A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.
Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.
Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Arachidonic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically a type of omega-6 fatty acid, that are essential for human nutrition and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors to eicosanoids, which are hormone-like substances that mediate a wide range of physiological responses.
Morpholines are organic compounds containing a morpholine ring, which is a saturated six-membered heterocycle made up of four carbon atoms and two oxygen atoms (OCC1CCO), often used as functional groups in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science due to their versatile chemical properties.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Bornanes are a class of bicyclic organic compounds, specifically sesquiterpenes, that contain a bornane skeleton, consisting of a cyclohexane ring fused to a cyclopentane ring, and can be found in various essential oils and plants.
Compound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.
Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that bind to the same receptor binding-site as an agonist (DRUG AGONISM) for that receptor but exerts the opposite pharmacological effect.
Amidohydrolases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides and related compounds, playing a crucial role in various biological processes including the breakdown and synthesis of bioactive molecules.
A physiologically inactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
'Pyrans' are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms, which can be found in various natural substances and synthesized compounds, and may have potential applications in medicinal chemistry.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
Inbred ICR mice are a strain of albino laboratory mice that have been selectively bred for consistent genetic makeup and high reproductive performance, making them widely used in biomedical research for studies involving reproduction, toxicology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The consumption of edible substances.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
BENZOIC ACID amides.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.

A critical role for the cannabinoid CB1 receptors in alcohol dependence and stress-stimulated ethanol drinking. (1/1474)

Although many people drink alcohol regularly, only some become addicted. Several studies have shown that genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in the vulnerability to the effects of alcohol (Nestler, 2000; Kreek, 2001; Crabbe, 2002). Among the environmental factors, stress is perhaps the most important trigger for relapse after a period of abstinence (Koob and Nestler, 1997; Piazza and Le Moal, 1998; Koob and Le Moal, 2001; Weiss et al., 2001). Here we show that ethanol withdrawal symptoms were completely absent in cannabinoid CB1 receptor-deficient mice, although acute effects of ethanol and ethanol tolerance and preference were basically normal. Furthermore, foot-shock stress had no affect on alcohol preference in Cnr1-/- mice, although it induced a dramatic increase in Cnr1+/+ animals. These results reveal a critical role for the CB1 receptor in clinically important aspects of alcohol dependence and provide a rationale for the use of CB1 receptor antagonists in the treatment of alcohol addiction.  (+info)

Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of hippocampal acetylcholine release is preserved in aged mice. (2/1474)

1. The cannabinoid CB(1) receptor inverse agonist/antagonist SR 141716 increases acetylcholine release in rodent hippocampus and improves memory in some experimental paradigms. Since drugs like SR 141716 may represent a novel class of cognition-enhancing drugs, we wanted to check whether the function of the CB(1) receptor is preserved during ageing. 2. Hippocampal and striatal slices from 2- to 3- and 24- to 28-month-old C57BL/6J mice were preincubated with [(3)H]-choline or [(3)H]-noradrenaline ([(3)H]-NA) and superfused. 3. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55212-2 inhibited, and SR 141716 facilitated, the electrically (3 Hz) evoked tritium overflow in hippocampal slices (preincubated with [(3)H]-choline) from young and aged mice to the same extent. The evoked overflow per se was less by 33% in slices from aged animals. 4. WIN 55212-2 and SR 141716 did not affect, but the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine inhibited, the evoked (3 Hz) overflow in striatal slices (preincubated with [(3)H]-choline) from young and aged mice to the same extent. The evoked overflow per se tended to be less in slices from aged animals. 5. The evoked (0.3 Hz) overflow in hippocampal slices (preincubated with [(3)H]-NA) was not affected by WIN 55212-2 and SR 141716, but was inhibited by histamine (via H(3) receptors) in slices from young mice and, to a somewhat less extent, in slices from aged mice. The evoked overflow per se did not differ between age groups. 6. In conclusion, the function of the CB(1) receptor involved in the tonic inhibition of hippocampal acetylcholine release is preserved in aged mice.  (+info)

A3 adenosine and CB1 receptors activate a PKC-sensitive Cl- current in human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells via a G beta gamma-coupled MAPK signaling pathway. (3/1474)

(1) We examined A3 adenosine and CB1 cannabinoid receptor-coupled signaling pathways regulating Cl(-) current in a human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) cell line. (2) Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that the A3 receptor agonist, IB-MECA, activates an outwardly rectifying Cl(-)current (I(Cl,Aden)) in NPCE cells, which was inhibited by the adenosine receptor antagonist, CGS-15943 or by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate (PDBu). (3) Treatment of NPCE cells with pertussis-toxin (PTX), or transfection with the COOH-terminus of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (ct-betaARK), inhibited I(Cl,Aden). The phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, had no effect on I(Cl,Aden); however, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited I(Cl,Aden). (4) Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments and immunocytochemistry confirmed mRNA and protein expression for the CB1 receptor in NPCE cells, and the CB1 receptor agonist, Win 55,212-2, activated a PDBu-sensitive Cl(-) current (I(Cl,Win)). (5) Transfection of NPCE cells with the human CB1 (hCB1) receptor, increased I(Cl,Win), consistent with increased receptor expression, and I(Cl,Win) in hCB1 receptor-transfected cells was decreased after application of a CB1 receptor inverse agonist, SR 141716. (6) Constitutive activity for CB1 receptors was not significant in NPCE cells as transfection with hCB1 receptors did not increase basal Cl(-) current, nor was basal current inhibited by SR 141716. (7) I(Cl,Win) was inhibited by PTX preincubation, by transfection with ct-betaARK and by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, but unaffected by the PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin. (8) We conclude that both A3 and CB1 receptors activate a PKC-sensitive Cl(-) current in human NPCE cells via a G(i/o)/Gbetagamma signaling pathway, in a manner independent of PI3K but involving MAPK.  (+info)

Reduction of human monocytic cell neurotoxicity and cytokine secretion by ligands of the cannabinoid-type CB2 receptor. (4/1474)

1 Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been identified. The CB1 receptor is preferentially expressed in brain, and the CB2 receptor in cells of leukocyte lineage. We identified the mRNA for the CB1 receptor in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and the mRNA and protein for the CB2 receptor in human microglia and THP-1 cells. 2 Delta(9)-and Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were toxic when added directly to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The toxicity of Delta(9)- THC was inhibited by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A but not by the CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528. The endogenous ligand anandamide was also toxic, and this toxicity was enhanced by inhibitors of its enzymatic hydrolysis. 3 The selective CB2 receptor ligands JWH-015 and indomethacin morpholinylamide (BML-190), when added to THP-1 cells before stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFN-gamma, reduced the toxicity of their culture supernatants to SH-SY5Y cells. JWH-015 was more effective against neurotoxicity of human microglia than THP-1 cells. The antineurotoxic activity of JWH-015 was blocked by the selective CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528, but not by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A. This activity of JWH-015 was synergistic with that of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor REV 5901. 4 Cannabinoids inhibited secretion of IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by stimulated THP-1 cells, but these effects could not be directly correlated with their antineurotoxic activity. 5 Specific CB2 receptor ligands could be useful anti-inflammatory agents, while avoiding the neurotoxic and psychoactive effects of CB1 receptor ligands such as Delta(9)-THC.  (+info)

Cannabinoid1 receptor in the dorsal vagal complex modulates lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation in ferrets. (5/1474)

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) is an effective anti-emetic; however, other potential gastrointestinal therapeutic effects of delta9-THC are less well-known. Here, we report a role of delta9-THC in a vago-vagal reflex that can result in gastro-oesophageal reflux, that is, gastric distension-evoked lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxation. Oesophageal, LOS and gastric pressures were measured using a miniaturized, manometric assembly in decerebrate, unanaesthetized ferrets.Gastric distension (30 ml) evoked LOS relaxation (70 +/- 8% decrease from baseline). Delta9-THC administered systemically (0.2 mg kg-1, iv.) or directly to the dorsal hindbrain surface (0.002 mg),significantly attenuated the nadir of the gastric distention-evoked LOS relaxation, and time to reach maximal response. Similar increases to maximal effect were observed after treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (0.2 mg kg-1 iv.). The effect of systemic delta9-THC on gastric distention-evoked LOS relaxation was reversed by a selective cannabinoid1 (CBI) receptor antagonist, SR141617A (1 mg kg-1 i.v.). Since this reflex is vagally mediated, we used a CB1 receptor antiserum and immunocytochemistry to determine its distribution in ferret vagal circuitry. CBI receptor staining was present in cell bodies within the area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and nodose ganglion. Intense terminal-like staining was noted within the NTS and dorsal motor vagal nucleus (DMN). Neither nodose ganglionectomy nor vagotomy altered the CB1 receptor terminal-like staining in the dorsal vagal complex. Retrogradely labelled gastric- or LOS-projecting DMN neurones did not express CBI receptors within their soma. Therefore, CBI receptor staining in the NTS and DMN is not due to primary vagal afferents or preganglionic neurones. These novel findings suggest that delta9-THC can modulate reflex LOS function and that the most likely site of action is via the CBI receptor within the NTS. This effect of delta9-THC may have implications in treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux and other upper gut disorders.  (+info)

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 modulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in mouse colon. (6/1474)

The effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists on smooth muscle resting membrane potentials and on membrane potentials following electrical neuronal stimulation in a myenteric neuron/smooth muscle preparation of wild-type and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-deficient mice were investigated in vitro. Double staining for CB1 and nitric oxide synthase (neuronal) was performed to identify the myenteric CB1-expressing neurons. Focal electrical stimulation of the myenteric plexus induced a fast (f) excitatory junction potential (EJP) followed by a fast and a slow (s) inhibitory junction potential (IJP). Treatment of wild-type mice with the endogenous CB1 receptor agonist anandamide reduced EJP while not affecting fIJP and sIJP. EJP was significantly higher in CB1-deficient mice than in wild-type littermate controls, and anandamide induced no effects in CB1-deficient mice. N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide), R-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3,-de]- 1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphtalenylmethanone, a synthetic CB1 receptor agonist, nearly abolished EJP and significantly reduced the fIJP in wild-type mice. N-piperidino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-3-pyrazole-caroxa mide (SR141716A), a CB1-specific receptor antagonist, was able to reverse the agonist effects induced in wild-type mice. SR141716A, when given alone, significantly increased EJP in wild-type mice without affecting IJP in wild-type and EJP in CB1-deficient mice. Interestingly, SR141716A reduced fIJP in CB1-deficient mice. In the mouse colon, nitrergic myenteric neurons do not express CB1, implying that CB1 is expressed in cholinergic neurons, which is in line with the functional data. Finally, excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the mouse colon is modulated by activation of CB1 receptors. The significant increase in EJP in CB1-deficient mice strongly suggests a physiological involvement of CB1 in excitatory cholinergic neurotransmission.  (+info)

Toxicological and structural features of organophosphorus and organosulfur cannabinoid CB1 receptor ligands. (7/1474)

Potent cannabinoid CB1 receptor ligands include anandamide [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonamide], Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 3H-CP 55,940 at the agonist site and selected organophosphorus esters (including some pesticides) and organosulfur compounds at a proposed closely coupled "nucleophilic" site. This study considers the toxicological and structural features of alkylfluorophosphonates, benzodioxaphosphorin oxides, alkanesulfonyl fluorides, and analogs acting at the nucleophilic site. Binding at the agonist site, using3H-CP 55,940 in assays with mouse brain membranes, is inhibited byO-isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (compound 2), dodecanesulfonyl fluoride (compound 14) and dodecylbenzodioxaphosphorin oxide with IC50 values of 2-11 nM. Compounds 2 and 14 are also effectivein vivo, with 84% inhibition of mouse brain CB1 binding 4 h after intraperitoneal dosage at 30 mg/kg. Compound 14-inhibited CB1 in mouse brain requires about 3-4 days for recovery of 50% activity, suggesting covalent derivatization. Delayed toxicity (mortality in 0.3-5 days) from compounds 2, 14, and octanesulfonyl fluoride (18) is more closely associated with in vivo inhibition of brain neuropathy target esterase-lysophospholipase (NTE-LysoPLA) than with that of CB1 or acetylcholinesterase. NTE-LysoPLA inhibited by sulfonyl fluorides 14 and 18 cannot "age," a proposed requirement for NTE phosphorylated by organophosphorus-delayed neurotoxicants. Several octane- and dodecanesulfonamides with N-(2-hydroxyethyl) and other substituents based on anandamide give depressed mobility and recumbent posture in mice, but the effects do not correlate with potency for CB1 inhibition in vitro. Specific toxicological responses are not clearly associated with organophosphorus- or organosulfur-induced inhibition of the proposed CB1 nucleophilic site in mouse brain. On the other hand, the most potent CB1 inhibitors examined here are also NTE-LysoPLA inhibitors and cause delayed toxicity in mice.  (+info)

The cannabinoid system and immune modulation. (8/1474)

Studies on the effects of marijuana smoking have evolved into the discovery and description of the endocannabinoid system. To date, this system is composed of two receptors, CB1 and CB2, and endogenous ligands including anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and others. CB1 receptors and ligands are found in the brain as well as immune and other peripheral tissues. Conversely, CB2 receptors and ligands are found primarily in the periphery, especially in immune cells. Cannabinoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors, and they have been linked to signaling pathways and gene activities in common with this receptor family. In addition, cannabinoids have been shown to modulate a variety of immune cell functions in humans and animals and more recently, have been shown to modulate T helper cell development, chemotaxis, and tumor development. Many of these drug effects occur through cannabinoid receptor signaling mechanisms and the modulation of cytokines and other gene products. It appears the immunocannabinoid system is involved in regulating the brain-immune axis and might be exploited in future therapies for chronic diseases and immune deficiency.  (+info)

A cannabinoid receptor, CB1, is a G protein-coupled receptor that is primarily found in the brain and central nervous system. It is one of the two main types of cannabinoid receptors, the other being CB2, and is activated by the endocannabinoid anandamide and the phytocannabinoid Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. The activation of CB1 receptors is responsible for many of the psychological effects of cannabis, including euphoria, altered sensory perception, and memory impairment. CB1 receptors are also found in peripheral tissues, such as the adipose tissue, liver, and muscles, where they play a role in regulating energy metabolism, appetite, and pain perception.

