Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A serotype of ORTHOREOVIRUS, MAMMALIAN causing serious pathology in laboratory rodents, characterized by diarrhea, oily coat, jaundice, and multiple organ involvement.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the family REOVIRIDAE infecting vertebrates only. Transmission is horizontal and infected species include humans, birds, cattle, monkeys, sheep, swine, baboons, and bats. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS is the type species.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.
An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A tricyclic antidepressant with actions similar to AMITRIPTYLINE.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.

Yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis chimeric viruses: construction and biological properties. (1/699)

A system has been developed for generating chimeric yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis (YF/JE) viruses from cDNA templates encoding the structural proteins prM and E of JE virus within the backbone of a molecular clone of the YF17D strain. Chimeric viruses incorporating the proteins of two JE strains, SA14-14-2 (human vaccine strain) and JE Nakayama (JE-N [virulent mouse brain-passaged strain]), were studied in cell culture and laboratory mice. The JE envelope protein (E) retained antigenic and biological properties when expressed with its prM protein together with the YF capsid; however, viable chimeric viruses incorporating the entire JE structural region (C-prM-E) could not be obtained. YF/JE(prM-E) chimeric viruses grew efficiently in cells of vertebrate or mosquito origin compared to the parental viruses. The YF/JE SA14-14-2 virus was unable to kill young adult mice by intracerebral challenge, even at doses of 10(6) PFU. In contrast, the YF/JE-N virus was neurovirulent, but the phenotype resembled parental YF virus rather than JE-N. Ten predicted amino acid differences distinguish the JE E proteins of the two chimeric viruses, therefore implicating one or more residues as virus-specific determinants of mouse neurovirulence in this chimeric system. This study indicates the feasibility of expressing protective antigens of JE virus in the context of a live, attenuated flavivirus vaccine strain (YF17D) and also establishes a genetic system for investigating the molecular basis for neurovirulence determinants encoded within the JE E protein.  (+info)

Late domain function identified in the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein by use of rhabdovirus-retrovirus chimeras. (2/699)

Little is known about the mechanisms used by enveloped viruses to separate themselves from the cell surface at the final step of budding. However, small sequences in the Gag proteins of several retroviruses (L domains) have been implicated in this process. A sequence has been identified in the M proteins of rhabdoviruses that closely resembles the PPPPY motif in the L domain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), an avian retrovirus. To evaluate whether the PPPY sequence in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) M protein has an activity analogous to that of the retroviral sequence, M-Gag chimeras were characterized. The N-terminal 74 amino acids of the VSV (Indiana) M protein, including the PPPY motif, was able to replace the L domain of RSV Gag and allow the assembly and release of virus-like particles. Alanine substitutions in the VSV PPPY motif severely compromised the budding activity of this hybrid protein but not that of another chimera which also contained the RSV PPPPY sequence. We conclude that this VSV sequence is functionally homologous to the RSV L domain in promoting virus particle release, making this the first example of such an activity in a virus other than a retrovirus. Both the RSV and VSV motifs have been shown to interact in vitro with certain cellular proteins that contain a WW interaction module, suggesting that the L domains are sites of interaction with unknown host machinery involved in virus release.  (+info)

Site-specific integration mediated by a hybrid adenovirus/adeno-associated virus vector. (3/699)

Adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) have attractive and complementary properties that can be exploited for gene transfer purposes. Ad vectors are probably the most efficient vehicles to deliver foreign genes both in vitro and in vivo. AAV exhibits the unique ability to establish latency by efficiently integrating at a specific locus of human chromosome 19 (AAVS1). Two viral elements are necessary for the integration at AAVS1: Rep68/78 and the inverted terminal repeats (AAV-ITRs). In this study, we report the development of two helper-dependent adenoviral (HD) vectors, one carrying the Rep78 gene, the other an AAV-ITR-flanked transgene. Although Rep proteins have been demonstrated to interfere with Ad replication, HD Rep78 vector was successfully amplified on serial passages in 293CRE4 cells with a yield of 50-100 transducing units per cell. DNA integration at the AAVS1 site also was demonstrated in hepatoma cells coinfected with the HD-expressing Rep78 and with the second HD vector carrying a transgene flanked by AAV-ITRs. The high transduction efficiency, large cloning capacity, and high titer of the HD, combined with the site-specific integration machinery provided by AAV-derived components, make the Ad/AAV hybrid viruses a promising vehicle for gene therapy.  (+info)

Viral burden and disease progression in rhesus monkeys infected with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses. (4/699)

To determine the role of viral burden in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced disease, cellular provirus and plasma viral RNA levels were measured after inoculation of rhesus monkeys with four different SHIVs. These SHIVs included SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6, constructed with env, tat, rev, and vpu derived from either cell line-passaged or primary patient isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; the viral quasispecies SHIV-89.6P derived after in vivo passage of SHIV-89.6; and a molecular clone, SHIV-KB9, derived from SHIV-89.6P. SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6 are nonpathogenic in rhesus monkeys; SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9 cause rapid CD4(+) T cell depletion and an immunodeficiency syndrome. Relative SHIV provirus levels were highest during primary infection in monkeys infected with SHIV-89.6P, the virus that caused the most rapid and dramatic CD4(+) T cell depletion. However, by 10 weeks postinoculation, provirus levels were similar in monkeys infected with the pathogenic and nonpathogenic chimeric viruses. The virus infections that resulted in the highest peak and chronic viral RNA levels were the pathogenic viruses SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9. SHIV-89. 6P uniformly caused rapid and profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and immunodeficiency. Infection with the SHIV-KB9 resulted in very low CD4(+) T cell counts without seroconversion in some monkeys and a substantial but less profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and rapid seroconversion in others. Surprisingly, the level of plasma viremia did not differ between SHIV-KB9-infected animals exhibiting these contrasting outcomes, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in AIDS virus pathogenesis.  (+info)

Characterization of a neutralization-escape variant of SHIVKU-1, a virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome in pig-tailed macaques. (5/699)

A chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-4) containing the tat, rev, vpu, and env genes of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in a genetic background of SIVmac239 was used to develop an animal model in which a primate lentivirus expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein caused acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in macaques. An SHIV-infected pig-tailed macaque that died from AIDS at 24 weeks postinoculation experienced two waves of viremia: one extending from weeks 2-8 and the second extending from week 18 until death. Virus (SHIVKU-1) isolated during the first wave was neutralized by antibodies appearing at the end of the first viremic phase, but the virus (SHIVKU-1b) isolated during the second viremic phase was not neutralized by these antibodies. Inoculation of SHIVKU-1b into 4 pig-tailed macaques resulted in severe CD4(+) T cell loss by 2 weeks postinoculation, and all 4 macaques died from AIDS at 23-34 weeks postinoculation. Because this virus had a neutralization-resistant phenotype, we sequenced the env gene and compared these sequences with those of the env gene of SHIVKU-1 and parental SHIV-4. With reference to SHIV-4, SHIVKU-1b had 18 and 6 consensus amino acid substitutions in the gp120 and gp41 regions of Env, respectively. These compared with 10 and 3 amino acid substitutions in the gp120 and gp41 regions of SHIVKU-1. Our data suggested that SHIVKU-1 and SHIVKU-1b probably evolved from a common ancestor but that SHIVKU-1b did not evolve from SHIVKU-1. A chimeric virus, SHIVKU-1bMC17, constructed with the consensus env from the SHIVKU-1b on a background of SHIV-4, confirmed that amino acid substitutions in Env were responsible for the neutralization-resistant phenotype. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that neutralizing antibodies induced by SHIVKU-1 in pig-tailed macaque resulted in the selection of a neutralization-resistant virus that was responsible for the second wave of viremia.  (+info)

T cell-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are readily transmitted by vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques, and Langerhans' cells of the female genital tract are infected with SIV. (6/699)

Intravaginal inoculation with T cell-tropic molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or some dual-tropic strains of SIV or SHIV produced systemic infection in rhesus macaques. Vaginal inoculation with other dual-tropic molecular clones of SIV or SHIV did not infect rhesus macaques even after multiple inoculations. While in vitro measures of macrophage tropism do not predict which primate lentiviruses will produce systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation, the level to which a virus replicates in vivo after intravenous inoculation does predict the outcome of intravaginal inoculation. Another series of studies, using combined in situ hybridization and immunolabeling to simultaneously detect SIV RNA and identify the immunophenotype of infected cells, demonstrated that a large proportion (approximately 40% in some animals) of the SIV-infected cells in the vagina and cervix were Langerhans' cells. This is the first in vivo demonstration that Langerhans' cells in the genital tract are infected with SIV and that dendritic cells are significant reservoirs for lentiviruses.  (+info)

Distinct pathogenic sequela in rhesus macaques infected with CCR5 or CXCR4 utilizing SHIVs. (7/699)

Infection of macaques with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) provides an excellent in vivo model for examining the influence of envelope on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Infection with a pathogenic CCR5 (R5)-specific enveloped virus, SHIVSF162P, was compared with infection with the CXCR4 (X4)-specific SHIVSF33A.2. Despite comparable levels of viral replication, animals infected with the R5 and X4 SHIV had distinct pathogenic outcomes. SHIVSF162P caused a dramatic loss of CD4+ intestinal T cells followed by a gradual depletion in peripheral CD4+ T cells, whereas infection with SHIVSF33A.2 caused a profound loss in peripheral T cells that was not paralleled in the intestine. These results suggest a critical role of co-receptor utilization in viral pathogenesis and provide a reliable in vivo model for preclinical examination of HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutic agents in the context of the HIV-1 envelope protein.  (+info)

Recombinant viruses expressing the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor polypeptide (P1) induce cellular but not humoral antiviral immunity and partial protection in pigs. (8/699)

The importance of the induction of virus neutralizing antibodies to provide protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection is well established. However, recent studies with recombinant adenovirus expressing the precursor polypeptide of the viral capsid (P1) indicate that cattle inoculated with this recombinant vector developed partial protection against FMDV infection, in the absence of a detectable specific humoral response. Other viral vectors have been widely used to induce protective immunity against many pathogens, and it has been reported that the use of different vectors for priming and boosting injections can provide a synergistic effect on this response. In this work, we determined the immunogenicity of two recombinant viruses (adenovirus and vaccinia) expressing P1-FMDV, administered either individually or sequentially, and the protection that they induced against FMDV challenge in pigs. A double immunization with the adeno-P1 virus was the most effective strategy at inducing protective immunity. In contrast to previous reports, the use of two different vectors for priming and boosting did not show a synergistic effect on the protection induced against FMD. Interestingly, immunized pigs developed FMDV-specific T cell responses but not detectable antibodies. Thus, the protection observed was likely to be mediated by a cellular immune response.  (+info)

