Genes, erbB: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbB) originally isolated from, or related to, the avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These genes code for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors which is important in the control of normal cell proliferation and in the pathogenesis of human cancer. The genes include erbB-1 (GENES, ERBB-1), erbB-2 (GENES, ERBB-2), and erbB-3, all of which show abnormalities of expression in various human neoplasms.Receptor, erbB-3: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUREGULINS. It has extensive homology to and can heterodimerize with the EGF RECEPTOR and the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR. Overexpression of the erbB-3 receptor is associated with TUMORIGENESIS.Neuregulin-1: A peptide factor originally identified by its ability to stimulate the phosphorylation the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). It is a ligand for the erbB-3 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-3) and the erbB-4 receptor. Variant forms of NEUREGULIN-1 occur through alternative splicing of its mRNA.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Oncogene Proteins v-erbB: Transforming proteins encoded by erbB oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The protein is a truncated form of the EGF receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR) whose kinase domain is constitutively activated by deletion of the ligand-binding domain.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.QuinazolinesEpidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mucin-4: A transmembrane mucin that is found in a broad variety of epithelial tissue. Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. Mucin-4 is a heterodimer of alpha and beta chains. The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.GRB7 Adaptor Protein: A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.Tyrphostins: A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesExtracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Estrogen Receptor Modulators: Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Rifabutin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Sialomucins: A subcategory of mucins that contain SIALIC ACID.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Electrophysiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.MorpholinesAntibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Metalloproteases: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 10c: A secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that has specificity for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND. It plays a modulating role in activation of APOPTOSIS signaling.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Nerve Tissue ProteinsLung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Ganglioneuroblastoma: A moderately malignant neoplasm composed of primitive neuroectodermal cells dispersed in myxomatous or fibrous stroma intermixed with mature ganglion cells. It may undergo transformation into a neuroblastoma. It arises from the sympathetic trunk or less frequently from the adrenal medulla, cerebral cortex, and other locations. Cervical ganglioneuroblastomas may be associated with HORNER SYNDROME and the tumor may occasionally secrete vasoactive intestinal peptide, resulting in chronic diarrhea.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Cardiotoxins: Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Thiouracil: Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that inhibit the activation of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.Mice, Inbred C57BLCapillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Early Growth Response Protein 2: An early growth response transcription factor that controls the formation of the MYELIN SHEATH around peripheral AXONS by SCHWANN CELLS. Mutations in EGR2 transcription factor have been associated with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES such as CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
"Localization of genes encoding two human one-domain members of the AAA family: PSMC5 (the thyroid hormone receptor-interacting ... a BRCA1 locus-related gene". Gene. 248 (1-2): 99-107. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00141-4. PMID 10806355. ... The gene PSMC3 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases that have chaperone-like activity ... "Entrez Gene: PSMC3 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 3". "Uniprot: P17980 - PRS6A_HUMAN". Le Tallec B, ...
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ERBB4 gene. Alternatively spliced ... Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor ... binds to epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB-4 and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor, ... a novel growth factor that acts through the ErbB-4 receptor tyrosine kinase". Oncogene. 18 (17): 2681-9. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
1999). "Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation". Oncogene. 18 (5): 1147-56. ... Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M (2005). "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Mol. Syst. Biol. 1: ... CBL-B is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that in humans is encoded by the CBLB gene. CBLB is a member of the CBL gene family. ... 2002). "CIN85 participates in Cbl-b-mediated down-regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (42): 39666-72. ...
1997). "Ligands for ErbB-family receptors encoded by a neuregulin-like gene". Nature. 387 (6632): 509-12. doi:10.1038/387509a0 ... 1997). "Neuregulin-2, a new ligand of ErbB3/ErbB4-receptor tyrosine kinases". Nature. 387 (6632): 512-6. doi:10.1038/387512a0. ... "Ligands for ErbB-family receptors encoded by a neuregulin-like gene". Nature. 387 (6632): 509-12. doi:10.1038/387509a0. PMID ... Through interaction with the ErbB family of receptors, NRG2 induces the growth and differentiation of epithelial, neuronal, ...
"ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription factors is mediated by Src tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (24): ... "The ERBB4/HER4 receptor tyrosine kinase regulates gene expression by functioning as a STAT5A nuclear chaperone". J. Cell Biol. ... Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M (2005). "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Mol. Syst. Biol. 1 (1): ... STAT5A has been shown to interact with: CRKL, Epidermal growth factor receptor, ERBB4, Erythropoietin receptor, Janus kinase 1 ...