A cannabinoid receptor CB2 is a G-protein coupled receptor that is primarily found in the immune system and cells associated with the immune system. They are expressed on the cell surface and are activated by endocannabinoids, plant-derived cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids) like those found in marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoids.

CB2 receptors are involved in a variety of physiological processes including inflammation, pain perception, and immune function. They have been shown to play a role in modulating the release of cytokines, which are signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity and inflammation. CB2 receptors may also be found in the brain, although at much lower levels than CB1 receptors.

CB2 receptor agonists have been studied as potential treatments for a variety of conditions including pain management, neuroinflammation, and autoimmune disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and any associated risks.

Cannabinoid receptors are a class of cell membrane receptors in the endocannabinoid system that are activated by cannabinoids. The two major types of cannabinoid receptors are CB1 receptors, which are predominantly found in the brain and central nervous system, and CB2 receptors, which are primarily found in the immune system and peripheral tissues. These receptors play a role in regulating various physiological processes such as appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory. They can be activated by endocannabinoids (cannabinoids produced naturally in the body), phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis plants), and synthetic cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are produced naturally in the resin of the cannabis plant (also known as marijuana). There are more than 100 different cannabinoids that have been identified, the most well-known of which are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

THC is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, meaning it is responsible for the "high" or euphoric feeling that people experience when they use marijuana. CBD, on the other hand, does not have psychoactive effects and is being studied for its potential therapeutic uses in a variety of medical conditions, including pain management, anxiety, and epilepsy.

Cannabinoids work by interacting with the body's endocannabinoid system, which is a complex network of receptors and chemicals that are involved in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, pain sensation, and memory. When cannabinoids bind to these receptors, they can alter or modulate these processes, leading to potential therapeutic effects.

It's important to note that while some cannabinoids have been shown to have potential medical benefits, marijuana remains a controlled substance in many countries, and its use is subject to legal restrictions. Additionally, the long-term health effects of using marijuana or other forms of cannabis are not fully understood and are the subject of ongoing research.

Cannabinoid receptor modulators are a class of compounds that interact with and modify the function of cannabinoid receptors, which are part of the endocannabinoid system in the human body. These receptors play a role in regulating various physiological processes such as pain, mood, memory, appetite, and immunity.

There are two main types of cannabinoid receptors: CB1 receptors, which are primarily found in the brain and central nervous system, and CB2 receptors, which are mainly found in the immune system and peripheral tissues. Cannabinoid receptor modulators can be classified into three categories based on their effects on these receptors:

1. Agonists: These compounds bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, leading to a range of effects such as pain relief, anti-inflammation, and mood enhancement. Examples include THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the psychoactive component of marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoids like dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet).
2. Antagonists: These compounds bind to cannabinoid receptors but do not activate them, instead blocking or reducing the effects of agonist compounds. Examples include rimonabant (Acomplia), which was withdrawn from the market due to psychiatric side effects, and SR141716A.
3. Inverse Agonists: These compounds bind to cannabinoid receptors and produce effects opposite to those of agonist compounds. Examples include CBD (cannabidiol), a non-psychoactive component of marijuana that has anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties.

Cannabinoid receptor modulators have potential therapeutic applications in various medical conditions such as chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, cancer, and mental health disorders. However, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential side effects.

Pyrazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 2. The chemical structure of pyrazoles consists of a pair of nitrogen atoms adjacent to each other in the ring, which makes them unique from other azole heterocycles such as imidazoles or triazoles.

Pyrazoles have significant biological activities and are found in various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and natural products. Some pyrazole derivatives exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer properties.

In the medical field, pyrazoles are used in various drugs to treat different conditions. For example, celecoxib (Celebrex) is a selective COX-2 inhibitor used for pain relief and inflammation reduction in arthritis patients. It contains a pyrazole ring as its core structure. Similarly, febuxostat (Uloric) is a medication used to treat gout, which also has a pyrazole moiety.

Overall, pyrazoles are essential compounds with significant medical applications and potential for further development in drug discovery and design.

Cannabinoid receptor agonists are compounds that bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, which are part of the endocannabinoid system in the human body. These receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including pain modulation, appetite regulation, memory, and mood.

There are two main types of cannabinoid receptors: CB1 receptors, which are primarily found in the brain and central nervous system, and CB2 receptors, which are mainly found in the immune system and peripheral tissues.

Cannabinoid receptor agonists can be classified based on their chemical structure and origin. Some naturally occurring cannabinoids, such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), are found in the Cannabis sativa plant and can activate cannabinoid receptors. Synthetic cannabinoids, on the other hand, are human-made compounds designed to mimic or enhance the effects of natural cannabinoids.

Examples of cannabinoid receptor agonists include:

1. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol): The primary psychoactive component of marijuana, THC binds to CB1 receptors and produces feelings of euphoria or "high." It also has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and appetite-stimulating properties.
2. CBD (cannabidiol): A non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis, CBD has a more complex interaction with the endocannabinoid system. While it does not bind strongly to CB1 or CB2 receptors, it can influence their activity and modulate the effects of other cannabinoids. CBD is known for its potential therapeutic benefits, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties.
3. Synthetic cannabinoids: These are human-made compounds designed to mimic or enhance the effects of natural cannabinoids. Examples include dronabinol (Marinol), a synthetic THC used to treat nausea and vomiting in cancer patients, and nabilone (Cesamet), another synthetic THC used to manage pain and nausea in cancer and AIDS patients.
4. CP 55,940: A potent synthetic cannabinoid agonist that binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors with high affinity. It is used in research to study the endocannabinoid system and its functions.
5. WIN 55,212-2: Another synthetic cannabinoid agonist that binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors. It is often used in research to investigate the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids.

It's important to note that while some cannabinoid receptor agonists have demonstrated therapeutic benefits, they can also have side effects and potential risks, particularly when used in high doses or without medical supervision. Always consult a healthcare professional before using any cannabinoid-based medication or supplement.

Dronabinol is a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the main psychoactive compound found in cannabis. It is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients, as well as to stimulate appetite and weight gain in patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.

Dronabinol is available in capsule form and is typically taken two to three times a day, depending on the prescribed dosage. It may take several days or even weeks of regular use before the full therapeutic effects are achieved.

Like cannabis, dronabinol can cause psychoactive effects such as euphoria, altered mood, and impaired cognitive function. Therefore, it is important to follow the prescribing instructions carefully and avoid driving or operating heavy machinery while taking this medication. Common side effects of dronabinol include dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, and difficulty with coordination.

Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds in the body that bind to cannabinoid receptors, which are found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. These compounds play a role in regulating many physiological processes, including appetite, mood, pain sensation, and memory. They are similar in structure to the active components of cannabis (marijuana), called phytocannabinoids, such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). However, endocannabinoids are produced by the body itself, whereas phytocannabinoids come from the cannabis plant. The two most well-known endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG).

Piperidines are not a medical term per se, but they are a class of organic compounds that have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Medically relevant piperidines include various drugs such as some antihistamines, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants.

A piperidine is a heterocyclic amine with a six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The structure can be described as a cyclic secondary amine. Piperidines are found in some natural alkaloids, such as those derived from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum), which gives piperidines their name.

In a medical context, it is more common to encounter specific drugs that belong to the class of piperidines rather than the term itself.

Cyclohexanols are a class of organic compounds that contain a cyclohexane ring (a six-carbon saturated ring) with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to it. The hydroxyl group makes these compounds alcohols, and the cyclohexane ring provides a unique structure that can adopt different conformations.

The presence of the hydroxyl group in cyclohexanols allows them to act as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and starting materials for the production of other chemicals. They are used in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers.

Cyclohexanols can exist in different forms, such as cis- and trans-isomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group relative to the cyclohexane ring. The physical and chemical properties of these isomers can differ significantly due to their distinct structures and conformations.

Examples of cyclohexanols include cyclohexanol itself (C6H11OH), as well as its derivatives, such as methylcyclohexanol (C7H13OH) and phenylcyclohexanol (C12H15OH).

Benzoxazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to an oxazine ring. They are known for their diverse chemical and pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Some benzoxazines also exhibit potential as building blocks in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and materials. However, it is important to note that specific medical definitions for individual compounds within this class may vary depending on their unique structures and properties.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyunsaturated Alkamides" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept. It seems to be a combination of two different terms: "polyunsaturated" which relates to fatty acid chemistry, and "alkamides" which are a type of compound found in certain plants.

1. Polyunsaturated: This term refers to fatty acids that have multiple double bonds in their carbon chain. These fatty acids are essential to the human diet and are commonly found in foods like fish, nuts, and seeds. They are often referred to as Omega-3 or Omega-6 fatty acids.

2. Alkamides: These are a type of compound found in some plants, including Echinacea species. They have been studied for their potential biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

Without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "Polyunsaturated Alkamides." If you have more information about how these terms are being used together, I'd be happy to try to provide a more specific answer.

Cannabinoid receptor antagonists are a class of compounds that bind to and block cannabinoid receptors, which are specialized proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the body. These receptors play an important role in regulating various physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, and memory formation.

There are two main types of cannabinoid receptors: CB1 receptors, which are primarily found in the brain and central nervous system, and CB2 receptors, which are mainly found in immune cells and other peripheral tissues.

Cannabinoid receptor antagonists work by preventing the activation of these receptors by natural cannabinoids such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the main psychoactive component of marijuana. By blocking the effects of THC, cannabinoid receptor antagonists can be used to treat conditions that are exacerbated by THC, such as substance use disorders and psychosis.

One example of a cannabinoid receptor antagonist is rimonabant, which was approved in Europe for the treatment of obesity but was later withdrawn from the market due to concerns about psychiatric side effects. Other cannabinoid receptor antagonists are currently being investigated for their potential therapeutic uses, including the treatment of pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Naphthalene is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C10H8. It is a white crystalline solid that is aromatic and volatile, and it is known for its distinctive mothball smell. In a medical context, naphthalene is primarily relevant as a potential toxin or irritant.

Naphthalene can be found in some chemical products, such as mothballs and toilet deodorant blocks. Exposure to high levels of naphthalene can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headaches. Long-term exposure has been linked to anemia and damage to the liver and nervous system.

In addition, naphthalene is a known environmental pollutant that can be found in air, water, and soil. It is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and is also released from some industrial processes. Naphthalene has been shown to have toxic effects on aquatic life and may pose a risk to human health if exposure levels are high enough.

Drug receptors are specific protein molecules found on the surface of cells, to which drugs can bind. These receptors are part of the cell's communication system and are responsible for responding to neurotransmitters, hormones, and other signaling molecules in the body. When a drug binds to its corresponding receptor, it can alter the receptor's function and trigger a cascade of intracellular events that ultimately lead to a biological response.

