Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.ArizonaChronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT1: A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to GI-GO G-PROTEINS resulting in decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP levels.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.

Adenosine A3 receptors on human eosinophils mediate inhibition of degranulation and superoxide anion release. (1/264)

The role of adenosine A3 receptors on human eosinophil degranulation and superoxide anion (O2-) release was studied in vitro using the complement fragment C5a as the main stimulus and employing a number of selective agonists and antagonists. In the presence of cytochalasin B (CB), C5a induced a dose-dependent release of the granular eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), but not O2-, whereas in the absence of CB O2- , but not EPO, was released. C5a-induced EPO release was inhibited dose-dependently by the selective A3 agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-5'-N-methylcarbamoyladenosine (IB-MECA) and to a lesser extent by the less-selective N6-2-(4-amino-3-iodophenyl) ethyladenosine (APNEA). The IC50 (95% CI) for IB-MECA was 6.8 microM (3.1-12.0 microM). At concentrations up to 100 microM, neither adenosine nor the selective A1 agonist N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and the selective A2 agonist 2-[[2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenyl]ethyl]amino]-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) had any significant effect. The inhibitory effect of IB-MECA was almost completely abolished by pre-treatment with 1 microM of the selective A3 antagonist 9-chloro-2-(2-furyl)-5-phenylactylamino[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quina zoline (MRS 1220), but not the selective A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyly-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX) or the selective A2 antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX). IB-MECA also significantly inhibited C5a-induced O2- release with IC50 (95% CI) of 9.5 microM (4.6-13.1 microM) whereas adenosine and the A1 agonist CPA potentiated this effect at low concentrations. The potentiation appeared to be a result of their direct O2- release from these cells, probably mediated via A1 receptors. The inhibition by IB-MECA was selectively reversed by MRS 1220. These results show that the A3 receptors on human eosinophils mediate inhibition of both degranulation and O2- release and suggest a therapeutic potential for A3 agonists in diseases such as asthma in which activated eosinophils are involved.  (+info)

Adenosine A(3)-receptor stimulation attenuates postischemic dysfunction through K(ATP) channels. (2/264)

We tested the hypothesis that selective adenosine A(3)-receptor stimulation reduces postischemic contractile dysfunction through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels. Isolated, buffer-perfused rat hearts (n = 8/group) were not drug pretreated (control) or were pretreated with adenosine (20 microM), 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (Cl-IB-MECA; A(3) agonist, 100 nM), Cl-IB-MECA + 8-(3-noradamantyl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine (KW-3902; A(1) antagonist, 5 microM), Cl-IB-MECA + glibenclamide (Glib; K(ATP)-channel blocker, 0. 3 microM), or Glib alone for 12 min before 30 min of global normothermic ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. After 2 h of reperfusion, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, %baseline) in control hearts was depressed to 34 +/- 2%. In hearts pretreated with Cl-IB-MECA, there was a statistically significant increase in LVDP (50 +/- 6%), which was reversed with coadministration of Glib (37 +/- 1%). Control hearts also showed similar decreases in left ventricular peak positive rate of change in pressure (dP/dt). Therefore, the A(3) agonist significantly attenuated postischemic cardiodynamic injury compared with the control, which was reversed by Glib. Cumulative creatine kinase (CK in U/min) activity was most pronounced in the control group (10.4 +/- 0.6) and was significantly decreased by Cl-IB-MECA (7.5 +/- 0.4), which was reversed by coadministration of Glib (9.4 +/- 0.2). Coronary flow was increased during adenosine infusion (160% of baseline) but not during Cl-IB-MECA infusion. Effects of Cl-IB-MECA were not reversed by the specific A(1) antagonist KW-3902. We conclude that cardioprotection afforded by A(3)-receptor stimulation may be mediated in part by K(ATP) channels. Cl-IB-MECA may be an effective pretreatment agent that attenuates postischemic cardiodynamic dysfunction and CK release without the vasodilator liability of other adenosine agonists.  (+info)

Functionalized congeners of 1,4-dihydropyridines as antagonist molecular probes for A3 adenosine receptors. (3/264)

4-Phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives are selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors, with Ki values in a radioligand binding assay vs [125I]AB-MECA [N(6)-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5'-N-methylcarbamoyl-adenosine] in the submicromolar range. In this study, functionalized congeners of 1,4-dihydropyridines were designed as chemically reactive adenosine A3 antagonists, for the purpose of synthesizing molecular probes for this receptor subtype. Selectivity of the new analogues for cloned human A3 adenosine receptors was determined in radioligand binding in comparison to binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Benzyl ester groups at the 3- and/or 5-positions and phenyl groups at the 2- and/or 6-positions were introduced as potential sites for chain attachment. Structure-activity analysis at A3 adenosine receptors indicated that 3,5-dibenzyl esters, but not 2,6-diphenyl groups, are tolerated in binding. Ring substitution of the 5-benzyl ester with a 4-fluorosulfonyl group provided enhanced A3 receptor affinity resulting in a Ki value of 2.42 nM; however, a long-chain derivative containing terminal amine functionalization at the 4-position of the 5-benzyl ester showed only moderate affinity. This sulfonyl fluoride derivative appeared to bind irreversibly to the human A3 receptor (1 h incubation at 100 nM resulting in the loss of 56% of the specific radioligand binding sites), while the binding of other potent dihydropyridines and other antagonists was generally reversible. At the 3-position of the dihydropyridine ring, an amine-functionalized chain attached at the 4-position of a benzyl ester provided higher A3 receptor affinity than the corresponding 5-position isomer. This amine congener was also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of a biotin conjugate, which bound to A3 receptors with a Ki value of 0.60 microM.  (+info)

Inhibition of fMLP-triggered respiratory burst of human monocytes by adenosine: involvement of A3 adenosine receptor. (4/264)

Adenosine (Ado) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent acting on a variety of cell functions. However, its effects on human monocytes have been less well characterized. We investigated the effect of Ado and its receptor-specific analogs on NADPH oxidase activity with the use of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL). Adenosine inhibited fMLP-triggered NADPH oxidase activity with a maximal inhibition of 55+/-5%. IB-MECA, a selective A3 Ado receptor agonist reduced fMLP triggered NADPH oxidase activity more potently than the A2 receptor agonist CGS 2180 HCl (CGS) and the A1 Ado receptor agonist N-2-phenylethyl-adenosine (R-PIA). The inhibitory effect of Ado was reversed by neither the A1 Ado receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8(2-amino-4chlorophenyl)-xanthine (PACPX) nor the A2 Ado receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2-propynyl)xanthine (DMPX). It was significantly reversed by the A1/A3 Ado receptor antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC). Pretreatment of monocytes by cytochalasin B reversed the effect of Ado but not of dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP) on fMLP-CL response. KT 5720, a specific cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor completely counteracted the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity by dBcAMP but not by Ado. Using flow cytometry, we observed that Ado did not inhibit intracellular oxidative metabolism, whereas dBcAMP did. Furthermore, the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity by Ado was not mediated by changes in cytosolic calcium. These results demonstrated that Ado inhibited NADPH oxidase activity via A3 Ado receptor independently of cAMP elevation or changes in calcium mobilization.  (+info)

Ligand-activation of the adenosine A2a receptors inhibits IL-12 production by human monocytes. (5/264)

Adenosine (ADO) exerts potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. In this paper we address the possibility that these effects are partly mediated by inhibition of the secretion of IL-12, a proinflammatory cytokine and a major inducer of Th1 responses. We demonstrate that 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a nonspecific ADO analogue, and 2-p-(2-carbonyl-ethyl)phenylethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenos ine (CGS-21680), a specific A2a receptor agonist, dose-dependently inhibited, in whole blood ex vivo and monocyte cultures, the production of human IL-12 induced by LPS and Stapholococcus aureus Cowan strain 1. However, the A1 receptor agonist 2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine and the A3 receptor agonists N6-Benzyl-NECA and 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-be ta-d -ribofuranuronamide expressed only weak inhibitory effects. On the other hand, NECA and CGS-21680 dose-dependently potentiated the production of IL-10. The differential effect of these drugs on monocyte IL-12 and IL-10 production implies that these effects are mediated by A2a receptor signaling rather than by intracellular toxicity of ADO analogue's metabolites. Moreover, CGS-21680 inhibited IL-12 production independently of endogenous IL-10 induction, because anti-IL-10 Abs failed to prevent its effect. The selective A2a antagonist 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine prevented the inhibitory effect of CGS-21680 on IL-12 production. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro 20-1724 dose-dependently potentiated the inhibitory effect of CGS-21680 and, furthermore, Rp-cAMPS, a protein kinase A inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of CGS-21680, implicating a cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in its action. Thus, ligand activation of A2a receptors simultaneously inhibits IL-12 and stimulates IL-10 production by human monocytes. Through this mechanism, ADO released in excess during inflammatory and ischemic conditions, or tissue injury, may contribute to selective suppression of Th1 responses and cellular immunity.  (+info)

Disruption of the A(3) adenosine receptor gene in mice and its effect on stimulated inflammatory cells. (6/264)

