Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Necturus: A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Necturus maculosus: A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.rab4 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Rana ridibunda: A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport: A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.Salamandra: A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.PhenylthioureaGeniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Multivesicular Bodies: Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Nervous System Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Sorting Nexins: A large family of phosphatidylinositol phosphate-binding proteins that are involved in mediating intracellular transport and sorting of proteins via a variety of endocytic pathways.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Nucleotides, CyclicOlfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Mice, Inbred C57BLMoths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 3: A member of the vesicle associated membrane protein family. It has a broad tissue distribution and is involved in MEMBRANE FUSION events of the endocytic pathways.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Nerve Tissue Proteins1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1: An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Reserve AMPA receptors are embedded in endosomes within the cell. CaMKII can stimulate the endosomes to move to the outer ... Exocytosis of endosomes enlarges and increases the number of AMPA receptors in the synapse. The greater number of AMPA ... CaMK2D appears in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. It is characterized particularly in many tumor cells, such as a ... This increases channel conductance of GluA1 subunits of AMPA receptors, which allows AMPA receptors to be more sensitive than ...
... yeast endosome equivalent) compartment in yeast. It is also required for the recycling of the cell surface receptor CED-1, ... Retromer is a complex of proteins that has been shown to be important in recycling transmembrane receptors from endosomes to ... Seaman MN (Feb 2005). "Recycle your receptors with retromer". Trends in Cell Biology. 15 (2): 68-75. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2004.12. ... "Role of the mammalian retromer in sorting of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor". The Journal of Cell Biology ...
"Myosin Vb mobilizes recycling endosomes and AMPA receptors for postsynaptic plasticity". Cell. 135 (3): 535-48. doi:10.1016/j. ... Recent evidence suggests that Myosin VB is related to the creation of memories by actin-dependent trafficking of AMPA receptor ... transmembrane conductance regulator in Rab11a-specific apical recycling endosomes in polarized human airway epithelial cells". ... cell.2008.09.057. PMC 2585749 . PMID 18984164. Müller T, Hess MW, Schiefermeier N, Pfaller K, Ebner HL, Heinz-Erian P, ...
Primary receptors include DC-SIGN, DC-SIGN-R, and the integrin αvβ3. By binding to these primary receptors, WNV enters the cell ... As a result of endocytosis, WNV enters the cell within an endosome. The acidity of the endosome catalyzes the fusion of the ... "The TIM and TAM Families of Phosphatidylserine Receptors Mediate Dengue Virus Entry". Cell Host & Microbe. 12 (4): 544-557. doi ... These attachment factors aid entry into the cell, however, binding to primary receptors is also necessary. ...
"Myosin Vb mobilizes recycling endosomes and AMPA receptors for postsynaptic plasticity". Cell. 135 (3): 535-48. doi:10.1016/j. ... The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor ... Shepherd JD, Huganir RL (2007). "The cell biology of synaptic plasticity: AMPA receptor trafficking". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol ... Recycling endosomes within the dendritic spine contain pools of AMPA receptors for such synaptic reinsertion.[46] Two distinct ...
"Rab17 localizes to recycling endosomes and regulates receptor-mediated transcytosis in epithelial cells". J Biol Chem. 273 (25 ... 1993). "Rab17, a novel small GTPase, is specific for epithelial cells and is induced during cell polarization". J. Cell Biol. ... In melanocytic cells RAB17 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124839 - Ensembl, May ... 2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 21 (6): 665-76. doi ...
"Rab17 localizes to recycling endosomes and regulates receptor-mediated transcytosis in epithelial cells". The Journal of ... Transcytosis can be receptor-mediated and consists of three steps: 1) receptor-mediated endocytosis of the molecule on one side ... Macromolecules are captured in vesicles on one side of the cell, drawn across the cell, and ejected on the other side. Examples ... undergoes RMT across the BBB via transport on brain endothelial receptors such as the insulin receptor or transferrin receptor ...
This gene encodes a protein receptor that localizes phosphoglycoproteins within endosomes and at the cell periphery. This ... trafficking receptor for phosphoglycoproteins may play a role in neuroplasticity by modulating cell-cell interactions, ... Journal of Cell Science. 93 ( Pt 2) (2): 227-32. PMID 2482295. "Entrez Gene: LGTN ligatin". Jakoi ER, Ross PE, Ping Ting-Beall ... "A possible role for ligatin and the phosphoglycoproteins it binds in calcium-dependent retinal cell adhesion". Journal of ...