Drug receptors can be classified into several types based on their function, including:

1. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are the largest family of drug receptors and are involved in various physiological processes such as vision, olfaction, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. They activate intracellular signaling pathways through heterotrimeric G proteins.
2. Ion channel receptors: These receptors form ion channels that allow the flow of ions across the cell membrane when activated. They are involved in rapid signal transduction and can be directly gated by ligands or indirectly through G protein-coupled receptors.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors have an intracellular domain that functions as an enzyme, activating intracellular signaling pathways when bound to a ligand. Examples include receptor tyrosine kinases and receptor serine/threonine kinases.
4. Nuclear receptors: These receptors are located in the nucleus and function as transcription factors, regulating gene expression upon binding to their ligands.

Understanding drug receptors is crucial for developing new drugs and predicting their potential therapeutic and adverse effects. By targeting specific receptors, drugs can modulate cellular responses and produce desired pharmacological actions.

Arachidonic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is primarily found in the phospholipids of cell membranes. They contain 20 carbon atoms and four double bonds (20:4n-6), with the first double bond located at the sixth carbon atom from the methyl end.

Arachidonic acids are derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources such as meat, fish, and eggs. Once ingested, linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid in a series of enzymatic reactions.

Arachidonic acids play an important role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These eicosanoids have diverse biological activities, such as modulating blood flow, platelet aggregation, and pain perception, among others.

However, excessive production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism is an important area of research for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Morpholines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom in the ring. They are widely used as intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and dyes. If you have any questions about a medical issue or term, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Glycerides are esters formed from glycerol and one, two, or three fatty acids. They include monoglycerides (one fatty acid), diglycerides (two fatty acids), and triglycerides (three fatty acids). Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and they are a major form of energy storage in animals and plants. High levels of triglycerides in the blood, also known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "bornanes" is not a medical term or concept. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of compounds called bornane derivatives, which are structurally related to the naturally occurring compound bornane. These compounds have various uses in chemistry and materials science, but they do not have specific relevance to medicine or human health.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical compound found in the Cannabis sativa plant, also known as cannabis or marijuana. It is one of many such compounds, known as cannabinoids, that are found in the plant. Unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and is responsible for the "high" associated with its use, CBD does not have psychoactive effects.

CBD has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in a variety of medical conditions, including epilepsy, anxiety, and chronic pain. It is available in various forms, such as oils, capsules, and topical creams, and can be taken orally or applied to the skin. However, it is important to note that the use of CBD is not currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of any medical condition, except for the treatment of certain forms of epilepsy. As with any medication or supplement, it is important to talk to your doctor before using CBD, especially if you are taking other medications or have underlying health conditions.

Drug inverse agonism is a property of certain drugs that can bind to and stabilize the inactive conformation of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) or other type of receptor. This results in a reduction of the receptor's basal activity, which is the level of signaling that occurs in the absence of an agonist ligand.

An inverse agonist drug can have the opposite effect of an agonist drug, which binds to and stabilizes the active conformation of a receptor and increases its signaling activity. An inverse agonist drug can also have a greater effect than a simple antagonist drug, which binds to a receptor without activating or inhibiting it but rather prevents other ligands from binding.

Inverse agonism is an important concept in pharmacology and has implications for the development of drugs that target GPCRs and other types of receptors. For example, inverse agonist drugs have been developed to treat certain conditions such as anxiety disorders, where reducing the basal activity of a particular receptor may be beneficial.

Amidohydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides and related compounds, resulting in the formation of an acid and an alcohol. This reaction is also known as amide hydrolysis or amide bond cleavage. Amidohydrolases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and endogenous compounds (those naturally produced within an organism).

The term "amidohydrolase" is a broad one that encompasses several specific types of enzymes, such as proteases, esterases, lipases, and nitrilases. These enzymes have different substrate specificities and catalytic mechanisms but share the common ability to hydrolyze amide bonds.

Proteases, for example, are a major group of amidohydrolases that specifically cleave peptide bonds in proteins. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as protein degradation, digestion, and regulation of biological pathways. Esterases and lipases hydrolyze ester bonds in various substrates, including lipids and other organic compounds. Nitrilases convert nitriles into carboxylic acids and ammonia by cleaving the nitrile bond (C≡N) through hydrolysis.

Amidohydrolases are found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and have diverse applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine. For instance, they can be used for the production of pharmaceuticals, biofuels, detergents, and other chemicals. Additionally, inhibitors of amidohydrolases can serve as therapeutic agents for treating various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Cannabinol (CBN) is a chemical compound found in cannabis plants. It is one of the many cannabinoids that can be extracted from the plant, but it is not as well-known or widely studied as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

CBN is formed when THC degrades over time due to exposure to air, heat, and light. As a result, older or improperly stored cannabis may contain higher levels of CBN than fresh or properly stored cannabis.

CBN has been shown to have some therapeutic potential, including as a sedative, an anti-inflammatory, and an appetite stimulant. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and potential medical uses. It's worth noting that CBN does not produce the psychoactive effects associated with THC.

Monoacylglycerol lipases (MAGLs) are a type of enzyme that play a role in the metabolism of lipids, specifically by breaking down monoacylglycerols into glycerol and free fatty acids. Monoacylglycerols are formed during the digestion of dietary fats and are also produced endogenously as a result of the breakdown of complex lipids.

MAGLs are widely distributed throughout the body, but are particularly abundant in tissues that utilize large amounts of fatty acids for energy, such as the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In addition to their role in lipid metabolism, MAGLs have been implicated in various physiological processes, including inflammation, pain perception, and cancer.

Inhibition of MAGL activity has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, further research is needed to fully understand the role of MAGLs in these processes and to determine the safety and efficacy of MAGL inhibitors as drugs.

Cannabis is a plant genus that includes three species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. It contains psychoactive compounds called cannabinoids, the most notable of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which produces the "high" associated with marijuana use.

Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes, while Cannabis ruderalis has a lower THC content and is mainly used for industrial purposes, such as hemp fiber production.

Medicinally, cannabis is used to treat various conditions, including pain, nausea, and loss of appetite associated with cancer and HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), among others. However, its use remains controversial due to its psychoactive effects and potential for abuse. Its legal status varies widely around the world, ranging from outright prohibition to decriminalization or full legalization for medical and/or recreational purposes.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Hallucinogens are a class of psychoactive substances that alter perception, mood, and thought, often causing hallucinations, which are profound distortions in a person's perceptions of reality. These substances work by disrupting the normal functioning of the brain, particularly the parts that regulate mood, sensory perception, sleep, hunger, and sexual behavior.

Hallucinogens can be found in various forms, including plants, mushrooms, and synthetic compounds. Some common examples of hallucinogens include LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide), psilocybin (found in certain species of mushrooms), DMT (dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca (a plant-based brew from South America).

The effects of hallucinogens can vary widely depending on the specific substance, the dose, the individual's personality, mood, and expectations, and the environment in which the drug is taken. These effects can range from pleasant sensory experiences and heightened emotional awareness to terrifying hallucinations and overwhelming feelings of anxiety or despair.

It's important to note that hallucinogens can be dangerous, particularly when taken in high doses or in combination with other substances. They can also cause long-term psychological distress and may trigger underlying mental health conditions. As such, they should only be used under the guidance of a trained medical professional for therapeutic purposes.

Croton oil is a highly toxic, irritant, and vesicant liquid that is derived from the seeds of the croton tiglium plant. It is a type of unsaturated fatty acid known as an octadecatrienoic acid, and it contains a mixture of various chemical compounds including crotonic acid, diglycerides, and phorbol esters.

Croton oil is commonly used in laboratory research as a pharmacological tool to study the mechanisms of inflammation, pain, and skin irritation. It can also be used as a veterinary medicine to treat certain types of intestinal parasites in animals. However, due to its high toxicity and potential for causing severe burns and blisters on the skin, it is not used in human medicine.

It's important to note that croton oil should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting, as improper use or exposure can result in serious injury or death.

Carbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain the carbamate functional group, which is a carbon atom double-bonded to oxygen and single-bonded to a nitrogen atom (> N-C=O). In the context of pharmaceuticals and agriculture, carbamates are a class of drugs and pesticides that have carbamate as their core structure.

Carbamate insecticides work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses of the nervous system. When this enzyme is inhibited, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft, leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately causing paralysis and death in insects.

Carbamate drugs are used for a variety of medical indications, including as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and psychotropic medications. They work by modulating various neurotransmitter systems in the brain, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Carbamates can also be used as anti- parasitic agents, such as ivermectin, which is effective against a range of parasites including nematodes, arthropods, and some protozoa.

It's important to note that carbamate pesticides can be toxic to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it's essential to follow all safety guidelines when handling or using these products.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) cation channels are a subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are non-selective cation channels that play important roles in various physiological processes such as nociception, thermosensation, and mechanosensation. TRPV channels are activated by a variety of stimuli including temperature, chemical ligands, and mechanical forces.

TRPV channels are composed of six transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The TRPV subfamily includes six members: TRPV1 to TRPV6. Among them, TRPV1 is also known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) and is activated by capsaicin, the active component of hot chili peppers, as well as noxious heat. TRPV2 is activated by noxious heat and mechanical stimuli, while TRPV3 and TRPV4 are activated by warm temperatures and various chemical ligands. TRPV5 and TRPV6 are primarily involved in calcium transport and are activated by low pH and divalent cations.

TRPV channels play important roles in pain sensation, neurogenic inflammation, and temperature perception. Dysfunction of these channels has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Therefore, TRPV channels are considered promising targets for the development of novel therapeutics for these conditions.

Self-administration, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the act of an individual administering medication or treatment to themselves. This can include various forms of delivery such as oral medications, injections, or topical treatments. It is important that individuals who self-administer are properly trained and understand the correct dosage, timing, and technique to ensure safety and effectiveness. Self-administration promotes independence, allows for timely treatment, and can improve overall health outcomes.

"Pyrans" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms. The name "pyran" comes from the fact that it contains a pyroline unit (two double-bonded carbons) and a ketone group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen).

While pyrans are not directly related to medical definitions, some of their derivatives have been studied for potential medicinal applications. For example, certain pyran derivatives have shown anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities in laboratory experiments. However, more research is needed before these compounds can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Analgesics, non-narcotic are a class of medications used to relieve pain that do not contain narcotics or opioids. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system or by reducing inflammation and swelling. Examples of non-narcotic analgesics include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin. These medications are often used to treat mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and arthritis symptoms. They can be obtained over-the-counter or by prescription, depending on the dosage and formulation. It is important to follow the recommended dosages and usage instructions carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

Catalepsy is a medical condition characterized by a trance-like state, with reduced sensitivity to pain and external stimuli, muscular rigidity, and fixed postures. In this state, the person's body may maintain any position in which it is placed for a long time, and there is often a decreased responsiveness to social cues or communication attempts.

Catalepsy can be a symptom of various medical conditions, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, or brain injuries. It can also occur in the context of mental health disorders, such as severe depression, catatonic schizophrenia, or dissociative identity disorder.

In some cases, catalepsy may be induced intentionally through hypnosis or other forms of altered consciousness practices. However, when it occurs spontaneously or as a symptom of an underlying medical condition, it can be a serious concern and requires medical evaluation and treatment.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

A ligand, in the context of biochemistry and medicine, is a molecule that binds to a specific site on a protein or a larger biomolecule, such as an enzyme or a receptor. This binding interaction can modify the function or activity of the target protein, either activating it or inhibiting it. Ligands can be small molecules, like hormones or neurotransmitters, or larger structures, like antibodies. The study of ligand-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes and developing drugs, as many therapeutic compounds function by binding to specific targets within the body.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Anisoles are organic compounds that consist of a phenyl ring (a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group replaced by a hydrogen atom) attached to a methoxy group (-O-CH3). The molecular formula for anisole is C6H5OCH3. Anisoles are aromatic ethers and can be found in various natural sources, including anise plants and some essential oils. They have a wide range of applications, including as solvents, flavoring agents, and intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals.

ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) is a strain of albino Swiss mice that are widely used in scientific research. They are an outbred strain, which means that they have been bred to maintain maximum genetic heterogeneity. However, it is also possible to find inbred strains of ICR mice, which are genetically identical individuals produced by many generations of brother-sister mating.

Inbred ICR mice are a specific type of ICR mouse that has been inbred for at least 20 generations. This means that they have a high degree of genetic uniformity and are essentially genetically identical to one another. Inbred strains of mice are often used in research because their genetic consistency makes them more reliable models for studying biological phenomena and testing new therapies or treatments.