The A(3) adenosine receptor (A3AR) is one of four receptor subtypes for adenosine and is expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues. In order to study the function of A3AR, a mouse line carrying a mutant A(3) allele was generated. Mice homozygous for targeted disruption of the A3AR gene, A3AR(-/-), are fertile and visually and histologically indistinguishable from wild type mice. The lack of a functional receptor in the A3AR(-/-) mice was confirmed by molecular and pharmacological analyses. The absence of A3AR protein expression in the A3AR(-/-) mice was demonstrated by lack of N(6)-(4-amino-3-[(125)I]iodobenzyl)adenosine binding to bone marrow-derived mast cell membranes that were found to express high levels of A3AR in wild type mice. In A3AR(-/-) mice, the density of A(1) and A(2A) adenosine receptor subtypes was the same as in A3AR(+/+) mice as determined by radioligand binding to brain membranes. Additionally, A(2B) receptor transcript expression was not affected by ablation of the A3AR gene. A3AR(-/-) mice have basal heart rates and arterial blood pressures indistinguishable from A3AR(+/+) mice. Functionally, in contrast to wild type mice, adenosine and the A3AR-specific agonist, 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyl-carboxamide (2-Cl-IB-MECA), elicit no potentiation of antigen-dependent degranulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells from A3AR(-/-) mice as measured by hexosaminidase release. Also, the ability of 2Cl-IB-MECA to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in vivo was decreased in A3AR(-/-) mice in comparison to A3AR(+/+) mice. The A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist, 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylamino)-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, produced inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in both A3AR(-/-) and A3AR(+/+) mice. These results show that the inhibition in vivo can be mediated by multiple subtypes, specifically the A(3) and A(2A) adenosine receptors, and A3AR activation plays an important role in both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Adenosine and inosine increase cutaneous vasopermeability by activating A(3) receptors on mast cells. (7/264)

Adenosine has potent effects on both the cardiovascular and immune systems. Exposure of tissues to adenosine results in increased vascular permeability and extravasation of serum proteins. The mechanism by which adenosine brings about these physiological changes is poorly defined. Using mice deficient in the A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR), we show that increases in cutaneous vascular permeability observed after treatment with adenosine or its principal metabolite inosine are mediated through the A(3)AR. Adenosine fails to increase vascular permeability in mast cell-deficient mice, suggesting that this tissue response to adenosine is mast cell-dependent. Furthermore, this response is independent of activation of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonR1) by antigen, as adenosine is equally effective in mediating these changes in FcepsilonR1 beta-chain-deficient mice. Together these results support a model in which adenosine and inosine induce changes in vascular permeability indirectly by activating mast cells, which in turn release vasoactive substances. The demonstration in vivo that adenosine, acting through a specific receptor, can provoke degranulation of this important tissue-based effector cell, independent of antigen activation of the high-affinity IgE receptor, supports an important role for this nucleoside in modifying the inflammatory response.  (+info)

Identification of threonine residues controlling the agonist-dependent phosphorylation and desensitization of the rat A(3) adenosine receptor. (8/264)

Activation of the A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) contributes to the cardioprotective, bronchoconstrictive, and hypotensive effects of adenosine. Agonist occupation of the A(3)AR results in a rapid desensitization of receptor function, which is associated with the phosphorylation of the receptor protein by one or more members of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase family of protein kinases. Although we demonstrated previously that phosphorylation of the C-terminal 14 amino acids of the rat A(3)AR is crucial for rapid desensitization to occur, the identity of the critical phosphorylation sites has remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the simultaneous mutation of Thr(307), Thr(318), and Thr(319) to Ala residues dramatically reduces agonist-stimulated phosphorylation and rapid desensitization of the rat A(3)AR. Individual mutation of each residue demonstrated that Thr(318) and Thr(319) are the major sites of phosphorylation. Phosphorylation at Thr(318) appeared to be necessary to observe phosphorylation at Thr(319), but not vice versa. However, the replacement of Thr(318) with a glutamate residue demonstrated that the simple addition of negative charge at position 318 was not sufficient to rescue phosphorylation at position 319. In addition, the mutation of two predicted palmitoylation-site cysteine residues proximal to the regulatory domain resulted in the appearance of an agonist-independent basal phosphorylation. Therefore, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of the A(3)AR in situ appears to follow a sequential mechanism, perhaps involving receptor depalmitoylation, with phosphorylation at Thr(318) being particularly important.  (+info)

*Adenosine receptor

The role of A3 receptor is less defined in this field. Studies have shown that it plays a role in the downregulation of ... The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ... Br J Pharmacol 170(6):1167-1176 "Entrez Gene: ADORA2A adenosine A2A receptor". Jacobson KA, Gao ZG (2006). "Adenosine receptors ... The adenosine A1 receptor has been found to be ubiquitous throughout the entire body. This receptor has an inhibitory function ...

*Adenosine A2A receptor

3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidines as new A2A and A3 adenosine receptors antagonists". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (7 ... As a result, Adenosine receptor A2A decreases activity in the Dopamine D2 receptors. The adenosine A2A receptor has also been ... The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. This ... "Entrez Gene: ADORA2A adenosine A2A receptor". Ohta A, Sitkovsky M (2001). "Role of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors in ...

*Adenosine A3 receptor

... is an adenosine receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it. Adenosine A3 receptors are G protein-coupled receptors ... adenosine receptor". Mol. Pharmacol. 63 (5): 1021-31. doi:10.1124/mol.63.5.1021. PMID 12695530. "Adenosine Receptors: A3". ... a novel specific adenosine A(3) receptor antagonist with adenosine A(3) receptor agonists both in vitro and in vivo". Eur. J. ... An adenosine A3 receptor agonist (CF-101) is in clinical trials for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In a mouse model of ...

*PSB-10

... is a drug which acts as a selective antagonist for the adenosine A3 receptor (ki value at human A3 receptor is 0.44 nM ... Müller CE (2003). "Medicinal chemistry of adenosine A3 receptor ligands". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (4): 445-62 ... structure-activity relationships and characterization of potent and selective inverse agonists at Human A3 adenosine receptors ... with high selectivity over the other three adenosine receptor subtypes (ki values at human A1, A2A and A2B receptors are 4.1, ...

*Reversine

... is known to act as an antagonist of the adenosine A3 receptor. Reversine is a potent inhibitor of the mitotic kinase ...

*Adenosine A2B receptor

2001). "Differential gene expression of adenosine A1, A2a, A2b, and A3 receptors in the human enteric nervous system". J. Comp ... The adenosine A2B receptor, also known as ADORA2B, is a G-protein coupled adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human ... "The A2b adenosine receptor mediates cAMP responses to adenosine receptor agonists in human intestinal epithelia". J. Biol. Chem ... 2001). "Adenosine A2B receptors behave as an alternative anchoring protein for cell surface adenosine deaminase in lymphocytes ...

*CP-532,903

Novel N6-substituted adenosine 5'-N-methyluronamides with high selectivity for human adenosine A3 receptors reduce ischemic ... CP-532,903 is a selective adenosine A3 subtype receptor agonist. It has antiinflammatory effects and has been shown to reduce ... The A3 adenosine receptor agonist CP-532,903 [N6-(2,5-dichlorobenzyl)-3'-aminoadenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide] protects ... Activation of the A(3) adenosine receptor suppresses superoxide production and chemotaxis of mouse bone marrow neutrophils. ...

*Aequorin

"Identification of the functional expression of adenosine A3 receptor in pancreas using transgenic mice expressing jellyfish ...

*Hydrogen potassium ATPase

Björklund O, Shang M, Tonazzini I, Daré E, Fredholm BB (2008). "Adenosine A1 and A3 receptors protect astrocytes from hypoxic ... eCollection 2015 Gessi S, Merighi S, Stefanelli A, Fazzi D, Varani K, Borea PA (2013). "A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors ... Memory has been associated with astrocytes and the alpha3 subunit of adenosine receptor found in hydrogen/Sodium-potassium ... Once localized, the enzyme alternates between two conformations, E1 and E2, to transport ions across the membrane. The E1 ...

*KF-26777

... is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine A3 receptor, with sub-nanomolar affinity ( ... A3 Ki=0.2nM) and high selectivity over the other three adenosine receptor subtypes. Simple xanthine derivatives such as ... a new potent and selective adenosine A3 receptor antagonist". European Journal of Pharmacology. 444 (3): 133-41. doi:10.1016/ ... Baraldi PG, Tabrizi MA, Gessi S, Borea PA (January 2008). "Adenosine receptor antagonists: translating medicinal chemistry and ...

*Cyanuric chloride

5-TRIAZINE DERIVATIVES AS LIGANDS FOR HUMAN ADENOSINE-A3 RECEPTORS", published 2003-12-11 (Reagent number two: norephedrine, ... It is also employed the synthesis of an experimental adenosine receptor ligand.: Cyanuric Chloride can also be used as an ...

*Adenosine

All adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) are G-protein-coupled receptors. The four receptor subtypes are further ... Cellular signaling by adenosine occurs through four known adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3). Extracellular ... The A1 receptors couple to Gi/o and decreases cAMP levels, while the A2 adenosine receptors couple to Gs, which stimulates ... Adenosine is believed to be an anti-inflammatory agent at the A2A receptor. Topical treatment of adenosine to foot wounds in ...

*Gi alpha subunit

M4 receptors Adenosine A1 & A3 receptors Adrenergic α2A, α2B, & α2C receptors Apelin receptors Calcium-sensing receptor ... mGlu8 receptors Histamine H3 & H4 receptors Melatonin MT1, MT2, & MT3 receptors Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors HCA2 & HCA3 ... TP receptors Serotonin 5-HT1 & 5-HT5 receptors Short chain fatty acid receptors: FFAR2 & FFAR3 Somatostatin sst1, sst2, sst3, ... Cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) Chemokine CXCR4 receptor Dopamine D2, D3, D4 GABAB receptor Glutamate mGlu2, mGlu3, mGlu4, ...

*Purinergic signalling

On the other hand, nanomolar concentrations of adenosine activate A1 and A3 receptors, resulting in neutrophilic chemotaxis ... In the airways of patients with asthma, the expression of adenosine receptors is upregulated. Adenosine receptors affect ... the expression of adenosine receptors on the neutrophil, and the affinity of these receptors for adenosine. Micromolar ... whereas the activation of the adenosine A2A receptor inhibits osteoclast function. The other three adenosine receptors are ...

*Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor

157 (1): 148.e1-148.e5. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2008.09.017. Drepper, Michael D; Spahr, Laurent; Frossard, Jean Louis (2012-05-14). " ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 Receptor Antagonism: Benefits and Limitations of Current Treatment Strategies and Future ...

