A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Loss of the power to comprehend written materials despite preservation of the ability to write (i.e., alexia without agraphia). This condition is generally attributed to lesions that "disconnect" the visual cortex of the non-dominant hemisphere from language centers in the dominant hemisphere. This may occur when a dominant visual cortex injury is combined with underlying white matter lesions that involve crossing fibers from the occipital lobe of the opposite hemisphere. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p483)
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Performance, usually in school work, poorer than that predicted from aptitude and/or intelligence testing.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.

Increased reading speed for stories presented during general anesthesia. (1/1886)

BACKGROUND: In the absence of explicit memories such as the recall and recognition of intraoperative events, memory of auditory information played during general anesthesia has been demonstrated with several tests of implicit memory. In contrast to explicit memory, which requires conscious recollection, implicit memory does not require recollection of previous experiences and is evidenced by a priming effect on task performance. The authors evaluated the effect of a standardized anesthetic technique on implicit memory, first using a word stem completion task, and then a reading speed task in a subsequent study. METHODS: While undergoing lumbar disc surgery, 60 patients were exposed to auditory materials via headphones in two successive experiments. A balanced intravenous technique with propofol and alfentanil infusions and a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture was used to maintain adequate anesthesia. In the first experiment, 30 patients were exposed randomly to one of the two lists of 34 repeated German nouns; in the second experiment, 30 patients were exposed to one of two tapes containing two short stories. Thirty control patients for each experiment heard the tapes without receiving anesthesia. All patients were tested for implicit memory 6-8 h later: A word stem completion task for the words and a reading speed task for the stories were used as measures of implicit memory. RESULTS: The control group completed the word stems significantly more often with the words that they had heard previously, but no such effect was found in the anesthetized group. However, both the control and patient groups showed a decreased reading time of about 40 ms per word for the previously presented stories compared with the new stories. The patients had no explicit memory of intraoperative events. CONCLUSIONS: Implicit memory was demonstrated after anesthesia by the reading speed task but not by the word stem completion task. Some methodologic aspects, such as using low frequency words or varying study and test modalities, may account for the negative results of the word stem completion task. Another explanation is that anesthesia with propofol, alfentanil, and nitrous oxide suppressed the word priming but not the reading speed measure of implicit memory. The reading speed paradigm seems to provide a stable and reliable measurement of implicit memory.  (+info)

Readability of patient information leaflets on antiepileptic drugs in the UK. (2/1886)

The Audit Commission in the UK recommends that patient information leaflets (PILs) should be audited by health professionals using a formal readability test. However, no such study on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been identified in a Medline search. The aim of this study was to audit the readability of PILs prepared for marketed proprietary AEDs in the UK. Twelve PILs were compared with six antiepileptic drug articles from medical journals and six headline articles from UK newspapers. The Gunning Fog index and the Flesch Reading Ease index were calculated for each PIL and article. The results of the Gunning Fog index and the Flesch Reading Ease score were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. PILs were shown to have a statistically significant lower mean reading age than the medical articles and newspapers (P < 0.001). The Gunning Fog index and Flesch Reading Ease score showed that PILs had a mean reading age of 8.8 and mean readability score of 69, respectively. In conclusion, the PILs prepared for proprietary antiepileptic drugs in the UK are suitable for the reading age of the general adult population.  (+info)

Characteristics of discrepancies between self-reported visual function and measured reading speed. Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project Team. (3/1886)

PURPOSE: Visual impairment is a risk factor for morbidity in the elderly and is often screened for by self-report. This study evaluates whether there are subsets for whom there is a discrepancy between self-reported and measured function. METHODS: The prevalence of a discrepancy between self-reported difficulty reading a newspaper and measured reading speed was determined in 2520 community-based men and women, aged 65 to 84 years, and the discrepant group characterized by polychotomous regression. RESULTS: Of subjects who reported minimal difficulty reading a newspaper, 10.8% (227/2107) read newsprint-sized text (0.21 degrees) more slowly than 80 words/min, a level previously shown to be necessary for sustained reading. Poor visual acuity, presence of psychiatric symptoms, and less satisfaction with vision were associated with being in the group that read slowly and reported difficulty with reading. Better cognition, better visual acuity, more years of education, white race, and fewer psychiatric symptoms were associated with being in the group that read more quickly and reported minimal difficulty. When reading the text size at which subjects read their fastest, only 2.6% of those with minimal difficulty remained discrepant. These individuals were more likely to have less education, be male, be African American, and have poorer cognitive status than those who did not remain discrepant. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of the elderly population have a substantial discrepancy between self-reported reading difficulty and measured reading speed. In some, this discrepancy may be based on underlying expectations and experiences, and in others it may represent a transition from no visual impairment to visual impairment.  (+info)