It is important to note that while inbred ICR mice may be useful for certain types of research, they do not necessarily represent the genetic diversity found in human populations. Therefore, it is important to consider the limitations of using any animal model when interpreting research findings and applying them to human health.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Hyperalgesia is a medical term that describes an increased sensitivity to pain. It occurs when the nervous system, specifically the nociceptors (pain receptors), become excessively sensitive to stimuli. This means that a person experiences pain from a stimulus that normally wouldn't cause pain or experiences pain that is more intense than usual. Hyperalgesia can be a result of various conditions such as nerve damage, inflammation, or certain medications. It's an important symptom to monitor in patients with chronic pain conditions, as it may indicate the development of tolerance or addiction to pain medication.

Opioid mu receptors, also known as mu-opioid receptors (MORs), are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to opioids, a class of chemicals that include both natural and synthetic painkillers. These receptors are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract, and play a key role in mediating the effects of opioid drugs such as morphine, heroin, and oxycodone.

MORs are involved in pain modulation, reward processing, respiratory depression, and physical dependence. Activation of MORs can lead to feelings of euphoria, decreased perception of pain, and slowed breathing. Prolonged activation of these receptors can also result in tolerance, where higher doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect, and dependence, where withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug is discontinued.

MORs have three main subtypes: MOR-1, MOR-2, and MOR-3, with MOR-1 being the most widely studied and clinically relevant. Selective agonists for MOR-1, such as fentanyl and sufentanil, are commonly used in anesthesia and pain management. However, the abuse potential and risk of overdose associated with these drugs make them a significant public health concern.

Heroin is a highly addictive drug that is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. It is a "downer" or depressant that affects the brain's pleasure systems and interferes with the brain's ability to perceive pain.

Heroin can be injected, smoked, or snorted. It is sold as a white or brownish powder or as a black, sticky substance known as "black tar heroin." Regardless of how it is taken, heroin enters the brain rapidly and is highly addictive.

The use of heroin can lead to serious health problems, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and infectious diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Long-term use of heroin can lead to physical dependence and addiction, a chronic disease that can be difficult to treat.

Hypothermia is a medically defined condition where the core body temperature drops below 35°C (95°F). It is often associated with exposure to cold environments, but can also occur in cases of severe illness, injury, or immersion in cold water. Symptoms may include shivering, confusion, slowed heart rate and breathing, and if not treated promptly, can lead to unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, and even death.

The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a region in the midbrain, surrounding the cerebral aqueduct (a narrow channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles within the brain). It is a column of neurons that plays a crucial role in the modulation of pain perception, cardiorespiratory regulation, and defensive behaviors. The PAG is involved in the descending pain modulatory system, where it receives input from various emotional and cognitive areas and sends output to the rostral ventromedial medulla, which in turn regulates nociceptive processing at the spinal cord level. Additionally, the PAG is implicated in the regulation of fear, anxiety, and stress responses, as well as sexual behavior and reward processing.

A radioligand assay is a type of in vitro binding assay used in molecular biology and pharmacology to measure the affinity and quantity of a ligand (such as a drug or hormone) to its specific receptor. In this technique, a small amount of a radioactively labeled ligand, also known as a radioligand, is introduced to a sample containing the receptor of interest. The radioligand binds competitively with other unlabeled ligands present in the sample for the same binding site on the receptor. After allowing sufficient time for binding, the reaction is stopped, and the amount of bound radioligand is measured using a technique such as scintillation counting. The data obtained from this assay can be used to determine the dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of the receptor-ligand interaction, which are important parameters in understanding the pharmacological properties of drugs and other ligands.

Drug tolerance is a medical concept that refers to the decreased response to a drug following its repeated use, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This occurs because the body adapts to the presence of the drug, leading to changes in the function or expression of targets that the drug acts upon, such as receptors or enzymes. Tolerance can develop to various types of drugs, including opioids, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, and it is often associated with physical dependence and addiction. It's important to note that tolerance is different from resistance, which refers to the ability of a pathogen to survive or grow in the presence of a drug, such as antibiotics.

"Intraperitoneal injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a substance or medication directly into the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs contained within it. This type of injection is typically used in clinical settings for various purposes, such as delivering chemotherapy drugs, anesthetics, or other medications directly to the abdominal organs.

The procedure involves inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the peritoneal cavity, taking care to avoid any vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves. Once the needle is properly positioned, the medication can be injected slowly and carefully to ensure even distribution throughout the cavity.

It's important to note that intraperitoneal injections are typically reserved for situations where other routes of administration are not feasible or effective, as they carry a higher risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or injury to surrounding organs. As with any medical procedure, it should only be performed by trained healthcare professionals under appropriate clinical circumstances.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Alkanesulfonates are organic compounds that consist of a hydrocarbon chain, typically consisting of alkane molecules, which is bonded to a sulfonate group. The sulfonate group (-SO3-) consists of a sulfur atom bonded to three oxygen atoms, with one of the oxygen atoms carrying a negative charge.

Alkanesulfonates are commonly used as detergents and surfactants due to their ability to reduce surface tension and improve the wetting, emulsifying, and dispersing properties of liquids. They are also used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of paper, textiles, and leather.

In medical terms, alkanesulfonates may be used as topical antimicrobial agents or as ingredients in personal care products. However, some alkanesulfonates have been found to have potential health and environmental hazards, such as irritation of the skin and eyes, respiratory effects, and potential toxicity to aquatic life. Therefore, their use is subject to regulatory oversight and safety assessments.

The corpus striatum is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in movement, learning, and cognition. It consists of two structures called the caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are surrounded by the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus. Together, these structures form the basal ganglia, a group of interconnected neurons that help regulate voluntary movement.

The corpus striatum receives input from various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brainstem nuclei. It processes this information and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, which then project to the thalamus and back to the cerebral cortex. This feedback loop helps coordinate and fine-tune movements, allowing for smooth and coordinated actions.

Damage to the corpus striatum can result in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. These conditions are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements, muscle stiffness, and difficulty initiating or controlling voluntary movements.

Gastrointestinal motility refers to the coordinated muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food, digestive enzymes, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves the movement of food from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach, where it is mixed with digestive enzymes and acids to break down food particles.

The contents are then emptied into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed, and the remaining waste products are moved into the large intestine for further absorption of water and electrolytes and eventual elimination through the rectum and anus.

Gastrointestinal motility is controlled by a complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and local reflexes. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility can lead to various symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

Ethanolamines are a class of organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a carbon atom. They are derivatives of ammonia (NH3) in which one or two hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a ethanol group (-CH2CH2OH).

The most common ethanolamines are:

* Monethanolamine (MEA), also called 2-aminoethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.
* Diethanolamine (DEA), also called 2,2'-iminobisethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NHCH2CH2OH.
* Triethanolamine (TEA), also called 2,2',2''-nitrilotrisethanol, with the formula N(CH2CH2OH)3.

Ethanolamines are used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products, including as solvents, emulsifiers, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. They also have applications as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. In the body, ethanolamines play important roles in various biological processes, such as neurotransmission and cell signaling.

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of medications that work by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and smooth muscle cells. This action leads to relaxation of the muscles, particularly in the blood vessels, resulting in decreased peripheral resistance and reduced blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers also have anti-arrhythmic effects and are used in the management of various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, angina, and certain types of arrhythmias.

Calcium channel blockers can be further classified into two main categories based on their chemical structure: dihydropyridines (e.g., nifedipine, amlodipine) and non-dihydropyridines (e.g., verapamil, diltiazem). Dihydropyridines are more selective for vascular smooth muscle and have a greater effect on blood pressure than heart rate or conduction. Non-dihydropyridines have a more significant impact on cardiac conduction and contractility, in addition to their vasodilatory effects.

It is important to note that calcium channel blockers may interact with other medications and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Potential side effects include dizziness, headache, constipation, and peripheral edema.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

Pyrrolidinones are a class of organic compounds that contain a pyrrolidinone ring, which is a five-membered ring containing four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is part of an amide functional group, which consists of a carbonyl (C=O) group bonded to a nitrogen atom.

Pyrrolidinones are commonly found in various natural and synthetic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials. They exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Some well-known drugs that contain pyrrolidinone rings include the pain reliever tramadol, the muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine, and the antipsychotic aripiprazole.

Pyrrolidinones can be synthesized through various chemical reactions, such as the cyclization of γ-amino acids or the reaction of α-amino acids with isocyanates. The unique structure and reactivity of pyrrolidinones make them valuable intermediates in organic synthesis and drug discovery.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of the brain that is located in the ventral striatum, which is a key region of the reward circuitry. It is made up of two subregions: the shell and the core. The nucleus accumbens receives inputs from various sources, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and sends outputs to the ventral pallidum and other areas.

The nucleus accumbens is involved in reward processing, motivation, reinforcement learning, and addiction. It plays a crucial role in the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is associated with pleasure and reinforcement. Dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced by the body. Its chemical formula is C16:0, indicating that it contains 16 carbon atoms and no double bonds. Palmitic acid is found in high concentrations in animal fats, such as butter, lard, and beef tallow, as well as in some vegetable oils, like palm kernel oil and coconut oil.

In the human body, palmitic acid can be synthesized from other substances or absorbed through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy storage, membrane structure formation, and signaling pathways regulation. However, high intake of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to its potential to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood.

It is essential to maintain a balanced diet and consume palmitic acid-rich foods in moderation, along with regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle, to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that affects the brain and body in many ways. When used recreationally, cocaine can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and mental alertness; however, it can also cause serious negative consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, seizures, and death.

Cocaine works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This leads to the pleasurable effects that users seek when they take the drug. However, cocaine also interferes with the normal functioning of the brain's reward system, making it difficult for users to experience pleasure from natural rewards like food or social interactions.

Cocaine can be taken in several forms, including powdered form (which is usually snorted), freebase (a purer form that is often smoked), and crack cocaine (a solid form that is typically heated and smoked). Each form of cocaine has different risks and potential harms associated with its use.

Long-term use of cocaine can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, heart problems, malnutrition, respiratory issues, and mental health disorders like depression or anxiety. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine use or addiction.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Presynaptic receptors are a type of neuroreceptor located on the presynaptic membrane of a neuron, which is the side that releases neurotransmitters. These receptors can be activated by neurotransmitters or other signaling molecules released from the postsynaptic neuron or from other nearby cells.

When activated, presynaptic receptors can modulate the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron. They can have either an inhibitory or excitatory effect on neurotransmitter release, depending on the type of receptor and the signaling molecule that binds to it.

For example, activation of certain presynaptic receptors can decrease the amount of calcium that enters the presynaptic terminal, which in turn reduces the amount of neurotransmitter released into the synapse. Other presynaptic receptors, when activated, can increase the release of neurotransmitters.

Presynaptic receptors play an important role in regulating neuronal communication and are involved in various physiological processes, including learning, memory, and pain perception. They are also targeted by certain drugs used to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that block the action of adenosine at A2 receptors. Adenosine is a naturally occurring molecule in the body that acts as a neurotransmitter and has various physiological effects, including vasodilation and inhibition of heart rate.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists work by binding to A2 receptors and preventing adenosine from activating them. This results in the opposite effect of adenosine, leading to vasoconstriction and increased heart rate. These drugs are used for a variety of medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and heart failure.

Examples of Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists include theophylline, caffeine, and some newer drugs such asistradefylline and tozadenant. These drugs have different pharmacological properties and are used for specific medical conditions. It is important to note that adenosine A2 receptor antagonists can have side effects, including restlessness, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Adenosine A2A receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the endogenous purine nucleoside, adenosine. It is a subtype of the A2 receptor along with the A2B receptor and is widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the brain, heart, and immune system.

The A2A receptor plays an essential role in various physiological processes, including modulation of neurotransmission, cardiovascular function, and immune response. In the brain, activation of A2A receptors can have both excitatory and inhibitory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and context.

In the heart, A2A receptor activation has a negative chronotropic effect, reducing heart rate, and a negative inotropic effect, decreasing contractility. In the immune system, A2A receptors are involved in regulating inflammation and immune cell function.

Pharmacologically, A2A receptor agonists have been investigated for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions, including Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer. Conversely, A2A receptor antagonists have also been studied as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, and addiction.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and preventing excessive neuronal firing, which helps to maintain neural homeostasis and reduce the risk of seizures. GABA functions by binding to specific receptors (GABA-A, GABA-B, and GABA-C) on the postsynaptic membrane, leading to hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane and reduced neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals.