*Methoctramine

... such as nicotinic ACh receptors -at micromolar concentrations- or adenosine A3. The exact effects of methoctramine still remain ... Gallamine triethiodide M2 receptor Muscarinic receptor Acetylcholine Jakubik, Jan; Zimcik, Pavel; Randakova, Alena; Fuksova, ... As shown in the chart above, methoctramine binds preferently to M2 receptors, found mostly in the parasympathetic nerves and ... In presence of acetylcholine, M2 receptors are believed to play an autoinhibitory role in the atria, triggering processes that ...

*Caffeine

... is an antagonist at all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), although with varying potencies. The ... this is a receptor complex with 1 adenosine A1 receptor and 1 dopamine D1 receptor) and the A2A-D2 receptor heterotetramer ( ... this is a receptor complex with 2 adenosine A2A receptors and 2 dopamine D2 receptors). The A2A-D2 receptor heterotetramer has ... a receptor complex composed of 1 adenosine A1 receptor and 1 adenosine A2A receptor) in the axon terminal of glutamate neurons ...

*Theophylline

... and reduces inflammation and innate immunity nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, antagonizing A1, A2, and A3 receptors ... Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D (1987). "Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists". Prog Clin Biol ... asthma infant apnea Blocks the action of adenosine; an inhibitory neurotransmitter that induces sleep, contracts the smooth ...

*A3

... regulatory sequence, a sequence for the insulin gene Adenosine A3 receptor, a human gene Annexin A3, a human gene ATC code ... a plant hormone HLA-A3, a Human MHC Serotype HLA-A Subfamily A3, a rhodopsin-like receptors subfamily Urea transporter A3, a ... a band known as A3 in the U.S. to avoid confusion with the country group Alabama A-3, a Yamaha musical instrument product A3 ... a club football tournament also known as the East Asian Champions Cup Arrows A3, a 1980 racing car A3, a climbing Grade A-3 ...

*Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder

There are four well-known adenosine receptors found in the body, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. The endogenous agonist for these ... Adenosine is a normal neuromodulator that activates adenosine g-protein coupled receptors. The actions of A1 and A2A receptors ... A2A receptors are not found in neurons that express the dopamine receptor D1 receptors and Substance P. Within the striatum, ... and signal transduction in the form of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). A2B and A3 receptors require concentrations of ...

*Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain

DRADA edits the mRNAs for the glutamate receptor subunits by site-selective adenosine deamination. The DRADA repeat is also ... found in viral E3 proteins, which contain a double-stranded RNA-binding domain. Genes encoding proteins containing this domain ... Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (EC) converts multiple adenosines to inosines and creates I/U mismatched base ... DRADA has been found to modify adenosines in AU-rich regions more frequently, probably due to the relative ease of melting A/U ...

*Rhodopsin-like receptors

IPR008102 Adenosine receptor InterPro: IPR001634 A1 (ADORA1, AA1R) A2a (ADORA2A, AA2A) A2b (ADORA2B, AA2B) A3 (ADORA3, AA3R) ... Prostaglandin E1 receptor (PTGER1, PE21) Prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER2, PE22) Prostaglandin E3 receptor (PTGER3, PE23) ... chemokine receptor (DARC, DUFF) G Protein-coupled Receptor 30 (GPER, CML2, GPCR estrogen receptor) Angiotensin II receptor ... Opioid receptor InterPro: IPR001418 delta Opioid receptor (OPRD1, OPRD) kappa Opioid receptor (OPRK1, OPRK) mu Opioid receptor ...

*Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1

... excess free adenosine down-regulates primary A1 adenosine receptors, leading to increased muscle pain. Secondary receptors (A3 ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ... Fatigue and sedation after heavy exertion can be caused by excess adenosine in the cells which signals muscle fiber to feel ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... receptor, adenosine a2b MeSH D12.776.543.750.810.700.300 -- receptor, adenosine a3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.810.720 -- receptors, ... receptor, adenosine a2b MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.700.700.300 -- receptor, adenosine a3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.700.720 -- ... receptor, adenosine a2b MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.700.700.300 -- receptor, adenosine a3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.700.720 -- ... receptor, adenosine a1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.700.700.200 -- receptors, adenosine a2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.700.700.200.100 ...

*Multiple electrode aggregometry

Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a platelet inhibitor that causes an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in platelets ... Thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6) activates platelets through the thrombin receptor protease activated receptor-1 ... Activation of the P2Y1 receptor initiates platelet aggregation in response to ADP. The P2Y1 receptor is required for ADP- ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a platelet agonist. When it is added to saline-diluted whole blood in the test cuvette, it ...