This protein also has a role in sorting protease-activated receptor-1 from early endosomes to lysosomes. This protein may form ... 2001). "Self-assembly and binding of a sorting nexin to sorting endosomes". J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 9): 1743-56. PMID 11309204. ... 2003). "Enterophilin-1, a new partner of sorting nexin 1, decreases cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor". J. Biol. ... 2002). "Down-regulation of protease-activated receptor-1 is regulated by sorting nexin 1". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (6): 1965-76. ...
This signals the cell to internalize the toxin within an endosome via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the endosome, the ... The acidity of the endosome causes fragment B to create pores in the endosome membrane, thereby catalysing the release of ... Fragment B is a recognition subunit that gains the toxin entry into the host cell by binding to the EGF-like domain of heparin- ... Fragment A inhibits the synthesis of new proteins in the affected cell by catalyzing ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor EF-2 ...
To see whether effects of proteolytic cleavage of TcdB takes place at the cell surface or in acidic endosomes, studies used ... This phenomenon takes place by a binding receptor region, which enables toxin to enter host cells[citation needed]. Through the ... Some physiological parts of the cells that are not involved in actin filaments, may not cause cell rounding or cell death right ... Cell roundings by TcdB take no longer than 2 hours (Fig. 4), but as far as cell death goes, it can take approximately 24 hours ...
The virus enter cells by receptor mediated endocytosis and form a vesicle known as an endosome. Proteins in the third layer ( ... It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis (which is often called "stomach flu" ... Viroplasm is formed around the cell nucleus as early as two hours after virus infection, and consists of viral factories ... Rotavirus serotypes were first described in 1980, and in the following year, rotavirus from humans was first grown in cell ...
CHMP5 is essential for late endosome function and down-regulation of receptor signalling during mouse embryogenesis. J. Cell ... Cell, 1997. 89(3): p. 413-24. Phillips, R.J. and S. Ghosh, Regulation of IkappaB beta in WEHI 231 mature B cells. Mol Cell Biol ... 289(5484): p. 1550-4. Voll, R.E., et al., NF-kappa B activation by the pre-T cell receptor serves as a selective survival ... 52(3): p. 951-8. Lee, K.Y., et al., PDK1 nucleates T cell receptor-induced signalling complex for NF-kappaB activation. Science ...
The virus enter cells by receptor mediated endocytosis and form a vesicle known as an endosome. Proteins in the third layer ( ... It binds to molecules on the surface of cells called receptors and drives the entry of the virus into the cell. VP4 has to be ... and natural killer cells to the rotavirus infected cells. The rotavirus dsRNA activates pattern recognition receptors such toll ... is an enterotoxin which acts on uninfected cells via integrin receptors, which in turn cause and increase in intracellular ...
... endocytosis is used for example for transcytosis of albumin in endothelial cells or for internalization of the insulin receptor ... The released caveolar vesicle can fuse with early endosome or caveosome. The caveosome is an endosomal compartment with neutral ... endothelial cells and notochord cells . Caveolae can be used for entry to the cell by some pathogens and so they avoid ... In smooth-muscle cells, caveolin Cav1 has a role in stretch sensing which triggers cell-cycle progression. Some known ...
They attach to the cell surface via specific receptors and are taken up by an endosomal vesicle. Inside the endosome, the ... Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing ... Another direct approach is the isolation of the virus and its growth in cell culture using blood plasma; this can take one to ... After entering the host cell, the viral genome is replicated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the so-called ...
Receptor binding is the first step required for entry into the cell via endocytosis in an acidic endosome. Low pH in the ... The carboxy C-terminal domain contains repeating units that are responsible for receptor binding on target cell surfaces. These ... Distinct changes in the microfilament system lead to cell rounding and cell death. These changes result from the inactivation ... Toxin damage to the colonic mucosa promotes accumulations of fibrin, mucin, and dead cells to form a layer of debris in the ...
... where they bind to T-cell receptors and activates T-cells, bridging the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. This is ... Endosomes and lysosomes then fuse with the phagosome to contribute to the membrane, especially when the engulfed particle is ... Fc receptor (FcR), complement receptors (CR), mannose receptor and Dectin-1 are phagocytic receptors, which means that they can ... More cell surface receptors can bind to the particle in a zipper-like mechanism as the pathogen is surrounded, increasing the ...
