Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Serotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.GABA-B Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-B RECEPTORS.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists: Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Histamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.GABA-A Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.PyrrolidinesTubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Purinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.PiperazinesReceptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Adenine NucleotidesBaclofen: A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.TriazolesPyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
  • Stimulation of the A1 receptor has a myocardial depressant effect by decreasing the conduction of electrical impulses and suppressing pacemaker cell function, resulting in a decrease in heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • After TLR stimulation, macrophages alter their metabolism and release low levels of ATP, which is rapidly converted into immunosuppressive adenosine via CD39-mediated hydrolysis. (jimmunol.org)
  • To investigate the role of A 2A adenosine receptors in adaptive responses to chronic intermittent dopamine receptor stimulation, we compared the behavioral sensitization elicited by repeated l -DOPA treatment in hemiparkinsonian wild-type (WT) and A 2A adenosine receptor knock-out (A 2A KO) mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Downregulation of P2X7 and upregulation of CD73 in Treg after antigenic stimulation may be an important mechanism to maintain the ability of Treg to generate immunosuppressive adenosine. (physiology.org)
  • EP 4 is classified as a relaxant type of prostaglandin receptor based on its ability, upon activation, to relax the contraction of certain smooth muscle preparations and smooth muscle-containing tissues that have been pre-contracted by stimulation. (orange.com)
  • Dobutamine differs from dopamine in that (A) It does not activate peripheral dopaminergic receptors (B) It does not activate adrenergic ß receptors (C) It causes pronounced tachycardia (D) It has good blood-brain barrier penetrability 89. (himpustak.com)
  • Continuous exposure of ctecholaminesensitive cells and tissues to adrenergic agonists causes a progressive diminition in their capacity to respond, this phenomenon is called as (A) Refractoriness (B) Desensitization (C) Tachyphylaxis (D) All of the above 91. (himpustak.com)
  • Low doses of α-adrenergic agonists constrict veins and may often shift blood from the Vu to the Vs, subsequently increasing the venous return and cardiac output, whereas higher drug doses constrict arteries and usually decrease cardiac output. (springer.com)
  • It has been shown that M 1 -Muscarinic receptors cooperate with D 5 receptors and beta-2 adrenergic receptors to consolidate cued fear memory. (wikidoc.org)
  • It performs its action by being released into the synaptic cleft, where it acts on adrenergic receptors, followed by the signal termination, either by degradation of norepinephrine or by uptake by surrounding cells. (worldlibrary.net)
  • Additional studies suggest that adenosine induces apoptosis of human arterial smooth muscle cells, which is mediated via the A2bAR in a cAMP-dependent pathway ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In vitro studies using cultured human and mouse mast cells, and studies of mice lacking A 2B receptors, suggest that adenosine receptors, specifically the G s -coupled A 2A and A 2B receptors, might provide such a target. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In vitro, ARC1779 inhibits vWF A1-dependent or shear stress-induced platelet aggregation as well as platelet adhesion to collagen-coated matrices . (spotidoc.com)
  • In vitro , D 5 receptors show high constitutive activity that is independent of binding any agonists . (wikidoc.org)
  • In this role, A2AR functions similarly to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic t-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) receptors, namely to suppress immunologic response and prevent associated tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • While several A2A receptor antagonists have progressed to clinical trials for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, A2AR blockade in the context of cancer is less characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of stimulated CD4 + T-cells with adenosine (25 μM) potently reduced IFN-γ release which is mediated by adenosine A2a receptors (A2aR). (physiology.org)
  • However, genetic deletion of CD73 in mice is associated with a proinflammatory phenotype and CD73-derived adenosine appears to be quantitatively sufficient to inhibit platelet activation, and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium in vivo ( 15 ) by acting through the A2aR ( 47 ). (physiology.org)
  • Beavis PA, Milenkovski N, Henderson MA, John LB, Allard B, Loi S, Kershaw MH, Stagg J, Darcy PK (2015) Adenosine receptor 2A blockade increases the efficacy of anti-PD-1 through enhanced antitumor T-cell responses. (springer.com)
  • the hypothesis is that this bitopic mode would result in unique receptor conformations that will signal to desirable pathways while sparing those pathways mediating undesirable effects. (pnas.org)
  • The adenosine homo, iso and heteroreceptor complexes in the basal ganglia play a highly significant role in modulating the indirect and direct pathways and the striosomal projections to the nigro-striatal DA system. (springer.com)
  • Here, we investigated the role of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) and its associated signaling pathways in governing the proliferation and viability of breast cancer cell line derived CSCs. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Moreover, the activity of a given receptor can be modulated by other signaling pathways in a variety of ways, generating the flexibility required of such a complex system. (axonmedchem.com)
  • In order to explore the mechanism of aluminum neurotoxicity and the importance of COX2 downstream signaling pathways to chronic brain damage, the present study was designed to simultaneously observe the prostaglandin (PG) contents, and the expressions of PG synthases and PG receptors of hippocampus in a rat model induced by chronic administration of aluminium gluconate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Common Cytokine Receptor Gamma-Chain Family Signaling Pathways and Dimerization of procaspase-8 . (genecards.org)
  • SDF-1- and CXCR4- deficient mice share the phenotype of embryonic lethality occurring around embryonic days 15-18 (E15-18) of gestation ( 1 , 2 , 7 ), clearly establishing a critical role for both proteins in embryonic development. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we studied the role of A 2B adenosine receptors in regulating the mortality and inflammatory response of mice following polymicrobial sepsis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Genetic deficiency of A 2B receptors increased the mortality of mice suffering from cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, A 2B receptor knockout mice showed increased splenic apoptosis and phosphatase and tensin homolog activation and decreased Akt activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Experiments using bone-marrow chimeras revealed that it is the lack of A 2B receptors on nonhematopoietic cells that is primarily responsible for the increased inflammation of septic A 2B receptor-deficient mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • a) cells expressing both CysLTR1 and GPR17 receptors exhibit a marked reduction in binding and responding to LTD4 and b) mice lacking GPR17 are hyper-responsive to igE in a model for passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. (wikipedia.org)