If H5N1 viruses acquire the ability to undergo efficient and sustained transmission among humans, a pandemic would be inevitable. An understanding of the molecular and biologic requirements for efficient transmissibility is critical for the early identification of a potential H5N1 pandemic virus and the application of optimal control measures. The results of this study demonstrate, that unlike human H3N2 viruses, avian H5N1 viruses isolated from humans in 1997, 2003, or 2005 lack the ability to transmit efficiently in the ferret model. Furthermore, reassortant viruses bearing 1997 avian H5N1 surface glycoproteins with four or six human virus internal protein genes do not transmit efficiently in ferrets and thus lack the key property that predicts pandemic spread.. We found that the rgVic:486HANA reassortant bearing the H5 HA and human virus M and NS exhibited reduced infectivity for MDCK cells and 10-fold lower viral titers in ferrets compared with rg486:VicRNP that possessed avian virus M and ...
Triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses circulating in North American pigs contain the internal genes derived from swine (matrix, non-structural and nucleoprotein), human [polymerase basic 1 (PB1)] and avian (polymerase acidic and PB2) influenza viruses forming a constellation of genes that is well conserved and is called the triple-reassortant internal gene (TRIG) cassette. In contrast, the external genes [haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)] are less conserved, reflecting multiple reassortant events that have produced viruses with different combinations of HA and NA genes. This study hypothesized that maintenance of the TRIG cassette confers a selective advantage to the virus. To test this hypothesis, pigs were co-infected with the triple-reassortant H3N2 A/Swine/Texas/4199-2/98 (Tx/98) and the classical H1N1 A/Swine/Iowa/15/1930 viruses and co-housed with a group of sentinel animals. This direct contact group was subsequently moved into contact with a second group of naïve animals. Four
The severity of disease caused in humans by H5N1 influenza viruses remains unexplained. The NS gene of Hong Kong H5N1/97 viruses was shown to contribute to high pathogenicity of reassortants in a pig model. However, the molecular pathogenesis and host immune response underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Here, in a mouse model, H1N1 A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR/8) reassortants that contained the H5N1/97 NS gene, the H5N1/01 NS gene, or an altered H5N1/97 NS gene encoding a Glu92→Asp substitution in NS1 was studied. The pathogenicity of reassortant viruses, the induction of cytokines and chemokine CXCL1 (KC) in the lungs and specific B- and T-cell responses was characterized. In mice infected with reassortant virus containing the H5N1/97 NS gene, the mouse lethal dose (50 %) and lung virus titres were similar to those of PR/8, which is highly pathogenic to mice. This reassortant virus required two more days than PR/8 to be cleared from the lungs of infected mice. Reassortants containing the altered H5N1
The pandemic H1N1 virus of 2009 (2009 H1N1) continues to cause illness worldwide, primarily in younger age groups. To better understand the pathogenesis of these viruses in mammals, we used a mouse model to evaluate the relative virulence of selected 2009 H1N1 viruses and compared them to a representative human triple-reassortant swine influenza virus that has circulated in pigs in the United Stat ...
A reassortant influenza A subtype H1N2 virus with gene segments from seasonal A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (HA, MP, NP, NS, PA, PB1 and PB2) and seasonal A(H3N2) virus (NA) was identified in a routine surveillance sample in Denmark. The patient recovered fully. This is the second reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus identified in Europe in the 2018/19 influenza season, with the first case being detected December 2018 in Sweden. ...
This serial passaging of the H9N2:pH1N1 reassortant resulted in a virus that replicated in and transmitted between pigs at high rates. The predominant mutation in the passaged reassortant virus was an aspartic acid to glycine at position 225 in the HA RBS. Therefore, our results showed that the combination of reassortment and mutations induced by the serial passages generated a virus with a predominant mutation at position 225 in HA RBS that replicated and transmitted at high rates in pigs. ...
In January 2019, a human seasonal reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus with a novel 7:1 genetic constellation was identified in a 68-year-old female patient with suspected pneumonia. The virus harboured A(H3N2) neuraminidase and remaining genes from A(H1N1)pdm09. The patient recovered after severe illness. No additional cases have been detected. This is the second identified A(H1N2) seasonal reassortant in a human in Europe within 1 year; a previous case was detected in the Netherlands in March 2018.
Фуф, боялся что нет М. и Б. медведиц, но все таки нашел. Хорошая обоина =) Влад, можете сделать обоину с обычным звездным небом? Ну на фоне может какое-то дерево будет, или скала... очень хочется на рабочий стол звездное небо... Спасибо ...
Caelum, meaning Chisel or Burin is a constellation (albeit one of the more smaller, uninteresting ones) which was de...
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have seriously affected the Asian poultry industry since their recurrence in 2003. The viruses pose a threat of emergence of a global pandemic influenza through point mutation or reassortment leading to a strain that can effectively transmit among humans. In this study, we present phylogenetic evidences for the interlineage reassortment among H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated from humans, cats, and birds in Indonesia, and identify the potential genetic parents of the reassorted genome segments. Parsimony analyses of viral phylogeography suggest that the reassortant viruses may have originated from greater Jakarta and surroundings, and subsequently spread to other regions in the West Java province. In addition, Bayesian methods were used to elucidate the genetic diversity dynamics of the reassortant strain and one of its genetic parents, which revealed a more rapid initial growth of genetic diversity in the reassortant viruses relative to their genetic
Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses similar to those that infected humans in Hong Kong in 1997 continue to circulate in waterfowl and have reemerged in poultry in the region, raising concerns that these viruses could reappear in humans. The currently licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines contain hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase genes from epidemic strains in a background of internal genes derived from the vaccine donor strain, A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8). Such reassortant candidate vaccine viruses are currently not licensed for the prevention of human infections by H5N1 influenza viruses. A transfectant H5N1/PR8 virus was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics. The removal of the multibasic amino acid motif in the HA gene associated with high pathogenicity in chickens, and the new genotype of the H5N1/PR8 transfectant virus, attenuated the virus for chickens and mice without altering the antigenicity of the HA. A Formalin-inactivated vaccine prepared from this virus was immunogenic and
Following the emergence of swine influenza A(H3N2) variant (v) viruses with sporadic human infections in North America, the Community Network of Reference Laboratories (CNRL) and the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency completed an exercise to assess the CNRLs capability to detect novel reassortant and circulating triple reassortant swine viruses (TRA) in humans. ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Prior research developed Reassortment Networks to reconstruct the evolution of segmented viruses under both reassortment and mutation. We report their appl
Emergence of influenza viruses from the animal reservoir is a permanent challenge. The rapid description and immediate sharing of information on these viruses is invaluable for influenza surveillance networks and for pandemic preparedness. With the help of data generated from the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention*, we provide here information on the swine-origin triple reassortant influenza A(H3N2) viruses detected in human cases in the north-east of the United States. .
Over 22 years ago, the August 1995 issue of the Journal of Virology published a study very similar to the one being discussed today called Selection of a Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Hemagglutinin Molecule by Chicken Eggs Can Render Influenza A Virus (H3) Candidate Vaccine Ineffective. The study essentially concluded that thanks to mutations, (which are extremely common), growing these viruses in mutated eggs should be ended. Thus, it is recommended that in the selection of vaccine candidates, virus populations with the egg-adapted HA Lys-156 substitution be eliminated. Yes, I realize that this is a bit different mutation than the one we were discussing earlier, but the principles are the same. Said mutations caused a vaccine that was described with words such as nonprotective, poorly recognized, and that, egg-grown HA Lys-156 variant induced an AFC profile vastly different from that elicited by the other two reassortant vaccines. With this being the case, why should be be ...
In the last several years, public health officials have been monitoring two varieties of bird flu viruses with alarming properties: H7N9 and H5N8. Scientists at Emory have been probing the factors that limit reassortment between these strains and a well-known strain (H3N2) that has been dominating the last few flu seasons in the United States.. Helen Branswell has an article in STAT this week, explaining that H5N8 actually emerged from reassortment involving much-feared-but-not-damaging-to-humans-so-far H5N1:. Several years ago, these viruses effectively splintered, with some dumping their N1 neuraminidase - a gene that produces a key protein found on the surface of flu viruses - and replacing it with another. The process is called reassortment, and, in this case, it resulted in the emergence of a lot of new pairings over a fairly short period of time.. The most common and most dangerous viruses to emerge - for birds at least - have been H5N6 and H5N8 viruses. Both are highly pathogenic, meaning ...
Sidonie Decourt, nutritionniste Geneve, propose la constellation familiale Genève qui est une thérapie qui rétabli lordre familial
Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, including Bluetongue virus (BTV). Recently, co-circulation of natural and vaccine BTV variants in Europe, and their ensuing reassortment, were proposed to promote appearance of novel European BTV strains, with potential implications for pathogenicity, spread and vaccination policies. Similarly, the geographical features of the Mediterranean basin, which spans over portions of three continents, may facilitate the appearance of clinically relevant reassortants via co-circulation of BTV strains of African, Asian and European origins. In August–October 2017, BTV serotype 6 (BTV-6) was identified in young animals exhibiting classical clinical signs of Bluetongue (BT) at Israeli sheep and cattle farms. Sequencing and pairwise analysis of this Israeli BTV-6 isolate revealed the closest sequence homology of its serotype-defining Segment 2 was with that of South African reference BTV-6 strain 5011 (93.88% identity). In
Read Isolation and genetic characterization of novel reassortant H6N6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens in eastern China, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Description: FluMist is prepared as a live, attenuated trivalent vaccine for administration by intranasal spray. The influenza virus strains in FluMist are cold-adapted which means that they grow efficiently at 25°C and restricted growth at temperatures of 37°-39°C. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) eggs are inoculated with each of the reassortant strains and incubated to allow vaccine virus replication. The allantoic fluid of these eggs is harvested, pooled and then clarified by filtration. Each pre-filled refrigerated FluMist sprayer contains a single 0.2 mL dose. Each 0.2 mL dose contains 10^6.5-7.5 FFU of live attenuated influenza virus reassortants of each of the three strains: A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and B/Brisbane/60/2008. Each 0.2 mL dose also contains 0.188 mg/dose monosodium glutamate, 2.00 mg/dose hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, 2.42 mg/dose arginine, 13.68 mg/dose sucrose, 2.26 mg/dose dibasic potassium phosphate, 0.96 mg/dose monobasic potassium phosphate, and ...
Since emergence of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in April 2009, three influenza A viruses-seasonal (H3N2), seasonal (H1N1), and pandemic (H1N1) 2009-have circulated in humans. Genetic reassortment between these viruses could result in enhanced pathogenicity. We compared 4 reassortant viruses with favorable in vitro replication properties with the wild-type pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with respect to replication kinetics in vitro and pathogenicity and transmission in ferrets. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses containing basic polymerase 2 alone or in combination with acidic polymerase of seasonal (H1N1) virus were attenuated in ferrets. In contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 with neuraminidase of seasonal (H3N2) virus resulted in increased virus replication and more severe pulmonary lesions. The data show that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus has the potential to reassort with seasonal influenza viruses, which may result in increased pathogenicity while it maintains the capacity of transmission through aerosols or
Read Evolution of DS-1-like G1P[8] double-gene reassortant rotavirus A strains causing gastroenteritis in children in Vietnam in 2012/2013, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
This researcher is very confident that a focused criminal investigation would likely reveal prima facia evidence that Taubenberger was in reality working for Novartis while employed with the N.I.H. and was quite likely the primary author of Novartis Nov. 6, 2005 provisional patent application. On page 2, paragraph 32 of the patent publication we read, quote: The influenza virus [that the invention vaccine is designed to protect against] may be a reassortant strain, and may have been obtained by reverse genetics techniques. Reverse genetics techniques allow influenza viruses with desired genome segments to be prepared in vitro using plasmids. The remnant of the paragraph then goes into very specific detail as to the actual mechanics of how the pandemic virus was actually created by Taubenbergers Ft. Detrick team. At the very least, the author of the patent application had to have studied Taubenbergers various published reports on his work at Detrick, for the wording and science is ...
Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment reassortment represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This ...