I-cell disease Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor Mannose Mannose 1-phosphate Alberts, Bruce; et al. (2002). Molecular ... The pH in the late endosome can reach 6.0, which causes dissociation of M6P from its receptor. Upon release, the enzymes are ... Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Role of M6P in protein ... The MPRs are packed into vesicles that bud off the late endosome and return to the "trans"-Golgi network. In this way, the MPRs ...
The virus attach to the cell surface via specific receptors and are taken up by an endosome being formed. At the neutral pH ... but in vitro studies with cell lines showed that rubella virus has an apoptotic effect on certain cell types. There is evidence ... outside of the cell the E2 envelope protein covers the E1 protein. The dropping pH inside the endosome frees the outer domain ... Beatch MD, Hobman TC (June 2000). "Rubella virus capsid associates with host cell protein p32 and localizes to mitochondria". J ...
The immunoglobulin receptor FceRI requires GAB2 as a necessity for mast cells to activate PI3K receptor to create an allergic ... Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (August 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ... or non-RTK receptors, such as G protein coupled receptors, cytokine receptors, multichain immune recognition receptors and ... It mediates the interaction between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-RTK receptors serving as the gateway into the cell ...
cell surface receptor signaling pathway. JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway. lactation. cell ... prolactin receptor binding. proteina lotura. hormone activity. Osagai-zelularra. Ikusi. *extracellular region. endosome lumen. ... regulation of receptor activity. negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation. negative regulation of angiogenesis. ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. response to organic cyclic compound. regulation of ossification. response to ...
After the attachment to the receptors, entry to the host cell occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis through the aid of ... The virus particles enter the cell in a structure known as an endosome (also called an endolysosome). Disassembly is a stepwise ... There are two receptors for the virus on the host cell. There is the junctional adhesion molecule-A, which is a serotype- ... dsRNA inside of a cell is a tip off to the immune system that the cell is infected with a virus, since dsRNA does not occur in ...
This gene encodes a protein involved in endosomal sorting of cell surface receptors via a multivesicular body/late endosome ... Raiborg C, Rusten TE, Stenmark H (2004). "Protein sorting into multivesicular endosomes". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (4): 446-55 ... Cell. 15 (9): 4337-46. doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-03-0250. PMC 515363 . PMID 15240819. Eastman SW, Martin-Serrano J, Chung W, Zang T, ... Cell Biol. 157 (1): 91-101. doi:10.1083/jcb.200112080. PMC 2173266 . PMID 11916981. Martin-Serrano J, Zang T, Bieniasz PD (2003 ...
The trimeric spikes on the exterior of the membrane of the virus interact with a specific cell receptor, the most likely one ... membrane pinches in a procession known as pinocytosis and allows entry of the virus into the cell by way of an endosome. The ... The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. Less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified ... It is also capable of infecting neighboring "upstream" cells, moving from one cell to axons of the next at synapses, and is ...
When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol ( ... The virions taken up by the cell then travel to acidic endosomes and lysosomes where the viral envelope glycoprotein GP is ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
We show that this interaction is required both for correct localization of the protein to endosomes that only partially ... receptor stimulation fails to elicit phosphorylation of Hrs. Our results provide a clear example of the coupling of a signal ... is a prominent substrate for activated tyrosine kinase receptors that has been proposed to play a role in endosomal membrane ... transduction pathway to endocytosis, from which we propose that activated receptor (or associated factor) must be delivered to ...
In primary endothelial cells, VEGFR2 displays co-localisation with Rab4a, but not Rab11a GTPase, on early endosomes. Expression ... Rab-dependent endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of VEGFR2 is important for intracellular signalling, cell migration and ... TfR and VEGFR2 exhibited differences in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling in the presence of chloroquine. Depletion of ... Interestingly, depletion of Rab4a levels stimulated VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell proliferation. Rab4a and Rab11a were also ...
J Cell Sci. 2019 Nov 28. pii: jcs.235192. doi: 10.1242/jcs.235192. [Epub ahead of print] ... Adaptive immune system; Antigen processing; B cell receptor; B cells; BCR; Endosomes; MHCII; Peptide-loading; Vesicle traffic ... B cells internalise specific antigens and process them into peptides loaded onto MHCII for presentation to TH cells. While the ... B cells rapidly target antigen and surface-derived MHCII into peripheral degradative compartments.. Hernández-Pérez S1,2, ...
