beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinases: G-protein-coupled receptor kinases that mediate agonist-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION and desensitization of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2: A ubiquitously expressed G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that has specificity for the agonist-occupied form of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It may play an essential role in regulating myocardial contractile response.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that are specific for G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. They are regulatory proteins that play a role in G-protein-coupled receptor densensitization.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5: A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the MYOCARDIUM and may play a role in the regulation of cardiac functions.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3: A ubiquitously expressed G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that has specificity for the agonist-occupied form of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and a variety of other G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Although it is highly homologous to G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 2, it is not considered to play an essential role in regulating myocardial contractile response.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1: A PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is found in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. It mediates light-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of RHODOPSIN and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4: A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptor, trkB: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.PhosphoproteinsSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Mice, Inbred C57BLArabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesRNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Receptor, trkC: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Tyrphostins: A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
... and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes". Genomics. 23 (1): 286-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1497. PMID 7695743. ... arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause ... 1996). "Effect of different G protein-coupled receptor kinases on phosphorylation and desensitization of the alpha1B-adrenergic ... "Acidic amino acids flanking phosphorylation sites in the M2 muscarinic receptor regulate receptor phosphorylation, ...
... receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase via selective interaction with receptor beta subunits". Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 22 (1 ... adrenergic receptor complex facilitates receptor phosphorylation and signaling". Curr. Biol. 10 (7): 409-12. doi:10.1016/S0960- ... A-kinase anchor protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP5 gene. The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a ... The encoded protein binds to the RII-beta regulatory subunit of PKA, and also to protein kinase C and the phosphatase ...
2001). "beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with the synaptic scaffolding protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase ... "Identification and characterization of a PDZ protein that interacts with activin type II receptors". J Biol Chem. 275 (8): 5485 ... Membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 also known as membrane-associated guanylate kinase ... "Entrez Gene: MAGI2 membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2". Wood, J D; Yuan J; Margolis R L; ...
Shih M, Lin F, Scott JD, Wang HY, Malbon CC (Jan 1999). "Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein 250) binds the beta 2-adrenergic receptor via the receptor cytoplasmic Arg-329 ... scaffold binding to the beta2-adrenergic receptor". EMBO J. 22 (24): 6419-29. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg628. PMC 291823 . PMID ... Shih M, Lin F, Scott JD, Wang HY, Malbon CC (1999). "Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases and ...
Lefkowitz RJ (July 1998). "G protein-coupled receptors. III. New roles for receptor kinases and beta-arrestins in receptor ... and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes". Genomics. 23 (1): 286-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1497. PMID 7695743. ... like arrestin beta 1, was shown to inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor function in vitro. It is expressed at high levels in the ... "Beta-arrestin-dependent mu-opioid receptor-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) Translocate to Nucleus in ...
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 Cannon WB, Rosenbluth A (31 May 1933). "Studies On Conditions ... Basic Neurochemistry: α- and β-Adrenergic Receptors Brief overview of functions of the β3 receptor Theory of receptor ... ISBN 0-443-06911-5. Alpha receptors illustrated The Adrenergic Receptors "Adrenoceptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion ... a Gq coupled receptor) and α2 (a Gi coupled receptor). Phenylephrine is a selective agonist of the α receptor. β receptors have ...
"Overexpression of beta-arrestin and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase augment desensitization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors". J ... Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (also referred to as βARK or BARK) is a serine/threonine intracellular kinase. It is activated ... Beta adrenergic receptor kinase has been shown to interact with: Beta-gamma complex, G protein GIT1, GNAQ, PDE6G, PRKCB1 and ... beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ADRBK1 genome ...
Shih M, Lin F, Scott JD, Wang HY, Malbon CC (Jan 1999). "Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases ... "Insulin stimulates sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptors and enhanced association of beta-adrenergic receptors with Grb2 ... Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-3 adrenergic ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta- ...
"G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 regulates beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95". The Journal of Biological ... Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-3 adrenergic ... The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... "The cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor. Structural similarities of beta 1 and beta 2 receptor subtypes demonstrated by ...
... kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. ... amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. ... The beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 was cloned from mice and rats in 1991 and the human gene was cloned in 1993. Gene linkage ... Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (beta-ARK-2) also known as G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) is an enzyme that in ...
"Insulin stimulates sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptors and enhanced association of beta-adrenergic receptors with Grb2 ... "Tyr-716 in the platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor kinase insert is involved in GRB2 binding and Ras activation". ... Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, HER2/neu, HNRNPC, Huntingtin, INPP5D, IRS1, ITK, Janus kinase 1, Janus kinase 2 ... EPH receptor A2, ETV6, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Erythropoietin receptor, FRS2, Fas ligand, GAB1, GAB2, Glycoprotein ...