In 2016, a novel HPAI A(H5N8) virus clade emerged and spread to Russia, Europe, and Africa. We demonstrated that several internal genes from viruses in ducks in Bangladesh have an equivalent or higher consensus identity to those of other viruses of wild birds in central Asia, suggesting that these viruses could be gene donors to the novel reassortant A(H5N8) viruses, which were then disseminated by wild birds. The novel HPAI A(H5N8) viruses diverged along 2 genotypes with independent origins of reassortment for several gene segments. The HA, NA, and NS genes were related to group B of H5N8 clade viruses that circulated in China from 2013. Group B is still circulating in China, and a previous study showed that these viruses had PB2 and NS genes derived from domestic ducks in eastern China (13), indicating further reassortment events.. The route of spread of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses from eastern Asia to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East in 2005 and 2006 most likely occurred by ...
To elucidate the molecular basis of the virulence discrepancy between the HK483 and HK486 viruses, we generated a spectrum of single-gene reassortants (Fig. 1) and tested their pathogenicity in mice. Among nine single-gene reassortant viruses, each containing one gene segment from HK486 virus and the remaining segments from HK483 virus, only those possessing the PB2 (HK3/6PB2) or HA-227I (HK3/6HA227I) gene from the HK486 virus were appreciably attenuated (MLD50, 1.0 × 104 or 1.1 × 102PFU, respectively, compared with ,5 PFU for all other transfectants) (Fig. 1). Moreover, although more than 106 PFU/g of virus was detected at 6 days after infection in the lungs of mice infected with either HK3/6PB2 or HK3/6HA227I virus (Table 1), virus was not recovered from other nonrespiratory organs (with the exception of the heart in mice infected with HK3/6PB2 virus). By contrast, the single-gene reassortants containing the HK486HA227S (HK3/6HA227S) gene or the HK486 NA (HK3/6NA) gene (both tested as ...
On 31 March 2013, the Chinese authorities announced the identification of a novel influenza A virus, A(H7N9), in three seriously ill people from two provinces presenting with respiratory infections. So far, no epidemiological link has been identified between those three patients. When testing for the influenza virus, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention identified genes from both A(H7N9) and A(H9N2) viruses, thus indicating a novel reassortant avian influenza A virus. In its initial assessment of the situation, the ECDC rapid risk assessment concludes that the risk of the spread of the virus in Europe can be considered low at this stage ...
Researchers from UCLAs Institute of the Environment and Sustainability Center for Tropical Research have developed a technique to predict areas where viruses might reassort and generate a future pandemic.
No, I dont think you cant say the the development of cecal valves could only occur with an increase in the amount of genetic material. Remember that these lizards are descended from a total of 10 original lizards. So, any particular gene locus could have been present in multiple different versions (alleles) in the founding population. As the population expanded, those alleles would have reassorted into many combinations that werent present in any single founding lizard. In addition, most traits are influenced by combinations of lots of genes and loci. So the appearance of cecal valves might not involve any new mutations. It might just involve new combinations of alleles that already existed individually in the founding population ...
Hmm...what if instead of moving 1 square after every players turn, the constellation went on the DMs turn and moved 1d10 squares (or possibly at initiative count 10 and 0, and moved 1d6 squares)? That way youd need to keep running, but there would be an element of luck & risk/reward. If I move to this square 6 spaces away from the constellation I can attack 2 people, but if I move to the square 8 squares away from the constellation I can only attack 1. Is it worth it?. ReplyDelete ...
A constellation is seen only when we broaden our focus from one star to many. These beautiful designs tell stories but can only be read when we...
The complete nucleotide sequences of the small (S) and medium (M) segments of three independent strains of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus isolated in Uzbekistan, Iraq and Pakistan have been determined. Partial S and M segment sequences from two additional strains and partial large segment sequences from five strains of CCHF virus have also been obtained. These data have been compiled and compared with published full-length and partial sequences of other CCHF virus strains. Analysis of virus strains for which complete and partial S and M segment sequences are available reveals that the phylogenetic grouping of some strains differ between these two segments. Data provided in this report suggest that this discrepancy is not the result of recombination, but rather the consequence of reassortment events that have occurred in some virus lineages. Although described in other genera of the Bunyaviridae family, this is the first report of segment reassortment occurring in the Nairovirus genus.
Eight new full-length sequences from highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) from 4 states in southwest Nigeria were analyzed. All gene sequences were more closely related to the first strains found in Nigeria in 2006 than to any strain found outside the country. Six viruses had evolved by at least 3 reassortment events (AC HA/NS, AC NS) from previously identified sublineages A (EMA 2) and C (EMA 1). Our results suggest that highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) initially imported into Nigeria in 2006 have been gradually replaced by various reassortments. In all reassortants, nonstructural genes were derived from sublineage C with 2 characteristic amino acids (compared with sublineage A). If the high prevalence of reassortants was typical for West Africa in 2007, the absence of such reassortants anywhere else suggests that reintroductions of influenza A (H5N1) from Africa into Eurasia must be rare ...
This vaccine was efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis, decreasing severe disease and health care contacts. The risk of intussusception was similar in vaccine and placebo recipients. ( number, NCT00090233.)
Human infections with Eurasian avian-like swine influenza H1N1 viruses have been reported in China in past years. One case resulted in death and others were mild case. In 2016, the World Health Organization recommended the use of A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus to construct the first candidate vaccine strain for Eurasian avian-like swine influenza H1N1 viruses. Previous reports showed that the neuraminidase of A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) might improve the viral yield of reassortant viruses. Therefore, we constructed two reassortant candidate vaccine viruses of A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) by reverse genetic technology, with (6+2) and (7+1) gene constitution, respectively. The (6+2) virus had hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from A/Hunan/42443/2015, and the (7+1) one had hemagglutinin from A/Hunan/42443/2015, while all the other genes were from A/Puerto Rico/8/34. Our data revealed that although the neuraminidase of the (7+1) virus was from high yield A/Puerto Rico/8/34, the hemagglutination titer and the ...
Influenza Vaccine Reduces Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events in High-Risk Patients [POEMs] This meta-analysis found that the influenza vaccine is associated with a significantly lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in adults with coronary disease. The benefit of influenza vaccination is strongest in adults with a history of recent acute coronary syndrome within the previous six months (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8).. ...
131716PRTInfluenza A virus 1Met Glu Asp Phe Val Arg Gln Cys Phe Asn Pro Met Ile Val Glu Leu1 5 10 15Ala Glu Lys Thr Met Lys Glu Tyr Gly Glu Asp Leu Lys Ile Glu Thr 20 25 30Asn Lys Phe Ala Ala Ile Cys Thr His Leu Glu Val Cys Phe Met Tyr 35 40 45Ser Asp Phe His Phe Ile Asn Glu Gln Gly Glu Ser Ile Ile Val Glu 50 55 60Leu Gly Asp Pro Asn Ala Leu Leu Lys His Arg Phe Glu Ile Ile Glu65 70 75 80Gly Arg Asp Arg Thr Met Ala Trp Thr Val Val Asn Ser Ile Cys Asn 85 90 95Thr Thr Gly Ala Glu Lys Pro Lys Phe Leu Pro Asp Leu Tyr Asp Tyr 100 105 110Lys Glu Asn Arg Phe Ile Glu Ile Gly Val Thr Arg Arg Glu Val His 115 120 125Ile Tyr Tyr Leu Glu Lys Ala Asn Lys Ile Lys Ser Glu Lys Thr His 130 135 140Ile His Ile Phe Ser Phe Thr Gly Glu Glu Met Ala Thr Lys Ala Asp145 150 155 160Tyr Thr Leu Asp Glu Glu Ser Arg Ala Arg Ile Lys Thr Arg Leu Phe 165 170 175Thr Ile Arg Gln Glu Met Ala Ser Arg Gly Leu Trp Asp Ser Phe Arg 180 185 190Gln Ser Glu Arg Gly Glu Glu Thr Ile Glu Glu Arg Phe Glu Ile Thr 195 200 205Gly Thr Met Arg Lys ...
darcoda at (S. Frog) wrote: , , , Hi, and all that. , , Im not sure if this is the proper place to raise this question, , and forgive me if it isnt, but I have a question about the flu. , Actually, three questions: , Is the flu a retrovirus? , If it isnt a retrovirus, do I have a faulty definition of what a , retrovirus is? , Lastly, is it true that the flu has only been around for like a , hunred years or so? And that it mutated from something else, which is , why human has so little resistence to it when the influenza epidemic , roared through just after world war I? , , , Thanks. :) , , , , , S. Frog , -- , , , .. The agent which causes many cases of the flu is called influenza. It is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses have a segmented, single stranded RNA genome. Their segmented genome enables them to undergo a special kind of mutation (actually it is segment reassortment) called antigenic shift, which causes the pandemics in human medicine. Many species ...
Thanks to Greg Folkers for sending the link to this February 13 rapid communication in Eurosurveillance: Possible pandemic threat from new reassortment of influenza A(H7N9) virus in China. Rather than provide the brief abstract, heres the discussion: Our analysis revealed...
These materials are provided by Constellation NewEnergy, Inc., Constellation NewEnergy Gas Division, LLC, Constellation Connect, LLC, or BGE Home Products & Services, LLC (d/b/a BGE Home, Constellation Electric and Constellation Home in Maryland, d/b/a Constellation Home in Pennsylvania and d/b/a Constellation in Texas and Georgia), each a subsidiary of Exelon Corporation. Exelon Corporation also owns Atlantic City Electric (ACE), Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BGE), ComEd, Delmarva Power, PECO and Pepco energy companies. BGE Home Products & Services, LLC, is not the same company as BGE, the regulated utility. The prices of Constellation are not regulated by any state Public Utility Commission. You do not have to buy Constellation electricity, natural gas or any other products to receive the same quality regulated service from your local utility. Brand names and product names are trademarks or service marks of their respective holders. All rights reserved. Errors and omissions ...
General Info. The best way to prevent illness from COVID-19 is to avoid being exposed to the virus, as there is currently no vaccine to prevent the disease.. The virus spreads mainly through person-to-person contact, when individuals are within about 6 feet of each other. When an infected person cough, sneezes or talks, it produces respiratory droplets. These droplets can be inhaled by nearby individuals, leading to an infection. The infected person may be asymptomatic at the time they are spreading the infection to others.. It is also possible for a person to get COVID-19 when they touch a surface or object which has recently been contaminated by respiratory droplets from infected individuals, and then touch their eyes, mouth or nose. The virus can live for many hours or days on such surfaces.. For this reason, it is safest to assume that every individual is potentially infected with COVID-19, and can spread it to others. All individuals on campus must be instructed to follow these general ...
Generally speaking, viruses and germs can spread from person to person through the air or by touching things that have been infected.. Germs that are spread through the air are the most potent because they have just been launched from the person carrying the infection.. This is why personal contact with an infected person - such as a handshake or breathing in droplets from a cough or sneeze - is the most common way these viruses spread.. In many cases, germs are most infectious before the carrier even has any symptoms. If symptoms are not present, respiratory droplets carrying the disease can fly through the air to about six feet and land on another person.. Coughing spreads infected respiratory droplets as far as six meters, and sneezing as much as eight meters. While these droplets stay suspended in the air for up to 10 minutes it is unknown how long the air inside a room occupied by someone with a virus remains potentially infectious.. If there is no one around to catch the germs, they land ...
Premier Medical Laboratory Services (PMLS) is proud to offer MD Drug Pro, a comprehensive drug monitoring program with superior testing capabilities and personalized services.
This virus was originally referred to as swine flu because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs (swine) in North America. But further study has shown that this new virus is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and bird (avian) genes and human genes. Scientists call this a quadruple reassortant virus. ...
How do Family Constellations work? Bert Hellinger discovered that families had an energy field within which they organised themselves in particular ways to ensure the survival and continuation of the system as a whole. Love is the principal force guiding the energy field of a family system. Rupert Sheldrake (biologist, researcher and author) calls this…
Constellation Audio is a manufacturer of world-class Ultra-High-End audio equipment. As a leader in our industry we are always looking for talented individuals. While we dont currently have any immediate openings, were always planning ahead. Please tell us why you think you would be a valuable member of our team. Submit your cover letter and resume to us in PDF format via the form below.. ...
Milwaukee, WI (PRWEB) November 13, 2017 -- Constellation Web Solutions, Inc. (CWS), a provider of innovative online technology and marketing solutions for
The desire to belong is common to most mammals and inherent in all human beings. As individuals we behave in accordance with the desires and norms of our groups in order to belong or fit in. Our beliefs, values, and … Continue reading →. ...
This website uses cookies to personalise content and ads, and to analyse user traffic. By continuing to use the site, you agree to the use of cookies. AgreeRefusePrivacy Policy ...
Messier 3 NGC 5272 Constellation: Canes Venatici Right Ascension: 13h42.2m Declination: +28°23 Magnitude: 6.2 Diameter: 16.2 Distance: ~33,900...
As of 2004, H3N2 virus isolates in US swine and turkey stocks were triple reassortants, containing genes from human (HA, NA, ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) refers to any strain of the influenza family of viruses ... G4 EA H1N1, also known as the G4 swine flu virus (G4) is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in China. The virus is a ... A triple reassortment event in a pig host of North American H1N1 swine virus, the human H3N2 virus and avian H1N1 virus ...