Inhibition of Pseudovirus Entry into Human Cells by Endosome Inhibitors.. Huh-7 cells were preincubated with 8 or 40 mM NH4Cl ( ... human liver cells), Calu-3 cells (human lung cells), and MRC-5 cells (human lung cells), all of which endogenously express ... Huh-7 cells (transiently expressing TMPRSS2 or no TMPRSS2), Calu-3 cells, MRC-5 cells, or Tb1-Lu cells (transiently expressing ... 2013) Structure of MERS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain complexed with human receptor DPP4. Cell Res 23(8):986-993. ...
... dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor occurs in a perinuclear endosome compartment in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.. ... Stimulation of these cells with insulin resulted in a rapid induction of FRET that increased over time and was localized to a ... of Topaz-IR with a GFP-labeled RhoB endosomal marker and treatment of the cells with insulin identified a perinuclear endosome ... Furthermore, the insulin-induced FRET could be prevented by the treatment of the cells with a specific PTP-1B inhibitor. These ...
After adsorption, the virus penetrates the host cell and enters the cytoplasm. The virions aggregate in the large endosomes ( ... The interaction of the G protein and specific cell surface receptors may be involved. ... Conversely, virus in the salivary glands buds primarily from the cell membrane into the acinar lumen. Viral budding into the ... 1: Adsorption (receptors and virion interation). 2: Penetration (virus entry). 3: Uncoating (envelope removal). 4. ...
20 endosomes were counted per experiment. endo, endosome. (C) Micrographs of endosomes in shFLNa or shScr cells that expressed ... 2011). SNX27 mediates retromer tubule entry and endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking of signalling receptors. Nat. Cell Biol ... Then, cells were acid-washed and allowed to recycle back the receptor to the plasma membrane for the indicated times. Cells ... Whiskers indicate s.d. A minimum of eight cells in three separate experiments were quantified with 30 endosomes per cell, ...
... trafficking to late endosomes and antigen presentation. Also required for BCR surface expression and for efficient ... Represses BCR signaling during development of immature B-cells. ... activated by binding of antigen to the B-cell antigen receptor ... differentiation of pro- and pre-B-cells. Stimulates SYK autophosphorylation and activation. Binds to BLNK, bringing BLNK into ... "Reconstitution of the B cell antigen receptor signaling components in COS cells.". Saouaf S.J., Kut S.A., Fargnoli J., Rowley R ...
"Myosin Vb mobilizes recycling endosomes and AMPA receptors for postsynaptic plasticity". Cell. 135 (3): 535-48. doi:10.1016/j. ... The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor ... Shepherd JD, Huganir RL (2007). "The cell biology of synaptic plasticity: AMPA receptor trafficking". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol ... Recycling endosomes within the dendritic spine contain pools of AMPA receptors for such synaptic reinsertion.[46] Two distinct ...
... receptors related to cellular trafficking and cell sorting; and other related cell processing components. Applications that ... including those genes/events that may affect the cell membrane; early, mature, and late endosomes; the retromer/recycling ... Characterization of cell types affected by changes in endosomal processing by physiological measures such as changes in neural ... Comprehensive analysis of how single-cell transcriptomic (e.g. RNAseq), epigenetic (e.g. chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation ...
Binding of toxins to cell surface receptors. *Endocytic uptake of Shiga toxin ... Transport of Shiga toxin between endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. *Retrograde Shiga toxin transport to the ER and ... In particular, the natural property of the CyaA toxin to target immune cells has been exploited to create innovative vaccines ... Basic knowledge gained on the mechanisms of CyaA entry into eukaryotic target cells and its interaction with cellular effectors ...
Cell Junctions. Centrosome. Cytokinetic bridge. Cytoplasmic bodies. Cytosol. Endoplasmic reticulum. Endosomes. Focal adhesion ... Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... protein_class:RGC receptor guanylate cyclase kinases AND with_antibodies:Yes AND ih_cell_reliability:Supportive. Search. Fields ... RNA cell category. RNA cancer category. Tissue detectable (RNA). Cell line detectable (RNA). Cancer detectable (RNA). ...