1994). "Characterization of mouse non-receptor tyrosine kinase gene, HYL". Oncogene. 9 (11): 3371-4. PMID 7936664. Maruyama K, ... 1997). "Association of csk-homologous kinase (CHK) (formerly MATK) with HER-2/ErbB-2 in breast cancer cells". J. Biol. Chem. ... 1994). "Molecular cloning of a novel non-receptor tyrosine kinase, HYL (hematopoietic consensus tyrosine-lacking kinase)". ... Megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine-protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MATK gene. The protein encoded ...
Wang SC, Lien HC, Xia W (2004). "Binding at and transactivation of the COX-2 promoter by nuclear tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB- ... Mattei MG, Roeckel N, Olsen BR, Apte SS (1997). "Genes of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase (MT-MMP) gene family, ... This gene produces at least two transcripts, one which encodes a membrane-bound form and another a soluble form of the protein ... This gene was once referred to as MT-MMP2, but was renamed as MT-MMP3 or MMP16. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156103 - ...
... a novel growth factor that acts through the ErbB-4 receptor tyrosine kinase". Oncogene. 18 (17): 2681-9. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... Neuregulin 4 also known as NRG4 is a member of the neuregulin protein family which in humans is encoded by the NRG4 gene. The ... Révillion F, Lhotellier V, Hornez L, Bonneterre J, Peyrat JP (January 2008). "ErbB/HER ligands in human breast cancer, and ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
Of the 90 unique tyrosine kinase genes identified in the human genome, 59 encode receptor tyrosine kinase proteins. Receptor ... RTK class I (EGF receptor family) (ErbB family) RTK class II (Insulin receptor family) RTK class III (PDGF receptor family) RTK ... Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in this article is also known as tyrosine receptor kinase (TRK) or tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR ... Tyrosine kinase Insulin receptor Enzyme-linked receptor Tyrphostins Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors The receptor tyrosine ...
Receptor-linked tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are activated by extracellular ligands. ... Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M (2005). "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Molecular Systems Biology ... In most cells, some form of sustained ERK activity is required for cells to activate genes that induce cell cycle entry and ... In a simplified model, the presence of mitogens and growth factors trigger the activation of canonical receptor tyrosine ...
2004). "Binding at and transactivation of the COX-2 promoter by nuclear tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB-2". Cancer Cell. 6 (3): ... This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, and it may be involved in ribosome assembly. Fusion of this gene and the nucleoporin gene ... 2000). "Fusion of the nucleoporin gene, NUP98, and the putative RNA helicase gene, DDX10, by inversion 11 (p15q22) chromosome ... "Entrez Gene: DDX10 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 10". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in vivo, ...
The receptors for all NRG1 isoforms are the ERBB family of tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptors. Through their displayed ... gene with schizophrenia". Hum. Mol. Genet. 15 (12): 1995-2002. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddl122. PMID 16687441. Gene Overview of All ... as a 44-kD glycoprotein that interacts with the NEU/ERBB2 receptor tyrosine kinase to increase its phosphorylation on tyrosine ... a new ligand of ErbB3/ErbB4-receptor tyrosine kinases". Nature. 387 (6632): 512-6. doi:10.1038/387512a0. PMID 9168115. Wang JY ...
"Binding at and transactivation of the COX-2 promoter by nuclear tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB-2". Cancer Cell. 6 (3): 251-61. ... TP53-regulating kinase, also known as PRPK is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TP53RK gene. This protein is a serine/ ... "Entrez Gene: TP53RK TP53 regulating kinase". Kisseleva-Romanova E, Lopreiato R, Baudin-Baillieu A, Rousselle JC, Ilan L, ... "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337-42. doi:10.1038/ ...
... has been shown to interact with: ErbB-2 receptor tyrosine kinase MK5 HSPA9 HSPA8, JAK2, and RASA1 ENSG00000103423 GRCh38 ... Yin X, Rozakis-Adcock M (2002). "Genomic organization and expression of the human tumorous imaginal disc (TID1) gene". Gene. ... "Entrez Gene: DNAJA3 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 3". Ng, AC; Baird, SD; Screaton, RA (April 2014). "Essential role ... 2001). "A mouse homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor l(2)tid gene defines a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP ...