Plasticity of language-related brain function during recovery from stroke. (4/1886)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic, physiological, and functional changes as measured by MRI. METHODS: Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast and echo-planar MRI were used to map language comprehension in 6 normal adults and in 2 adult patients during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia. Perfusion, diffusion, sodium, and conventional anatomic MRI were used to follow physiological and structural changes. RESULTS: The normal activation pattern for language comprehension showed activation predominately in left-sided Wernicke's and Broca's areas, with laterality ratios of 0.8 and 0.3, respectively. Recovery of the patient confirmed as having a completed stroke affecting Broca's area occurred rapidly with a shift of activation to the homologous region in the right hemisphere within 3 days, with continued rightward lateralization over 6 months. In the second patient, in whom mapping was performed fortuitously before stroke, recovery of a Wernicke's aphasia showed a similar increasing rightward shift in activation recruitment over 9 months after the event. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of aphasia in adults can occur rapidly and is concomitant with an activation pattern that changes from left to a homologous right hemispheric pattern. Such recovery occurs even when the stroke evolves to completion. Such plasticity must be considered when evaluating stroke interventions based on behavioral and neurological measurements.  (+info)

Unidirectional dyslexia in a polyglot. (5/1886)

Alexia is usually seen after ischaemic insults to the dominant parietal lobe. A patient is described with a particular alexia to reading Hebrew (right to left), whereas no alexia was noted when reading in English. This deficit evolved after a hypertensive right occipitoparietal intracerebral haemorrhage, and resolved gradually over the ensuing year as the haematoma was resorbed. The deficit suggests the existence of a separate, language associated, neuronal network within the right hemisphere important to different language reading modes.  (+info)

Cortical auditory signal processing in poor readers. (6/1886)

Magnetoencephalographic responses recorded from auditory cortex evoked by brief and rapidly successive stimuli differed between adults with poor vs. good reading abilities in four important ways. First, the response amplitude evoked by short-duration acoustic stimuli was stronger in the post-stimulus time range of 150-200 ms in poor readers than in normal readers. Second, response amplitude to rapidly successive and brief stimuli that were identical or that differed significantly in frequency were substantially weaker in poor readers compared with controls, for interstimulus intervals of 100 or 200 ms, but not for an interstimulus interval of 500 ms. Third, this neurological deficit closely paralleled subjects' ability to distinguish between and to reconstruct the order of presentation of those stimulus sequences. Fourth, the average distributed response coherence evoked by rapidly successive stimuli was significantly weaker in the beta- and gamma-band frequency ranges (20-60 Hz) in poor readers, compared with controls. These results provide direct electrophysiological evidence supporting the hypothesis that reading disabilities are correlated with the abnormal neural representation of brief and rapidly successive sensory inputs, manifested in this study at the entry level of the cortical auditory/aural speech representational system(s).  (+info)

Reading with simulated scotomas: attending to the right is better than attending to the left. (7/1886)

Persons with central field loss must learn to read using eccentric retina. To do this, most adopt a preferred retinal locus (PRL), which substitutes for the fovea. Patients who have central field loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), most often adopt PRL adjacent to and to the left of their scotoma in visual field space. It has been hypothesized that this arrangement of PRL and scotoma would benefit reading. We tested this hypothesis by asking normally-sighted subjects to read with the left or right half of their visual field plus 3.2 degrees in the contralateral field masked from view. Letter identification, word identification, and reading were all slower when only the information in the left visual field was available. This was primarily due to the number of saccades required to successfully read to stimuli. These data imply that patients would be better off with PRL to the right of their scotoma than to the left for the purposes of reading.  (+info)

Reading with central field loss: number of letters masked is more important than the size of the mask in degrees. (8/1886)

When the center of a readers, visual field is blocked from view, reading rates decline and eye movement patterns change. This is true whether the central visual field is blocked artificially (i.e. a mask) or through disease (e.g. a retinal scotoma due to macular degeneration). In past studies, when mask size was defined in terms of the number of letters masked from view, reading rates declined sharply as number of letters masked increased. Patients with larger central scotomas (in degrees of visual angle) also read slower. We sought to determine whether number of letters masked or size of the mask in degrees is the predominant factor affecting reading rates and eye movement behavior. By matching number of letters masked across several mask sizes (and compensating for reduced acuity in the periphery), we found that number of letters masked is the more important factor until mask size is quite large (> or = -7.5 degrees) and number of letters masked from view is more than seven.  (+info)