Cell Junctions. Centrosome. Cleavage furrow. Cytokinetic bridge. Cytoplasmic bodies. Cytosol. Endoplasmic reticulum. Endosomes ... Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... RNA cell line specificity scorei. RNA CS indicates cell specificity (CS) score for cell lines with elevated RNA expression, ... protein_class:Lysolipids receptors AND annotated_expression_ih:Yes AND ih_cell_reliability:Supportive. Search. Fields ». ...
Recent data on feline and mink cell lines have shown that CPV uses the transferrin receptor to attach and infect cells (25). ... Cells were fixed at 2 h p.i. Microinjected cells are indicated by arrows. Noninjected cells serve as controls. (A) Injected ... 8) of CPV with MPR, a marker of late endosomes, suggest that CPV was transported from recycling endosomes to late endosomes. ... CPV particles colocalized with transferrin in perinuclear endosomes of Mv1Lu cells transfected with human transferrin receptor ...
EE, early endosome; ILV, intraluminal vesicle; RE, recycling endosome; TCR, T-cell receptor. ... Membrane contacts between endosomes and ER provide sites for PTP1B-epidermal growth factor receptor interaction. Nat Cell Biol ... Extracellular vesicles from neural stem cells transfer IFN-γ via Ifngr1 to activate Stat1 signaling in target cells. Mol Cell ... INS-1E cells (22), MIN6 cells (23), and DR4 (DRA1*0101; DRB1*0401)-positive human Priess Epstein Barr virus-transformed B cells ...
What is the purpose of the fusing of the endosomes containing the receptor/LDL complex with lysosomes? ... Free apoA-1 can also acquire cholesterol and phospholipid from other lipoproteins and cell membranes to form nascent-like HDL ... They return to the liver, where the LDL receptor on hepatocytes binds apoE and the chylomicron remnant is taken up by receptor ... Lipid laden macrophages called foam cells accumulate in intima of blood vessel walls to form fatty streak. Fatty streaks can ...
... yeast endosome equivalent) compartment in yeast. It is also required for the recycling of the cell surface receptor CED-1, ... Seaman MN (Feb 2005). "Recycle your receptors with retromer". Trends in Cell Biology. 15 (2): 68-75. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2004.12. ... Retromer is a complex of proteins that has been shown to be important in recycling transmembrane receptors from endosomes to ... "Retromer is required for apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytic receptor recycling". Science. 327 (5970): 1261-4. doi:10.1126/ ...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... These receptors are located in the membrane of endosomes. Recognition of an appropriate PAMP takes place after its degradation ... and CD19+ cells , compared to patients with haemoglobin concentration 12 g/dL (. , ; , ; , , resp.). ... "Toll-like receptor 9 activation induces expression of membrane-bound B-cell activating factor (BAFF) on human B cells and leads ...
... plays an important role in regulating CD8+ T cell responses to proteins that are not expressed by antigen-presenting cells ( ... APCs). Dendritic cells are the principal cross-presenting APCs in vivo and much progress has been made in elucidating the ... Dendritic Cells / immunology * Encephalomyocarditis virus / immunology * Encephalomyocarditis virus / physiology * Endosomes / ... followed by signalling through the dsRNA receptor, toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Immunization with virus-infected cells or cells ...
The transferrin receptor distributed on the cell surfaces was also greatly reduced in cells overexpressing SARA. However, the ... can be recruited onto early endosomes and act as Rab5 effectors. SARA (Smad anchor for receptor activation), also a FYVE domain ... Thus, cell motility is regulated by integrating signaling inputs from chemokine receptors and molecules such as MMP-9, CD11b, ... Unexpectedly, MMP-9 and its cell surface receptors CD11b and CD44 were required for enhanced CCL5-induced chemotaxis even in ...
... the receptors return to the cell membrane. In contrast, other types of receptors that also travel to the endosomes after they ... When GPCRs are activated, they shuttle from the cell membrane to endosomes. If the receptors lack certain amino acid sequences ... stimulated β-2 adrenergic receptors (B2AR), a type of GPCR, in cultured cells. Within five minutes, most of the receptors had ... During their time in the endosomes, these receptors localize to tubules that lack ASRT domains.. "The main reason [for receptor ...
... cell surface receptors bind exogenous ligands (Figure 1). These... ... Proteases were initially identified in endosomes through studies of receptor-ligand transport.1During receptor-mediated ... 1 During receptor-mediated endocytosis, cell surface receptors bind exogenous ligands (Figure 1). These receptor-ligand ... with the released receptors recycling back to the cell surface. Ligands delivered into endosomes undergo a variety of fates ...