In addition to its role in the central nervous system, GABA has also been identified as a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system, where it is involved in regulating various physiological processes such as muscle relaxation, hormone secretion, and immune function.

GABA can be synthesized in neurons from glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, through the action of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Once synthesized, GABA is stored in synaptic vesicles and released into the synapse upon neuronal activation. After release, GABA can be taken up by surrounding glial cells or degraded by the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) into succinic semialdehyde, which is further metabolized to form succinate and enter the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Therefore, modulating GABAergic signaling through pharmacological interventions or other therapeutic approaches may offer potential benefits for the treatment of these conditions.

Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are electrical signals that occur in the postsynaptic neuron when an inhibitory neurotransmitter is released from the presynaptic neuron and binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. This binding causes a decrease in the excitability of the postsynaptic neuron, making it less likely to fire an action potential.

IPSPs are typically caused by neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine, which open chloride channels in the postsynaptic membrane. The influx of negatively charged chloride ions into the neuron causes a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, making it more difficult for the neuron to reach the threshold needed to generate an action potential.

IPSPs play an important role in regulating the activity of neural circuits and controlling the flow of information through the nervous system. By inhibiting the activity of certain neurons, IPSPs can help to sharpen the signals that are transmitted between neurons and prevent unwanted noise or interference from disrupting communication within the circuit.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of membrane receptors that play an essential role in cellular signaling and communication. These receptors possess seven transmembrane domains, forming a structure that spans the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. They are called "G-protein-coupled" because they interact with heterotrimeric G proteins upon activation, which in turn modulate various downstream signaling pathways.

When an extracellular ligand binds to a GPCR, it causes a conformational change in the receptor's structure, leading to the exchange of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) for guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on the associated G protein's α subunit. This exchange triggers the dissociation of the G protein into its α and βγ subunits, which then interact with various effector proteins to elicit cellular responses.

There are four main families of GPCRs, classified based on their sequence similarities and downstream signaling pathways:

1. Gq-coupled receptors: These receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC), which leads to the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 induces calcium release from intracellular stores, while DAG activates protein kinase C (PKC).
2. Gs-coupled receptors: These receptors activate adenylyl cyclase, which increases the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and subsequently activates protein kinase A (PKA).
3. Gi/o-coupled receptors: These receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP levels and modulating PKA activity. Additionally, they can activate ion channels or regulate other signaling pathways through the βγ subunits.
4. G12/13-coupled receptors: These receptors primarily activate RhoGEFs, which in turn activate RhoA and modulate cytoskeletal organization and cellular motility.

GPCRs are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and sensory perception. Dysregulation of GPCR function has been implicated in numerous diseases, making them attractive targets for drug development.

Benzamides are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a aromatic hydrocarbon) attached to an amide functional group. The amide group can be bound to various substituents, leading to a variety of benzamide derivatives with different biological activities.

In a medical context, some benzamides have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions. For example, danzol (a benzamide derivative) is used as a hormonal therapy for endometriosis and breast cancer. Additionally, other benzamides such as sulpiride and amisulpride are used as antipsychotic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders.

It's important to note that while some benzamides have therapeutic uses, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so they should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

A reinforcement schedule is a concept in behavioral psychology that refers to the timing and pattern of rewards or reinforcements provided in response to certain behaviors. It is used to shape, maintain, or strengthen specific behaviors in individuals. There are several types of reinforcement schedules, including:

1. **Fixed Ratio (FR):** A reward is given after a fixed number of responses. For example, a salesperson might receive a bonus for every 10 sales they make.
2. **Variable Ratio (VR):** A reward is given after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule is commonly used in gambling, as the uncertainty of when a reward (winning) will occur keeps the individual engaged and motivated to continue the behavior.
3. **Fixed Interval (FI):** A reward is given after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. For example, an employee might receive a paycheck every two weeks, regardless of how many tasks they completed during that period.
4. **Variable Interval (VI):** A reward is given after an unpredictable amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. This schedule can be observed in foraging behavior, where animals search for food at irregular intervals.
5. **Combined schedules:** Reinforcement schedules can also be combined to create more complex patterns, such as a fixed ratio followed by a variable interval (FR-VI) or a variable ratio followed by a fixed interval (VR-FI).

Understanding reinforcement schedules is essential for developing effective behavioral interventions in various settings, including healthcare, education, and rehabilitation.

"Cricetulus" is a genus of rodents that includes several species of hamsters. These small, burrowing animals are native to Asia and have a body length of about 8-15 centimeters, with a tail that is usually shorter than the body. They are characterized by their large cheek pouches, which they use to store food. Some common species in this genus include the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and the Daurian hamster (Cricetulus dauuricus). These animals are often kept as pets or used in laboratory research.

The cerebellum is a part of the brain that lies behind the brainstem and is involved in the regulation of motor movements, balance, and coordination. It contains two hemispheres and a central portion called the vermis. The cerebellum receives input from sensory systems and other areas of the brain and spinal cord and sends output to motor areas of the brain. Damage to the cerebellum can result in problems with movement, balance, and coordination.

Presynaptic terminals, also known as presynaptic boutons or nerve terminals, refer to the specialized structures located at the end of axons in neurons. These terminals contain numerous small vesicles filled with neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals between neurons.

When an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal, it triggers the influx of calcium ions into the terminal, leading to the fusion of the vesicles with the presynaptic membrane and the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, a small gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals.

The released neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic terminal, leading to the generation of an electrical or chemical signal that can either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron. Presynaptic terminals play a crucial role in regulating synaptic transmission and are targets for various drugs and toxins that modulate neuronal communication.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

Patch-clamp techniques are a group of electrophysiological methods used to study ion channels and other electrical properties of cells. These techniques were developed by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1991 for their work. The basic principle of patch-clamp techniques involves creating a high resistance seal between a glass micropipette and the cell membrane, allowing for the measurement of current flowing through individual ion channels or groups of channels.

There are several different configurations of patch-clamp techniques, including:

1. Cell-attached configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is attached to the outer surface of the cell membrane, and the current flowing across a single ion channel can be measured. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of individual channels in their native environment.
2. Whole-cell configuration: Here, the micropipette breaks through the cell membrane, creating a low resistance electrical connection between the pipette and the inside of the cell. This configuration allows for the measurement of the total current flowing across all ion channels in the cell membrane.
3. Inside-out configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the inner surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in isolation from other cellular components.
4. Outside-out configuration: Here, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the outer surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in their native environment, but with the ability to control the composition of the extracellular solution.

Patch-clamp techniques have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of ion channel function and have contributed to numerous breakthroughs in neuroscience, pharmacology, and physiology.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are electrical signals that occur in the dendrites and cell body of a neuron, or nerve cell. They are caused by the activation of excitatory synapses, which are connections between neurons that allow for the transmission of information.

When an action potential, or electrical impulse, reaches the end of an axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. The excitatory neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, causing a local depolarization of the membrane potential. This depolarization is known as an EPSP.

EPSPs are responsible for increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron. When multiple EPSPs occur simultaneously or in close succession, they can summate and cause a large enough depolarization to trigger an action potential. This allows for the transmission of information from one neuron to another.

It's important to note that there are also inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) which decrease the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron, by causing a local hyperpolarization of the membrane potential.

Neural inhibition is a process in the nervous system that decreases or prevents the activity of neurons (nerve cells) in order to regulate and control communication within the nervous system. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows for the balance of excitation and inhibition necessary for normal neural function. Inhibitory neurotransmitters, such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glycine, are released from the presynaptic neuron and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, reducing its likelihood of firing an action potential. This results in a decrease in neural activity and can have various effects depending on the specific neurons and brain regions involved. Neural inhibition is crucial for many functions including motor control, sensory processing, attention, memory, and emotional regulation.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) diseases, also known as Peripheral Neuropathies, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, controlling sensations, movements, and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.

PNS diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, trauma, or autoimmune conditions. The symptoms of PNS diseases depend on the type and extent of nerve damage but often include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness or cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Decreased sensation to touch, temperature, or vibration
5. Coordination problems and difficulty with balance
6. Sexual dysfunction
7. Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhea
8. Dizziness or fainting due to changes in blood pressure

Examples of PNS diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, diabetic neuropathy, and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the underlying cause but may involve medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Glutamic acid is an alpha-amino acid, which is one of the 20 standard amino acids in the genetic code. The systematic name for this amino acid is (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2CO2H.

Glutamic acid is a crucial excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain, and it plays an essential role in learning and memory. It's also involved in the metabolism of sugars and amino acids, the synthesis of proteins, and the removal of waste nitrogen from the body.

Glutamic acid can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, beans, eggs, dairy products, and vegetables. In the human body, glutamic acid can be converted into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), another important neurotransmitter that has a calming effect on the nervous system.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

HEK293 cells, also known as human embryonic kidney 293 cells, are a line of cells used in scientific research. They were originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells and have been adapted to grow in a lab setting. HEK293 cells are widely used in molecular biology and biochemistry because they can be easily transfected (a process by which DNA is introduced into cells) and highly express foreign genes. As a result, they are often used to produce proteins for structural and functional studies. It's important to note that while HEK293 cells are derived from human tissue, they have been grown in the lab for many generations and do not retain the characteristics of the original embryonic kidney cells.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

'Marijuana smoking' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it generally refers to the act of inhaling smoke from burning marijuana leaves or flowers, which are often dried and rolled into a cigarette (known as a "joint"), pipe, or bong. The active ingredients in marijuana, primarily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are absorbed through the lungs and enter the bloodstream, leading to various psychological and physiological effects.

It's worth noting that marijuana smoking is associated with several potential health risks, including respiratory problems such as bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as potential cognitive impairments and an increased risk of mental health disorders such as psychosis and schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals.

Xanthines are a type of natural alkaloids that are found in various plants, including tea leaves, cocoa beans, and mate. The most common xanthines are caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. These compounds have stimulant effects on the central nervous system and are often used in medication to treat conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory issues.

Caffeine is the most widely consumed xanthine and is found in a variety of beverages like coffee, tea, and energy drinks. It works by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain, which can lead to increased alertness and reduced feelings of fatigue.

Theophylline is another xanthine that is used as a bronchodilator to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. It works by relaxing smooth muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Theobromine is found in cocoa beans and is responsible for the stimulant effects of chocolate. While it has similar properties to caffeine and theophylline, it is less potent and has a milder effect on the body.

It's worth noting that while xanthines can have beneficial effects when used in moderation, they can also cause negative side effects such as insomnia, nervousness, and rapid heart rate if consumed in large quantities or over an extended period of time.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. There are eight different subtypes of mGluRs, labeled mGluR1 through mGluR8, which are classified into three groups (Group I, II, and III) based on their sequence homology, downstream signaling pathways, and pharmacological properties.

Group I mGluRs include mGluR1 and mGluR5, which are primarily located postsynaptically in the central nervous system. Activation of Group I mGluRs leads to increased intracellular calcium levels and activation of protein kinases, which can modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity.

Group II mGluRs include mGluR2 and mGluR3, which are primarily located presynaptically in the central nervous system. Activation of Group II mGluRs inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity and reduces neurotransmitter release.

Group III mGluRs include mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8, which are also primarily located presynaptically in the central nervous system. Activation of Group III mGluRs inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity and voltage-gated calcium channels, reducing neurotransmitter release.

Overall, metabotropic glutamate receptors play important roles in modulating synaptic transmission and plasticity, and have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including epilepsy, pain, anxiety, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases.

