AR-responsive adenylyl cyclase pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study was carried out to determine, first, the cardiac beta -adrenergic receptor characteristics of normal chickens and chickens with heart failure and, second, the characteristics of myocardial beta -adrenergic receptors in non-hypertrophied hearts in broilers exposed to two different altitude and temperature programmes. (kuleuven.be)
  • The density of beta -adrenergic receptors was significantly lower in myocardial cells in right ventricular failure birds compared with healthy birds. (kuleuven.be)
  • Synonyms : (+-)-1-((alpha-(2-Isopropoxyethoxy)-P-tolyl)oxy)-3-(isopropylamino)-2-propanol, (RS)-1-(4-(2-isopropoxyethoxymethyl)phenoxy)-3-(isopropylamino)-2-propanol, Bisoprolol, Bisoprololum Status : approved Antihypertensive Agents BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Bisoprolol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. (pharmakb.com)
  • Synonyms : (RS)-Metoprolol, 1-(isopropylamino)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]propan-2-ol, Metoprolol Status : approved Antihypertensive Agents BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Metoprolol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for acute myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. (pharmakb.com)
  • title=The effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin on the adrenergic control of lipolysis in the human adipocyte. (enacademic.com)
  • This way, Beta-3 adrenergic receptor stimulates lipolysis [15] . (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Distribution and function of human ventricular beta adrenergic receptors in congestive heart failure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study examined the characteristics and distribution of sarcolemmal and light vesicular beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR) in left ventricular myocardium from 15 adults (aged 17 to 58 years) without left ventricular dysfunction or coronary artery disease and 29 patients (aged 14 to 53 years) with end-stage congestive heart failure (CHF). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Catecholamines, cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors, and heart failure. (duke.edu)
  • Activation of beta adrenergic receptors in the isolated rabbit heart by catecholamines stimulates prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) synthesis, which is inhibited by adenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). (aspetjournals.org)
  • They also provide an experimental approach to the study of states of altered sensitivity to catecholamines at the receptor level in man. (duke.edu)
  • an-d beta2-adrenoreceptor agonist ansd antagonists on intraocular pressure fects on ocular tension by action at beta-adrenergic receptors, a cholinergic mechanism may be involved as well. (weight-loss-tips-and-secrets.com)
  • Beta-2 adrenergic receptors have also been found to couple with Gi, possibly providing a mechanism by which response to ligand is highly localized within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • En utilisant des noyaux isolés, nous avons observé que l'agoniste non-sélectif isoprotérénol (ISO), et que le BRL37344, un ligand sélectif du β3AR, stimulaient l'initiation de la synthèse de l'ARN, contrairement à l'agoniste sélectif du β1AR, le xamotérol. (umontreal.ca)
  • Androgen deprivation is the only effective systemic therapy available for patients with prostatic carcinoma, but is associated with a gradual transition to a hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRCAP) in which ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor has been implicated. (lu.se)
  • Numerous receptors spread across the GPCR superfamily have recently been crystallized, revealing crucial clues about receptor function and ligand recognition. (diva-portal.org)
  • Two types for antibodies have been raised against the beta-adrenergic receptor: either by injection of highly purified receptor from turkey erythrocytes or by injection of anticatecholamine ligand antibodies, and induction of anti-idiotypic antibodies. (scripps.edu)
  • The enantiomers of some of these drugs possess other effects, codynamics of beta-blockers. (weight-loss-tips-and-secrets.com)
  • They are constantly gaining in importance, and increasingly more significant than traditional tocolytics such as beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockers or magnesium sulphate. (mdpi.com)
  • By using subtype-specific antibodies to beta ARK-1 and beta ARK-2, we show that beta ARK-2 is preferentially expressed in the olfactory epithelium in contrast to findings in most other tissues. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, beta ARK-1 antibodies are without effect. (pnas.org)
  • Beta-1-Adrenergic Receptor Antibodies in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Is Less Sometimes More? (celltrend.de)
  • Anti-beta-1-adrenergic receptor antibodies (anti-β1AR Ab) were first identified in the 1980s suggesting their possible influence on cardiac anti-β1AR Ab activity and adenylate cyclase activity. (celltrend.de)