*Rocky Mountain spotted fever

The cytosol of the host cell contains nutrients, adenosine triphosphate, amino acids, and nucleotides which are used by the ... Then, the bacteria induce their internalization into host cells via a receptor-mediated invasion mechanism. Researchers believe ... an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This triggers a cascade of signal transduction events resulting in the recruitment of Arp2/3 complex. ...
In this paper, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which osteoblastic Lrp4 regulates OC genesis and function. We found first that Lrp4 deficiency in OB-lineage cells increased the PRR/V-ATPase activity and vesicular ATP release, elevating levels of PPi and adenosine in the extracellular compartment. Second, both pharmacological blocking and genetic ablating A2AR diminished the OC genesis deficit in Lrp4 mutant mice, demonstrating a critical role for adenosine-A2AR signaling in the inhibition of OC genesis. Third, Lrp4 interacted with PRR and was necessary for PRR degradation. These results support a working model depicted in Fig. 10 H, where Lrp4 in OB-lineage cells promotes OC genesis and bone resorption by controlling PRR/V-ATPase-driven vesicular ATP release and thus maintaining extracellular levels of ATP and its derivative, adenosine.. When Lrp4 is mutated in OB-lineage cells, the PRR level is increased, which enhances vesicular ATP loading and release and levels of PPi and adenosine ...
Novartis was developing QAF 805, a dual adenosine-A2B receptor antagonist and adenosine-A3 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of asthma. QAF 805 underwent
This study was designed to characterize the role of A3 in a murine model of LPS-induced lung injury. We found that A3 is critically involved in mediating pulmonary PMN trafficking. Activation of A3 with the specific agonist Cl-IB-MECA decreased PMN migration into all lung compartments. Reduced accumulation of PMN was associated with decreased release of relevant cytokines into the alveolar air space. In addition, endothelial integrity was maintained in mice that were pretreated with Cl-IB-MECA.. Extracellular adenosine is a potent modulator in various inflammatory pathways. Adenosine is generated by a cascade-like enzymatic process involving the ecto-apyrase (CD39, conversion of ATP/ADP to AMP) and the ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73, conversion of AMP to adenosine). Both rate-limiting enzymes have been previously implicated in attenuating ALI and inflammation in models of ambient hypoxia (10, 11), cyclic mechanical stretch (8), and LPS-induced lung injury (45).. Research on the significance of A3 ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Arruda, Maria Augusta and Stoddart, Leigh A. and Gherbi, Karolina and Briddon, Stephen J. and Kellam, Paul and Hill, Stephen J. (2017) A non-imaging high throughput approach to chemical library screening at the unmodified adenosine-A3 receptor in living cells. Frontiers in Pharmacology . ISSN 1663-9812 (In Press) Kilpatrick, Laura E. and Friedman-Ohana, Rachel and Alcobia, Diana C. and Riching, Kristin and Peach, Chloe J. and Wheal, Amanda J. and Briddon, Stephen J. and Robers, Matthew B. and Zimmerman, Kris and Machleidt, Thomas and Wood, Keith V. and Woolard, Jeanette and Hill, Stephen J. (2017) Real-time analysis of the binding of fluorescent VEGF₁₆₅a to VEGFR2 in living cells: Effect of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and fate of internalized agonist-receptor complexes. Biochemical Pharmacology . ISSN 1873-2968 (In Press) Wong, Kelvin and Briddon, Stephen J. and Holliday, Nicholas D. and Kerr, Ian D. (2016) Plasma membrane dynamics and tetrameric organisation of ABCG2 transporters ...
A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Our work demonstrates that human endothelial cells of disparate origin are characterized by differential expression of adenosine receptor subtypes. HUVECs express mRNA for A2A and A2B receptors at a ratio of 10:1, and this preferential gene expression agrees well with the typical pharmacological phenotype of A2A receptor-mediated simulation of adenylate cyclase by adenosine analogs. Using complementary techniques, RT-PCR, and gene expression array, we found that A1 and A3 adenosine receptors are not expressed in HUVECs. Previous studies in HUVECs have suggested a potential role of A1 receptor in maintaining endothelial barrier function4 and of A1 and A3 receptors in modulation of tissue factors expression.6 The apparent contradiction between these results and ours can be explained by the use of nonselective concentrations of adenosine receptor ligands in previous studies.. HMEC-1 also express only A2A and A2B mRNA, but in contrast to HUVECs, they express predominantly A2B receptor mRNA, with a ...
BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis (HD) sometimes accelerates left ventricular failure (LVF). As adenosine (ADO) is strongly implicated in cardiovascular functions, particularly via A(2A) receptor activation and as changes of peripheral A(2A) receptors mirror
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that responses to the ATP test and head-up tilt test (HUT) may be correlated with different purinergic profiles. The ATP and HUT identify distinct subsets of patients with neurally med
Adenosine mediates many physiological functions via activation of extracellular receptors. The modulation of cell growth by adenosine was found to be receptor-mediated. In A431 cells adenosine evoked a biphasic response in which a low concentration (~10 μM) produced inhibition of colony formation but at higher concentrations (up to 100 μM) this inhibition was progressively reversed. Evidence for the involvement of A1 (inhibitory) and A2 (stimulatory) adenosine receptors in regulating cell growth of these tumor cells was obtained through plating efficiency studies based on the relative potency of adenosine agonists and antagonists. When both A1 and A2 receptors were blocked, colony formation or growth was not inhibited at low concentrations of adenosine but was inhibited at high adenosine concentrations ...
Since their discovery approximately 25 years ago, adenosine receptors have now emerged as important novel molecular targets in disease and drug discovery. These proteins play important roles in the entire spectrum of disease from inflammation to immune suppression. Because of their expression on a number of different cell types and in a number of different organ systems they play important roles in specific diseases, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, sepsis, and obesity. As a result of intense investigations into understanding the molecular structures and pharmacology of these proteins, new molecules have been synthesized that have high specificity for these proteins and are now entering clinical trials. These molecules will define the next new classes of drugs for a number of diseases with unmet medical needs.
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-9048131433 A3 Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and Therapeutics Product Will Be Delivered
Adenosine Receptor A2a小鼠单克隆抗体[7FG-G5-A2](ab79714)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。中国75%以上现货。
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 6-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydro-4H-furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinine-2,7-diol 2-oxide.
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab106143 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,ICC/IF…Adenosine Receptor A2a抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
Adenosine analogues which act selectively at adenosine receptors and which act in general as adenosine antagonists are disclosed. From in vitro studies it is known that specific physiological effects can be distinguished as a result of this selectivity and that adenosine receptor activity in vitro correlates with adenosine receptor activity in vivo. Pharmaceutical preparations of the subject compounds can be prepared on the basis of the selective binding activity of the compounds disclosed herein which will enhance certain physiological effects while minimizing others, such as decreasing blood pressure without decreasing heart rate.
A new series of 2,6,9-trisubstituted adenines (5-14) have been prepared and evaluated in radioligan d binding studies for their affinity at the human A1, A2A and A3 adenosine receptors and in adenylyl cyclase experiments for their potency at the human A2B subtype. From this preliminary study the conclusion can be drawn that introduction of bulky chains at the N6 position of 9-propyladenine significantly increased binding affinity at the human A1 and A3 adenosine receptors, while the presence of a chlorine atom at the 2 position resulted in a not univocal effect, depending on the receptor subtype and/or on the substituent present in the N6 position. However, in all cases, the presence in the 2 position of a chlorine atom favoured the interaction with the A2A subtype. These results demonstrated that, although the synthesized compounds were found to be quite inactive at the human A2B subtype, adenine is a useful template for further development of simplified adenosine receptor antagonists with ...
A concise synthesis of a series of N6-substituted adenosines with bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-6-yl and polycyclic N6-substituents has been developed. The adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) affinity and potency of these compounds was initially assessed using competitive binding assays and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation assays in DDT1 MF-2 cells. The potency and receptor subtype selectivity of selected examples was further evaluated by measuring their effects on cAMP accumulation at all human adenosine receptor subtypes expressed in CHO cells. The results of these assays indicated that all of the synthesised N6-substituted adenosines are full agonists at A1R and activate this receptor selectively over the other adenosine receptor subtypes. The two standout compounds in terms of potency were N6-(3-thiabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-6-yl)adenosine and N6-(cubanylmethyl)adenosine with EC50 values at human A1R of 2.3 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively. The cubanylmethyl derivative in particular proved to be highly ...
Adenosine is a multi-functional physiological molecule found abundantly in the body. It is one of the important components of ATP cellular energy metabolism. Adenosine has diverse actions as a ligand on many different types of cells and tissues acting via specific receptors. Currently, four subtypes of adenosine receptors are described, namely, the A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptors. Neuroblastoma, mostly found in young children, is a malignant tumor derived from peripheral neurons in the body. Several different types of neuroblastoma cell lines of human origin have been established and contributed to the studies of neuroblastoma itself, neuronal differentiation, neurotransmitters, alcoholism, Alzheimers disease and other neuronal diseases and disorders. In 1987, it was shown by Abbracchio et al. that a human neuroblastoma cell line, IMR32, could be induced to differentiate into cells that have a more neuronal morphology, with long neurites, by an adenosine receptor agonist ...
The review summarizes data evaluating the role of adenosine receptor signaling in murine hematopoietic functions. The studies carried out utilized either non-selective activation of adenosine receptors induced by elevation of extracellular adenosine or by administration of synthetic adenosine analogs having various proportions of selectivity for a particular receptor. Numerous studies have described stimulatory effects of non-selective activation of adenosine receptors, manifested as enhancement of proliferation of cells at various levels of the hematopoietic hierarchy. Subsequent experimental approaches, considering the hematopoiesis-modulating action of adenosine receptor agonists with a high level of selectivity to individual adenosine receptor subtypes, have revealed differential effects of various adenosine analogs. Whereas selective activation of A(1) receptors has resulted in suppression of proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor and precursor cells, that of A(3) receptors has led to ...
BioAssay record AID 1079594 submitted by ChEMBL: Selectivity ratio; ratio of pEC50 for human adenosine A2A receptor to pEC50 for human adenosine A3 receptor.
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Adenosine Receptor A2a protein (ab126024). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Disclosed are (N)-methanocarba adenine nucleosides, e.g., of formula (I) as highly potent A3 adenosine receptor agonists, pharmaceutical compositions comprising such nucleosides, and a method of use of these nucleosides, wherein R1-R6 are as defined in the specification. These nucleosides exhibit similar selectivities as agonists of the A3 versus the A1 receptor for both human and mouse adenosine receptors, and are contemplated for use in the treatment a number of diseases, for example, inflammation, cardiac ischemia, stroke, asthma, diabetes, and cardiac arrhythmias. ​ ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: In view of the multiple effects of adenosine on kidney function, this study aimed to determine the expression of adenosine receptors (AR) along the rat and mou..
Read A3 Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and Therapeutics by with Rakuten Kobo. This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A receptor. It covers a wide ...
The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. This protein is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family which possess seven transmembrane alpha helices. The crystallographic structure of the adenosine A2A receptor reveals a ligand binding pocket distinct from that of other structurally determined GPCRs (i.e., the beta-2 adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin). The actions of the A2A receptor are complicated by the fact that a variety of functional heteromers composed of a mixture of A2A subunits with subunits from other unrelated G-protein coupled receptors have been found in the brain, adding a further degree of complexity to the role of adenosine in modulation of neuronal activity. Heteromers consisting of adenosine A1/A2A, dopamine D2/A2A and D3/A2A, glutamate mGluR5/A2A and cannabinoid CB1/A2A have all been observed, as well as CB1/A2A/D2 heterotrimers, and the functional significance and endogenous role of ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. A1 receptor - Adenosine receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Synonyms for adenosine 5'-diphosphate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adenosine 5'-diphosphate. 1 synonym for adenosine diphosphate: ADP. What are synonyms for adenosine 5'-diphosphate?