2018). "Case of seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus infection, the Netherlands, March 2018". Euro Surveill. 23 (15). ... Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 (A/H1N2) is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). It is ... The virus does not cause more severe illness than other influenza viruses, and no unusual increases in influenza activity have ... Because the hemagglutinin protein of the virus is similar to that of the currently[when?] circulating A(H1N1) viruses and the ...
Lack of transmission of H5N1 avian-human reassortant influenza viruses in a ferret model. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2006, 103 ... Evaluation of a genetically modified reassortant H5N1 influenza A virus vaccine candidate generated by plasmid-based reverse ... In July, she and researchers found that the H7N9 virus is not pathogenic to poultry, but after the virus invades the human body ... In May, they discovered that the H5N1 virus could indeed reassort with the human influenza virus to obtain the ability to ...
"Macaque proteome response to highly pathogenic avian influenza and 1918 reassortant influenza virus infections". Journal of ... Rhesus macaques, like many macaques, carry the herpes B virus. This virus does not typically harm the monkey, but is very ... Bragg, R. (1997-12-14). "A drop of virus from a monkey kills a researcher in 6 weeks". New York Times. "Yerkes 'family' pulled ... Both viruses stimulated innate immune system inflammation, but the 1918 flu stimulated stronger and more persistent ...
... flu strains were caused by reassortment between an avian virus and a human virus. In addition, the H1N1 virus responsible for ... The new reassortant strain will share properties of both of its parental lineages. Reassortment is responsible for some of the ... Studies on host-virus interactions in the chick embryo-influenza virus system. VI. Evidence for multiplicity reactivation of ... The multiplication of influenza virus. II. Multiplicity reactivation of ultraviolet irradiated virus. Virology. 1961 Aug;14:398 ...
Among the many viruses and fevers that [Kenneth Smithburn] researched are [...] Bwamba Fever Virus (1939-1943)' Lutwama, J. J ... 2001). "A reassortant bunyavirus isolated from acute hemorrhagic fever cases in Kenya and Somalia". Virology. 291 (2): 185-190 ... where the virus was initially discovered. The distribution of the virus tends to be underestimated because the symptoms are ... Bwamba fever is present in large parts of Africa and antibodies of the virus have been found 'as far south as the Republic of ...
Gerrard, Sonja R.; Li, Li; Barrett, Alan D.; Nichol, Stuart T. (August 2004). "Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant ... Ngari virus (NRIV) is a single-stranded, negative sense, tri-segmented RNA virus. It is a subtype of the Bunyamwera virus (BUNV ... Furthermore, the virus has previously been found within goats and sheep in Mauritania. The virus has been reported primarily in ... Humans that are infected by the virus typically develop severe or fatal hemorrhagic fever. Ngari virus was first isolated in ...
"Bunyamwera virus (BUNV)". Gerrard SR, Li L, Barrett AD, Nichol ST (2004). "Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that ... Reassortant viruses derived from Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus, such as Ngari virus, have been associated with large outbreaks of ... The N protein is the most abundant protein in virus particles and infected cells and, therefore, the main target in many ... Briese, T.; Bird, B.; Kapoor, V.; Nichol, S. T.; Lipkin, W. I. (12 May 2006). "Batai and Ngari Viruses: M Segment Reassortment ...
"Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ... as the virus did not previously have that function. That type of experiment could then help reveal which parts of the virus's ... "H5N1 Hybrid Viruses Bearing 2009/H1N1 Virus Genes Transmit in Guinea Pigs by Respiratory Droplet". Science. 340 (6139): 1459- ... and also demonstrated that there was a linkage between transmissibility in avian viruses and lethality: while the virus had ...
"Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ... In 2012, the NIHE provided the H5N1 bird flu virus to researchers who transformed it and used the product to infect ferrets. On ...
The frequent reassortment and cocirculation of the genetically distinct reassortant viruses in a community". J. Med. Virol. 74 ... Two influenza A viruses and two influenza B viruses are among the four flu viruses that a quadrivalent vaccine is intended to ... Influenza B virus is the only species in the genus Betainfluenzavirus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza B virus ... Further diminishing the impact of this virus, "in humans, influenza B viruses evolve slower than A viruses and faster than C ...
"Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ... A group of Australian researchers unintentionally changed characteristics of the mousepox virus while trying to develop a virus ... These viruses seem to overcome an obstacle which limits the global impact of natural H5N1. In 2012, scientists further screened ... The modified virus became highly lethal even in vaccinated and naturally resistant mice. In 2011, two laboratories published ...
EHDV-6 is thought to be a hybrid form where each of the collected type-6 viruses were all reassortants containing VP2 and VP5 ... other orbiviruses include equine encephalosis virus and African horse sickness virus. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus's ... Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus belongs to the family Reoviridae, a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that includes ... "Detection of a novel reassortant epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in the USA containing RNA segments derived from ...
"Genetic and pathogenic characterization of a novel reassortant mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from a diarrheic piglet and ... The Abney virus is a virus, isolated from an anal swab of a seventeen-month-old African-American child named Abney who, while ... Infraspecific virus taxa, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... The isolated virus showed resistance to Ethyl Ether, among ... Rosen L, Hovis JF, Mastrota FM, Bell JA, Huebner RJ (1960). "Observations on a newly recognized virus (Abney) of the reovirus ...
Most H3N2 virus isolates are triple reassortants, containing genes from human (HA, NA, and PB1), swine (NS, NP, and M), and ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... like virus an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus (B/Florida/4/2006 and B/Brisbane/3/2007 (a B/ ... like virus an A/Victoria/210/2009 (an A/Perth/16/2009-like strain) (H3N2)-like virus a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus The ...
... is a reassortant that acquired its small and large genome segments from Main Drain virus and its medium genome segment from an ... Lokern virus (LOKV) is a single-stranded, negative sense, tri-segmented RNA virus. It is a subtype of the Bunyamwera virus ( ... The virus has been poorly studied and the effects of the virus on humans is currently unknown. Antibodies have been found ... "ArboCat Virus: Lokern (LOKV)". Retrieved 2022-01-09. "ArboCat Virus: Lokern (LOKV)". Retrieved 2022 ...
The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ... The rotavirus A parent strains of the reassortants were isolated from human and bovine hosts. Four reassortant rotaviruses ... It contain human bovine reassortant strains of rotavirus serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9. This is world's first thermostable ... Both are taken orally and contain disabled live virus. The World Health Organization recommends that rotavirus vaccine be ...
... to be a new sub-type with a simple reassortant virus, meaning that many seasonal flu viruses now could be classified as ... The virus that caused Spanish flu was also implicated as a cause of encephalitis lethargica in children. The virus was recently ... It is feared that if the avian influenza virus combines with a human influenza virus (in a bird or a human), the new subtype ... Regular influenza viruses establish infection by attaching to receptors in the throat and lungs, but the avian influenza virus ...
... and is also a reassortant strain, combining the HA and NA genes from H10N3 with internal genes from H9N2 viruses. According to ... Influenza A virus subtype H10N3 is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). It is mostly present in wild avian species ... "Influenza A virus surveillance in live-bird markets: first report of influenza A virus subtype H4N6, H4N9, and H10N3 in ... The virus identified from this individual contains an HA cleavage site that is consistent with a "low pathogenicity avian ...
According to research published by the US National Institutes of Health, the triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from ... the swine H2N3 virus was more pathogenic causing severe pneumonia in nonhuman primates. Both viruses replicated in the entire ... H2N3 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its ... Swine H2N3 virus was also detected to significantly higher titers in nasal and oral swabs indicating the potential for animal- ...
... either by direct transmission of the virus or by contributing one or several RNA segments to reassortants with human strains. " ... As with influenza virus, a dual classification system is used based on two proteins on the surface of the virus. The ... In the intervening years, a virus in mice was shown to be related to the virus causing scours. In 1973, Ruth Bishop and ... In 1976, related viruses were described in several other species of animals. These viruses, all causing acute gastroenteritis, ...
... either by direct transmission of the virus or by contributing one or several RNA segments to reassortants with human strains. ... As with influenza virus, a dual classification system is used based on two proteins on the surface of the virus. The ... VP4 determines how virulent the virus is and it determines the P-type of the virus. In humans there is an association between ... In the intervening years, a virus in mice was shown to be related to the virus causing scours. In 1973, Ruth Bishop and ...
... when most other isolates were reassortants." In January 2004, the predominant flu virus circulating in humans in Europe was ... viruses, three influenza A (H1) viruses, one influenza A (H7N2) virus, and 71 influenza B viruses. Of the 949 influenza A (H3N2 ... The "H5N1 viruses from human infections and the closely related avian viruses isolated in 2004 and 2005 belong to a single ... "Many experts who follow the ongoing analysis of the H5N1 virus sequences are alarmed at how fast the virus is evolving into an ...
... recombinants and reassortants of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017 Mar;8(3):385-390 ... "Bunyaviridae - Negative Sense RNA Viruses - Negative Sense RNA Viruses (2011)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ... Jamestown Canyon virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Oropouche orthobunyavirus, and Snowshoe hare virus (vector: mosquitoes; ... As precautions Cache Valley virus and Hantavirus research are conducted in BSL-2 (or higher), Rift Valley Fever virus research ...
In Phase 3, an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus has caused sporadic cases or small clusters of disease in ... Even though such viruses might theoretically develop into pandemic viruses, in Phase 1 no viruses circulating among animals ... clade 2 is the virus isolated in Indonesia. Vaccine research has mostly been focused on clade 1 viruses, but the clade 2 virus ... The avian flu virus H5N1 has the potential to mutate into a pandemic strain, but so do other types of flu virus. Once a ...
... respiratory syncytial virus and influenza vaccines. She has worked extensively with American Indian populations and in Africa ... Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (1): 23-33. doi:10.1056/NEJMOA052664. PMID 16394299. ... "Global burden of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children: a systematic review ...
1 January 2006). "Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine". The New England ... studying food-borne viruses in infants born to HIV positive mothers. She went on to work in Kenya, where she investigated the ...
Gerrard, Sonja R.; Li, Li; Barrett, Alan D.; Nichol, Stuart T. (2004-08-15). "Ngari Virus Is a Bunyamwera Virus Reassortant ... Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever virus, Alkhurma virus, Kyasanur Forest virus (reclassified from B to C) Powassan virus (Deer Tick virus ... Nipah virus Rabies SARS coronavirus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses Other hantaviruses Other ... Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, Lassa fever Bunyaviruses: Hantaviruses, Rift Valley Fever, Crimean-Congo ...
Some diseases that occur as a result of this virus or are associated with this virus include mild upper respiratory illness, ... "Genetic and pathogenic characterization of a novel reassortant mammalian orthoreovirus 3 (MRV3) from a diarrheic piglet and ... the virus is brought into the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Following the internalization of the virus, the viral ... from respiratory enteric orphan virus. The Mammalian orthoreovirus was labeled an orphan virus in the 1950s when it was ...
JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it ...
p , 0.05). Our results suggest that the novel reassortant H5N8 virus replicated more efficiently than H5N1 viruses in mallards ... Viruses. The pathogenicity of the H5N8 virus was evaluated in mallards, Baikal teals, and domestic ducks. The virus strain A/ ... Wu H, Peng X, Xu L, Jin C, Cheng L, Lu X, Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, Eastern China. Emerg ... Liu CG, Liu M, Liu F, Lv R, Liu DF, Qu LD, Emerging multiple reassortant H5N5 avian influenza viruses in ducks, China, 2008. ...
The Third Wave: H7N9 Endemic Reassortant Viruses and Patient Clusters * Yisu Liu Division of Immunology, International ... H7N9 Endemic Reassortant Viruses and Patient Clusters. J Infect Dev Ctries 9:122-127. doi: 10.3855/jidc.6759 ... been localized mostly in Southern China with the Guangdong province an epicenter for the generation of novel H7N9 reassortants ...
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Influenza In Birds Phylogeny Reassortant Viruses Sequence Analysis, DNA ... Title : Triple Reassortant Swine Influenza A (H3N2) Virus in Waterfowl Personal Author(s) : Ramakrishnan, Muthannan A.;Wang, ... Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Clade Subtype H5N6 Viruses Isolated from Wild Whooper Swans, Mongolia, 2020 Cite ... Reassortment of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade Outbreaks Cite ...
"Reassortant Viruses" by people in this website by year, and whether "Reassortant Viruses" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Reassortant Viruses" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Reassortant Viruses" by people in Profiles. ...
Reassortant Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Poultry, Nigeria, 2007 Isabella Monne*1, Tony M. Joannis†1, Alice Fusaro*, Paola De ... Chen GW, Chang SC, Mok CK, Lo YL, Kung YN, Huang JH, Genomic signatures of human versus avian influenza A viruses. Emerg Infect ... Li KS, Guan Y, Wang J, Smith GJ, Xu KM, Duan L, Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in ... Matrosovich MN, Gambaryan AS, Teneberg S, Piskarev VE, Yamnikova SS, Lvov DK, Avian influenza A viruses differ from human ...