  • New article in Kidney International about AT1 receptor antibodies in kidney transplant recipients 26. (celltrend.de)
  • Our data illustrate the interactions of the beta-adrenergic receptor with these polyclonal antibodies. (scripps.edu)
  • The redistribution of beta-receptors on intact cells is visualized by the use of fluorescent antibodies. (scripps.edu)
  • Immunoprecipitation of radioiodinated receptor by the antireceptor antibodies yields a single major 60,000 MW component. (scripps.edu)
  • Adrenergic beta-blocking agents were given to 7 patients with advanced congestive cardiomyopathy who had tachycardia at rest (98 plus or minus 13 beats/min). (bmj.com)
  • PKA-cat activated by Beta-3 adrenergic receptor phosphorylates Lipase hormone-sensitive ( LIPS ) and Perilipin , the latter being a facilitator of LIPS activity. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • knocking out of the beta1/2 (zeige TFAP2B Antikörper ) receptor significantly diminished the ST25 acupuncture-induced inhibition of gastric motility and jejunal motility without significantly altering the enhancement of colonic motility induced by acupuncture at ST25. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Because of the mass of information that has accumulated relating to the physiological, metabolic, and clinical effects of this type of pharmacologic agent (1), great interest has developed in the clinical application of beta-adrenergic receptor inhibition. (annals.org)
  • No inhibition was exerted on the positive chronotropic response to prenalterol, which acted via beta 1-adrenergic receptors. (mysciencework.com)
  • beta adrenergic response, which is inhibition of contractions. (weight-loss-tips-and-secrets.com)
  • Beta1 and Beta2 adrenergic receptors are functionally similar but have different affinities for the ligands adrenaline and noraderenaline. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can resensitize the beta-adrenergic receptor system. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the activity of nuclear ERK was enhanced by co-expression of beta-arrestin2 in beta2AR-but not beta1AR-expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • beta2AR containing the carboxyl terminal region of beta1AR lost the beta-arrestin2-promoted nuclear translocation. (nih.gov)
  • Decrease in beta-adrenergic receptors of lymphocytes in spontaneously occurring acute asthma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To clarify changes in beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) density in spontaneously occurring acute asthma, BAR binding studies were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes in eight asthmatic and ten normal subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To determine whether intravenous therapy with amrinone changes number, location or function of the β-adrenergic receptors on lymphocytes. (annals.org)
  • Identification of beta-adrenergic receptors in human lymphocytes by (-) (3H) alprenolol binding. (duke.edu)
  • Human lymphocytes are known to posessess a catecholamine-responsive adenylate cyclase which has typical beta-adrenergic specificity. (duke.edu)
  • In MS, β 2 adrenergic receptors could neither be visualized on astrocytes in normal-appearing white matter nor in reactive astrocytes in chronic active and inactive plaques, whereas they were normally present on neurons. (neurology.org)
  • Beta receptors are coupled to Gs proteins, which in turn are linked to adenylyl cyclase. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • These cell surface receptors are acted on by a wide variety of ligands, including small molecules and soluble proteins. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In many tissues, inwardly rectifying K channels are coupled to seven-helix receptors via the Gi/Go family of heterotrimeric G proteins. (rupress.org)
  • These experiments test the hypothesis that G beta gamma subunits activate the channel even if released from other classes of heterotrimeric G proteins. (rupress.org)
  • There was partial occlusion between currents stimulated via beta 2AR and the m2 muscarinic receptor (a Gi/Go-linked receptor), indicating some convergence in the mechanism of activation by these two receptors. (rupress.org)
  • These data suggest that a sequential interplay of second-messenger-dependent and receptor-specific kinases is functionally involved in olfactory desensitization. (pnas.org)
  • On the basis of our calculations and analysis of other GPCR crystal structures, we suggest that the protonation state of Asp(2.50) may act as a functionally important microswitch in the activation of the beta(2)AR and other class A receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • title=Human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors: structurally and functionally related receptors derived from distinct genes. (enacademic.com)
  • title=Molecular pharmacology and modeling of vasopressin receptors. (enacademic.com)