BioAssay record AID 139940 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for its binding affinity at the anticonvulsant binding site by displacement of [3H]- SB 204269 from mouse forebrain membranes.
Buy our Recombinant Human Adenosine A3 Receptor protein. Ab114790 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE…
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Adenosine Sanolabor is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Adenosine Sanolabor is available on the Drugs.com website.
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View mouse Adora1 Chr1:134199225-134235431 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
View mouse Adora2a Chr10:75316877-75334784 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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德國康佳強力脈通 Asekivex 60粒, 強力脈通Heibuken Strong Maton 100粒, 心腦素 Adenosine Triphospat 100粒, 血脈素 Adenosine Triphosphat 100粒, 高樂
What is the molecular mechanism by which lack of adenosine receptor signaling results in a pro-calcific phenotype, and are these pathways applicable to calcification seen in more common diseases ...
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand. In humans, there are four types of adenosine receptors. Each is encoded by a separate gene and has different functions, although with some overlap. For instance, both A1 receptors and A2A play roles in the heart, regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow, while the A2A receptor also has broader anti-inflammatory effects throughout the body. These two receptors also have important roles in the brain, regulating the release of other neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate, while the A2B and A3 receptors are located mainly peripherally and are involved in processes such as inflammation and immune responses. Most older compounds acting on adenosine receptors are nonselective, with the endogenous agonist adenosine being used in hospitals as treatment for severe tachycardia (rapid heart beat), and acting directly to slow the heart through ...
Adenosine is a nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. For instance, adenosine plays an important role in energy transfer - as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It also plays a role in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP. Adenosine itself is both a neurotransmitter and potent vasodilator. When administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the AV node. Because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent supraventricular tachycardia, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent ...
In the current study, the combination of T62 and clonidine produced a synergistic interaction in rats with incisional pain. Synergy usually indicates that the two drugs have different final pathways to produce their effect, although other levels of interaction, such as altered drug disposition, can also be responsible. We did not measure tissue concentrations of drugs, so we cannot exclude a pharmacokinetic mechanism of synergy in the current study. Nonetheless, the observation of synergy is somewhat surprising if, as indicated by studies with spinal nerve ligation, the effect of T62 relies entirely on stimulating spinal norepinephrine release, which acts on α2adrenoceptors. One would in that case expect an additive interaction, and intrathecal adenosine and clonidine do interact additively in spinal-ligated rats. 14 In contrast, a synthetic adenosine agonist interacts synergistically with clonidine in acute thermal nociception tests in normal rats. 20 In addition, idazoxan only partially ...
Intra- and extracellular adenosine levels rise in response to physiological stimuli and with metabolic/energetic perturbations, inflammatory challenge and tissue injury. Extracellular adenosine engages members of the G-protein coupled adenosine receptor (AR) family to mediate generally beneficial acute and adaptive responses within all constituent cells of the heart. In this way the four AR sub-types - A1, A2A, A2B, and A 3Rs - regulate myocardial contraction, heart rate and conduction, adrenergic control, coronary vascular tone, cardiac and vascular growth, inflammatory-vascular cell interactions, and cellular stress-resistance, injury and death. The AR sub-types exert both distinct and overlapping effects, and may interact in mediating these cardiovascular responses. The roles of the ARs in beneficial modulation of cardiac and vascular function, growth and stress-resistance render them attractive therapeutic targets. However, interactions between ARs and with other receptors, and their ubiquitous
A new series of pyrazolotriazolopyrimidines bearing different substitutions on the phenylcarbamoyl moieties at the N5 position, being highly potent and selective human A3 adenosine receptor antagonists, is described. The compds. represent an extension and an improvement of our previous work on this class of compds. (J. Med. Chem. 1999, 42, 4473-4478; J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 4768-4780). All the synthesized compds. showed A3 adenosine receptor affinity in the subnanomolar range and high levels of selectivity in radioligand binding assays at the human A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors. In particular, the effect of the substitution and its position on the Ph ring have been studied. From binding data, it is evident that the unsubstituted derivs. on the Ph ring (e.g., compd. 59, hA3 = 0.16 nM, hA1/hA3 = 3713, hA2A/hA3 = 2381, hA2B/hA3 = 1388) showed the best profile in terms of affinity and selectivity at the human A3 adenosine receptors. The introduction of a sulfonic acid moiety at the para ...
In this study and previously (24), we have demonstrated that blockade of the A2AAR with an A2A-specific AR antagonist protected mice from EAE by hindering lymphocyte entry into the brain and spinal cord of wild-type mice. This finding was unexpected, as this function of adenosine, that is, mediating lymphocyte migration into the CNS, was previously unknown. Furthermore, the facts that adenosine suppresses the immune response and resolves inflammation (2) are at odds with the finding that blockade of the A2AAR, which mediates the preponderance of adenosines suppressive and anti-inflammatory functions (2), protects mice from EAE (24). The purpose of this study was to delineate adenosines role in the immune response from its function in mediating immune cell migration into the CNS via the A2A receptor.. We show that A2AAR−/− mice developed more severe EAE than did their wild-type counterparts. This severe disease was characterized in the CNS by increased numbers of lymphocytes and activated ...
... contains 100mg of adenosine. Orthoplex Adenosine plays a major role in the production of cellular energy ATP
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symbol: AdoPP[CH2]P or p[CH2]ppA; the recommended name for β, γ‐methyleneadenosine 5′‐triphosphate (abbr.: ATP[β,γ‐CH2]); 5′‐adenylyl methylenediphosphonate (abbr.: AMP‐PCP); adenosine (5′→O1)‐1,2‐μ‐methylenetriphosphate; a synthetic analogue of adenosine 5′‐triphosphate, ATP, in which the oxy ... ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 1-(7h-purin-6-yl)-n-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-piperidinecarboxamide (C18H17F3N6O) from the PQR.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 5-o-(4,6-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trioxido-1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphinan-2-yl)adenosine (C10H14N5O12P3) from the PQR.
Find patient medical information for Adenosine (Diagnostic) Intravenous on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Eleven-year-old published author and seasoned speaker Adora Svitak talks about the Six Traits: Ideas and Content, with Persuasive Writing. | 6-Traits Resources
AKI 1 is an adenosine regulating agent. It was undergoing preclinical studies in the USA with Gensia Sicor for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, however
A series of 5-carbamoyl and 5-thionocarbamoyl derivatives of 2-C-methyl analogues of the A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) full agonists N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), N(6)-[3-(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl]adenosine (tecadenoson), and 2-chloro analogue (2-Cl-tecadenoson) was synthesized and evaluated for their affinity for adenosine receptor subtypes from bovine, porcine, and human species. In the N(6)-cyclopentylamino series, the 5-substituted derivatives showed a reduced affinity at the bovine A(1)AR compared to the parent compounds; however, the selectivity for A(1) versus A(2A) receptor was retained or increased. The corresponding N(6)-3-(R)-tetrahydrofuranylamino analogues displayed a very low affinity toward the bovine A(1)AR. The 5-methylthionocarbamoyl derivative of 2-Me-CCPA showed the best affinity at porcine A(1)AR with a K(i) value of 13 nM. At human AR subtypes tecadenoson derivatives showed 2.3- to 5-fold lower affinity at A(1)AR and very ...
Background & Aims: During fibrosis hepatic stellate cells (HSC) undergo activation, proliferation and senescence but the regulation of these important processes is poorly understood. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2A) is known to be present on HSC, and its activation results in liver fibrosis. In this study, we tested if A2A has a role in the regulation of HSC proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and the relevant molecular mechanism.Methods: The ability of adenosine to regulate p53 and Rb protein levels, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence was tested in the human HSC cell line LX-2 and rat primary HSC.Results: Adenosine receptor activation down-regulates p53 and Rb protein levels, increases BrdU incorporation and increases cell survival in LX-2 cells and in primary rat HSC. These effects of NECA were reproduced by an adenosine A2A receptor specific agonist (CGS21680) and blocked by a specific antagonist (ZM241385). By day twenty-one of culture primary rat HSC entered senescence and expressed -gal
A series of new 2-alkynyl and 2-cycloalkynyl derivatives of adenosine-5-N-ethyluronamid(NECA) and of N-ethyl-l-deoxy-l-(6-amino-2-hexynyl-9H-purin-9-yl)-b-D-ribofuranuronamid(1e, HENECA), bearing hydroxy, amino, chloro, and cyano groups in the side chain, were synthesized. The compounds were studied in binding and functional assays to assess their potency for the A2 compared to A1 adenosine receptor. The presence of an a-hydroxyl group in the alkynyl chain of NECA derivatives accounts for the A2 agonist potency, leading to compounds endowed with sub-nanomolar affinity in binding studies. However, these analogues also possess good A1 receptor affinity resulting in low A2 selectivity. From functional experiments the 4-hydroxy-l-butynyl(6) and the 4-(2-tetrahydro-2H-pyranyloxy)-l-butynyl (16) derivatives appear to be very potent in inducing vasorelaxation without appreciable effect on heart rate. The new compounds were also tested as inhibitors of platelet aggregation induced by ADP. ...
294964902 - EP 1019427 A1 2000-07-19 - N?6 -SUBSTITUTED-ADENOSINE-5 -URONAMIDES AS ADENOSINE RECEPTOR MODULATORS - [origin: WO9906053A1] A series of adenosine-5 -uronamide derivatives bearing N 6 -arylurea, alkarylurea, heteroarylurea, arylcarbonyl, alkarylcarbonyl or heteroarylcarbonyl groups which have affinity and, in some cases, selectivity for the adenosine A1 or A3 receptors are disclosed. These compounds can be used in a pharmaceutical composition to treat disorders caused by excessive activation of the A1 or A3 receptors, or can be used in a diagnostic application to determine the relative binding of other compounds to the A1 or A3 receptors.[origin: WO9906053A1] A series of adenosine-5 -uronamide derivatives bearing N 6 -arylurea, alkarylurea, heteroarylurea, arylcarbonyl, alkarylcarbonyl or heteroarylcarbonyl groups which have affinity and, in some cases, selectivity for the adenosine A1 or A3 receptors are disclosed. These compounds can be used in a pharmaceutical composition to treat
Introduction: Adenosine-based drugs have shown promising results against various solid tumors including prostate cancer. These drugs exert their effects via adenosine receptors (ARs), and in prostate cancer, the A3AR subtype appears to play a major role in its anti-tumor action. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the coding RNAs at post-transcriptional level. One of these, miR-21, has been shown to promote prostate cancer growth and invasiveness. In the present study, we hypothesized that A3AR agonists suppressed prostate tumor growth by reducing miR-21 expression. Methods: In vivo studies were performed in xenograft model of prostate cancer in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously with PC3-MM human prostate cancer cells, treated with vehicle, the agonist N-(3-iodobenzyl) adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), the antagonist 9-Chloro-2-(2-furanyl)-5-((phenylacetyl)amino)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline (MRS1220) or MRS1220 + ...
It brings a formula with active ingredients and many vitamins that help in improving metabolism and burning fat. It is possible to notice results of muscle gain already in the first weeks, since from the beginning of the use of the Alpha Prime Elite, it is noticeable the reshaping of the measures. The results, of course, depend on diet and training to be accentuated.. Through accelerated metabolism, the adenosine receptors are inhibited, providing a state of alertness and making us feel no tiredness and fatigue. This receptor is responsible for feeling sleepy and tired and acts on controlling blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature. When we are no longer with the feeling of bloating, excess abdominal fat and energy down, our brain tells us that we are well and when we see ourselves in front of a mirror with a more beautiful body we are happier and motivated. This implies even in your mood, because in the Alpha Prime Elite contains ingredients that help the body to feel lighter and giving ...