1988). "Site-directed mutagenesis and continuous expression of human beta-adrenergic receptors. Identification of a conserved ... Zamah AM, Delahunty M, Luttrell LM, Lefkowitz RJ (August 2002). "Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the beta 2- ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta- ... the contribution of genetic variability in beta adrenergic receptor and cytochrome P4502C9.". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 82 (2): ...
2002). "G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 regulates beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ( ... 1998). "A novel multiple PDZ domain-containing molecule interacting with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and neuronal cell ... These kinases are a family of signaling molecules expressed at various submembrane domains and contain the PDZ, SH3 and the ... Ying Z, Bingaman W, Najm IM (2004). "Increased numbers of coassembled PSD-95 to NMDA-receptor subunits NR2B and NR1 in human ...
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (EC 2.7.11.15). *Beta adrenergic receptor kinase. *Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MKKK). *MAP kinase kinase kinases *MAP3K1 ... A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ...
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (EC 2.7.11.15). *Beta adrenergic receptor kinase. *Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (EC 2.7.11.15). *Beta adrenergic receptor kinase. *Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Types include those acting directly as receptors (Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase) and Intracellular signaling ... A major target of Akt kinases is glycogen synthase kinase-3. EC 2.7.1.37 Pelle. is a serine/threonine kinase that can ...
... it is regulated by Beta adrenergic receptor kinase type 1 (βARK or BARK) also called G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 ... concluded that there are light sensing receptors, melanopsin receptors, are present in blood vessels and mediate wavelength ... but not cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG). Furthermore, ... and involves vascular hyperpolarization and this receptor pathway could be targeted for wavelength-specific light-based therapy ...
... is a cytosolic protein and acts as a cofactor in the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (BARK) mediated ... Lefkowitz RJ (1998). "G protein-coupled receptors. III. New roles for receptor kinases and beta-arrestins in receptor signaling ... 1999). "Beta-arrestin-dependent formation of beta2 adrenergic receptor-Src protein kinase complexes". Science. 283 (5402): 655- ... 1990). "beta-Arrestin: a protein that regulates beta-adrenergic receptor function". Science. 248 (4962): 1547-50. doi:10.1126/ ...
... also known as β-Adrenergic receptor kinase 2 [BARK1]) and arrestin 2 (also known as Arrestin beta 1 [ARRB1]). These agents act ... Prostaglandin receptors Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin DP2 receptor Eicosanoid receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... is primarily a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The receptor is a member of the Prostaglandin receptors belonging to the ... The Prostaglandin D2 receptor 1 (DP1), a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the PTGDR1 gene (also termed PTGDR), ...
The longer the receptor remains active the more kinases are activated and the more receptors are phosphorylated. In β2- ... Lohse MJ, Benovic JL, Codina J, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ (June 1990). "beta-Arrestin: a protein that regulates beta-adrenergic ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs.[53] G-protein-coupled ...
"Excitatory alpha1-adrenergic receptors predominate over inhibitory beta-receptors in rabbit dorsal detrusor". The Journal of ... the vitamin D3 receptor VDR, Raf kinase, calpain, and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Upon activation, protein kinase C ... membrane-bound receptor for activated protein kinase C proteins). The protein kinase C enzymes are known for their long-term ... Anderson PW, McGill JB, Tuttle KR (Sep 2007). "Protein kinase C beta inhibition: the promise for treatment of diabetic ...
"G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 regulates beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95". The Journal of Biological ... The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. It has also ... "beta2-Adrenergic receptor regulation by GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-associated ADP ribosylation factor GTPase- ... "Identification of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase phosphorylation sites in the human beta2-adrenergic receptor". The ...
... beta adrenergic receptor - beta sheet - beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta-thromboglobulin - ... receptor (biochemistry) - receptor antagonist - receptor protein-tyrosine kinase - recombinant fusion protein - recombinant ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... alpha adrenergic receptor - Alpha helix - alpha-1 adrenergic receptor - alpha-2 adrenergic receptor - alpha-beta T-cell antigen ...