Endosomes: multipurpose designs for integrating housekeeping and specialized tasks. Histochem. Cell Biol. 117:91. ... Ba/F3 cells or HEK293 cells expressing Flag-tagged human TLR3, or HeLa cells were lysed in lysis buffer. TLR3 protein was ... Electron micrograph of Ba/F3 cells (a) shows a large MVB (arrow) in Ba/F3 cells. Ba/F3 cells expressing Flag-tagged human TLR3 ... In monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (iDCs), TLR3 predominantly resided inside the cells but not on the cell surface. ...
Slitrk5 Mediates BDNF-Dependent TrkB Receptor Trafficking and Signaling. Dev Cell. 2015;33:690-702. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... Signaling endosome-mediated events in cell bodies and dendrites. On reaching cell bodies, Trk-harboring endosomes stimulate ... Signaling endosome-mediated events in cell bodies and dendrites. *Defects in signaling endosomes in neurodevelopmental ... the stability of neurotrophin-Trk receptor complexes in endosomes, and sustained signaling within endosomes, may influence ...
In monocytes TLR2 colocalizes with LTA in early endosomes and lysosomes [29]. In HeLa cells, internalized S. aureus colocalizes ... Nonprofessional Phagocytic Cell Receptors Involved in Staphylococcus aureus Internalization. Nayeli Alva-Murillo, Joel Edmundo ... This protein is associated with viral infections by acting as a receptor for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) [ ... Figure 1: Different receptors and mechanisms involved in S. aureus internalization into nonprofessional phagocytic cells. (a) ...
  • The protein contains a FYVE domain, which specifically binds to the lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-phosphate (PI 3-P). We show that this interaction is required both for correct localization of the protein to endosomes that only partially coincides with early endosomal autoantigen 1 and for efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results provide a clear example of the coupling of a signal transduction pathway to endocytosis, from which we propose that activated receptor (or associated factor) must be delivered to the appropriate endocytic compartment in order for Hrs phosphorylation to occur. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the present study the intracellular entry pathway of the canine parvovirus in NLFK (Nordisk Laboratory feline kidney) cells was studied. (asm.org)
  • NetPath_11 - T Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway NetPath (http://www.netpath.org) is a collaborative project between PandeyLab at Johns Hopkins University (http://pandeylab.igm.jhmi.edu) and the Institute of Bioinformatics (http://www.ibioinformatics.org). (wikipathways.org)
  • The researchers show that the growth-promoting brassinosteroid receptor (BRI1) is trafficked through endosomes to enhance activation of this growth response pathway, which affects both shoot and root growth. (cshlpress.com)
  • This review presents an overview of the growing literature around the role of the cGAS-STING pathway in the tumor microenvironment, with a specific focus on the role that cancer cells may play in the direct activation of this pathway, and its amplification through cell-cell transfer of cGAMP. (springer.com)
  • Fusion is triggered by the acidic pH of this compartment and mediated by the viral envelope protein E. Assembly of flaviviruses takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum and leads to the formation of immature virions that are transported through the exocytic pathway of the cell. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • The authors note that this system enables different receptors to regulate a signaling pathway without needing to directly interact with components in that pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • There is a consensus that polycation-DNA complexes (polyplexes) enter cells via the endocytotic pathway. (mendeley.com)
  • It functions as an intracellular sorting receptor as APP is being trafficked between the secretory pathway, the cell surface, and, subsequently, endosomes. (alzforum.org)
  • Researchers in von Zastrow's lab collaborated with Aashish Manglik , MD, PhD, assistant professor of pharmaceutical chemistry, to create a "biosensor" that binds to the opioid receptors along with an opioid drug or natural opioid. (ucsf.edu)
  • a mAb binds to a target (e.g., receptors, soluble antigens, etc.) and induces either antagonistic (i.e., blocking or neutralizing) or agonistic effects (i.e., activating), triggering down-stream pharmacological effects, leading to efficacy and/or unwanted side effects. (springer.com)
  • Once a hormone binds to the receptor, some recognizable early chemical event must occur. (powershow.com)
  • Affinity The tenacity by which a drug binds to its receptor. (powershow.com)
  • Nielsen MS, Madsen P, Christensen EI, Nykjaer A, Gliemann J, Kasper D, Pohlmann R, Petersen CM. The sortilin cytoplasmic tail conveys Golgi-endosome transport and binds the VHS domain of the GGA2 sorting protein. (proteopedia.org)
  • T cell presented CD28 eventually turns into CTLA4 which still binds to APC but inhibits it. (brainscape.com)
  • First, a protein on the virus binds with a receptor on the outside of the cell. (discovermagazine.com)