... though not as densely as the CB1 receptor and located on different cells. Unlike the CB1 receptor, in the brain, CB2 receptors ... The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is ... The receptor was identified among cDNAs based on its similarity in amino-acid sequence to the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) ... It is closely related to the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is largely responsible for the efficacy of endocannabinoid- ...
... cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2). Both receptors are 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) which inhibit ... modulate the effects of THC via direct blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, thus behaving like first-generation CB1 receptor ... Peripheral CB1 receptors are located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver and in adipose tissue. In the GI, CB1 receptors ... Two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, responsible for the effects of THC were discovered and cloned in the early ...
There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Most cannabinoids are lipophilic (fat soluble) compounds ... Pertwee RG (January 1997). "Pharmacology of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 74 (2): 129-80. ... Cannabinoids produce a marked depression of motor activity via activation of neuronal cannabinoid receptors belonging to the ... The binding of cannabinoids to cannabinoid receptors decrease adenylyl cyclase activity, inhibit calcium N channels, and ...
"Novel sterically hindered cannabinoid CB1 receptor ligands". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (15): 7510-7515. doi:10.1016/ ...
... exhibits cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonistic activity. There is considerable confusion about the absolute ... "Discovery of indole alkaloids with cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonistic activity". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. ...
It is a tricyclic aryl derivative that acts as a competitive antagonist at the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. Its activity at CB1 ... WIN 55,212-2 WIN 55,225 Howlett AC, Berglund B, Melvin LS (October 1995). "Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists". ... Cannabinoids, Aminoalkylindoles, WIN compounds, 4-Morpholinyl compounds, Anthracenes, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ...
Anandamide activates the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. FAAH knockout mice show increased anandamide levels in vivo and ... an orthologue of vertebrate cannabinoid receptors in the urochordate Ciona intestinalis". Gene. 302 (1-2): 95-101. doi:10.1016/ ... cannabinoid-receptor dependent behaviors including antinociception and anxiolysis. GPR18, GPR55, GPR92 have also been proposed ... An example of this is the lipid signaling system involving transient receptor potential channels (TRP), which interact with N- ...
Crunfli F, Vilela FC, Giusti-Paiva A (March 2015). "Cannabinoid CB1 receptors mediate the effects of dipyrone". Clinical and ... The CB1 receptor inverse agonist AM-251 was able to reduce the cataleptic response and thermal analgesia of Dipyrone. Another ... The result is a pair of cannabinoid and NSAID arachidonic acid conjugates, specifically Arachidonoyl-4-methylaminoantipyrine ( ... is locally hydrolyzed to 4-methylaminoantipyrine and its antihyperalgesic effect depends on CB2 and kappa-opioid receptors ...
... of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. It is shown that pepcan-12 opposite acts as a potent CB2 cannabinoid receptor positive allosteric ... which was originally proposed to act as a selective agonist for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. It is a 12-amino acid polypeptide ... "Hemopressin is an inverse agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... Recently it was shown that RVD-Hpα (also called Pepcan-12) is a potent negative allosteric modulator at CB1 receptors, together ...
January 1998). "LY320135, a novel cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, unmasks coupling of the CB1 receptor to stimulation of ... LY-320,135 is a drug used in scientific research which acts as a selective antagonist of the cannabinoid receptor CB1. It was ... Pertwee RG (February 2005). "Inverse agonism and neutral antagonism at cannabinoid CB1 receptors". Life Sciences. 76 (12): 1307 ... Cannabinoids, CB1 receptor antagonists, Benzofuran ethers at the benzene ring, Resorcinol ethers, Aromatic ketones, ...
It binds cannabinoid receptors, acting as an inverse agonist at CB1 receptors. Longer forms of hemopressin containing 2-3 ... May 2010). "The peptide hemopressin acts through CB1 cannabinoid receptors to reduce food intake in rats and mice". J. Neurosci ... December 2007). "Hemopressin is an inverse agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (51): 20588 ... is also an agonist at CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Hemopressin is not an endogenous peptide but rather an extraction artefact [ ...
Cannabinoid receptor antagonist Rimonabant Lange JH, Kruse CG (2008). "Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists in therapeutic and ... Reggio, Patricia H. (2009). "Toward the design of cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonists and neutral antagonists". Drug ... Drinabant (INN; AVE-1625) is a drug that acts as a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, which was under investigation varyingly ... Lee HK, Choi EB, Pak CS (2009). "The current status and future perspectives of studies of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists as ...
... is an inverse agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Originally thought to be selective for the CB1 receptor, ... CB1 receptor antagonists, Chlorobenzenes, 1-Piperidinyl compounds, Pyrazoles, Withdrawn drugs, Cannabinoids, Mu-opioid receptor ... Rimonabant is an inverse agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and was first-in-class for clinical development. Rimonabant ... Pi-Sunyer FX, Aronne LJ, Heshmati HM, Devin J, Rosenstock J (February 2006). "Effect of rimonabant, a cannabinoid-1 receptor ...
Clayton N, Marshall FH, Bountra C, O'Shaughnessy CT (April 2002). "CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are implicated in ... GW-405,833 (L-768,242) is a drug that acts as a potent and selective partial agonist for the cannabinoid receptor subtype CB2, ... Marriott KS, Huffman JW (2008). "Recent advances in the development of selective ligands for the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor". ... April 2005). "Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characterization of the cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, GW405833, utilizing ...
Cannabinoids, CB1 receptor antagonists, Isothiocyanates, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ... GAT100 is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Org 27569 PSNCBAM-1 ZCZ-011 Kulkarni PM, Kulkarni AR ... June 2016). "Mapping Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Allosteric Site(s): Critical Molecular Determinant and Signaling Profile of GAT100 ... January 2016). "Novel Electrophilic and Photoaffinity Covalent Probes for Mapping the Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Allosteric Site(s ...
... has low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, although it acts as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists, ... which acts on the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) as a partial agonist, CBD instead is a negative allosteric modulator of CB1 ... Pertwee RG (January 2008). "The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9- ... Cannabidiol may be an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in ...
Cannabinoids, CB1 receptor antagonists, Hydrazides, Chloroarenes, Pyrazoles, Piperidines, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs) ... July 2003). "Synthesis and characterization of NESS 0327: a novel putative antagonist of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor". The ... August 2002). "Design, synthesis and biological activity of rigid cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists". Chemical & ... and more selective for the CB1 receptor over CB2, than the more commonly used ligand rimonabant, with a Ki at CB1 of 350fM (i.e ...
323-. ISBN 978-981-4287-59-3. Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Gobbi, Gabriella (2008). "The cannabinoid CB1 receptor and the ... Cannabinoid receptor Synthetic cannabinoid Cannabinoid receptor antagonist George I. Papakostas; Maurizio Fava (2010). ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, All stub articles, ...
"Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor". British Journal of Pharmacology. 172 (20): ... "The pharmacology of cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: an overview". International Journal of Obesity. 30 (S1): S13-S18. ... Cannabis and cannabinoids : pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutic potential. Grotenhermen, Franjo., Russo, Ethan. New York ... κ-opioid receptor agonist), the active constituent of Salvia divinorum sage Salvinorin B methoxymethyl ether†, a semi-synthetic ...
This system is made up of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) as well as the various ligands and enzymes that interact ... Both cannabinoid receptors are labeled as class A G-Protein Coupled Receptors, and CB2 is highly expressed within the human ... Oyagawa CR, Grimsey NL (2021-01-01). Shukla AK (ed.). Cannabinoid receptor CB1 and CB2 interacting proteins: Techniques, ... 2019). "Systematic Affinity Purification Coupled to Mass Spectrometry Identified p62 as Part of the Cannabinoid Receptor CB2 ...
January 1999). "Evidence that the cannabinoid CB1 receptor is a 2-arachidonoylglycerol receptor. Structure-activity ... an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor and the primary endogenous ligand for the CB2 receptor. It is an ester formed from ... "Analysis of cannabinoid receptor binding and mRNA expression and endogenous cannabinoid contents in the developing rat brain ... CB1 receptor agonists, Glycine receptor antagonists, Glycerol esters, Arachidonyl compounds). ...
AM-251 is an inverse agonist at the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. AM-251 is structurally very close to rimonabant; both are ... CB1 receptor antagonists, 1-Piperidinyl compounds, Pyrazoles, Hydrazides, Iodoarenes, Chloroarenes, AM cannabinoids, ... Discovery and development of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonists Lan R, Liu Q, Fan P, Lin S, Fernando SR, McCallion D, et al. ( ... The resulting compound exhibits slightly better binding affinity for the CB1 receptor (with a Ki value of 7.5 nM) than ...
It is used in scientific research for mapping the distribution of CB1 receptors. AM-694 is an agonist for cannabinoid receptors ... a CB1 cannabinoid receptor ligand". Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals. 46 (9): 799-804. doi:10.1002/jlcr. ... is a designer drug that acts as a potent and selective agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB1. ... AM-679 AM-1235 AM-2201 AM-2232 AM-2233 FUBIMINA JWH-018 List of AM cannabinoids List of JWH cannabinoids THJ-2201 Willis PG, ...
... type 1 (CB1) receptors are thought to be one of the most widely expressed Gαi protein-coupled receptors in ... There are two known subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptor is expressed mainly in the brain ( ... Cannabinoids bind reversibly and stereo-selectively to the cannabinoid receptors. Subtype selective cannabinoids have been ... These discoveries led to determination in 1993 of a second brain cannabinoid receptor named cannabinoid receptor type 2 or CB2 ...
December 2015). "A Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor-Positive Allosteric Modulator Reduces Neuropathic Pain in the Mouse with No ... ZCZ-011 is a positive allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. GAT100 Org 27569 PSNCBAM-1 Poklis JL, Clay DJ, ... June 2015). "HPLC-MS-MS Determination of ZCZ-011, A Novel Pharmacological Tool for Investigation of the Cannabinoid Receptor in ... Cannabinoids, Tryptamines, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ...
... is a partial agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. Nabilone is given in 1 or 2 mg doses multiple times a ... Zhornitsky S, Pelletier J, Assaf R, Giroux S, Li CR, Potvin S (January 2021). "Acute effects of partial CB1 receptor agonists ... "Valeant returns synthetic cannabinoid to USA". Pharma Times. 17 May 2006. "FDA turns down Valeant's anti-nausea drug". Pharma ... Nabilone, sold under the brand name Cesamet among others, is a synthetic cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic and ...
March 2011). "Discovery of potent and orally bioavailable heterocycle-based cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists". Bioorganic & ... heterocycle derivatives as agonists of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor.", issued 20 April 2010, assigned to Organon NV US 7763732 ... PTI-1 (SGT-48) is an indole-based synthetic cannabinoid. It is one of few synthetic cannabinoids containing a thiazole group ... Cannabinoids, Designer drugs, Diethylamino compounds, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ...
... cannabinoid CB1 / dopamine D2 heteromers, and even CB1/A2A/D2 heterotrimers where three different receptors have come together ... "Antagonistic cannabinoid CB1/dopamine D2 receptor interactions in striatal CB1/D2 heteromers. A combined neurochemical and ... A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors form functional heteromeric complexes that mediate the motor effects of cannabinoids". ... "Receptor-receptor interactions within receptor mosaics. Impact on neuropsychopharmacology". Brain Research Reviews. 58 (2): 415 ...
It acts as a potent and selective cannabinoid receptor agonist, with high potency at both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but low ... March 2011). "Discovery of potent and orally bioavailable heterocycle-based cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists". Bioorganic & ... April 2012). "Low brain penetrant CB1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neuropathic pain". Bioorganic & Medicinal ... heterocyclic derivatives as agonists of the CB1 receptor. Discovery of a clinical candidate". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry ...
... and Raphael Mechoulam found the endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in 2000. The discovery was 100 gram ... 3 μM at the Cannabinoid receptor type 1 and the peripheral cannabinoid receptors. The presence of 2-AGE in body tissue is ... 2-AGE binds with a Ki of 21 nM to the CB1 receptor and 480 nM to the CB2 receptor. It shows agonistic behaviour on both ... an endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (7): 3662-3665. ...
... though not as densely as the CB1 receptor and located on different cells. Unlike the CB1 receptor, in the brain, CB2 receptors ... The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is ... The receptor was identified among cDNAs based on its similarity in amino-acid sequence to the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) ... It is closely related to the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is largely responsible for the efficacy of endocannabinoid- ...
Endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors, their endogenous ligands, ... Endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors, their endogenous ligands, ... The cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates differentiation of spermatids. We recently characterized spermatozoa from caput ... The cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates differentiation of spermatids. We recently characterized spermatozoa from caput ...
Genetic Manipulation of sn-1-Diacylglycerol Lipase and CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Gain-of-Function Uncover Neuronal 2-Linoleoyl ... Cannabinoids and Bone: Endocannabinoids modulate human osteoclast function in vitro. 2012 - Published. ...
... chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana ( ... it shows the biosynthesis of AEA and activation of the cannabinoid binding receptor-1 (CB1-R) receptor pathway (2- ... Endocannabinoid receptors (CB1-R and CB2-R). CB1-R and CB2-R are membrane-bound G-protein receptors that activate cyclic ... CB1-R and CB2-R are G-protein receptors. CB1-R receptors are abundant in the brain, specifically the mesocorticolimbic system, ...