... as well as a ligand of most members of the ERBB (v-erb-b2 oncogene homolog) family of tyrosine-kinase receptors. The secondary ... "Entrez Gene: epiregulin". Sato K, Nakamura T, Mizuguchi M, Miura K, Tada M, Aizawa T, Gomi T, Miyamoto K, Kawano K (October ... Epiregulin (EPR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EREG gene. Epiregulin consists of 46 amino acid residues. Its ... difference at the C-terminus may provide an explanation for the reduced binding affinity of epiregulin to the ERBB receptors. ...
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3, also known as HER3 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 3), is a membrane bound ... 1997). "Ligands for ErbB-family receptors encoded by a neuregulin-like gene". Nature. 387 (6632): 509-12. doi:10.1038/387509a0 ... ErbB3 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The kinase-impaired ... Epidermal growth factor receptor family Epidermal growth factor receptor Receptor tyrosine-kinases GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
1994). "Characterization of mouse non-receptor tyrosine kinase gene, HYL.". Oncogene 9 (11): 3371-4. PMID 7936664. CS1 ... 1997). "Association of csk-homologous kinase (CHK) (formerly MATK) with HER-2/ErbB-2 in breast cancer cells.". J. Biol. Chem. ... 1994). "Molecular cloning of a novel non-receptor tyrosine kinase, HYL (hematopoietic consensus tyrosine-lacking kinase).". ... "Structural and functional studies of the intracellular tyrosine kinase MATK gene and its translated product". J Biol Chem 270 ( ...
2002). "Repression of androgen receptor mediated transcription by the ErbB-3 binding protein, Ebp1". Oncogene. 21 (36): 5609-18 ... 1998). "Tyrosine phosphorylation of the TATA element modulatory factor by the FER nuclear tyrosine kinases". FEBS Lett. 434 (3 ... "Entrez Gene: TMF1 TATA element modulatory factor 1". Schwartz, Y; Ben-Dor I; Navon A; Motro B; Nir U (Sep 1998). "Tyrosine ... TATA element modulatory factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMF1 gene. TMF1 has been shown to interact with ...
The ErbB family of proteins contains four receptor tyrosine kinases, structurally related to the epidermal growth factor ... In humans, the family includes Her1 (EGFR, ErbB1), Her2 (Neu, ErbB2), Her3 (ErbB3), and Her4 (ErbB4). The gene symbol, ErbB, is ... ErbB-2), 1M6B (ErbB-3) and 2AHX (ErbB-4): The four members of the ErbB protein family are capable of forming homodimers, ... Chan R, Hardy W, Laing M, Muller W. (2017). "The Catalytic Activity of the ErbB-2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Is Essential for ...
In general, they bind to and activate the erbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (erbB2 (HER2), erbB3 (HER3), and erbB4 (HER4 ... ARIA plays a role in synapse development, influencing the upregulation of acetylcholine receptor genes beneath the endplate ... The NRG1 gene has been identified as a potential gene determining susceptibility to schizophrenia by a combination of genetic ... doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.07.029. PMID 15527969. Lemke G, Zhou M, Ghosh S, Harvey RP, Gulcher JR, Stefansson K, Gurney ME, ...
In humans, the GRB2 protein is encoded by the GRB2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene binds receptors such as the epidermal ... Grb2 is best known for its ability to link the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase to the activation of Ras and ... Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M. "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Molecular Systems Biology. 1: ... Abl gene, Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, B-cell linker, BCAR1, BCR gene, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, C-Met, CBLB, CD117, CD22, ...
2004). "The leucine-rich repeat protein LRIG1 is a negative regulator of ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem ... "Entrez Gene: LRIG1 leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1". Gur G, Rubin C, Katz M, et al. (2005). "LRIG1 ... It encodes a transmembrane protein that has been shown to interact with receptor tyrosine kinases of the EGFR-family , MET and ... Ledda F, Bieraugel O, Fard SS, Vilar M, Paratcha G (2008). "Lrig1 is an endogenous inhibitor of Ret receptor tyrosine kinase ...
... lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase p56(lck) MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.642 - receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.624.664. ... gene products, rev (HIV) MeSH D12.776.964.950.800.400 - gene products, tat MeSH D12.776.964.950.800.410 - gene products, tax ... 700.790 - receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.800 - receptor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor MeSH D12.776.624.664. ... gene products, rex MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.480 - gene products, tax (gene) MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.650 - oncogene protein ...
"ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription factors is mediated by Src tyrosine kinases". The Journal of Biological ... Database, GeneCards Human Gene. "IRF9 Gene - GeneCards , IRF9 Protein , IRF9 Antibody". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2017-06-01 ... Calcitriol receptor, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Fanconi anemia, complementation group C, GNB2L1, IFNAR2, IRF1, ISGF3G ... Wang Y, Wu TR, Cai S, Welte T, Chin YE (July 2000). "Stat1 as a component of tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 1-TRADD ...
... of this gene belongs to a small family of adaptor proteins that are known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine ... "Analysis of Grb7 recruitment by heregulin-activated erbB receptors reveals a novel target selectivity for erbB3". The Journal ... This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ... Growth factor receptor-bound protein 7, also known as GRB7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRB7 gene. The ...
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors ("-nib"). Receptor tyrosine kinase. *ErbB: HER1/EGFR (Brigatinib. *Dacomitinib ... It is mainly used to treat cases of NSCLC that harbour mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.[5] ... Minkovsky N, Berezov A (December 2008). "BIBW-2992, a dual receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of solid tumors ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ...
Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... a receptor protein called the epidermal growth factor receptor ... receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-1. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. * ... The EGFR gene provides instructions for making a receptor protein called the epidermal growth factor receptor, which spans the ... These gene changes result in a receptor protein that is constantly turned on (constitutively activated), even when it is not ...
"Localization of genes encoding two human one-domain members of the AAA family: PSMC5 (the thyroid hormone receptor-interacting ... a BRCA1 locus-related gene". Gene. 248 (1-2): 99-107. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00141-4. PMID 10806355. ... The gene PSMC3 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases that have chaperone-like activity ... "Entrez Gene: PSMC3 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 3". "Uniprot: P17980 - PRS6A_HUMAN". Le Tallec B, ...
However, recent studies have shown that c-Src, a non-receptor tyrosin … ... Receptors, Progesterone * ErbB Receptors * Protein-Tyrosine Kinases * Focal Adhesion Kinase 1 * Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine ... Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases * Genes, src / physiology* * Humans * Neoplasms / genetics* * Protein-Tyrosine Kinases ... However, recent studies have shown that c-Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, exhibits elevated protein levels and activity in ...
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-1 Gene Symbols: EGFR ... Entrez-Gene , GenPept , Ensembl Gene , InnateDB ... EGFR a receptor tyrosine kinase. This is a receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors including TGF- ... It is a single-pass transmembrane tyrosine kinase. Ligand binding to this receptor results in receptor dimerization, ... epidermal growth factor receptor (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-b) oncogene homolog, avian); ERBB; ERBB1; HER1; mENA; ...
51105-1-AP. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunocytochemistry (ICC) and Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin ... Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-2; Proto-oncogene Neu; Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2; Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface ... human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; metas; Metastatic lymph node gene 19 protein; MLN 19; neuro/glioblastoma derived ... RNA polymerase I core binding protein tyrosine kinase activity transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity receptor ...
... of transforming genes transduced or activated by transforming retroviruses have been implicated in the etiology of a number of ... growth factor and hormone receptors (e.g., erbB [13], fms [14], and erbA [15]); (3) intracellular tyrosine (e.g.,src[161) and ... gene truncation (4), transcriptional activation (5), gene rearrangement (6,7), and gene amplification (8-10). More than 20 ... Close similarity of epidermal growth factor receptor and v-erb-B oncogene protein sequences. Nature 1984; 307: 521-7.PubMed ...
EGFR is type I receptor tyrosine kinase with sequence homology to erbB-1, -2, -3 -4 or HER-1, -2, -3 -4. It binds to Epidermal ... Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase; ErbB1; Urogastrone; wa2; Wa5. Entrez gene ID. 1956 ... Erbb1; ERBB1; Errp; HER1; mENA; PIG61; Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-1; ... TO iodide (515/531), 1 mM in DMSO From: $235 Sizes: 1 mLCatalog ... Prepare concentrated D-luciferin stock solutions (typically 1-100 mg/mL) in water, and store in aliquots at -20°C or below for ...
66455-1-IG. Tested in Western Blot (WB) and Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P)) applications. This antibody reacts with ... EGFR belongs to the HER/ERbB family of proteins that includes three other receptor tyrosine kinases, ERbB2, ERbB3, ERbB4. EGFR ... EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor, HER1, ErbB1) is encoded by the EGFR gene located on chromosome 7 in humans. ... transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity transmembrane ...