  • TfR binds iron-loaded (diferric) Tf at the cell surface and carries it to the endosome, where the iron dissociates from Tf. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that activated RhoB induces the peripheral distribution of endosomes, which align along subcortical actin stress fibres and are surrounded by an actin coat. (biologists.org)
  • In an effort to discover more specific agents, the LMU researchers screened a library of compounds and identified a particular combination of two biological toxins that selectively induces the enlargement of early endosomes by causing them to fuse with one another. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, CpG-B, when complexed into microparticles, localizes in TfR-positive endosomes and induces IFN-alpha from PDCs, whereas monomeric forms of CpG-A localize to LAMP-1-positive endosomes accompanied by the loss of IFN-alpha production and a gain in PDC maturation activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Attachment to αv integrin stimulates cell signaling and thus induces actin polymerization resulting in entry of the virion into the host cell within an endosome . (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that murine CD8alpha+ dendritic cells are activated by double-stranded (ds)RNA present in virally infected cells but absent from uninfected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, TLR3 may have evolved to permit cross-priming of CTLs against viruses that do not directly infect dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Human TLR3 is selectively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), fibroblasts, and intestinal epithelial cells, playing physiological roles in antiviral innate immunity ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • DCs (dendritic cells) function as sentinels of the immune system. (psu.edu)
  • Human dendritic cells (DC) can now be generated in vitro in large numbers by culturing CD34 + hematopoietic progenitors in presence of GM-CSF+TNFet for 12 d. (psu.edu)
  • In contrast, the CD14 + progenitors mature into CDla + DC lacking Birbeck granules, E-cadherin, and Lag antigen but expressing CD2, CD9, CD68, and the coagulation factor XIlla described in dermal dendritic cells. (psu.edu)
  • This complex participates in T-cell activation upon the presentation of the antigen peptide (derived from the foreign antigen) bound to the MHC (Class I and Class II) residing on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Mosquito bites present the major route of transmission of ZIKV, after which viral replication is believed to occur in skin fibroblasts/keratinocytes and skin-associated dendritic cells (DCs) with subsequent dissemination to lymph nodes and the bloodstream [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) can produce interferon (IFN)-alpha and/or mature and participate in the adaptive immune response. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we show that two endo-lysosomal peptide transporters, SLC15A3 and SLC15A4, are preferentially expressed by dendritic cells, especially after TLR stimulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been identified as a potent secretor of the type I interferons (IFNs) in response to CpG as well as several viruses. (rupress.org)
  • The phospholipase domain is required to remodel the endosome to allow escape and the nuclear localization signal is required for nuclear entry. (ufl.edu)
  • Our results reveal that MERS-CoV has adapted to use human receptor and cellular proteases for efficient human cell entry, whereas HKU4 can potentially follow-up and also infect human cells. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, MERS-CoV, but not HKU4, has adapted to use human DPP4 and human cellular proteases for efficient human cell entry, contributing to the enhanced pathogenesis of MERS-CoV in humans. (pnas.org)
  • These results establish DPP4 as a functional receptor for HKU4 and host cellular proteases as a host range determinant for HKU4. (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of many bacteria, some of which are responsible for severe diseases in human and animals, but can also be used as tools in cell biology to dissect cellular processes or used as therapeutic agents. (elsevier.com)
  • The study indicates that GPCRs that have moved to certain locations on endosomes activate specific genes-and thus presumably induce different cellular responses. (rupress.org)
  • however, it is unclear precisely how S1P receptor signaling modulates cellular responses to egress cues. (rupress.org)
  • The cellular trigger for AAV VP1u externalization in the endosome is unknown. (ufl.edu)
  • V-ATPases are frequently overexpressed in tumors and tumor cell lines [ 4 , 6 , 7 ], suggesting that proper control of organelle pH is essential for cellular health. (oncotarget.com)
  • Prior induction of an endoplasmic reticulum stress response has been associated with an increased tolerance to cellular toxins in in vitro systems, primarily involving renal and neuronal cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • NA destroys the sialic acid moiety of cellular receptors, thereby releasing the progeny virions. (wikimedia.org)