Reassortant low-pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 viruses in African wild birds. / Snoeck, Chantal J.; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T.; de ... Reassortant low-pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 viruses in African wild birds. Chantal J. Snoeck, Adeniyi T. Adeyanju, ... Reassortant low-pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 viruses in African wild birds. In: Journal of General Virology. 2011 ; Vol. 92 ... Reassortant low-pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 viruses in African wild birds. Journal of General Virology. 2011 May;92(5):1172 ...
Reassortant Viruses [‎1]‎. Receptors, Adrenergic [‎1]‎. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell [‎1]‎. Receptors, CCR5 [‎1]‎. ...
As of 2004, H3N2 virus isolates in US swine and turkey stocks were triple reassortants, containing genes from human (HA, NA, ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) refers to any strain of the influenza family of viruses ... G4 EA H1N1, also known as the G4 swine flu virus (G4) is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in China. The virus is a ... A triple reassortment event in a pig host of North American H1N1 swine virus, the human H3N2 virus and avian H1N1 virus ...
Six of this flu virus genes came from a triple-reassortant influenza virus (or viruses). ... This flu is not like other flu viruses seen in the past. It is a triple-reassortant flu virus. ... Since 1998 triple reassortant swine influenza viruses have been isolated from pigs in the United States and a human case of a ... When referring to H1N1 flu variants, these do not necessarily refer to the triple reassortant H1N1 late-2009 flu virus that is ...
Kwon JH, Lee DH, Swayne DE, Noh JY, Yuk SS, Erdene-Ochir TO, et al. Reassortant clade avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in ... followed by the identification of reassortant viruses in multiple Eurasian countries (4-6). Recently, subgroup B H5N6 viruses ... New Reassortant Clade Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Wild Birds, South Korea, 2017-18 On This Page ... New Reassortant Clade Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Wild Birds, South Korea, 2017-18. Emerging Infectious Diseases ...
All reassortants are neurovirulent in mice. However, reassortant viruses carrying the LACV M segment in the foreign genetic ... All reassortant viruses infect Ae. albopictus orally and can be transmitted to suckling mice. ... In addition, these reassortants can replicate in gerbils and infect Ae. triseriatus, characteristics of LACV, but not JCV. ... background of JCV are more neuroinvasive than JCV, or any other reassortant genotype. ...
Novel Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses in Humans, Guangdong, China, 2015. August 01, 2016 ... Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone. August 01, ... Use of Unamplified RNA/cDNA-Hybrid Nanopore Sequencing for Rapid Detection and Characterization of RNA Viruses. August 01, 2016 ... Zika Virus Disease in Traveler Returning from Vietnam to Israel. August 01, 2016 ...
Live attenuated strain of Influenza virus. Transgene(s). Influenza virus reassortants for each of the 3 strains selected for ... Ebola virus Sudan Gulu strain GP; Ebola virus Taï Forest strain nucleoprotein and the Marburg virus Musoke strain GP. ... Each chimeric yellow fever dengue virus contains the prM and E genes from each of the dengue virus serotypes 1,2,3 and 4. ... Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Bavarian Nordic Virus encoding the: Ebola virus Zaire (ZEBOV) Mayinga strain glycoprotein ...
Emergence of H3N2 reassortant influenza A viruses in North American pigs. Veterinary Microbiology 74:47-58. http://birdflubook. ... three viruses a human virus, a pig virus, and a bird virus.[2] ... virus co-circulate in the United States swine population. Virus ... The swine flu virus discovered this week in California and Mexico appears to be a quadruple reassortment virus incorporating ... In Europe in 1993, a bird flu virus had adapted to pigs, acquiring a few human flu virus genes, and infected two young Dutch ...
Genetic analysis of the virus is proceeding at a furious pace. The aim is to find clues on what to expect if the virus re- ... Scientists tracking swine flu have discovered that the new virus emerged last fall and had been circulating undetected in ... Its great-grand-daddy was what flu scientists call a "triple reassortant" - a three-fer virus made up of genes from a seasonal ... "Pigs are special because they are easily infected with swine viruses, avian viruses and human viruses," says Joan Nichols of ...
Title: GENERATION AND EVALUATION OF AN INFLUENZA A/H9N2 HIGH-GROWTH REASSORTANT VIRUS AS A PANDEMIC VACCINE CANDIDATE Author. ... These results indicate that the high growth G9/PR8 reassortant has properties that are desirable in a vaccine seed virus and is ... We generated a high growth reassortant virus (G9/PR8) that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from ... These results indicate that the new hybrid virus has properties that are desirable in a vaccine seed virus and is suitable for ...
Comparison of virus shedding after lived attenuated and pentavalent reassortant rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine 2014, 32, 1199-1204 ... along with other viruses, such as astrovirus, Aichi virus, and enterovirus [9]. Our cross-correlation analysis found that log ... shedding of viruses from infected individuals into sewage, and (3) contamination of oysters with viruses. In samples where ... Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica ...
First of all there are three of the same virus on the system that was scanned. That virus is called... ... The virus is a reassortant- a mix of qualities from swine, fowl, and human influenza viruses. Researchers are even now ... That virus is called Win32/DH{eRUTxVzF3U} and it is one of the bad viruses that we do not want on our computers. The virus can ... Tobacco Mosaic Virus Research Paper. 1070 Words , 5 Pages. The tobacco mosaic virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs ...
reassortant influenza virus (live attenuated) of the following strain: A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) strain ... It is not possible to prepare a vaccine for a future pandemic because the strain of the pandemic flu virus is not known in ... A flu pandemic occurs when a new strain of flu virus appears that can spread easily because people have no immunity (protection ... Instead, a pandemic preparedness vaccine can be made to contain a bird flu virus strain that could potentially cause a future ...
Isolation and characterization of novel reassortant influenza A(H10N7) virus in a harbor seal, British Columbia, Canada. Emerg ... Influenza returns with a season dominated by clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2 A(H3N2) viruses, WHO European Region, 2021/22. Euro Surveill ... Multiple respiratory viruses are already straining health systems, with children among the hardest-hit groups. ... As global COVID cases rise, multiple viruses stress health systems. Lisa Schnirring , News Editor , CIDRAP News. ...
... their 8 genetic pieces to create a brand new or reassortant virus. The new H1N1 flu virus appearing in different parts of the ... However, the genetic make-up of this virus implies US and Eurasian swine virus ancestors and suggests that this new virus will ... In our response to this new outbreak, it is important to remember that seasonal influenza viruses are currently pandemic and ... There have been some interesting speculations on the origin of the virus. Early information suggests that this new influenza ...
1]The H5N1 virus isolated from US wild birds is a new mixed-origin virus (a "reassortant") that is genetically different from ... virus found in Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world; HPAI (H5N6) virus; and (H7N9) virus, has been associated with severe ... No human infections with this new reassortant H5N1 virus have been reported in any country. ... CDC considers the risk to the general public from these newly-identified US HPAI H5 viruses to be low; however, people with ...
Master donor viruses A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) and B/USSR/60/69 and derived reassortants used in live attenuated influenza ... Demonstration of the absence of neurovirulent properties of reassortant viruses contained in live attenuated influenza vaccine ...
Twelve representative influenza A virus samples of multiple subtypes were universally amplified in a one-step RT-PCR and ... Overall, we developed and validated a novel and rapid multiplex workflow for influenza A virus sequencing. This protocol suits ... Due to the frequent reassortment and zoonotic potential of influenza A viruses, rapid gain of sequence information is crucial. ... Swarm incursions of reassortants of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains H5N8 and H5N5, clade, Germany, ...
  • The virus reported in our study (A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1), HuN) is highlighted in red, and the EA viruses isolated from mainland China previously are in blue. (
  • A/swine/Guangxi/BB1/2013 (BB1, H1N1)), which shared the highest similarities with HuN virus, is included for analysis in each tree. (
  • A solid circle, square, and triangle are shown at the beginning of the HuN, BB1, and 2 human EA H1N1 viruses, respectively. (
  • Next generation sequencing at CDC revealed a new seasonal human influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 reassortant virus, rather than an influenza A(H3N2) variant virus of swine origin. (
  • Where Did the H1N1 Flu Virus Come From? (
  • Only one group of virologists that I could find has asked the right questions and has properly investigated the origins of the H1N1 swine flu virus of 2009. (
  • It is easy to get confused when reading about H1N1 flu viruses. (
  • When referring to H1N1 flu variants, these do not necessarily refer to the triple reassortant H1N1 late-2009 flu virus that is completely novel and unprecedented. (
  • Furthermore, pay careful attention here because the H1N1 late-2009 season flu virus is now the prevalent flu virus in circulation in the North American population and for unexplained reasons the seasonal flu threat has ceased to exist, at least at the date of writing this report (Sept. 24, 2009). (
  • Examination of the longer phylogenetic branch length compared to its nearest genetic neighbors indicates that the appearance of this novel H1N1 swine flu virus of 2009 is unlikely to be a recent event. (
  • However, both groups of H1N1 viruses have been found recently in pigs in southeast Asia. (
  • The new H1N1 flu virus appearing in different parts of the world has genetic pieces from human influenza, bird influenza, and 2 different types of pig influenzas. (
  • The H1N1 swine flu virus in North America currently concerning global public health officials is not the first triple hybrid human/bird/pig flu virus to be discovered. (
  • Since the 1918 pandemic, an H1N1 flu virus has circulated in pig populations, becoming one of the most common causes of respiratory disease on North American pig farms. (
  • The H1N1 swine flu virus in the influenza laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. (
  • Uncovering the origins of H1N1 is incredibly complicated as flu viruses are continually evolving. (
  • A scientist at Vitrology, a biotech company in Scotland, studies the H1N1 virus. (
  • H1N1 (referred to as "swine flu" early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. (
  • How severe is illness associated with this new H1N1 virus? (
  • Hu, W. (2010) Novel host markers in the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. (
  • Hu, W. (2010) Identification of highly conserved domains in hemagglutinin associated with the receptor binding specificity of influenza viruses: 2009 H1N1, avian H5N1, and swine H1N2. (
  • Hu, W. (2010) Subtle differences in receptor binding specificity and gene sequences of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. (
  • Hu, W. (2011) Receptor binding specificity and origin of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. (
  • Hu, W. (2011) New mutational trends in the HA protein of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus from May 2010 to February 2011. (
  • The swine flu pandemic (S-OIV) currently sweeping the world is the result of an influenza H1N1 virus that made the leap from pigs to humans. (
  • H1N1 influenza viruses had been around for a long time, but the story of the current "pandemic era" really begins in that year. (
  • Indeed, Cox said here, experts still don't know where and how the so-called triple reassortant H1N1 strain arose or how it got into humans. (
  • The need for new vaccines was made more urgent by the emergence of strains of influenza virus that have the pandemic potential, as in the case of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) virus. (
  • We observed the interference between two prevalent respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) (H1N1), and characterized its molecular underpinnings in alveolar epithelial cells (A549). (
  • Examples of recently isolated influenza viruses are A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) and B/Brisbane/60/2008. (
  • Constant monitoring of genetic changes in the circulating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses is important for maintaining the sensitivity of molecular detection assays. (
  • 1,2 In Viet Nam, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 spread quickly into communities in July 2009 and predominated, comprising about 85-90% of all influenza viruses during August and September of the 2009 season. (
  • After that, influenza A(H1N1)pdm02 became endemic, co-circulating with influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses. (
  • The 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus spread across Europe, North America, and Asia over a 12-month period resulting in an estimated 500 million infections and 50-100 million deaths worldwide, of which ~ 50% of these occurred within the fall of 1918 (Emerg Infect Dis 12:15-22, 2006, Bull Hist Med 76:105-115, 2002). (
  • As part of routine surveillance, a second specimen collected during the emergency department visit on February 17 was forwarded to the Idaho Bureau of Laboratories (IBL), where CDC's influenza reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostic panel detected both pandemic influenza A and H3, which suggested an influenza A(H3N2) variant virus of swine origin. (
  • Neuraminidase (NA) protein* segments from swine H3N2 triple-reassortant viruses. (
  • An aggressive H3N2 virus was discovered, the type of influenza that had been circulating in humans since 1968. (
  • Its great-grand-daddy was what flu scientists call a "triple reassortant" - a three-fer virus made up of genes from a seasonal human flu virus of the H3N2 family, a North American bird virus and a classic swine virus. (
  • [ 14 ] the N2 of the other viruses in this branch were derived from an avian H3N2 virus. (
  • A nan Province, China, to a smallholder distributor in Luang sian lineage influenza A(H5N1) viruses continue to cause serious disease in poultry and sporadic hu- man infections ( 1 ). (
  • A(H5N1) virus and subsequently in poultry infected with clade 2.3.4 and 2.3.2 viruses in 2006 and 2008, respec- tively ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Interclade reassortant influenza A(H5N1) vi- rus genotypes homologous to viruses circulating in south- ern China and Vietnam have also been detected, which indicated previous transboundary virus transfers. (
  • How- ever, influenza A(H5N1) virus in poultry has not been reported in Laos since mid-2010 ( 4 ). (