[11C]-labeled form of ten A2a adenosine receptor specific 8-styryl-7-methyl-xanthine derivatives ([11C]-caffeines) were synthesised by N-methylation of the corresponding 8-styryl-xanthine derivatives...
Definition of adenosine monophosphate in US English - a compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to one acidic phosphate group, present in most DNA and RNA. It
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3-[(6-azido-9H-purin-9-yl)methyl]phenylformamide - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Three A3 adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists (1-3) selected from 4-acylamino-6-alkyloxy-2-alkylthiopyrimidines previously investigated by us were modified by inserting a methyl group on their ether or thioether side chains. These compounds gave us the chance to evaluate whether their higher lipophilicity, re
Adenosine is so readily formed in the brain that for some time its quantity there was overestimated by a factor of 20 or more (Berne et al. 1974; Newman and McIlwain, 1977). Now, rapid fixation...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is an excellent biomarker present in all living cells. During the past several years, several ATP test methods have been
Detailed drug Information for adenosine Intravenous. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
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By: Chris Niles Armstead Maupin meets Carl Hiaasen in a brilliant black comedy that traces the paths of disparate characters floating through New York, about to collide in a treacherous story that will make you think twice about ever answering a classified ad. ...
Here youll read about the definition and chemical structure of ATP and the different ways it can be produced and how it functions in the human body.
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Vasodilator stress with adenosine or dipyridamole is an alternative to exercise stress with myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease. Although the safety of adenosine and dipyridamole has been well established, undesirable side effects including chest pain, headache, dyspnea, and atrioventricular conduction abnormalities do occur in a majority of patients.1-4 In addition, both adenosine and dipyridamole produce severe bronchoconstriction when given to asthmatics. Because of its ultrashort half-life, adenosine must be administered by a constant IV infusion.. Whereas adenosine-induced coronary vasodilatation is mediated primarily by stimulation of the A2A receptor subtype on vascular smooth muscle, the side effects described above are believed to be caused by stimulation of 1 or more of the other 3 adenosine receptor subtypes, A1, A2B, and A3.5 The discovery of highly selective and relatively short-acting adenosine receptor A2A agonists6-9 has opened the ...
Adenosine is an important mediator of the endogenous defense against ischemia-induced injury in the heart. Adenosine can achieve cardioprotection by mediating the effect of ischemic preconditioning and by protecting against myocyte injury when it is present during the infarct-producing ischemia. A novel adenosine A3 receptor can mediate this protective function. One approach to achieve cardioprotection is to enhance myocardial sensitivity to the endogenous adenosine by increasing the number of adenosine receptors instead of administering an adenosine receptor agonist. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether genetic manipulation of the cardiac myocyte, achieved by gene transfer and overexpression of the human A3 receptor cDNA, renders the myocytes resistant to the deleterious effect of ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia with glucose deprivation, causing myocyte injury and adenosine release, was used to simulate ischemia in cultured chick embryo ventricular myocytes. During simulated
Effects of adenosine receptor agonists of the A1, A2A and A3 subtypes on the proinflammatory activity of human neutrophils in ...
The existence of a prejunctional adenosine receptor, termed A 3 , was originally proposed on the basis of antagonist effects in the frog neuromuscular junction by Riberio and Sebastiao [20}, since the rank-order activity of antagonists in this preparation did not correlate with either Al or Az receptor pharmacology. At the Purines 92 meeting in Milan (I5}, the evidence for the existence of this receptor was discussed and, TABLE 5-1. Adenosine purinoceptors Adenosine receptor Human clone aaa (SwissProt Number) Al 326 aa (545235) Aza 412 aa (P29274) A 2b A3 328 aa (P29275) 318 aa (L22607) A4 Not yet cloned Agonists Antagonists CHA,CPA,CCPA,NECA, NNC 21-0041 CGS 21680, MPEA CPX, CPT, KFM 19, MDL 102,234, CGS 15943 KF 17837, CSC, CGS 15943, CP 66713, AMBP Xanthines b I-ABPOX NECA N 6 -benzyl NECA, N 6 _ iodobenzyl MECA CV 1808 CGS 15943N • Amino acids. J Med Chern 35:2342-2345. Jacobson KA, Gallo-Rodriguez C, Melman N, Fischer B, Maillard M, van Bergen A, van Galen PJM, Karton Y (1993) ...
Looking for online definition of adenosine 5-diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine 5-diphosphate explanation free. What is adenosine 5-diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine 5-diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine 5-diphosphate mean?
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Caffeine Acts via A1 Adenosine Receptors to Disrupt Embryonic Cardiac Function. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Recombinant Mouse PAP Has pH-Dependent Ectonucleotidase Activity and Acts through A1-Adenosine Receptors to Mediate Antinociception. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Adenosine is the endogenous agonist at all adenosine receptors. Under resting physiological conditions, adenosine levels in the interstitial fluid are between 30 and 300 nM (7). This is sufficient to activate A1, A2A, and A3 adenosine receptors whenever these proteins are abundantly expressed on the cell surface. The local adenosine level increases 10-fold during hypoxia and 100- to 1,000-fold in ischemia (7, 18, 34, 72), allowing cell responses mediated via A2BR in these settings. The pharmacological and functional studies presented here have been conducted using parietal cells obtained from normal rabbit gastric mucosa, which are representative populations of native, nontransformed primary cells at rest. They provide evidence that A2B is the adenosine receptor that is preferentially, if not exclusively, expressed on the parietal cell membrane and mediates acid production via Gs activation. Moreover, activation kinetics indicate that the A2BR might act at full power to activate acid production ...
Definition of adenosine in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is adenosine? Meaning of adenosine as a finance term. What does adenosine mean in finance?
Cyclic AMP; 35-cyclic AMP; 6-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydro-4H-furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinine-2,7-diol 2-oxide; Acrasin; Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate; Adenosine 3,5-cyclic phosphate; Adenosine 3,5-cyclophosphate; Adenosine 3,5-monophosphate; Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphorate; Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphoric acid; Adenosine cyclic monophosphate; Cyclic 3,5-AMP; Cyclic 3,5-adenylate; Cyclic 3,5-adenylic acid; Cyclic adenosine 3,5-phosphate; adenosine cyclic-monophosphate; adenosine-cyclic-phosphate; adenosine-cyclic-phosphoric-acid; ...
Cyclic AMP; 35-cyclic AMP; 6-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydro-4H-furo[3,2-d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinine-2,7-diol 2-oxide; Acrasin; Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate; Adenosine 3,5-cyclic phosphate; Adenosine 3,5-cyclophosphate; Adenosine 3,5-monophosphate; Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphorate; Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphoric acid; Adenosine cyclic monophosphate; Cyclic 3,5-AMP; Cyclic 3,5-adenylate; Cyclic 3,5-adenylic acid; Cyclic adenosine 3,5-phosphate; adenosine cyclic-monophosphate; adenosine-cyclic-phosphate; adenosine-cyclic-phosphoric-acid; ...
This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A receptor. It covers a wide range of information, including data from 3 studies of theoretical, molecular and cellular pharmacology, signal transduction, integrative physiology, new drug discoveries and clinical applications. It fills an important gap in the literature since no alternative source of such information is currently available. Although the A receptor is increasingly being recognized for 3 its increasing number of biological roles throughout the body and many A receptor 3 ligands have proven useful in elucidating peripheral and central pathologies, many issues remain unresolved. Moreover, research activity in this field continues to grow exponentially, resulting in a constant flow of new information. The chapters in this book cover both basic science and the relevant applications and provide an authoritative account of the current status of the field. They have enabled my goal as editor to make A
Clickable adenosine derivative, to capture newly polyadenylated transcripts, and next-generation sequencing reveals mRNA sequence motifs that are linked to polyadenylation; High Quality Biochemicals for Research Uses
ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE) It is a chemical compound. ATP is an abbreviation of adenosine triphosphate. Its name indicates that it contains adenosine and
Adenosine - Get up-to-date information on Adenosine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Adenosine
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So this weekend I bid goodbye to another Sac-Con. Le sigh, if only it was more than a one day con... Wait, what did you say? Its GONNA BE!?? Thats frikkin right! From now on, Sac Con (henceforth to be referred to as SUPER Sac-Con) is gonna be a weekend long event! Boy howdy! I guess the reality of WonderCon never returning to the bay is finally sinking in, and a lot of the smaller cons are revving up their game, trying to be the next big contender. Just a week prior to Fanime was a lil show called Big Wow Con, which if youre native to the bay area, you might remember as formerly being referred to as Super Con ...
It brings a formula with active ingredients and many vitamins that help in improving metabolism and burning fat. It is possible to notice results of muscle gain already in the first weeks, since from the beginning of the use of the Alpha Prime Elite, it is noticeable the reshaping of the measures. The results, of course, depend on diet and training to be accentuated.. Through accelerated metabolism, the adenosine receptors are inhibited, providing a state of alertness and making us feel no tiredness and fatigue. This receptor is responsible for feeling sleepy and tired and acts on controlling blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature. When we are no longer with the feeling of bloating, excess abdominal fat and energy down, our brain tells us that we are well and when we see ourselves in front of a mirror with a more beautiful body we are happier and motivated. This implies even in your mood, because in the Alpha Prime Elite contains ingredients that help the body to feel lighter and giving ...
Canine Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ELISA Kit can measure Canine Adenosine triphosphate in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that has powerful effects on the body. It blocks adenosine receptors, preventing adenosine from binding and calming us down. As a result, caffeine promotes wakefulness and improves performance function in low doses. ...
Adora1 - Adora1 (untagged) - Mouse adenosine A1 receptor (cDNA clone MGC:90841 IMAGE:30536680), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Page contains details about glucose oxidase- & horseradish peroxidase-loaded Zn-linked adenosine 5-monophosphate . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
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Previous in vitro studies have shown biphasic effects of adenosine on mast cell activity; however, the receptor subtypes that mediate the inhibitory effects of adenosine are still controversial (Peachell et al., 1991; Yip et al., 2009). Mast cells express two distinct Gs-coupled adenosine receptors; their biologic roles have not been comprehensively defined, especially in vivo. Since activation of Gs-coupled adenosine receptors increases intracellular cAMP, we hypothesized that the inhibitory effects of adenosine on mast cells are mediated by the Gs-coupled adenosine receptors. In this study, we used both genetically modified animal models and mast cell cultures to comprehensively investigate the role of Gs-coupled adenosine receptors on mast cells both in vitro and in vivo. First, our data demonstrate a potent inhibitory effect of the nonhydrolyzable adenosine analog NECA on IgE-induced mast cell degranulation; this inhibitory effect of NECA was abolished by the genetic deletion of the A2B but ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A1 adenosine receptors potently regulate heart rate in mammalian embryos. AU - Hofman, Paul L.. AU - Hiatt, Kelly. AU - Yoder, Mervin. AU - Rivkees, Scott A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - A1 adenosine receptors (A1ARs) have been recently shown to be expressed in rodent embryonic hearts at very early stages of development. To determine the functional significance of fetal cardiac A1AR expression during embryogenesis, murine fetal heart preparations were studied between postconceptual days 9 and 12. Dose-response curves generated using a variety of adenosine agonists revealed that A1AR activation potently regulated fetal heart rates. The A1AR agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine, inhibited heart rates in a dose-dependent manner (half-maximal effective concentration = 3.6 x 10-8M) and stopped fetal cardiac contractions in 63% of preparations. In contrast, A2a and A2b receptor activation did not alter heart rates, and activation of A3 receptors produced modest declines in heart rates. ...