2004 Nov 1;64(21):7732-9. Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... The ErbB-2/HER-2 receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in a wide range of solid human tumors. The ErbB-2 gene product is a ... proliferation of ErbB-2-overexpressing carcinoma cells by reducing ErbB-2 expression and as a result suppresses the ErbB-2- ... in human mammary carcinomas overexpressing ErbB-2 suppresses the expression level of ErbB-2 and attenuates the resultant ErbB-2 ...
Genes, erbB-1/genetics*. *Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology*/genetics*. *Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics* ... Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics*. Minor. *Adult. *Age Distribution. *Aged. *Aged, 80 and over ... Affiliation: 1] State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, China [2] Collaborative Innovation Center for ... Affiliation: 1] State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, China [2] Collaborative Innovation Center for ...
2003 Mar 10;284(1):14-30. Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.; Review ... The neuregulins (NRGs) are cell-cell signaling proteins that are ligands for receptor tyrosine kinases of the ErbB family. The ... neuregulin family of genes has four members: NRG1, NRG2, NRG3, and NRG4. Relatively little is known about the biological ... Falls DL1.. Author information. 1. Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA ...
Neuregulins transmit their signals to target cells by interacting with transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors of the ErbB ... Gene ablation studies have previously demonstrated that the ErbB2 receptor, together with its coreceptor ErbB4 and the ligand ... Left-asymmetric Expression of Galanin in the Linear Heart Tube of the Mouse Embryo is Independent of the Nodal Co-receptor Gene ... Jun, 2002 , Pubmed ID: 12072561 The ErbB2 (Her2) proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, which is frequently ...
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ERBB4 gene. Alternatively spliced ... Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor ... binds to epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB-4 and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor, ... a novel growth factor that acts through the ErbB-4 receptor tyrosine kinase". Oncogene. 18 (17): 2681-9. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
... the epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR] family). ERBB2 is most commonly known as HER2 and sometimes also as NEU. ... ERBB2 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor and a member of the ErbB protein family (ie, ... ERBB2 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor and a member of the ErbB protein family, more commonly known as the epidermal ... The interpretation for HER2 FISH testing (HER2-to-CEP17 ratio and gene copy number) is as follows:. * Positive HER2 ...
TMEM173 gene product) *7.6. Pipeline Programs Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB 3(HER3) *7.7. Pipeline Programs ... Pipeline Programs Targeting CD278(ICOS gene product) *7.5. Pipeline Programs Targeting Stimulator of Interferon Genes( ... Table 14: Breast Cancer, Global, Key Features of Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB3 (HER3), 2018 *Table 15: Breast Cancer, Global, ... Table 12: Breast Cancer, Global, Key Features of Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING), 2018 *Table 13: Breast Cancer, Global ...
... receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-1. Background. The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a ... epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR(G719C)). Target Class. Kinase. Family. TK. Official Symbol. EGFR. Entrez Gene ID. 1956. ... epidermal growth factor receptor (avian erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-b) oncogene homolog); mENA; proto-oncogene c-ErbB- ... Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell ...
View our 25 Neuregulin-1/NRG1 products for your research including Neuregulin-1/NRG1 Primary Antibodies, Proteins and Enzymes, ... All family members share an EGF-like domain that interacts with the ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. The NRG1 gene is ... The neuregulin (also known as heregulin) cytokine family is comprised of four genes that encode a large number of secreted or ... NRG1 isoforms can be classified into type I (neu differentiation factor, NDF; heregulin, HRG; acetylcholine receptor inducing ...
RECEPTOR TYROSINE-PROTEIN KINASE COMPND 6 ERBB-1; COMPND 7 EC: 2.7.10.1; COMPND 8 ENGINEERED: YES; COMPND 9 MUTATION: YES ... 5 GENE: EGFR, ERBB, ERBB1, HER1; SOURCE 6 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM: SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA; SOURCE 7 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_COMMON: FALL ... EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR; COMPND 3 CHAIN: A, B, C, D; COMPND 4 FRAGMENT: UNP RESIDUES 696-1022; COMPND 5 SYNONYM: PROTO ... Chemical substance (1) PDB-CCD (1) Chemical reaction (1) KEGG ENZYME (1) Protein sequence (6) UniProt (1) SWISS-PROT (1) PDBSTR ...