... has been shown to interact with Src. Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 ... "Direct binding of activated c-Src to the beta 3-adrenergic receptor is required for MAP kinase activation". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta Blocker GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Métrich M, Lucas A, Gastineau M, Samuel JL, Heymes C, Morel E, Lezoualc'h F (Apr 2008). "Epac mediates beta-adrenergic receptor ... and is involved in the development of hypertrophic events by chronic cAMP stimulation through β-adrenergic receptors. In ... "cAMP analog mapping of Epac1 and cAMP kinase. Discriminating analogs demonstrate that Epac and cAMP kinase act synergistically ... In heart, chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor is known to progress to arrhythmia through an Epac2-dependent mechanism ...
amyloid-beta binding. • signal transducer activity. • Wnt-protein binding. • protein binding. • protein kinase binding. • ... G protein-coupled receptors. *Transmembrane receptor stubs. Hidden categories: *Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • Wnt-activated receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. ... "Frizzled Receptors: FZD5". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
... kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. ... amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. ... The beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 was cloned from mice and rats in 1991 and the human gene was cloned in 1993. Gene linkage ... Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (beta-ARK-2) also known as G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) is an enzyme that in ...
Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate MAP kinases by stimulating tyrosine kinase signaling cascades. In some ... adrenergic receptor mediates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation via assembly of a multi-receptor complex with the ... Adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) stimulation of COS-7 cells induces EGFR dimerization, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and EGFR ... indicating that both kinases are required for EGFR transactivation. beta(2)AR-dependent signaling to ERK1/2, like direct EGF ...
β-AR, beta adrenergic receptor; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; AC, adenylate cyclase; Gsα, activating G protein-coupled subunit; PKA, ... Conditional deletion of membrane-bound beta-adrenergic receptors in renin cells results in a significant decrease in renin ... Antioxidant-induced nuclear translocation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta. A critical role for protein kinase A-mediated ... The cAMP pathway is activated through the β-adrenergic receptor or the prostaglandin E2 receptor. Phosphorylated CREB enters ...
2)-adrenoceptor agonists on force production in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle fibers have been the subject of a number of ... previous studies, those of long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists have never been investigated. Also, little is known about the ... Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology * Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 / drug effects* * Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 / ... It also increased the phosphorylation of β(2)-adrenoceptors in slow-twitch fibers only, but it had no effect on the ...
In brain and heart PKA increases the activity of the L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. ... Cav1.2 forms a complex with the beta2-adrenergic receptor, the trimeric GS protein, adenyl … ... The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a wide array of cellular functions. ... Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 / physiology * Serine / physiology * Signal Transduction / drug effects * Signal Transduction / ...
G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G ... protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic ... ATP + [beta-adrenergic receptor] = ADP + [beta-adrenergic receptor] phosphate. *ARBK2_HUMAN,P35626 ...
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/metabolism*. *Rhodopsin/metabolism*. *Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. *Signal Transduction/ ... Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases 5 and 6 in β2-Adrenergic Receptor and Rhodopsin Phosphorylation ... Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases 5 and 6 in β2-Adrenergic Receptor and Rhodopsin Phosphorylation ... Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases 5 and 6 in β2-Adrenergic Receptor and Rhodopsin Phosphorylation ...
DSP4-induced noradrenergic lesions increase beta-adrenergic receptors and hippocampal electrophysiological responsiveness. ... Regulation of D(1) dopamine receptors with mutations of protein kinase phosphorylation sites: attenuation of the rate of ... We identify the relevant components of NM receptor regulation (receptor phosphorylation, receptor trafficking and sensitization ... Resistance of the dopamine D2L receptor to desensitization accompanies the up-regulation of receptors on to the surface of Sf9 ...
beta-Adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-AR kinase) is a cytosolic enzyme that phosphorylates the beta-adrenergic receptor only ... The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) phosphorylates its membrane-associated receptor substrates, such as the beta- ... Functional desensitization of the isolated beta-adrenergic receptor by the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase: potential role of ... Beta-agonist- and prostaglandin E1-induced translocation of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase: evidence that the kinase may ...
2003) Protein kinase A and G protein-coupled receptor kinase phosphorylation mediates beta-1 adrenergic receptor endocytosis ... Beta-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are members of the seven transmembrane receptor (7TMR) family that become activated upon ... 1999) Beta-arrestin-dependent formation of beta2 adrenergic receptor-Src protein kinase complexes. Science 283:655-661. ... 2004) Comparative pharmacology of human beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes-characterization of stably transfected receptors in ...
Inhibition of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase prevents rapid homologous desensitization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors.  ... Homologous (agonist-specific) desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta ARs) is accompanied by and appears to require ... A beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-like enzyme is involved in olfactory signal termination.  Arriza, J; Boekhoff, I; Breer, H; ... We have previously shown that second-messenger-dependent kinases (cAMP-dependent kinase, protein kinase C) in the olfactory ...