Adenosine receptor A3 - DrugBankAdenosine receptor A3 - DrugBank

Adenosine receptor A3. Details. Name. Adenosine receptor A3. Synonyms. Not Available. Gene Name. ADORA3. Organism. Humans. ... G-protein coupled adenosine receptor activity. Specific Function. Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is ... Sajjadi FG, Firestein GS: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of the human A3 adenosine receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Oct ... Molecular cloning and characterization of the human A3 adenosine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Nov 1;90(21):10365-9 ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/polypeptides/P0DMS8

ADORA3 - Adenosine receptor A3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ADORA3 gene & proteinADORA3 - Adenosine receptor A3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ADORA3 gene & protein

The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibits adenylyl cyclase (PubMed:8234299). ... Adenosine receptor A3Add BLAST. 318. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of the human A3 adenosine receptor.". Salvatore C.A., Jacobson M.A., Taylor H.E., Linden ... sp,P0DMS8,AA3R_HUMAN Adenosine receptor A3 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ADORA3 PE=1 SV=1 ...
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Recombinant Human Adenosine A3 Receptor protein (ab114790)Recombinant Human Adenosine A3 Receptor protein (ab114790)

Buy our Recombinant Human Adenosine A3 Receptor protein. Ab114790 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been ... Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. Possible role ...
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Adenosine A3 receptor - WikipediaAdenosine A3 receptor - Wikipedia

... is an adenosine receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it. Adenosine A3 receptors are G protein-coupled receptors ... adenosine receptor". Mol. Pharmacol. 63 (5): 1021-31. doi:10.1124/mol.63.5.1021. PMID 12695530. "Adenosine Receptors: A3". ... a novel specific adenosine A(3) receptor antagonist with adenosine A(3) receptor agonists both in vitro and in vivo". Eur. J. ... An adenosine A3 receptor agonist (CF-101) is in clinical trials for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In a mouse model of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_A3_receptor

Targeting the A3 Adenosine Receptor Activates Off Signals for PainTargeting the A3 Adenosine Receptor Activates "Off Signals" for Pain

News Targeting the A3 Adenosine Receptor Activates "Off Signals" for Pain Targeting the A3 Adenosine Receptor Activates "Off ... reports the discovery of drugs targeting the A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) that can "turn off" pain signals in the spinal cord ...
more infohttps://www.painweek.org/news_posts/targeting-the-a3-adenosine-receptor-activates-off-signals-for-pain-2.html

Adenosine A3 Receptor Deficiency Exerts Unanticipated Protective Effects on the Pressure-Overloaded Left Ventricle | CirculationAdenosine A3 Receptor Deficiency Exerts Unanticipated Protective Effects on the Pressure-Overloaded Left Ventricle | Circulation

Adenosine receptors in colon carcinoma tissues and colon tumoral cell lines: focus on the A3 adenosine subtype. J Cell Physiol ... Adenosine exerts multiple functions through activation of individual adenosine receptor subtypes.2-5 A1 receptors (A1R) and A3 ... Novel N6-substituted adenosine 5′-N-methyluronamides with high selectivity for human adenosine A3 receptors reduce ischemic ... A3 adenosine receptor signaling contributes to airway inflammation and mucus production in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/118/17/1713

Adenosine A3 receptor agonist inhibits retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo | IOVS | ARVO JournalsAdenosine A3 receptor agonist inhibits retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Adenosine A3 receptor agonist inhibits retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo Joana Galvao; Li Guo; Ana Raquel Santiago; ... Adenosine A3 receptor agonist inhibits retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo You will receive an email whenever this article ... Joana Galvao, Li Guo, Ana Raquel Santiago, Antonio Ambrosio, M Francesca Cordeiro; Adenosine A3 receptor agonist inhibits ... Adenosine and three of its four receptors have been identified at the level of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer. Our previous ...
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A3 Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Pier Andrea Borea; | Foyles BookstoreA3 Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Pier Andrea Borea; | Foyles Bookstore

They have enabled my goal as editor to make A Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and 3 Therapeutics an up ... documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A receptor. It covers a wide range of information, including data ... Although the A receptor is increasingly being recognized for 3 its increasing number of biological roles throughout the body ... aspects and molecular biology of the A receptor provides a solid basis for its future development as a target for 3 adenosine- ...
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The Activation Of A3 Adenosine Receptor Inhibits Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis | IOVS | ARVO JournalsThe Activation Of A3 Adenosine Receptor Inhibits Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Immunohistology confirmed the presence of the A3 adenosine receptor in RGC layer. However, the expression of A3 adenosine ... The Activation Of A3 Adenosine Receptor Inhibits Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis Joana M. Galvao; Eduardo M. Normando; Li Guo; ... The Activation Of A3 Adenosine Receptor Inhibits Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis You will receive an email whenever this ... Immunohistological analysis of A3 adenosine receptor expression was performed in 5 µm thick paraffin sections from enucleated ...
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Molecules | Free Full-Text | Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist BindingMolecules | Free Full-Text | Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding

A2B and A3, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The human A3AR (hA3AR) subtype is implicated in ... Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes, ... elucidate the binding of agonists to the A3AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor ... Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes, ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/3/449

A3 Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and Therapeutics eBook by  - 9789048131440 | Rakuten KoboA3 Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and Therapeutics eBook by - 9789048131440 | Rakuten Kobo

This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A receptor. It covers a wide ... ... Read A3 Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and Therapeutics by with Rakuten Kobo. ... This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A receptor. It covers a wide range ... They have enabled my goal as editor to make "A Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and 3 Therapeutics" an up ...
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Federal Register
       :: 
      Prospective Grant of Start-Up Exclusive Evaluation Option License Agreement: A3 Adenosine...Federal Register :: Prospective Grant of Start-Up Exclusive Evaluation Option License Agreement: A3 Adenosine...

7. U.S. Provisional Application 62/033,723, filed August 6, 2014, titled "A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists" [HHS Ref. No. E-210- ... 1. U.S. Patent 8,735,407, issued May 27, 2014, titled "Purine Derivatives As A3 Adenosine Receptor-Selective Agonists" [HHS Ref ... 6. U.S. Provisional Application 61/909,742, filed November 27, 2013, titled "A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists" [HHS Ref. No. E- ... The subject inventions describe selective A3 Adenosine Receptor (A3AR) agonists, and their in vivo activity reducing or ...
more infohttps://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2014/12/09/2014-28749/prospective-grant-of-start-up-exclusive-evaluation-option-license-agreement-a3-adenosine-receptor

Studies on enantioselectivity of chiral 4-acetylamino-6-alkyloxy-2-alkylthiopyrimidines acting as antagonists of the human A3...Studies on enantioselectivity of chiral 4-acetylamino-6-alkyloxy-2-alkylthiopyrimidines acting as antagonists of the human A3...

Three A3 adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists (1-3) selected from 4-acylamino-6-alkyloxy-2-alkylthiopyrimidines previously ... Three A3 adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists (1-3) selected from 4-acylamino-6-alkyloxy-2-alkylthiopyrimidines previously ... of chiral 4-acetylamino-6-alkyloxy-2-alkylthiopyrimidines acting as antagonists of the human A3 adenosine receptor ... of chiral 4-acetylamino-6-alkyloxy-2-alkylthiopyrimidines acting as antagonists of the human A3 adenosine receptor B. Cosimelli ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/md/c7md00375g

THE A3 ADENOSINE RECEPTOR: A LINK BETWEEN INFLAMMATION AND CANCER.  - EprintsUnifeTHE A3 ADENOSINE RECEPTOR: A LINK BETWEEN INFLAMMATION AND CANCER. - EprintsUnife

A3 adenosine receptors, MMP-9, glioblastoma cells, intracellular signalling, inflammation, recettori A3 adenosina, ... show that adenosine is able to increase both MMP9 mRNA and protein levels through the activation of the A3 adenosine receptor. ... 2010) THE A3 ADENOSINE RECEPTOR: A LINK BETWEEN INFLAMMATION AND CANCER. PhD Thesis , Università degli Studi di Ferrara. ... It is known that the interaction with the adenosine A3 receptor inhibits several activities of these cells including the ...
more infohttp://eprints.unife.it/296/

The A3 adenosine receptor agonist CF102 induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via de-regulation of the Wnt and NF-κB...The A3 adenosine receptor agonist CF102 induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via de-regulation of the Wnt and NF-κB...