It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system. ... which has been transfected with an anti-human ERBB3 MAb gene to allow expression of the MAb. ... receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; proto-oncogene-like protein c-ErbB-3; tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER3 ... NOT protein tyrosine kinase activity; Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity; Transmembrane signaling receptor ...
Proto-oncogene-like protein c-ErbB-3; Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER3 ... ENZYME , Phospho3D , Phospho.ELM , NetworKIN , GeneCards , UniProtKB , Entrez-Gene , GenPept , Ensembl Gene , Ensembl Protein ... HER3 a receptor tyrosine kinase of the EGFR family. Binds and is activated by neuregulins and NTAK. Can form homodimers or ErbB ... CST Pathways: ErbB/HER Signaling , Tyrosine Kinases & Substrates Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling ...
Gene ID. *1956. *Synonyms. *Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor; Receptor Tyrosine-Protein Kinase ErbB-1; Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine ... ERBB; HER1; Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Avian Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog); Erythroblastic ... CD3ζ, also known as T-cell receptor zeta, which together with T-cell receptor and CD3γ, δ, ε chain, forms the TCR-CD3 complex. ... CD28 is the receptor for CD80 (B7.2) proteins which are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). CD28 modulates the primary ...
The Dox is targeted to certain cancers by immunerecognition and delivered into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. ... receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-1; avian ... Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. ... epidermal growth factor receptor; ERBB; HER1; mENA; ERBB1; PIG61; NISBD2; proto-oncogene c-ErbB-1; cell growth inhibiting ... Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell ...
This gene encodes a member of theepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases.This membrane- ... c-erbB-3; p180-ErbB3;p45-sErbB3; p85-sErbB3; receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3;OTTHUMP00000243039; OTTHUMP00000243040; ... NOTprotein tyrosine kinase activity; receptor activity; receptor signalingprotein tyrosine kinase activity; transmembrane ... Calcium signalingpathway; Endocytosis; ErbB receptor signaling network; ErbB signalingpathway; ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events; ...
... with 101 pages available at USD 3500 for single User PDF at ... Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3 or HER3 is a membrane bound protein encoded by the ERBB3 gene. It belongs to tyrosine- ... Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB 3 (Proto Oncogene Like Protein c ErbB 3 or Tyrosine Kinase Type Cell Surface Receptor ... Receptor Tyrosine Protein Kinase ERBB 3 (Proto Oncogene Like Protein c ErbB 3 or Tyrosine Kinase Type Cell Surface Receptor ...
Gene ID 1956. Other Names Epidermal growth factor receptor, Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-1, Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-1, ... ERBB, ERBB1, HER1. Function Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling ... Autophagy Receptor Motif Plotter. The Autophagy Receptor Motif Plotter predicts and scores autophagy receptor binding sites in ... activating its GTPase activity and probably coupling the EGF receptor signaling to the G protein-coupled receptor signaling ( ...
  • PTP1B (P18031 in UniProtKB) has an N-terminal catalytic phosphatase domain (residues 1-300) followed by a regulatory region of about 80-100 residues and a membrane localization domain (residues 400-435) that tethers the enzyme to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • αMHCHER4pA (HER4 heart , Fig. 1 A ) was excised by using Bss tII and Not I and microinjected into fertilized mouse ova, which were placed into the oviducts of pseudopregnant females. (pnas.org)
  • Essential component of a neuregulin-receptor complex, although neuregulins do not interact with it alone. (thermofisher.com)
  • The neuregulin (also known as heregulin) cytokine family is comprised of four genes that encode a large number of secreted or membrane-bound isoforms. (rndsystems.com)
  • Neuregulin-1/NRG1 " has 25 results in Products. (rndsystems.com)
  • It binds to neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and is activated by it. (reportsweb.com)
  • Since the discovery that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)/ErbB signaling is indispensable in cardiac development, evidence has shown that this system also plays a crucial role in the adult heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a trophic factor that has been implicated in neural development, neurotransmission, and synaptic plasticity. (ptglab.com)
  • The fibroblast-derived paracrine factor neuregulin-1 has a novel role in regulating the constitutive color and melanocyte function in human skin. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Tid1, the human homologue of a Drosophila tumor suppressor, reduces the malignant activity of ErbB-2 in carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, ErbB-2-dependent tumor progression in animals is inhibited by increased expression of Tid1 in tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these results suggest that Tid1 modulates the uncontrolled proliferation of ErbB-2-overexpressing carcinoma cells by reducing ErbB-2 expression and as a result suppresses the ErbB-2-dependent cancerous signaling and tumor progression. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of this class of cellular receptors is known to result in increased activity of a variety of molecular pathways associated with tumor growth and progression. (medscape.com)