  • However, a Qinghai-like H5N1 virus caused an outbreak in migratory waterfowl during 2005 before spreading from Asia to Europe and Africa ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • The outbreak gave rise to concerns that infections of wild birds with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1, which causes mild or no clinical signs in these birds, could result in transmission of the virus over long distances ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • As was the case in other wild birds, HPAI H5N1viruses were not known to be pathogenic in domestic ducks before 2002 ( 7 - 9 ), but since then, HPAI H5N1 viruses that are pathogenic in ducks have been isolated in many countries ( 3 , 5 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • Before 2010, H5N1 HPAI viruses among birds were detected mostly in poultry (chickens, domestic ducks, and quail), with the single exception of 1 magpie in 2004. (
  • After the reported spread of HPAI H5N1 virus in Asia, a large, interagency avian influenza virus, or AIV, surveillance effort was implemented throughout the United States during April 2006 to March of 2011. (
  • Between December 15, 2014, and May 29, 2015, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) confirmed more than 200 findings of birds infected with highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N2), (H5N8), and (H5N1) [1] viruses. (
  • HPAI H5N1 viruses that have caused human infections with high mortality in other countries). (
  • Three main studies involving 107 adults found that Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca was able to prepare the immune system to defend itself against the H5N1 virus strain in individuals who had never come into contact with it. (
  • This showed that antibodies against Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca increased substantially when vaccinated adults came into contact with the virus again. (
  • In addition, there is evidence indicating that the vaccine can protect against different strains of H5N1 virus. (
  • The results were similar to those from three other studies involving 170 adults given pandemic preparedness vaccines containing similar types of bird flu virus, such as H7N9 and H7N7, instead of H5N1. (
  • In 2011, H9N2 viruses were observed to be co-circulating and co-infecting the same hosts as H5N1 viruses. (
  • Surveillance for avian influenza viruses must continue in Egypt to monitor further developments in H5N1 circulation in poultry. (
  • En 2011, on a remarqué que les virus H9N2 circulaient en même temps et co-infectaient les mêmes hôtes que les virus H5N1. (
  • hivernale 2014-2015, le virus H5N1 a considérablement circulé dans les élevages de volailles, entraînant un nombre d'infections sans précédent chez l'homme. (
  • La surveillance des virus de la grippe aviaire doit se poursuivre en Égypte afin de déceler les futures évolutions de la circulation du H5N1 dans les populations de volailles. (
  • Since 2006, the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has circulated among domestic poultry in Egypt, causing massive economic losses in the poultry production sector (1). (
  • However, the H5N1 virus continued to circulate and it became endemic in 2008, which led to genetic drift of the surface immunogenic glycoproteins (4,5). (
  • Accordingly, the Egyptian H5N1 viruses diversified into several subclades (classical 2.2.1,, and, of which at least two subclades co-circulated between 2008 and 2011 (6-8). (
  • The subclades of H5N1 viruses in Egypt are antigenically distinct and most vaccines used are no longer antigenically matched (2,9). (
  • Egypt reported more laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza virus H5N1 to the World Health Organization (WHO) between 2003 and 2015 than any other country (346 cases), with 116 deaths, giving a case fatality rate of 33.5 % (10). (
  • Since that time, additional infections in birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N2, H5N8 viruses and with a newly identified H5N1 virus have been reported in the western states of California, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Nevada. (
  • While no human infections with these HPAI H5N8, H5N2, or this new H5N1 virus have been reported worldwide, similar viruses (like Asian-origin H5N1, for example) have infected people in the past. (
  • The H5N1 virus recently isolated from a U.S. wild bird is a new mixed-origin virus (a reassortant) that is genetically different from the Asian-origin avian H5N1 viruses that have caused human infections with high mortality. (
  • [1] While H5N1 most typically only infects a small fraction of people working in very close contact with sick birds, the virus elicits particular alarm because of its high human mortality rate. (
  • Nine years after the virus first began spreading from Southeast Asia, many questions remain about the magnitude of the threat actually posed by H5N1. (
  • Notably, a number of the same changes have been found in recently circulating, highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses that have caused illness and death in humans and are feared to be the precursors of a new influenza pandemic. (
  • We aimed to characterize AIVs circulating on commercial farms and in live bird markets (LBMs) during the winters of 2015 and 2016 in the study area and to identify H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in respiratory patients. (
  • Our results indicated the circulation of the endemic H5N1 and H9N2 viruses among poultry in 2015 and 2016. (
  • Fitness Inference from Short-Read Data: Within-Host Evolution of a Reassortant H5N1 Influenza Virus. (
  • A more detailed analysis (Figure 2) revealed that the monophyletic H5 clade harboring all the recent novel H5Nx reassortants evolved from early members of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 (a group of highly similar H5N1 viruses isolated in China in 2005). (
  • Substitutions K222Q and S227R are unique to clade and have not been observed previously in any HPAI H5N1 viruses. (
  • [ 15 ] In addition, 12 H5N1 reassortants were found to be spread over different branches of the subtree (Figure 2). (
  • The N1 proteins of these reassortants are derived from different H5N1 viruses that descended from H5 clade 2.3.2. (
  • It has been suggested that viruses belonging to the major genotypes Buan2 and Donglim3 might be reassortants containing the polymerase basic protein 2, hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein, and neuraminidase (NA) genes from viruses in the outbreak in China during 2010 (A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2013 (H5N8) ( 17 ). (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of al eight genes on A/Hunan/42443/2015 (HuN) viruses. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all of the genes, except the non-structural (NS) genes, of the LPAI H5N2 viruses were more closely related to genes recently found in wild and domestic birds in Europe. (
  • This suggested that the Nigerian LPAI H5N2 viruses found in wild birds were reassortants exhibiting an NS gene that circulated for at least 7 years in African birds and is part of the African influenza gene pool, and genes that were more recently introduced into Africa from Eurasia, most probably by intercontinental migratory birds. (
  • Virus Genes, early online, August 20, 2009] But this would mean it had to be in circulation for many years, for which there is no evidence. (
  • Six of this flu virus' genes came from a 'triple-reassortant' influenza virus (or viruses). (
  • The other two genes came from Eurasian 'avian-like' viruses common in Europe for longer, but never found in North America. (
  • Clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have evolved by reassortment with different neuraminidase (NA) and internal genes of prevailing low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) and other HPAIVs to generate new genotypes and further evolved into genetic subgroups A-D since 2014 ( 1 ). (
  • 3] Within the swine population, we now have a mammalian-adapted virus that is extremely promiscuous, explained another molecular virologist at the time, referring to the virus s proclivity to continue to snatch up genes from human flu viruses. (
  • Click here to see the family tree of just one of the eight genes that make up the new flu virus. (
  • A crash effort to analyze the genes of the swine flu virus has revealed that it first emerged in humans last year - most likely last fall. (
  • When all three ancestor viruses infected the same pig cell, that enabled them to swap genes, a trick flu viruses specialize in. (
  • We generated a new vaccine containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from H9N2 AIV and 6 internal genes from a human influenza virus. (
  • We generated a high growth reassortant virus (G9/PR8) that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from H9N2 avian influenza virus A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97(G9) and 6 internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) by genetic reassortment for evaluation as a potential vaccine candidate in humans. (
  • This virus was originally referred to as "swine flu" because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs in North America. (
  • It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and avian genes and human genes. (
  • MUTATIONSA scientific study published last week showed the H7N9 strain was a so-called "triple reassortant" virus with a mixture of genes from three other flu strains found in birds in Asia. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. (
  • We found that, following the transfer of the EA lineage from birds to swine in the late 1970s, EA virus genes have undergone substantially faster adaptive evolution than those of the CS lineage, which had circulated among swine for decades. (
  • Further, the adaptation rates of the EA lineage antigenic haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were unexpectedly high and similar to those observed in human influenza A. We show that the successful establishment of avian influenza viruses in swine is associated with raised adaptive evolution across the entire genome for many years after zoonosis, reflecting the contribution of multiple mutations to the coordinated optimization of viral fitness in a new environment. (
  • To solve these problems, we modify influenza virus genes in order to produce viruses that grow in large enough quantities to make vaccines and to carry the exact version of HA and NA proteins of that season's influenza virus. (
  • and 2) facilitate development of new vaccines for both seasonal and pandemic influenza virus by optimizing the production of vaccine proteins by viral genes. (
  • The novel re-assorted H11N9 avian influenza virus, which contains genes from avian influenza viruses of poultry and wild birds, was isolated. (
  • The polymerase basic 2 (PB2), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes were most closely related to those of domestic duck-origin avian influenza viruses, while the non-structural (NS) gene was closely related to that of domestic goose-origin avian influenza virus. (
  • The polymerase acidic (PA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) genes were most similar to those of wild bird-origin avian influenza viruses. (
  • It is a triple-reassortant flu virus. (
  • Intriguingly, the CDC had been aware of several cases over the past five or so years in which a triple reassortant flu virus, arising from swine, had caused illness in humans. (
  • Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus. (
  • Our analysis of the HA protein of this virus implied that the current strains of 2013 H7N9 inChina displayed avian type receptors as their primary binding preference and human type receptors as secondary. (
  • It is possible that the Fort Dix outbreak stimulated a burst of research on old frozen strains, which could have unintentionally resurrected the previously extinct virus. (
  • The rotavirus parent strains of the reassortants were isolated from human and bovine hosts. (
  • We systemically investigated HA gene mutation(s) of the influenza B virus and compared the strains that were actually present with the vaccine strain recommended by the WHO for the Northern hemisphere. (
  • Currently the inactivated influenza viruses are the major sources for immunization of general population against influenza virus infection in the U.S. Each year manufacturers and federal agencies struggle to identify influenza viruses to be used as vaccine strains, i.e ., circulating viruses with appropriate antigenic characteristics and growth properties sufficient to support production of over 150 million inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine doses. (
  • Such trend could have significant implication on degree of seroconversion from currently used live vaccines, using G1 or bovine reassortant G1-3 strains only, seen in recent studies from Africa and Malayi.29 Contrary to claims that Rotavirus diarrhea usually threatened severe diarrhea, no significant difference in incidence of severe diarrhea was observed between Rotavirus positive and Rotavirus negative acute diarrhea. (
  • These birds were positive for In March 2014, avian influenza in poultry in Laos was avian influenza A virus (H5 subtype) by real-time reverse causedbyanemergentinfluenzaA(H5N6)virus.Genetic transcription PCR (RT-PCR) ( 5 ). (
  • We report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry in Laos in March 2014 that was caused by an emergent reassortant influenza A(H5N6) virus, apparently imported by live poultry from China. (
  • We isolated new reassortant avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses from feces of wild waterfowl in South Korea during 2017-18. (
  • Recently, subgroup B H5N6 viruses were isolated from birds in Greece during February 2017 and England, Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, and Taiwan during winter 2017-18 ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • In phylogenetic analysis, we identified 2 genotypes of subgroup B H5N6 viruses ( Technical Appendix 1 Figures 1, 2): genotypes B.N6.1 and B.N6.2. (
  • [ 13 ] Subsequent reassortment events between viruses harboring an HA segment originally derived from the novel H5N5 viruses and a range of other avian influenza viruses have generated the H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 subtypes. (
  • An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza, caused by a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N8) virus, occurred among poultry and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. (
  • Isolation and characterization of novel reassortant influenza A(H10N7) virus in a harbor seal, British Columbia, Canada. (
  • The second and now the third waves of H7N9 infections have been localized mostly in Southern China with the Guangdong province an epicenter for the generation of novel H7N9 reassortants. (
  • In March 2013, a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus was found in several patients with severe respiratory illness in China. (
  • This study took an early investigation of this virus by comparing the collected viral genome sequences of 2013 H7N9 inChinaagainst those of previous avian H7N9 and examined the receptor binding specificity of this new virus. (
  • This virus was found to be very different from the previous avian H7N9 viruses and surprisingly many of the internal proteins of 2013 H7N9 from the avian and human hosts in China were either identical or similar. (