... such as rhodopsin kinase and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase, which show stimulus-dependent phosphorylation of receptors have ... also regulate the function of receptors. Highly specific receptor kinases, ... Here we report that prevention of agonist-stimulated beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) phosphorylation by truncation of its ... These data provide the first direct evidence that one molecular mechanism of desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors ...
The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G ... protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic ... These data suggest the existence of a family of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function. [ ... receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. ...
MAGI-2, SSCAM In mouse: AIP-1, Acvri1, Acvrinp1, Acvrip1, Magi-2, S-SCAM, mKIAA0705 In rat: Acvrinp1, Acvrip1, S-SCAM MAGI ... Beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with the synaptic scaffolding protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted-2 ( ... Differential localization of delta glutamate receptors in the rat cerebellum: coexpression with AMPA receptors in parallel ... Identification of a novel beta-catenin-interacting protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;273:712-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
Find comprehensive market research reports on G-Protein Coupled Receptors which cover the kinds of GPCR Families and the ... Histidine‐Specific Protein Kinases. Beta Adrenergic Receptor Kinase. Beta Adrenergic Receptor Kinase2 ... Adrenergic Receptors 325 Agonist‐Specific Changes in Receptor Conformation. Relationship Between the ?2 ‐ ... Histamine Receptor with Histamine as their Endogenous Ligand. Olfactory Receptors: Class A Variety of G‐Protein Coupled ...
Essential role of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 in cardiac development and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996;93:12974 ... Signaling of receptors via G proteins is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), a family of seven serine/ ... G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 negatively regulates chemokine signaling at a level downstream from G protein subunits. Mol ... Mdm2 is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. EMBO J 2006;25:4752-4762. ...
alpha]-Hederin inhibits G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation of [[beta].sub.2]-adrenergic receptors ... To confirm the stable transfection of HEK293 cells a rabbit antibody against the C-terminus of the [[beta].. [ ... Exploring peptide hormones in plants: identification of four peptide hormone-receptor pairs and two post-translational ... Figure 2).. Flexing the rules on drug dosing frequency: the creation of a tunable half-life technology ...
Keywords: Alzheimers disease, amyloid, beta-adrenergic receptors, G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 ... β-Adrenergic Receptors and G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase-2 in Alzheimers Disease: A New Paradigm for Prognosis and Therapy ... The β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) system can be considered a possible target that deserves further exploration in AD. The ... Since caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) and selective antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors modify the course of ...
... beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and sexual hormones. In clinical practice, most experience has been gained with the use of ... Beta-Adrenergic Receptors. The adrenergic system plays an important role in the control of uterine contractility. Currently, β2 ... and increasingly more significant than traditional tocolytics such as beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockers or magnesium ... Kamp, T.J.; Hell, J.W. Regulation of cardiac L-type calcium channels by protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Circ. Res. 2000 ...
In addition to phosphorylating the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) and other receptors, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 ... Beta 2-adrenergic Receptor Stimulated, G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Mediated, Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein P2 ... Oct, 2002 , Pubmed ID: 12379128 G protein-coupled receptor kinases are well characterized for their ability to phosphorylate ... May, 2008 , Pubmed ID: 18330557 Novel immune-type receptors (NITRs) are immunoglobulin-variable (V) domain-containing cell ...
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. ... This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing ... This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. ... adrenoceptor beta 2. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ...
1988). "Site-directed mutagenesis and continuous expression of human beta-adrenergic receptors. Identification of a conserved ... Zamah AM, Delahunty M, Luttrell LM, Lefkowitz RJ (August 2002). "Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the beta 2- ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta- ... the contribution of genetic variability in beta adrenergic receptor and cytochrome P4502C9.". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 82 (2): ...
Compare and order Adrenergic, Beta, Receptor Kinase 1 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices ... enzyme that specifically phosphorylates the activated form of the beta-adrenergic and related G-protein-coupled receptors. ... beta ARK , beta ARK1 , beta-AR kinase-1 , beta-ARK-1 , beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 , G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 ... beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 , adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1 , G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 , ...
Compare beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... and adrenergic receptors on stage of maturation in neonatal calves and emphasize the association of alpha1-adrenergic receptor ... beta2-adrenergic receptor) Ca2 (show CA2 ELISA Kits)+ signaling cascade that activates PKA (protein kinase A). ...
However, the potency of GRK3ct at beta(1)-adrenergic receptors was at least 20-fold lower than that at endothelin receptors. In ... adrenergic, and beta(1)-adrenergic receptor-generated responses in cardiac myocytes were achieved by adenovirus gene ... adrenergic receptors despite massive overexpression. On the contrary, both GRK2ct and GRK3ct enhanced beta(1)-adrenergic ... Although GRK2 has been extensively investigated in terms of regulation of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors, the substrate ...