The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is highly expressed in tumors and was suggested as a target for cancer treatment. In this ... The A3 adenosine receptor agonist CF102 induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via de-regulation of the Wnt and NF-κB ... Bar-Yehuda, S., Stemmer, S.M., Madi, L., Castel, D., Ochaion, A., Cohen, S. ... Fishman, P. (2008). The A3 adenosine receptor ... The A3 adenosine receptor agonist CF102 induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via de-regulation of the Wnt and NF-κB ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijo/33/2/287/abstract

New study: Adenosine receptor A3 (ADORA3) pipeline report - WhaTechNew study: Adenosine receptor A3 (ADORA3) pipeline report - WhaTech

... outlays comprehensive information on the Adenosine Receptor A3 (ADORA3) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by ... Adenosine Receptor A3 (ADORA3) The adenosine A3 receptor, also known as ADORA3, is an adenosine receptor. Adenosine A3 ... Adenosine Receptor A3 (ADORA3) Pipeline Review, H2 2017 outlays comprehensive information on the Adenosine Receptor A3 (ADORA3 ... A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is the only adenosine subtype to be over expressed in inflammatory and cancer cells, thus making ...
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anti-ADORA3 antibody | Rabbit anti-Rat Adenosine A3 Receptor Polyclonal Antibody-Q6LD47anti-ADORA3 antibody | Rabbit anti-Rat Adenosine A3 Receptor Polyclonal Antibody-Q6LD47

Rabbit anti-Rat Adenosine A3 Receptor Polyclonal Antibody-Q6LD47 (MBS613614) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary ... Adenosine P1 Receptors Pathway antibodies. Adenosine P1 Receptors Pathway Diagram. Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like Receptors) Pathway ... Adenosine released from cells interacts with membrane receptors (adenosine receptors, ARs). Based upon biochemical and ... adenosine receptor A3; OTTHUMP00000013476; OTTHUMP00000013479; OTTHUMP00000013739; OTTHUMP00000082917 UniProt Protein Name ...
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Induction of Multiple Effects on Adenylyl Cyclase Regulation by Chronic Activation of the Human A3 Adenosine Receptor |...Induction of Multiple Effects on Adenylyl Cyclase Regulation by Chronic Activation of the Human A3 Adenosine Receptor |...

1992) Molecular cloning and characterization of an adenosine receptor: the A3 adenosine receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89 ... Induction of Multiple Effects on Adenylyl Cyclase Regulation by Chronic Activation of the Human A3 Adenosine Receptor ... The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) contributes to several cardiovascular effects of adenosine, including antihypertensive and ... 1994) Cloned A3 adenosine receptors: pharmacological properties, species differences and receptor functions. Trends Pharmacol. ...
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Synthesis, Biological Properties, and
Molecular Modeling Investigation of the
First Potent, Selective, and
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... and Water-Soluble Human A3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist ... K B value 3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist CHO cells hA 3 ... adenosine receptor First Potent Schild analysis K i 0.01 nM hA 3 receptor Molecular Modeling Investigation pyrimidine ... A new, highly potent, selective, and water-soluble antagonist of the hA,sub,3,/sub, adenosine receptor was synthesized and ... Adenosine Receptor Antagonist. 2002-07-16T00:00:00Z (GMT) by Anna Maconi Giorgia Pastorin Tatiana Da Ros Giampiero Spalluto ...
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A3 adenosine receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinases in lung injury following in vivo reperfusion | Springer for...A3 adenosine receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinases in lung injury following in vivo reperfusion | Springer for...

Introduction Although activation of A3adenosine receptors attenuates reperfusion lung injury and associated apoptosis, the ... Molecular cloning and characterization of an adenosine receptor: the A3adenosine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992, 89: ... von Lubitz DK, Lin RCS, Popik P, Carter MF, Jacobson KA: Adenosine A3 receptor stimulation and cerebral ischemia. Eur J ... Liang BT, Jacobson KA: A physiological role of the adenosine A3 receptor sustained cardioprotection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ...
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Adenosine A3 ReceptorsAdenosine A3 Receptors

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  • In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A 3 AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates. (mdpi.com)
  • The selective A 3 adenosine receptor agonists IB-MECA (0.05 mg/kg, 0.1 mg/kg, or 0.3 mg/kg) and MRS3558 (0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg) were administered before reperfusion. (springer.com)
  • The A(3) receptor agonists (N(6)-2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyladenosine [APNEA] and N(6)-benzyl-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [N(6)-benzyl-NECA]) also inhibited AK-T cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, increasing the receptor level improves the myocyte sensitivity to the endogenous adenosine, which in turn causes all of the cardioprotective effects found for exogenously administered adenosine agonists. (garvan.org.au)
  • Here, we demonstrate that adenosine, at concentrations that are typically present in the extracellular fluid of solid tumors, exerts a profound inhibitory effect on the induction of mouse cytotoxic T cells, without substantially affecting T-cell viability. (nih.gov)
  • In the past most of the anti-inflammatory effects of this nucleoside were thought to be due to the activation of the A2A subtype, however more recently, the involvement of the A3 subtype has been also considered relevant for the outcome of inflammation. (unife.it)
  • Simple xanthine derivatives such as caffeine and DPCPX have generally low affinity for the A3 subtype and must be extended by expanding the ring system and adding an aromatic group to give high A3 affinity and selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The affinity towards adenosine A3 subtype was measured against the radioligand PSB-11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine A3 receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediates a sustained cardioprotective function during cardiac ischemia. (whatech.com)
  • The receptor encoded by this gene mediates a sustained cardioprotective function during cardiac ischemia, it is involved in the inhibition of neutrophil degranulation in neutrophil-mediated tissue injury, it has been implicated in both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects, and it may also mediate both cell proliferation and cell death. (mybiosource.com)
  • Adenosine is an important mediator of the endogenous defense against ischemia-induced injury in the heart. (garvan.org.au)
  • Adenosine can achieve cardioprotection by mediating the effect of ischemic preconditioning and by protecting against myocyte injury when it is present during the infarct-producing ischemia. (garvan.org.au)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate whether genetic manipulation of the cardiac myocyte, achieved by gene transfer and overexpression of the human A3 receptor cDNA, renders the myocytes resistant to the deleterious effect of ischemia. (garvan.org.au)
  • Prolonged hypoxia with glucose deprivation, causing myocyte injury and adenosine release, was used to simulate ischemia in cultured chick embryo ventricular myocytes. (garvan.org.au)
  • During simulated ischemia, cultured myocytes with enhanced expression of the human A3 receptor and showed significantly higher ATP content, fewer cells killed, and less creatine kinase released into the medium than either control or mock-transfected myocytes. (garvan.org.au)
  • Also, increased expression of the A3 receptor caused an enhanced cardioprotective effect by the preconditioning ischemia. (garvan.org.au)
  • Overexpressing the adenosine A1 receptor also led to increased protection against ischemia-induced myocyte injury as well as an enhanced preconditioning effect. (garvan.org.au)
  • They have enabled my goal as editor to make "A Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and 3 Therapeutics" an up to date, scientifically excellent, reference source, attractive to basic and clinical scientists alike, a reality. (foyles.co.uk)
  • they've got enabled my aim as editor to make "A Adenosine Receptors from mobile Biology to Pharmacology and three Therapeutics" an up to the moment, scientifically very good, reference resource, beautiful to simple and medical scientists alike, a truth. (b-construction.ru)
  • We also noted that the A3 receptor stimulation led to increased levels of MMP9 protein in cellular extracts of U87MG cells, through phosphorylation of ERK1 / 2, JNK, Akt / PKB and the transcription factor AP-1. (unife.it)
  • Several studies in literature and obtained in our laboratory have shown that adenosine exerts important modulatory function in the growth of tumors, giving an essential role in this to the A3 receptor. (unife.it)
  • Based upon biochemical and pharmacological criteria, ARs have been classified into A1, A2a, A2b and A3. (mybiosource.com)
  • The G i -coupled A 3 adenosine receptor (A 3 AR) mediates anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-ischemic protective effects. (uconn.edu)
  • Although we and others have demonstrated that adenosine protects against LV hypertrophy and maladaptive remodeling during pressure overload, the distinct contributions of the A 1 R and A 3 R to this protective effect are not known. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13 On the other hand, transgenic overexpression of the A 1 R 14 or A 3 R 15,16 promotes cardiac dilation and dysfunction, suggesting that these receptors may also exert adverse effects on cardiac function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Detailed understanding of the physico-chemical aspects and molecular biology of the A receptor provides a solid basis for its future development as a target for 3 adenosine-based pharmacotherapies (Chapters 2 and 3). (foyles.co.uk)
  • distinctive knowing of the physico-chemical elements and molecular biology of the A receptor presents a fantastic foundation for its destiny improvement as a aim for three adenosine-based pharmacotherapies (Chapters 2 and 3). (b-construction.ru)
  • Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of adenosine on the regulation of metalloproteinases and in particular of MMP9 in U87MG glioblastoma cells. (unife.it)
  • Receptors of adenosine A 2a that are localized in a relatively higher number in the striatum, show functional interaction with dopamine receptors in the regulation of synaptic conduction. (russianpatents.com)
  • 2-5 A 1 receptors (A 1 R) and A 3 receptors (A 3 R) are expressed in cardiomyocytes, and a substantial body of evidence indicates that adenosine can protect the heart during and after an ischemic insult. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the retina, adenosine and three of its four receptors have been identified at the level of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (arvojournals.org)
  • In these reviews we summarized the status of the art on the role of the A3 receptor in different types of immune cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. (unife.it)
  • Recent studies have shown the presence of A3 receptors on neutrophils, which represent the majority of circulating leukocytes and are the first cells to be recruited into a site of tissue inflammation in defending the body against infection. (unife.it)
  • Adenosine acts through an A3 receptor to prevent the induction of murine anti-CD3-activated killer T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-CD3-activated killer T (AK-T) cells induced in the presence of adenosine exhibited reduced major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted cytotoxicity against P815 mastocytoma cells in JAM and (51)Cr-release assays. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma synthesis by AK-T cells was also inhibited by adenosine. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor-associated adenosine may act through the same mechanism to impair the development of tumor-reactive T cells in cancer patients. (nih.gov)
  • Adenosine receptors A 2a on endothelial and gladkomyshechne the x cells responsible for induced by the adenosine vasodilation (P.G. Baraldi et al. (russianpatents.com)
  • Receptors of adenosine A 3 expressed primarily in the Central nervous system, testis and the immune system and, apparently, involved in the modulation of release of mediators of mast cells in allergic reactions of immediate type and migration of neutrophilic granulocytes (Y.Chen et al. (russianpatents.com)
  • In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes induced to hypertrophy with phenylephrine, the adenosine analogue 2-chloroadenosine reduced cell area, protein synthesis, atrial natriuretic peptide, and 3′-nitrotyrosine. (ahajournals.org)