  • 2013) Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus. (
  • Simply the fact that this (H7N9) virus is spreading under the radar - because that is what this data confirms - is of concern," she told Reuters in a telephone interview. (
  • The H7N9 virus is so far known to have infected 87 people in China, killing 17 of them. (
  • Although human infections with H7 influenza viruses have occurred repeatedly over the last decades without evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission, the absence of sustained human-to-human transmission of H7N9 viruses does not come with any guarantee," Koopmans' team wrote in their study. (
  • H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have donated internal gene segments during the emergence of zoonotic AIVs, including H7N9. (
  • We used reverse genetics to generate A/Anhui/1/13 (H7N9) and three reassortant viruses (2:6 H7N9) which contained the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from Anhui/13 (H7N9) and the six internal gene segments from H9N2 AIVs be. (
  • In 2010, outbreaks of infection with the HPAI H5N8 virus derived from the Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage were first reported in duck farms in Jiangsu, China ( 16 ). (
  • The presence of LPAI H5N2 in wild birds in the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands, where wild birds and poultry occasionally mix, provides ample opportunity for infection across species boundaries, with the potential risk of generating HPAI viruses after extensive circulation in poultry. (
  • Influenza D Virus Infection in Herd of Cattle, Japan. (
  • The purpose of this HAN Advisory is to notify public health workers and clinicians of the potential for human infection with these viruses and to describe CDC recommendations for patient investigation and testing, infection control including the use personal protective equipment, and antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. (
  • While these recently-identified HPAI H5 viruses are not known to have caused disease in humans, their appearance in North American birds may increase the likelihood of human infection in the United States. (
  • Human infection with avian influenza viruses has not occurred from eating properly cooked poultry or poultry products. (
  • Clinicians should consider the possibility of HPAI H5 virus infection in persons showing signs or symptoms of respiratory illness who have relevant exposure history. (
  • State health departments are encouraged to investigate potential human cases of HPAI H5 virus infection as described below and should notify CDC within 24 hours of identifying a case under investigation. (
  • Remedies to treat shingles/herpes zoster - Herpes and shingles domestic measures Herpes zoster and herpes virus, this infection can occur on any part of the body, usually on the abdomen looks on. (
  • CDC is studying the medical histories of people who have been infected with this virus to determine whether some people may be at greater risk from infection, serious illness or hospitalization from the virus. (
  • It's unknown at this time whether certain groups of people are at greater risk of serious flu-related complications from infection with this new virus. (
  • Severe human case of zoonotic infection with swine-origin influenza A virus, Denmark, 2021. (
  • Because avian influenza A viruses have the potential to change and gain the ability to spread easily among people, monitoring for human infection and person-to-person transmission is extremely important for public health. (
  • Some 89 people were also diagnosed as having the H7N7 virus, with generally mild illness, though one person, a veterinarian, died as a result of the infection. (
  • Virus and host factors affecting the clinical outcome of bluetongue virus infection. (
  • The application of proper hygienic measures in farms and LBMs to control the exposure of birds and humans to the source of infection along with continuous monitoring of the circulating viruses will provide information on understanding the evolution of the viruses for vaccine studies. (
  • Influenza B is an acute upper respiratory tract infection that is caused by the influenza B virus, a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Orthomyxoviridae family. (
  • We demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans infection by Orsay virus is dependent upon lipids and that mutation of the master regulator of lipi. (
  • Herpesviral infection reflects thousands of years of coevolution and the constant struggle between virus and host for control of cellular gene expression. (
  • Reexamination of amphotropic murine leukemia virus neurovirulence: neural stem cell-mediated microglial infection fails to induce acute neurodegeneration. (
  • Significantly, NSC dissemination of either 4070A or FrAmE resulted in widespread, high-level amphotropic virus expression within the CNS parenchyma, including the infection of microglia, the critical target required for inducing neurodegeneration. (
  • We found low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 viruses in three spur-winged geese (Plectropterus gambensis) in the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands. (
  • Also in November 2014, a novel H5N2 virus was reported in outbreaks on chicken and turkey farms in Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada. (
  • This H5N2 influenza virus is a reassortant. (
  • Whole- genome sequencing indicated the virus was highly similar to the H5N2 reassortant virus from Canada. (
  • Within the subtree shown in Figure 2, the H5N2 viruses are present in 2 branches. (
  • For more information on the origin of the recently-identified HPAI H5 viruses in the United States, their clinical presentation in birds, and their suspected clinical presentation in humans, please see . (
  • Until more is known about these newly-identified HPAI H5 viruses, public health recommendations are largely consistent with guidance for influenza viruses associated with severe disease in humans (e.g. (
  • Rapid detection and characterization of novel influenza A viruses in humans remain critical components of national efforts to prevent further cases, evaluate clinical illness associated with them, and assess any ability for these viruses to spread among humans. (
  • H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIV) are widely distributed in birds and were isolated from humans in Hong Kong and China in 1999. (
  • These results indicate that the new hybrid virus has properties that are desirable in a vaccine seed virus and is suitable for evaluation in humans for use in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak. (
  • H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIV) are widely distributed in avian species and were isolated from humans in Hong Kong, SAR and Guangdong province, China in 1999, raising concern of the potential for pandemic spread. (
  • These results indicate that the high growth G9/PR8 reassortant has properties that are desirable in a vaccine seed virus and is suitable for evaluation in humans for use in the event of a pandemic. (
  • Frequently after 2009, HA and other gene segments from H1N1pdm viruses transmitted from humans to swine, generating diverse reassortant viruses. (
  • Collectively these current mutations tended to decrease the HA binding affinity for avian type recaptors and increase that for human type receptors, which could enhance the ability of this virus to infect humans. (
  • To do that, viruses need to infect the same cell and they find communal ground in the internal passages of birds, pigs and humans. (
  • Robert Shope, a veterinarian, even went on to show that antibodies from infected humans could neutralise the virus in pigs. (
  • Illnesses in humans from avian influenza virus infections have ranged in severity from mild to severe. (
  • The risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in U.S. birds and poultry is believed to be low at this time because these viruses do not normally infect humans easily, and even if a person is infected, the viruses do not spread easily to other people. (
  • Genetic diversity demonstrates the ability of the virus to mutate repeatedly and that it is likely to continue doing so, raising the risk that it may evolve an ability to transmit easily between humans. (
  • On April 13, 2012, reports of epidemic bird flu on chicken farms in northwestern China caused the Chinese government to kill more than 95,000 chickens as a precautionary measure against the possible transmission of the virus to humans. (
  • Here we present sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the complete genome of the 1918 influenza virus, and propose that the 1918 virus was not a reassortant virus (like those of the 1957 and 1968 pandemics), but more likely an entirely avian-like virus that adapted to humans. (
  • The sequence changes identified here may be important in the adaptation of influenza viruses to humans. (
  • Major outbreaks of influenza are associated with influenza virus type A or B. Influenza A infects birds, humans, swine, horses, seals and dogs. (
  • Influenza B viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, influenza B viruses do not cause pandemics, possibly because they primarily infect humans and seldom infect animals. (
  • 1 Since then, the virus has become a seasonal influenza virus and continues to circulate worldwide in humans and pigs. (
  • It has been referred to as a quadruple reassortant. (
  • Scientists call this a "quadruple reassortant" virus. (
  • The genotype B.N6.1 viruses were identified from South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Greece, and the Netherlands (Netherlands/1 strain), and the genotype B.N6.2 viruses were detected from England, Germany, and the Netherlands. (
  • However, reassortant viruses carrying the LACV M segment in the foreign genetic background of JCV are more neuroinvasive than JCV, or any other reassortant genotype. (
  • The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein, P1A ( genotype P[8]), herein referred to as serotype P1A[8], from the human rotavirus parent strain and the outer capsid protein of serotype G6 from the bovine rotavirus parent strain (see Table 7). (
  • Evolutionary analysis of mumps viruses of genotype F collected in mainland China in 2001-2015. (
  • Not only was this highly unusual only a single strain of human virus had ever previously been isolated from an American pig population but upon sequencing of the viral genome, researchers found that it was not just a double reassortment (a hybrid of human and pig virus, for example), but a never-before-described triple reassortment, a hybrid of three viruses a human virus, a pig virus, and a bird virus. (
  • A flu pandemic occurs when a new strain of flu virus appears that can spread easily because people have no immunity (protection) against it. (
  • It is not possible to prepare a vaccine for a future pandemic because the strain of the pandemic flu virus is not known in advance. (
  • Instead, a pandemic preparedness vaccine can be made to contain a bird flu virus strain that could potentially cause a future pandemic. (
  • Testing this pandemic preparedness vaccine helps to predict how people will react to the vaccine at the time of a pandemic, when the virus strain in the vaccine will be replaced by a weakened version of the actual strain causing the pandemic. (
  • No one is sure why the original virus disappeared, but it was probably seen off by a combination of existing immunity, and a bust of cross-immunity to the newly emerged H2N2 strain. (
  • This resurrected virus appeared to be most closely related to a 1950 strain, which has led some scientists to speculate that it was accidentally released from a laboratory. (
  • Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid proteins (G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human rotavirus parent strain and the attachment protein ( serotype P7) from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. (
  • The new strain of bird flu that has killed 17 people in China has been circulating widely "under the radar" and in that time acquired a diversity of genetic bits and pieces that make the virus more of a threat, scientists said. (
  • Complete genome sequence analysis of a reassortant strain of bluetongue virus serotype 16 from Italy.Genome Announc. (
  • The present study analyzed the HA gene and the lineages of influenza B virus isolates from Guangzhou during 2016, and compared our results with the WHO-recommended vaccine strain. (
  • In Guangzhou during 2016, most influenza B virus isolates were from the Victoria lineage, in contrast to the vaccine strain recommended by the WHO for this period. (
  • The influenza B virus was first isolated in the 1940 pandemic in the United States (strain B/Lee/40). (
  • The novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI A (H5N8) virus spread rapidly and globally during 2014, substantially affecting poultry populations. (
  • These appearances also represent a major change in Eurasian H5 virus circulation. (
  • Both viruses have 3 RNA segments of North American wild bird lineage and 5 RNA segments that showed more than 99 percent similarity to the 2014 Eurasian H5N8 viruses. (
  • First, the Eurasian lineage avian H5N8 virus survived introduction into North America in its entirety. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis suggested that reassortment occurred between clade H5N8 and Eurasian low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses circulating in wild birds. (
  • Subgroup B influenza A(H5N8) viruses were detected in Qinghai Lake, China, and Uvs-Nuur Lake, Russia, during May-June 2016 (Qinghai/Uvs-like), followed by the identification of reassortant viruses in multiple Eurasian countries ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • However, the genetic make-up of this virus implies US and Eurasian swine virus ancestors and suggests that this new virus will end up having a very interesting origin and pedigree. (
  • All reassortants are neurovirulent in mice. (
  • Consignments from this batch were RT-PCR but negative for neuraminidase (NA) subtype N1 delivered to the villages a week later, and birds at both and were subjected to virus propagation in 9 to 11-day-old locations showed clinical signs of influenza and died sud- specific pathogen-free chicken eggs. (
  • Hu, W. (2009) Analysis of correlated mutations, stalk motifs, and phylogenetic relationship of the 2009 influenza A virus neuraminidase sequences. (
  • Along with neuraminidase (NA), hemagglutinin (HA) is an antigenic glycoprotein on the surface of the influenza virus that can also induce the production of neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Neuraminidase digests sialic acid (neuraminic acid) on the surface of target cells, promoting entry of the virus into the cell. (
  • We propose active surveillance to support prevention of the spread of this virus among wild birds and poultry, especially domestic ducks. (
  • Wild birds in orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, shore birds) are the natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The HPAI H5N8 viruses were isolated from both wild birds and poultry. (
  • Among these, subgroups A and B viruses were disseminated over vast geographic regions by migratory wild birds ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • In December 2014, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) first detected H5 avian viruses in wild birds in Washington state. (