  • title=Genetic mapping of adrenergic receptor genes in humans. (enacademic.com)
  • Autoantibodies to beta 2-adrenergic receptors with antiadrener. (mysciencework.com)
  • Autoantibodies to beta 2-adrenergic receptors with antiadrenergic activity from patients with allergic asthma. (mysciencework.com)
  • This finding means that the inhibitory immunoglobulins of the patients with asthma were chiefly autoantibodies of the IgG isotype, capable of cross-reacting with chronotropic beta 2-adrenergic receptors on the cultured rat cardiomyocytes. (mysciencework.com)
  • These data support the hypothesis of beta -adrenergic receptor downregulation as one of the mechanisms of cardiac cell adaptation to hypertrophy or hypoxia. (kuleuven.be)
  • Implications for the beta-adrenergic receptor hypothesis of antidepressant action. (brown.edu)
  • To examine the PLC subtype mediating the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor response, PLC-beta(1) and PLC-beta(3) were overexpressed in NCM using adenoviral infection (Ad-PLC-beta(1) NCM and Ad-PLC-beta(3) NCM, respectively) and PLC responses assessed from [(3)H]inositol phosphate (InsP) generation in the presence of 10 mm LiCl. (garvan.org.au)
  • B2A receptors co-exist with the B1A receptors but one subtype usually predominates. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • This characteristic makes it ideal for monitoring the translocation of cell surface receptors into the endosomal pathway. (bio-medicine.org)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the beta-adrenergic receptor-responsive adenylyl cyclase pathway in hearts from pigs subjected to volume-overload hypertrophy with circulatory congestion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Biochemical analyses of the beta AR-responsive adenylyl cyclase pathway showed uniform decreases in beta AR number in right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle (36-41% decreases, p less than 0.005). (ahajournals.org)
  • The data are compatible with a catecholamine-driven beta AR pathway desensitization. (ahajournals.org)
  • Molecular Interaction Mechanism of Tyramine, Phenethylamine Binding with Adrenergic Receptor [beta]2. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel CaV1.2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In site-directed mutagenesis/recombinant expression studies we have found that glycine at position 16 (Gly16) imparts an accelerated agonist-promoted downregulation of beta 2AR as compared to arginine at this position (Arg16). (jci.org)
  • Thus, we have examined the role of beta-arrestin2 in the betaAR-mediated ERK signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Adrenergic-Independent Signaling via CHRNA2 Regulates Beige Fat Activation. (harvard.edu)
  • Interdependence of hypoxia and ß-adrenergic receptor signaling in pulmonary arterial hypertension. (harvard.edu)
  • Enriched environment enhances ß-adrenergic signaling to prevent microglia inflammation by amyloid-ß. (harvard.edu)
  • The Sympathetic Nervous System Mitigates CNS Autoimmunity via ß2-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in Immune Cells. (harvard.edu)
  • It is also known that cAMP levels may be regulated via beta-arrestin-dependent signaling [ 8 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Recent breakthroughs in structural biology have led to the determination of high-resolution crystal structures for the beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) in inactive and active states, which provided an unprecedented opportunity to understand receptor signaling at the atomic level. (diva-portal.org)
  • Beta-2 adrenergic receptor signaling appears to be localized to plasma membrane, unlike that of Beta-1 adrenergic receptor [4] . (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Our data suggest that captopril may resensitize the cardiac but not the mononuclear leukocyte beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system after long-term catecholamine exposure. (ahajournals.org)
  • In T3-treated rats (50 jag0 T3/kg-day for 3 days), adrenergic receptors may explain these changes associ-ated with aging, since plasma catecholamine levels in-crease with age (8). (weight-loss-tips-and-secrets.com)
  • The ability of beta 1- and beta 2ARs to form the high affinity ternary complex was assessed in agonist competition studies without guanine nucleotide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Binding of (-) [3H] alprenolol to these sites demonstrated the kinetics, affinity, and stereospecificity expected of binding to adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors. (duke.edu)
  • We have recently described the affinity chromatography purification of the turkey erythrocyte beta-adrenergic receptor. (scripps.edu)
  • A single step of affinity chromatography on alprenolol-sepharose of the soluble digitonin extract resulted in an additional 1,000-fold purification of the receptor. (scripps.edu)
  • 125I]ICYP-diazirine binds with high affinity (Kd = 60 pM) to beta-receptors from turkey erythrocyte membranes. (mpg.de)