  • According to the American Brain Tumor Association, GBM accounts for 14.9% of all primary brain tumors and 55.4% of all gliomas in adults, and 12,390 new cases are predicted in 2017 [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The 22-1-1 Ag expression may relate to tumor cell progression and invasion in SCC of the uterine cervix. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The identified gene set adds to our understanding of the tumor biology of BRAF wt and BRAF mut PTCs and contains genes/biomarkers of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene expression signature revealed various genes previously described to be associated with breast cancer, such as the activator protein-1 complex member Fos-like antigen 2 ( Fosl2 ), early growth response 1 ( Egr1 ), gelsolin ( Gsn ), and tumor protein translationally controlled 1 ( Tpt1 ), among others. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, ROS not only contribute to tumor progression by amplifying genomic instability but transformed cells use ROS signals to drive proliferation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • J:106953 Bovetti S, De Marchis S, Gambarotta G, Fasolo A, Perroteau I, Puche AC, Bovolin P, Differential expression of neuregulins and their receptors in the olfactory bulb layers of the developing mouse. (jax.org)
  • We found that increased expression of Tid1 in human mammary carcinomas overexpressing ErbB-2 suppresses the expression level of ErbB-2 and attenuates the resultant ErbB-2-dependent oncogenic extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 signaling pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). (nih.gov)
  • A functional DnaJ domain of Tid1 also is required for its inhibition of ErbB-2 expression and the consequent PCD of carcinoma cells resulting from increased Tid1 expression. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesize that these CNVs may alter the expression of genes regulated by FOXC1. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this report, a relationship between 22-1-1 Ag expression and clinicopathological variables and the prognostic significance of 22-1-1 Ag were immunohistochemically investigated in adenocarcinoma of the cervix. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There was no correlation between 22-1-1 Ag expression and age, stage, grade, myometrial invasion, lymph-vascular space invasion, lymph node metastasis, and parametrial invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) of patients with low 22-1-1 Ag expression (-/+) and high 22-1-1 Ag expression (++/+++) were 90.5 and 71.4%, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Patients with high 22-1-1 Ag expression had significantly worse OS than those with low 22-1-1 Ag expression (log-rank test, P = 0.0193). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multivariate analysis for OS revealed a prognostic significance in 22-1-1 Ag expression, stage, age, and grade. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that 22-1-1 Ag expression may be related to prognosis in adenocarcinoma of the cervix. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression study focusing on affected genes that are differentially expressed between BRAF wt and BRAF mut conventional PTCs identified a number of molecules which are connected in a network and affect important canonical pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The described expression pattern is compatible with alpha11beta1 functioning as a receptor for interstitial collagens in vivo. (sdbonline.org)
  • To gain insights into Lrig gene functions in vivo , we compared the expression and function of the Lrigs in the inner ear, which offers a sensitive system for detecting effects on morphogenesis and function. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here we report the global gene expression effects on mammary epithelium of such compounds, analyzing the data in light of their effectiveness as chemopreventive agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling. (senescence.info)
  • Projects focused on gene expression profiling of ageing and of dietary manipulations of ageing, such as caloric restriction. (senescence.info)
  • C-erbB-3 in human breast carcinoma: expression and relation to prognosis and established prognostic indicators. (semanticscholar.org)
  • c-erbB-3 and c-erbB-2 protein expression in node-negative breast carcinoma--an immunocytochemical study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Publications] Masatugu Moriyama: 'Expression of the c‐erbB‐2 gene product in urinary bladder cancer' J.Urology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kaoru Morishita: 'Expression and characterization of biologically active v‐erbB protein using a baculovirus system' J.J.Cancer Res. (nii.ac.jp)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression translationally and/or transcriptionally. (hindawi.com)
  • RISC can functionally inhibit gene expression by binding to the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) in target mRNA, which is degraded if the miRNA:mRNA complex complementarity is perfect, or the translation is suppressed if the complementarity is not perfect. (hindawi.com)
  • Apart from their role in cancer initiation and development, the expression profile of miRNAs has been suggested to have a potential prognostic significance in many types of cancers, in which miRNAs can exert their regulatory roles by directly targeting genes in the key steps of metastatic processes of cancer [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)