  • Our results suggested that the interaction between wild birds and domestic poultry could possibly create novel re-assorted avian influenza viruses circulating in wild birds. (
  • Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. (
  • Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, especially second-generation sequencers, have shown their capability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) over the past decade for a wide spectrum of pathogens including influenza A viruses (IAV) [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Multiple genome segments determine virulence of bluetongue virus serotype 8. (
  • Characterisation of a second open reading frame in genome segment 10 of bluetongue virus. (
  • Complete genome sequence of Bluetongue virus serotype 1 circulating in Italy, obtained through a Fast Next-Generation Sequencing protocol. (
  • Inferred father-to-son transmission of herpes simplex virus results in near-perfect preservation of viral genome identity and in vivo phenotypes. (
  • Identification of H5N8 viruses in birds exposed to infected domestic ducks and mallards indicated that the viruses could spread by contact. (
  • In wild aquatic birds, low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses are in a state of evolutionary equilibrium, and infected hosts usually show no signs of disease. (
  • To investigate the presence and persistence of avian influenza virus in African birds, we monitored avian influenza in wild and domestic birds in two different regions in Nigeria. (
  • Highly-pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses have been identified in birds in the United States since December 2014. (
  • These are the first reported infections with these viruses in US wild or domestic birds. (
  • Previous human infections with other avian viruses have most often occurred after unprotected direct physical contact with infected birds or surfaces contaminated by avian influenza viruses, being in close proximity to infected birds, or visiting a live poultry market. (
  • People should avoid unprotected exposure to sick or dead birds, bird feces, litter, or materials contaminated with suspected or confirmed HPAI H5 viruses. (
  • Migratory waterfowl and shore birds may carry avian influenza viruses that do not usually make them sick. (
  • Avian influenza viruses can be classified as either "low pathogenic" avian influenza viruses or "highly pathogenic" avian influenza viruses (HPAI), based on molecular characteristics and the ability of the virus to cause disease in birds. (
  • In addition, CDC has developed testing and influenza antiviral prophylaxis guidance for persons exposed to birds possibly infected with HPAI H5 viruses. (
  • Koopmans, whose research was published in the online journal Eurosurveillance, said the wide circulation that allowed the current virus to pick up such genetic diversity would probably have taken place in either birds or mammals, but exactly which animals were involved was not yet clear. (
  • Birds on farms and in LBMs are reservoirs playing a role in the dissemination of the virus and producing a public health risk. (
  • Here, we measure, for the first time, the genomic rate of adaptive evolution of swine influenza viruses (SwIV) that originated in birds. (
  • Aquatic birds are known to harbor all the known influenza A viruses. (
  • In the winter of January 2016, we surveyed influenza A virus in the feces of migratory birds in South Korea. (
  • Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for all subtypes of influenza A virus. (
  • Pandemic influenza A viruses can emerge from swine, an intermediate host that supports adaptation of human-preferred receptor-binding specificity by the hemagglutinin (HA) surface antigen. (
  • In approximately 1999, gamma viruses split into two branches: swine gamma (1A.3.3.3) and swine viruses that later contributed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene to the 2009 human pandemic virus (1A.3.3.2). (
  • Hu, W. (2010) Highly conserved domains in hemagglutinin of influenza viruses characterizing dual receptor binding. (
  • Few studies have analyzed influenza B virus lineages based on hemagglutinin A ( HA ) gene sequences in southern China. (
  • The major influenza C virus envelope glycoprotein is called HEF (hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion) because it has the functions of both the H and N. A minor viral envelope protein is CM2, which functions as an ion channel. (
  • Phylogenetic tree showing the evolutionary history of the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 HA subtype viruses. (
  • The RNA segments for HA and NA determine the structure of the HA and NA proteins on the surface of influenza viruses. (
  • For swine influenza viruses isolated in 2009-2016, gamma-clade viruses had less stable HA proteins (activation pH 5.5-5.9) than pandemic clade (pH 5.0-5.5). (
  • A total of ten amino acid changes in the polymerase proteins consistently differentiate the 1918 and subsequent human influenza virus sequences from avian virus sequences. (
  • Most wild-type viruses ( i.e ., the form that appears in nature) that carry the right HA and NA proteins to make vaccines do not grow in large enough quantities in eggs to support vaccine production. (
  • Antigens on the internal proteins M1 and NP are type-specific and used to determine if a particular influenza virus is type A, B or C. Both M1and NP proteins of all members of each type exhibit cross reactivity. (
  • Reassortment occurs when two influenza viruses infect a single host cell and exchange gene segments, creating a new virus. (
  • All reassortant viruses infect Ae. (
  • In addition, these reassortants can replicate in gerbils and infect Ae. (
  • The virus can replicate itself and attach and infect the files it attaches itself to. (
  • Viruses in H3 subclade 3C.3a react poorly by focus reduction assay with ferret antisera raised against A/Singapore/INFMH-16-0019/2016(3C.2a1), signifying that the 2018-19 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine* might not be protective against this virus. (
  • Drs. Gibbs and Downie say this suggests the virus emanated from a swine herd vaccine. (
  • This hybrid virus was not deadly for mice or chickens, but when used as an inactivated vaccine, protected mice from the original H9N2 AIV. (
  • Two doses of a formalin-inactivated G9/PR8 virus vaccine induced hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies and conferred complete protection against challenge with G9 and the antigenically distinct H9N2 A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (G1-like) viruses in a mouse model. (
  • When a child is given the vaccine, the immune system recognises the weakened virus in the vaccine as foreign and makes antibodies against it. (
  • Assessment of a quadrivalent nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine that protects against group 2 influenza viruses. (
  • RotaTeq is a live, oral pentavalent vaccine that contains 5 live reassortant rotaviruses. (
  • Bluetongue serotype 2 and 9 modified live vaccine viruses as causative agents of abortion in livestock: a retrospective analysis in Italy. (
  • Due to safety concerns with the current live, attenuated AHS vaccine, alternate safe and effective vaccination strategies such as virus-like particles (VLPs) are being investigated. (
  • Transient plant-based expression systems are a rapid and highly scalable means of producing such African horse sickness virus (AHSV) VLPs for vaccine purposes. (
  • As a temporary adviser for World Health Organization Global Influenza Program from FDA since 2001, he participates in WHO bi-annual consultation on selection of vaccine viruses for updating the composition of influenza vaccines for Northern and Southern hemispheres. (
  • It is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) and is placed in the epizooties list of diseases international. (
  • Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia. (
  • Molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotype 1 circulating in Italy and its connection with northern Africa. (
  • Like Bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype Orbivirus [ 6 ], the subcore of AHSV is composed of 120 copies of structural protein VP3 and is covered by a layer of VP7 trimers forming the core particle. (
  • States suggests that this novel reassortant may be well adapted to certain waterfowl species, enabling it to survive long migrations. (
  • A veterinary pathologist from the University of Minnesota stated the obvious in Science: With a group of 5,000 animals, if a novel virus shows up it will have more opportunity to replicate and potentially spread than in a group of 100 pigs on a small farm. (
  • The pot keeps boiling, genetically speaking, because flu viruses are notoriously mistake-prone as they replicate within a bird or mammalian "host. (
  • Early in 2014, an outbreak of HPAI caused by a novel reassortant H5N8 virus occurred in Korea. (
  • Although H5N8 subtype viruses have been detected previously in the United States, all have been low pathogenicity AIV of North American wild bird lineage. (
  • Histologic and pathologic findings for the 3 raptors were consistent with those described in previous reports of H5N8 infections, and the severity of the lesions correspond to virus concentrations detected in the tissues by molecular assays. (
  • 2 independent reassortment events between H5N8 virus and unidentified wild bird origin N6 segments. (
  • Molecular assay results for oral and cloacal swab samples and major organ and brain samples from one falcon were positive for influenza A and H5 viruses. (
  • The primer and probe sets in the HA gene were checked for mismatches, and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the molecular epidemiology of these viruses. (
  • However, the molecular factors that contributed to the emergence of, and subsequent public health catastrophe associated with, the 1918 pandemic virus remained largely unknown until 2005, when the characterization of the reconstructed pandemic virus was announced heralding a new era of advanced molecular investigations (Science 310:77-80, 2005). (
  • Both conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays are rapid, sensitive methods for detecting the genetic material of influenza viruses. (
  • The polymerase protein sequences from the 1918 human influenza virus differ from avian consensus sequences at only a small number of amino acids, consistent with the hypothesis that they were derived from an avian source shortly before the pandemic. (
  • Pigs are special because they are easily infected with swine viruses, avian viruses and human viruses," says Joan Nichols of the University of Texas in Galveston. (
  • No human infections with these viruses have been reported to date. (
  • In general human infections with avian influenza viruses are rare and most often occur after people are in direct or close contact with an infected bird. (
  • Eight of the 90 patients (8.9%) also had influenza A virus infections. (
  • All influenza A viruses contain 8 different genetic segments that they can freely exchange with one another. (
  • Within the influenza A or B virion are eight segments of viral RNA that carry the all the genetic information needed to synthesize new virus particles. (
  • However, true influenza is an acute infectious disease caused by a member of the orthomyxovirus family, which includes influenza virus A, B and C. Influenza outbreaks usually occur in the winter in temperate climates. (
  • and it is challenging to triage these genetically diverse viruses for pre-pandemic countermeasures. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the H5 viruses detected in the United States resulted in 3 major findings. (
  • Use of Unamplified RNA/cDNA-Hybrid Nanopore Sequencing for Rapid Detection and Characterization of RNA Viruses. (
  • Detection of Airborne Influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 Virus Shedding following Ocular Inoculation of Ferrets. (
  • These data support prior phylogenetic studies suggesting that the 1918 virus was derived from an avian source. (
  • Movement of live pigs between Eurasia and North America may have facilitated mixing of diverse swine influenzas, leading to the multiple reassortant events. (
  • In our response to this new outbreak, it is important to remember that seasonal influenza viruses are currently pandemic and kill 36,000 each year. (
  • This virus is spreading from person-to-person, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. (
  • This is one of two papers that narrate the incredible story of the 1918 virus and its descendants - a thrilling tale of survival, adaptation, extinction and resurrection. (
  • In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology associated with the 1918 virus and its predilection for the young and healthy, the rise of influenza therapeutic research following the pandemic, and, finally, our level of preparedness for future pandemics. (
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered a safe and effective alternative to live attenuated vaccines for many viral diseases [ 25 ]. (
  • In 1980s, he worked in Dr. Chi-Ming Chu's laboratory in the Institute of Virology, Beijing, China, where he involved in studying epidemiology of influenza virus and development of influenza vaccines. (
  • His studies are recognized in the fields of influenza virus as well as influenza vaccines. (
  • Production of vaccines against pandemic viruses is slowed by the difficulty in manufacturing of these products, requiring innovative approaches. (
  • Since existing influenza vaccines would not be able to trigger effective immune responses to these new variants, modified vaccines must be made to protect against an influenza outbreak caused by new variant viruses. (
  • The majority of vaccines used to control annual influenza epidemics in the United States are manufactured using embryonated chicken eggs that are infected with live influenza viruses. (
  • These viruses are harvested, inactivated, and used to make vaccines. (
  • We are concentrating our work in these areas on both licensed inactivated influenza virus vaccines and new influenza vaccines that are under clinical development. (
  • However, a long development period assumes natural variation and gene mutation rates, not mutations induced by artificial means, or the actual creation of this virus in a laboratory and subsequent instillation into human populations. (
  • The gene expression data gets to the heart of how the immune system reacts and orchestrates its response to the flu virus, which dictates whether people get sick. (
  • This study investigated the HA1 domain of the HA gene of influenza B virus isolates from Guangzhou during 2016. (
  • During Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication, the virus rapidly seizes control of host gene expression machinery by triggering a massive RNA decay event via a virally e. (
  • The 4070A amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) has been variably reported to harbor neurovirulence determinants within its env gene. (
  • The first approach involved introducing the 4070A env gene into the background of Friend virus clone FB29 to enhance peripheral virus replication kinetics and central nervous system entry. (
  • The swine flu virus of 2009 appeared suddenly and without warning, and evaded all routine flu surveillance and quarantine. (
  • Learn more about the origins and evolution of the new swine flu virus at this wiki created by 11 scientists around the world. (
  • Genetic analysis of the swine flu virus is proceeding at a furious pace, abetted by the Internet. (