  • Stimulation of these cells with insulin resulted in a rapid induction of FRET that increased over time and was localized to a perinuclear spot. (nih.gov)
  • But GPCRs that possess these sequences home in on tubular sections of the endosome that carry actin/sorting nexin/retromer (ASRT) domains ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • The primary focus of this article is to review various polycation gene delivery systems, which are designed to translocate DNA from endosomes into cytosol. (mendeley.com)
  • The retromer complex has been shown to mediate retrieval of various transmembrane receptors, such as the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor , the functional mammalian counterpart of Vps10 , and the Wnt receptor Wntless . (wikipedia.org)
  • This ability enables the bacteria to evade the host innate immune system and to survive inside a wide variety of mammalian cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Using a mammalian cell culture system, we demonstrate that recycling endosomes are essential for Delta activity. (nih.gov)
  • 2013) Bacterial cell wall macroamphiphiles: pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns detected by mammalian innate immune system. (thermofisher.com)
  • 1-3 The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) serves as a sensor of mitochondrial homeostasis in T cells 4 and is activated in SLE patients. (bmj.com)
  • Tcell antigen receptor (TCR) ligation initiates tyrosine kinase activation, signaling complex assembly, and immune synapse formation. (rupress.org)
  • These activated PTKs induce tyrosine phosphorylation of several polypeptides, including the transmembrane adaptor LAT (Linker Activator for T-Cells). (wikipathways.org)
  • We report here that Myopic, the Drosophila homolog of the Bro1-domain tyrosine phosphatase HD-PTP, promotes EGFR signaling in vivo and in cultured cells. (biologists.org)
  • The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the α and β chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3ε, γ and δ chains and the TCRζ chain. (wikipathways.org)
  • GPCRs help us perceive our surroundings, control our blood pressure, mobilize our immune cells, and perform a host of other essential tasks. (rupress.org)
  • TLR expression has been revealed on various immune competent as well as nonimmune cells [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Various imaging studies have established that T cells that engage antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing stimulatory MHC-peptide complexes undergo macromolecular rearrangements that result in the formation of an immune synapse. (rupress.org)
  • Close interactions between immune and vascular cells may underlie the ability of S1P 1 to promote lymphocyte egress. (rupress.org)
  • As a skin resident member of the DC family of APCs, Langerhans cells (LCs) initiate both innate and adaptive immune responses to skin-relevant antigens, thereby acting as immunological sentinels. (jci.org)
  • Nonetheless, STING appears to be an essential component in the recruitment of immune cells to the tumor microenvironment, which is paramount to immune clearance of the tumor. (springer.com)
  • It is now clear that cGAS is an important immune receptor for DNA viruses and retroviruses. (springer.com)
  • TEX also deliver genomic DNA, mRNA, and microRNAs to immune cells, thereby reprogramming functions of responder cells to promote tumor progression. (jci.org)
  • Describe the life of a cell in the immune system. (brainscape.com)
  • Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays an essential role in the innate immune response. (thermofisher.com)
  • 2001) The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediate by toll-like receptor 5. (thermofisher.com)
  • T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC) complexes is a crucial event in the adaptive immune response to pathogens. (prolekare.cz)
  • The data generated in this analysis contribute to our understanding of the structural basis for T cell-dependent immune responses, providing insight into what determines a highly immunogenic p-MHC complex, and hence can be of value in prediction of antigenic epitopes and vaccine design. (prolekare.cz)
  • T cells constitute a key component of the adaptive immune system, allowing recognition of virtually any pathogen that may infect the host. (prolekare.cz)
  • It has been established that nonenveloped viruses gain entry to their host cells by one of several mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanisms employed by S. aureus to colonize and proliferate in these cells. (hindawi.com)
  • TLR1 and TLR6 function as co-receptors to TLR2 to promote unique signaling mechanisms based on specific pathogen binding . (thermofisher.com)
  • Such a model seems more suitable than transfected cells to study either the function or the transduction and the desensitization mechanisms of the hDOR because it permits to avoid many artifacts due to the overexpression of the receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the regulatory role of neurotrophin-mediated signaling itself in directing the formation and retrograde transport of neurotrophin-harboring signaling endosomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)