BACKGROUND: Selective type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists may assist with smoking cessation by restoring the balance ... Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation 2011 Department of Primary Health Care, University of Oxford, ... OBJECTIVES: To determine whether selective CB1 receptor antagonists (currently rimonabant and taranabant) increase the numbers ... Types of studies Randomized controlled trialsTypes of participants Adult smokersTypes of interventions Selective CB1 receptor ...
Were taking an in-depth look at the science of how cannabinoids interact with pain circuits. ... Cannabinoid receptors (CB-1, and CB-2) are expressed everywhere in our body; however, different regions have a higher ... How Cannabinoids Interact With Pain Circuits. What science tells us about cannabinoids for pain management and how cannabinoids ... Cannabinoid-mediated activation of CB-1 leads to the inhibition of the neuron that they are bound to, but this can sometimes ...
Even though CBD doesnt land on CB1 receptors as THC does, hemp products could trigger dry mouth due to increased anandamide ... Scientists at the University of Buenos Aires discovered many cannabinoid receptors in the human mouth. Not only does the ... Recent studies strongly suggest delta-9 THC interacts with CB1 receptors in the brain that can influence saliva secretion. ... went on to say that the compound anandamide has an antagonistic relationship with these saliva-producing cannabinoid receptors ...
THC can modulate anxiety by binding to the orthosteric sites as a partial agonist on the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors ( ... Zarrindast M-R, Sarahroodi S, Arzi A, Khodayar MJ, Taheri-Shalmani S, Rezayof A (2008) Cannabinoid CB1 receptors of the rat ... Witkin JM, Tzavara ET, Nomikos GG (2005) A role for cannabinoid CB1 receptors in mood and anxiety disorders. Behav Pharmacol 16 ... Moreira FA, Grieb M, Lutz B (2009) Central side-effects of therapies based on CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists ...
This complex signaling system contains cannabinoid receptors like CB1 and CB2 receptors, endocannabinoids, and enzymes. The ... As opposed to that, CBD interacts with the nearby cannabinoid receptors. These, in turn, send signals to the ECS to alleviate ... Upon applying topical CBD cream on any part of the body, the skin absorbs this cannabinoid, but it will not get into the ... According to research, it has been confirmed that topical use of some cannabinoid topicals could lower pain in animals ...
The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delat9- ... Cannabidiol inhibitory effect on marble-burying behavior: involvement of CB1 receptors. Behav Pharmacol 2010;21:353-8. View ... Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2018 Jun;1:65-72. *Xu DH, Cullen BD, Tang M, Fang Y. The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in ... Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2022. View abstract.. *Sainz-Cort A, Jimenez-Garrido D, Muñoz-Marron E, Viejo-Sobera R, Heeroma J, ...
Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. British Journal of Pharmacology 172(20):4790- ... In contrast to Δ9-THC, which is a partial agonist of the CB1 receptor, many of the synthetic cannabinoids bind to CB1 receptors ... Reversible and regionally selective down-regulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers. ... owing to its ability to act as a partial agonist2 for type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. Cannabinoids exist mainly in the ...
THC attaches to CB1 receptors but CBD stimulates. the receptors so that the body produces its own cannabinoids, known as ... All cannabinoids produce effects in the body by interacting with cannabinoid receptors, which form part of the endocannabinoid ... The body produces two receptors: CB1 receptors are present throughout the body, particularly in the brain. They co-ordinate ... Zou, S., & Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoid system: Signaling and function in the central ...
Cannabinoids exert their pharmacological effects through a wide variety of receptor-dependent and independent interactions. ... independent of the CB1/CB2 receptors (Rimmerman et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2018; Olivas-Aguirre et al., 2019). Here, we sought to ... Kendall, D. A., and Yudowski, G. A. (2016). Cannabinoid Receptors in the Central Nervous System: Their Signaling and Roles in ... Zou, S., and Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central ...
Orexin-1 receptor-cannabinoid CB1 receptor heterodimerization results in both ligand-dependent and -independent coordinated ... Constitutive activity of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor regulates the function of co-expressed Mu opioid receptors. The Journal ... Adenosine A2A receptor and dopamine D3 receptor interactions: evidence of functional A2A/D3 heteromeric complexes. Molecular ... Coaggregation, cointernalization, and codesensitization of adenosine A2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors. The Journal of ...
... as cannabinoids are known to activate G,sub,i/o,/sub,-coupled cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1), resulting in neuronal ... as cannabinoids are known to activate Gi/o-coupled cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1), resulting in neuronal inhibition. ... as cannabinoids are known to activate Gi/o-coupled cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1), resulting in neuronal inhibition. ... CGRP and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), a subunit of the functional CGRP receptor, in the TG. Results: CB1 was ...
Cannabinoids protect normal glial cells of astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor ... then treated them with cannabinoids (unique, active components found in marijuana). THC and other cannabinoids shrank tumors ... "Researchers at Dartmouth College reveal Cannabis receptors are among receptors implicated in the way the brain regulates ... The fact of the matter is that the scalp is just lousy with CB-2 receptors. CB-2s dont get people high so the canard that " ...
By inhibiting orexin-A action at orexin-1 receptors we rescued both plasticity and pattern separation impairment in obese mice ... Inhibition of orexin-A action at orexin-1 receptors rescued both impairments in obese mice. ... Here, we show that excessive orexin-A/2-arachidonoylglycerol/cannabinoid receptor type-1 signaling leads to the dysfunction of ... Type-1 (CB1) cannabinoid receptor promotes neuronal differentiation and maturation of neural stem cells. PLoS ONE 8, e54271 ( ...
... the cannabinoid type 1 receptor or CB1, is especially prevalent in our brains. When cannabinoids bind with CB1 receptors, they ... Instead of looking at the main binding sites where cannabinoids attach to CB1 receptors, Thakur developed compounds aimed at ... Thakur holds several patents on the class of compounds that act as allosteric modulators for the CB1 receptor and was recently ... "You want to have precise control-to turn up this signal from activating the CB1 receptor, and turn down that signal," Thakur ...
Our Cannabinoid review gives an overview of the pharmacological ligands used to study the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. ... Home / Pharmacology / GPCRs / 7-TM Receptors / Cannabinoid Receptors / CB1 Receptors / CB1 Receptor Agonists / NADA ... NADA is a potent endogenous cannabinoid and vanilloid receptor agonist, with no action at dopamine receptors. Selective for CB1 ... cannabinoids, Receptors, Vanillioids, VR1, Channels, Transient, Receptor, Potential, cb1r, N-Arachidonyldopamine, AA-DA, TRPV, ...
Cannabinoid receptors (CB1) are found widely in the central nervous system, with a distribution that is consistent with effects ... The effects of cannabinoids on the brain. Prog Neurobiol 1999; 58: 315-348. ...
In the brain, CB1 is found on neurons, and this is the receptor with which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) binds to produce its ... Cannabinoid receptors. Endocannabinoids interact with cannabinoid (CB) receptors to influence biological function. The two ... It is noteworthy that many phytocannabinoids do not bind to CB1, and are therefore unlikely to be intoxicating. ... types that have been discovered thus far are CB1 and CB2, which are found in tissues throughout the body. ...
Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 form functional heteromers in the brain. Callén Herrero, Lucía; Moreno Guillén, Estefanía; ... Cocaine disrupts histamine H3 receptor modulation of dopamine D1 receptor signaling: σ1-D1-H3 receptor complexes as key targets ... induced by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol occurs through heteromers between cannabinoid CB1 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Viñals ... Control of a hippocampal recurrent excitatory circuit by cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein Gap43. Maroto, Irene B.; ...
Both cannabinoids that activate the CB1 receptor and cannabinoids that activate the CB2 receptor decreased MCLs viability. ... When the team used both an antagonist and a CB1-receptive cannabinoid, they worked together for a greater effect. Oddly enough ... While they already knew MCL had more cannabinoid receptor expression, they didnt know if non-Hodgkin lymphoma did. So, they ... The team conducted previous research on the expression of cannabinoid receptors in MCL cells, where they learned MCL had more ...
In the ECS are cannabinoid receptors, enzymes as well as endocannabinoids. They all help it to perform its function of ... The two most important though out of several endocannabinoids present are CB1 and CB2. These two especially help the ECS to ... When CBD is administered, it mimics the naturally occurring endocannabinoids and it is easily mopped up by the receptors ...
... downregulation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptors, and impaired neurite outgrowth. Moreover, transient on-chip THC ... Under on-chip exposure to the psychoactive cannabinoid, $\Delta$-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cerebral organoids exhibited ...
Angiotensin receptor 1 blockade as an antidepression strategy29. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors and antidepressant effects30. ... Depression and the NMDA receptor/NO/cGMP pathwayAna Cristina Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira18. Translocator protein (18 kDa TSPO) ...
Here, the cannabinoid (CB) receptors bind with endocannabinoids to stimulate the signaling system. This means THC and CBD can ... On the contrary, THC binds with both CB1 and CB2 but with a higher affinity to CB1. As a result, THC produces intoxicating ... The cannabinoid substances in the plants are at the center of a long-running debate about the medical qualities of cannabis. ... Unfortunately, CBD does not bind with any of the CB receptors, and that is why its consumption does lead to the euphoric high. ...
Unlike THC, CBD does not directly activate CB1 receptors in our brain, which means that it does not cause intoxicating effects ... and is not psychoactive Instead, it affects the body by increasing the level of natural cannabinoids called endocannabinoids. ...
Once it reaches your brain, it binds to cannabinoids CB1 receptors. This causes the release of dopamine which creates a high ...
Trimeric S protein is involved in host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) recognition and mediates viral entry ... significant structural rearrangement to fuse the viral membrane with the host-cell membrane once it binds to the host receptor ...
  • The discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprising cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and synthetic and metabolizing enzymes triggered a large number of studies in cell lines, animal models, and humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana ( Cannabis sativa ). (medscape.com)
  • This complex signaling system contains cannabinoid receptors like CB1 and CB2 receptors, endocannabinoids, and enzymes. (greenopolis.com)
  • Endocannabinoids interact with cannabinoid (CB) receptors to influence biological function. (edu.au)
  • In the ECS are cannabinoid receptors, enzymes as well as endocannabinoids. (europeanbusinessreview.com)
  • The two most important though out of several endocannabinoids present are CB1 and CB2. (europeanbusinessreview.com)
  • When CBD is administered, it mimics the naturally occurring endocannabinoids and it is easily mopped up by the receptors contained in ECS causing it to begin to respond appropriately. (europeanbusinessreview.com)
  • Activation of the MAPK-ERK pathway by CB2 receptor agonists acting through the Gβγ subunit ultimately results in changes in cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noladin ether (a stable 2-AG analog) and exogenous CB1 receptor agonists possess similar effects. (nih.gov)
  • These effects have been observed among a diverse family of cannabinoid compounds, such as naturally occurring cannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoid agonists, and endocannabinoid modulators ( Hermanson and Marnett, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Current use of cannabinoids in cancer therapy is predominantly through non-prescription cannabis, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or related cannabinoid agonists for alleviation of unwanted concomitant effects of chemo- and radiotherapeutic regimens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Purpose: To examine the effects of prostanoid FP and EP2 receptor agonists, PGF2α and Omidenepag (OMD), respectively, on the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß2) induced conjunctival fibrogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • These receptors make up a part of the nervous system and are part of the endocannabinoid system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Not only does the endocannabinoid system (ECS) extend to our salivary glands, it appears these receptors account for approximately 65 percent of total saliva secretion. (laweekly.com)
  • The principal endogenous ligand for the CB2 receptor is 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally it was thought that the CB2 receptor was only expressed in peripheral tissue while the CB1 receptor is the endogenous receptor on neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, reducing endogenous 2-AG by inhibiting its synthesis or blocking its binding to CB1 receptors with antagonists increases the cell invasion. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that cellular 2-AG, acting through the CB1 receptor, is an endogenous inhibitor of invasive prostate cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • NADA is a potent endogenous cannabinoid and vanilloid receptor agonist, with no action at dopamine receptors. (tocris.com)
  • Five recognized cannabinoids are produced endogenously: arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether), virodhamine, as well as N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers went on to say that the compound anandamide has an antagonistic relationship with these saliva-producing cannabinoid receptors. (laweekly.com)
  • Even though CBD doesn't land on CB1 receptors as THC does, hemp products could trigger dry mouth due to increased anandamide molecules. (laweekly.com)
  • In the brain, CB1 is found on neurons, and this is the receptor with which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) binds to produce its psychoactive effects. (edu.au)