  • MBS2019231 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Double-antibody Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Adrenergic Receptor Beta 1 (ADRb1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Our findings demonstrate that Alp and Car are ligands that not only act as classical receptor antagonists, but can also stimulate signaling pathways in a G protein-independent, β-arrestin-dependent fashion. (pnas.org)
  • The appreciation that chronic stimulation of βARs likely contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure ( 4 ) has led to the use of β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (i.e., β-blockers) to competitively inhibit the harmful effects of chronic catecholamine stimulation ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Despite the lack of sufficient randomized prospective studies, ACE inhibitors are first line and ß-receptor antagonists are second-line strategies in children. (springer.com)
  • Membrane receptors for neuromodulators (NM) are highly regulated in their distribution and efficacy - a phenomenon which influences the individual cell's response to central signals of NM release. (cogprints.org)
  • The BEK/FGFR-2 receptor is a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase with the typical features of FGF receptors. (duke.edu)
  • Membrane-associated guanylate kinases regulate adhesion and plasticity at cell junctions. (springer.com)
  • These receptors are defined by a common structural feature which is comprised of seven hydrophobic trans-membrane segments. (researchimpact.com)
  • The protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP79 influences beta 2AR phosphorylation by complexing PKA with the receptor at the membrane. (caltech.edu)
  • Beta Arrestin 1 in the cytosol is phosphorylated by ERK1 and 2 on serine412 in a negative feedback mechanism and binds to the phosphorylated receptors at the plasma membrane. (thermofisher.com)
  • Apart from their effect on the interaction between β receptor activation and reactive oxygen species production 3 and scavenging, 4 β blockers can inhibit calcium/calmodulin -dependent protein kinase II 5 and phospholipase A, 6 exert membrane stabilizing effects, 7 and may even have direct effects on mitochondrial electron transport and reactive oxygen species production. (asahq.org)
  • Specific activator of the exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) or cAMP-GEF, respectively, which does not activate protein kinase A. High lipophilicity and membrane permeability, as well as increased PDE stability. (biolog.de)
  • Chromosomal organization of adrenergic receptor genes. (duke.edu)
  • This is where the recent developments in knowledge of the genes responsible for drug receptors are starting to make a big impact. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This bioassay has the potential to lead to the identification of genes that encode receptors capable of interacting with deterrent chemicals, which would enable understanding of predator detection of chemical defenses. (biologists.org)
  • although some genes encoding putative receptors are known ( Buck and Axel, 1991 ), their specific ligands remain largely unidentified. (biologists.org)
  • Notch1 signaling activation affected the expression of serial genes, especially the genes associated with cAMP signaling, with an increase of genes like THBS1, VCL, p63, c-Myc and SCG2, a decrease of genes like NR4A2, PCK2 and BCL-2. (jcancer.org)
  • Coincident with EGFR transactivation, isoproterenol exposure induces the formation of a multireceptor complex containing both the beta(2)AR and the "transactivated" EGFR. (uniprot.org)
  • Mechanism of Action In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that albuterol has a preferential effect on beta 2 -adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation requires at least two signals, one mediated through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and another via Gαq/11 ( 14 ) in 3T3L1 adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of beta 2 -adrenergic receptors on airway smooth muscle leads to the activation of adenylcyclase and to an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). (nih.gov)
  • This increase of cyclic AMP leads to the activation of protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular ionic calcium concentrations, resulting in relaxation. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of the murine BEK fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor: activation by three members of the FGF family and requirement for heparin. (duke.edu)
  • To determine whether β-adrenergic ligands that do not activate G protein signaling (i.e., β-blockers) can stabilize the β 1 AR in a signaling conformation, we screened 20 β-blockers for their ability to stimulate β-arrestin-mediated EGFR transactivation. (pnas.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that binding of different ligands promotes distinct receptor conformations leading to specific signaling events ( 9 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • We screened β-adrenergic ligands to determine if any could lead to β 1 AR-mediated EGFR transactivation. (pnas.org)
  • Although the acute actions of short-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists on force production in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle fibers have been the subject of a number of previous studies, those of long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists have never been investigated. (nih.gov)
  • From these results, we suggest that the acute actions of short-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists on force production in mammalian skeletal muscles are mediated through the β(2)-adrenoceptor, whereas those of long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists are not. (nih.gov)
  • the protein targets for drug action on mammalian cells can be broadly divided into receptors, ion channels, enzymes, and carrier molecules. (aspetjournals.org)