  • It is closely related to the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is largely responsible for the efficacy of endocannabinoid-mediated presynaptic-inhibition, the psychoactive properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active agent in cannabis, and other phytocannabinoids (plant cannabinoids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cannabis contains a number of biologically active compounds, such as cannabinoids. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The most significant compounds in cannabis are cannabinoids. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The most important psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Other identified cannabinoids present in cannabis include CBD and CBG. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • CBD is a cannabinoid present in the cannabis plant. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • CBG is another cannabinoid present in the cannabis plant. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • CBD and CBG are both cannabinoids present in cannabis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Over 80 chemicals, known as cannabinoids, have been found in the Cannabis sativa plant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To date, more than 104 different cannabinoids 1 have been identified in cannabis ( ElSohly and Gul, 2014 ). (nationalacademies.org)
  • Among these, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has received the most attention for being responsible for the intoxicated state sought after by recreational cannabis users, owing to its ability to act as a partial agonist 2 for type-1 cannabinoid (CB 1 ) receptors. (nationalacademies.org)
  • It shares a common precursor, olivetoic acid, with another quantitatively important constituent of Cannabis sativa , cannabidiol (CBD), which is the most abundant cannabinoid in hemp (see Figure 2-1 ). (nationalacademies.org)
  • CB2 was cloned in 1993 by a research group from Cambridge looking for a second cannabinoid receptor that could explain the pharmacological properties of tetrahydrocannabinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • To elucidate the cause of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, we analyzed the mechanism of motor control using genetically engineered mice, focusing on the roles of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1R and D2R) and NMDA receptor-mediated signal transduction, and especially found the importance of D1R-mediated signal transduction. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Her PhD was part of a EU-funded multidisciplinary project that examined the interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptors in Parkinson's Disease. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • As is commonly seen in G protein-coupled receptors, the CB2 receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains, a glycosylated N-terminus, and an intracellular C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, the cannabinoid family, a group of pharmacologically active compounds that primarily interact with specific cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) ( Hermanson and Marnett, 2011 ), are being rigorously studied for their putative anti-tumorigenic and therapeutically relevant properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • Her research interests focus on understanding the interactions between G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) and intracellular proteins, and their consequences for receptor signalling and trafficking. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • My research focuses on improving our understanding of the cellular responses mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) with particular focus on novel emerging paradigms that challenge the traditional views on GPCR signalling and regulation and promise to change the way drugs are screened and validated. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • While most scientists believe this reaction is related chiefly to the psychoactive cannabinoid delta-9 THC, hemp fans are curious whether CBD could affect saliva production. (laweekly.com)
  • Background: Based on the current understanding of the role of neuropeptide signalling in migraine, we explored the therapeutic potential of a specific cannabinoid agonist. (lu.se)
  • The C-terminus of CB2 receptors appears to play a critical role in the regulation of ligand-induced receptor desensitization and downregulation following repeated agonist application, perhaps causing the receptor to become less responsive to particular ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these ligands appear to exhibit properties of functional selectivity at the CB2 receptor: 2-AG activates the MAPK-ERK pathway, while noladin inhibits adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our Cannabinoid review gives an overview of the pharmacological ligands used to study the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. (tocris.com)
  • Selective for CB 1 over CB 2 receptors (K i values are 0.25 and 12 μ M respectively), and potent agonist at TRPV1 (VR1) receptors (EC 50 ~ 50 nM). (tocris.com)
  • Conclusion: The present findings indicate that the prostanoid FP or the EP2 receptor agonist may solely and differently induce the planar and subepithelial proliferation of HconF cells and these were also modulated by TGF-ß2. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the synthetic endocannabinoid (eCB) analogue, arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide (ACEA), on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release in the dura and trigeminal ganglion (TG), as cannabinoids are known to activate G i/o -coupled cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1), resulting in neuronal inhibition. (lu.se)
  • The main focus of my research are peptide receptors involved in pain transmission (opioid, neurokinin and calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors) and immune response (chemokine receptors). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • But there is far more to the biochemical propensity of exogenous cannabinoids and the receptors they act on. (hightimes.com)
  • CGRP release was induced by either 60 mM K + (for depolarization-induced stimulation) or 100 nM capsaicin (for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) -induced stimulation) and measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (lu.se)
  • Conclusions: Results from the present study indicate that ACEA per se does not exhibit antimigraine potential due to its dual agonistic properties, resulting in activation of both CB1 and TRPV1, and thereby inhibition and stimulation of CGRP release, respectively. (lu.se)
  • In July 2015, personnel in the Alaska Division of Public Health's Section of Epidemiology became aware of an increase in the number of patients being treated in Anchorage hospital emergency departments for adverse reactions associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). (cdc.gov)
  • Results: CB1 was predominantly expressed in neuronal somas in which colocalization with CGRP was observed. (lu.se)
  • When a person takes these two compounds orally, they interact with cannabinoid receptors in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The discovery of this receptor helped provide a molecular explanation for the established effects of cannabinoids on the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial investigation of CB2 receptor expression patterns focused on the presence of CB2 receptors in the peripheral tissues of the immune system, and found the CB2 receptor mRNA in the spleen, tonsils, and thymus gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors were localized on immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, B-cells, and T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In CB2 receptors, lipophilic groups interact with the F5.46 residue, allowing them to form a hydrogen bond with the S3.31 residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two also behave differently when they interact with cannabinoid receptors in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What science tells us about cannabinoids for pain management and how cannabinoids interact with pain circuits! (hightimes.com)
  • While we often associate all of our cannabinoid interactions with CB-1 , the neuronal process of pain is one that requires both receptors. (hightimes.com)
  • Furthermore, CB1 exhibited colocalization with RAMP1 in neuronal Aδ-fibres but was not clearly expressed in the CGRP-immunoreactive C-fibres. (lu.se)
  • coupled cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1), resulting in neuronal inhibition. (lu.se)
  • While these GPCRs are undisputed targets for the treatment of pain and inflammation, and have an extensive pharmacological toolbox, the use of drugs targeting these receptors is still limited by the development of side effects (such as opioid-induced tolerance or respiratory depression) or by lack of efficacy. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Recent studies strongly suggest delta-9 THC interacts with CB1 receptors in the brain that can influence saliva secretion. (laweekly.com)
  • As opposed to that, CBD interacts with the nearby cannabinoid receptors. (greenopolis.com)
  • The analysis of CGRP release data was combined with immunohistochemistry in order to study the cellular localization of CB1, cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), CGRP and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), a subunit of the functional CGRP receptor, in the TG. (lu.se)
  • Plasma membrane localization of the $mu$-opioid receptor controls spatiotemporal signaling. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Has cannabinoid and vanilloid actions in vivo . (tocris.com)
  • Within this group, epilepsy is refractory in up to 40 % of patients, who have shown para el control de síntomas refractarios en a decrease in the frequency of seizures with the concomitant use of cannabidiol and conventional antiepileptics, with mild síndromes convulsivos side effects such as diarrhea and drowsiness. (bvsalud.org)
  • Como parte de las terapias alternativas para el control de síntomas refractarios en enfermedades avanzadas destaca el uso de cannabidiol. (bvsalud.org)
  • 40 % de los pacientes, quienes han demostrado disminución en la frecuencia de convulsiones con el uso concomitante de cannabidiol y antiepilépticos convencionales, con efectos secundarios leves, como diarrea y somnolencia. (bvsalud.org)
  • de determinar el uso del cannabidiol para el control de síntomas neurológicos refractarios en pacientes con síndromes convulsivos y enfermedades neurodegenerativas, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed, Scopus y Embase. (bvsalud.org)
  • Los efectos del cannabidiol lo convierten en una alternativa, of the title and research adicional a la terapéutica convencional, para el control de síntomas en trastornos neurológicos, disminuyendo de forma objectives, exhaustive sostenida el número total de episodios con un perfil de seguridad aceptable. (bvsalud.org)
  • Existe limitada información respecto al uso de search of information in cannabidiol en enfermedades neurodegenerativas, por lo que no se ha evidenciado su efectividad. (bvsalud.org)
  • Th ese include genes coding for GABA and endocannabinoid receptors, which are usually downregulated during epileptogenesis, opening up the possibility of interfering with their expression by gene therapy approaches to block the development of recurrent seizures. (lu.se)
  • Our group's current research aims to develop and apply an on-demand, controllable gene expression technology, based on guide RNAs and a catalytically inactive Cas9, targeting the expression of GABA and CB1 receptors for the control of epileptogenesis. (lu.se)
  • It is noteworthy that many phytocannabinoids do not bind to CB1, and are therefore unlikely to be intoxicating. (edu.au)
  • Cannabinoid-mediated activation of CB-1 leads to the inhibition of the neuron that they are bound to, but this can sometimes lead to a net result of activation down the stream of information. (hightimes.com)
  • The resulting conclusion from an article published in the esteemed journal Science was that activation of CB-1 in glutamatergic nocioreceptors, and the subsequent inhibition of the receptors, is the primary mechanism for pain reduction. (hightimes.com)
  • This is but one theory for the direct reduction in pain due to inhibition of pain receptors, yet there is another way to look at this issue. (hightimes.com)
  • Here, we show that excessive orexin-A/2-arachidonoylglycerol/cannabinoid receptor type-1 signaling leads to the dysfunction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the subsequent inhibition of plasticity and impairment of pattern separation. (nature.com)
  • Further investigation into the expression patterns of the CB2 receptors revealed that CB2 receptor gene transcripts are also expressed in the brain, though not as densely as the CB1 receptor and located on different cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substance works similarly to CBD by binding to the same receptors in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These interactions induce a conformational change in the receptor structure, which triggers the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through their Gβγ subunits, CB2 receptors are also known to be coupled to the MAPK-ERK pathway, a complex and highly conserved signal transduction pathway, which regulates a number of cellular processes in mature and developing tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • By inhibiting orexin-A action at orexin-1 receptors we rescued both plasticity and pattern separation impairment in obese mice, thus providing a molecular and functional mechanism to explain alterations in episodic memory in obesity. (nature.com)
  • As a senior post-doctoral fellow in the laboratory of Profs R Leurs and M Smit in Amsterdam (2008-2010) she focused on the regulation, pharmacology and medicinal chemistry of chemokine receptors. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • a net activation of inhibitory networks may lead to cannabinoid activated loss of aversive memories and fear. (hightimes.com)
  • The human CB1 and the CB2 receptors possess approximately 44% amino acid similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multisite phosphorylation is required for sustained interaction with GRKs and arrestins during rapid mu-opioid receptor desensitization Science Signaling. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs. (medscape.com)
  • As extensive of research about cannabinoids for pain management as this is, it still only encompasses half of the receptors in our body. (hightimes.com)
  • According to research , it has been confirmed that topical use of some cannabinoid topicals could lower pain in animals suffering from neuropathic pain and inflammation. (greenopolis.com)
  • While THC and similar cannabinoids are effective in palliative uses, patients often experience unwanted psychoactive effects, tolerance to, and potentially dependence upon these treatments. (frontiersin.org)
  • This has the potential to resolve questions about the expression of CB2 receptors in various tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two types that have been discovered thus far are CB1 and CB2, which are found in tissues throughout the body. (edu.au)
  • However, current data from Argentina suggests other cannabinoids may play a role in reducing saliva. (laweekly.com)
  • 2-AG and noladin ether decrease protein kinase A activity in these cells, indicating coupling of the CB1 receptor to downstream effectors. (nih.gov)
  • Upon applying topical CBD cream on any part of the body, the skin absorbs this cannabinoid, but it will not get into the bloodstream. (greenopolis.com)
  • The main difference between the two is that CBD is a major cannabinoid while CBG is a minor cannabinoid. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Subsequently, it was shown that CB2 knock out mice produced the same immunohistochemical staining, indicating the presence of the CB2 receptor where none was expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors inhibit the activity of adenylyl cyclase through their Gi/Goα subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers are now looking into cannabinoids for pain, and in the midst of our nation's opioid crisis, cannabinoids for pain management is a hot topic. (hightimes.com)
  • Questions about cannabinoids for pain management like these were explored in an extensive review article by the German scientist, Jörn Lötsch, in the European Journal of Pain . (hightimes.com)
  • Cannabinoid receptor type-1 and its correlation with CB1 gene polymorphism-1359G/A in ectopic pregnancy compared to the control group. (cdc.gov)
  • The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is encoded by the CNR2 gene. (wikipedia.org)