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OBJECTIVE Visual acuity is a poor predictor of the maximum reading speed of patients with central vision loss. This study examines the effects of binocular summation of acuity on the maximum reading speed of these patients. DESIGN Prospective, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS Twenty patients with central vision loss participated. METHODS Maximum reading speed was measured binocularly using the MNREAD acuity charts. Monocular and binocular acuities were measured with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Binocular summation was evaluated with a binocular ratio (BR) calculated as the ratio between the acuity of the better eye to binocular acuity. Fixation stability and preferred retinal locus (PRL) distance from the former fovea were evaluated with the MP-1 microperimetre. RESULTS Six patients experienced acuity summation (BR | 1.05), 5 experienced acuity inhibition (BR | 0.95), and 9 showed equality (BR = 1 ± 0.05). There were no differences in the mean acuity of
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Early Reading Comprehension introduces valuable skills - giving short answers, recalling the main idea and details, sequencing, and matching vocabulary words and their meanings. Four illustrated workbooks contain stories, brief articles, and poems in seven subject areas: general topics, social studies, science, logical thinking, mathematics, literature, and the arts. The varied exercises follow a consistent format throughout the four books. Grade 4 Early Reading Comprehension, Book D (9780838806241) by Jane Ervin
This dissertation report focuses on the results of an intervention study that examined the effectiveness of two cognitive-based reading strategies (5 Ws and an H and paragraph summarization) on the reading comprehension skills of 13 high school students with mild intellectual disabilities as well as the students' abilities to generalize these skills to various functional expository reading passages. There were four experimental phases in the study: Baseline, Intervention, Maintenance 1, and Maintenance 2. During each phase, participants were required to read functional expository texts and answer researcher-developed reading comprehension probes. Baseline conditions were continued throughout the study to measure the ability of students to generalize reading comprehension skills. During the Intervention Phase, students were provided instruction on the two cognitive-based reading strategies within a single-subject alternating treatments research design. During the
The purpose of the study was to explore the Thai Language Oral Reading Problems of students with Down syndrome, Grade Range1 at Watnonsaparam School, Saraburi Thailand in favor of Web Quest Lessons Development Enhancing Oral Reading Skills of Down syndrome Students. The research instruments were the 2 observation forms on Thai Language Reading skill. The findings revealed that Thai Language Oral Reading Problems of Down syndrome students varied greatly on the pronunciation of vowels, tone marks, wording and sentences. Nevertheless, four students were able to orally read Thai characters with correct pronunciation and showed basic understanding of reading procedures. Most of the students were having problems in reading Thai vowels both in terms of pronunciation and meaning decoding; they took much more time on reading procedures. The problems found will benefit the development of Web Quest Lessons Enhancing Oral Reading Skills of Down syndrome Students Grade Range 1 at Watnonsaparam School, ...
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The framework is divided into three phases: establishing meaning making (Before Reading); maintaining meaning-making processes (During Reading); and consolidating meaning making (After Reading). Each phase utilises recommended reading strategies. However, it must be emphasised that the phases do not imply that the meaning-making process consists of a set of sequential before, during and after steps. Rather, the phases are intended to ease the acquisition of reading strategy instruction for teachers new to the concept and provide sufficient structure to ensure it is sustained. As shown in a study which entailed the application of the EMC framework by student teachers at a South African university (Klapwijk, In press), student teachers were able to successfully apply the framework precisely due to the structure it provided; once student teachers levels of familiarity and comfort with comprehension instruction increased, so did their insight into the reading process and their creativity in using ...
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A study published in the journal Pediatrics shows the combination of two early reading programs had positive effects on preschool students entering kindergarten in Cincinnati Public Schools over a three-year period.. The two early reading programs are: Reach Out and Read, through which children receive a new book and guidance about reading at home during well-visits from newborn through age 5; and Dolly Partons Imagination Library, which mails new books to the childs home once a month from birth through age 5. Each of these is well-established at Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center and across the nation.. With this early study, we suggest that when combined and sustained, these two programs have the potential for effectively supporting the development of preliteracy skills of large populations of at-risk children, improving kindergarten readiness, and, ultimately, success in school and life, said Greg Szumlas, MD, of the Division of General and Community Pediatrics at Cincinnati ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparative analysis of vertical and horizontal fixation disparity in sentence reading.. AU - Jainta, Stephanie. AU - Blythe, Hazel. AU - Nikolova, Mirela. AU - Jones, M.O.. AU - Liversedge, Simon. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Humans have two, frontally placed eyes and during reading oculomotor and sensory processes are needed to combine the two inputs into a unified percept of the text. Generally, slight vergence errors, i.e., fixation disparities, occur but do not cause double vision since disparate retinal inputs fall into Panums fusional area, that is, a range of disparity wherein sensory fusion of the two retinal images is achieved. In this study, we report benchmark data with respect to the mean magnitude and range of vertical compared to horizontal fixation disparities for natural reading. Our data clearly fit to an elliptical pattern of Panums fusional area that corresponds with theoretical estimates. Furthermore, when we examined disparity-driven vergence ...
By Alain Jehlen. New fourth and eighth grade reading scores released Wednesday show essentially no progress since the No Child Left Behind Act was signed into law in 2002.. The scores are from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the only achievement test program that attempts to measure the academic skills of students throughout the country. The new scores continue the trend lines that show reading scores essentially flat over the past decade and math scores gradually rising but no faster than in the years before NCLB.. Its clear that high-stakes, do-or-die testing is not the answer, said NEA President Dennis Van Roekel. Its time for creative, innovative, flexible solutions. The latest results showed fourth grade scores in 2009 were unchanged from two years earlier. Scores for racial and ethnic groups-white, black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native-were also level, as were the scores for boys and girls.. In eighth grade, there was a ...
This paper describes a secondary analysis of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scores by gender. Data were national public 4th- and 8th-grade reading scores from composite and subscales for 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Twelfth-grade scores for composite and literary experience from 2005, 2009, and 2013 and gain information from 2005 were included. Differences (p.|0.001; Cohens d effect size) in reading average scale scores by gender were consistent across grade level and years with females scoring higher than males. Results are congruent with a previous study of NAEP reading by gender across fourth-, eighth, and twelfth-grade-levels for 1994, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2003 (Klecker, 2006). Discussion includes comparisons with cross-cultural international assessments and possible explanations for the widely-observed gender difference in large-scale standardized reading assessments.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Syllabic tone articulation influences the identification and use of words during Chinese sentence reading. T2 - Evidence from ERP and eye movement recordings. AU - Luo, Yingyi. AU - Yan, Ming. AU - Yan, Shaorong. AU - Zhou, Xiaolin. AU - Inhoff, Albrecht W.. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - In two experiments, we examined the contribution of articulation-specific features to visual word recognition during the reading of Chinese. In spoken Standard Chinese, a syllable with a full tone can be tone-neutralized through sound weakening and pitch contour change, and there are two types of two-character compound words with respect to their articulation variation. One type requires articulation of a full tone for each constituent character, and the other requires a full- and a neutral-tone articulation for the first and second characters, respectively. Words of these two types with identical first characters were selected and embedded in sentences. Native speakers of Standard Chinese ...
Research examining phonological awareness (PA) contributions to reading in established readers of different skill levels is limited. The current study examined the contribution of PA to phonological decoding, visual word recognition, reading rate, and reading comprehension in 124 fourth to sixth grade children (aged 9 to 12 years). On the basis of scores on the FastaReada measure of reading fluency participants were allocated to one of three reading ability categories: dysfluent (n = 47), moderate (n = 38) and fluent (n = 39). For the dysfluent group, PA contributed significantly to all reading measures except rate, but in the moderate group only to phonological decoding. PA did not influence performances on any of the reading measures examined for the fluent reader group. The results support the notion that fluency is characterized by a shift from conscious decoding to rapid and accurate visual recognition of words. Although PA may be influential in reading development, the results of the current study
Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children are more at risk for language and reading difficulties than hearing children. Because early language development is an important factor in later reading success, it is important to promote this development as early as possible through activities aimed at emergent literacy skills. Promoting reading development is one of the main goals in deaf education, but it seems important to work on the foundations of reading in a much earlier stage. Parents and preschool teachers can play an important role in promoting emergent literacy in the preschool period. This chapter discusses what emergent literacy entails, how it relates to later reading success, and what we know from the literature on emergent literacy in children with hearing loss. Strategies for interactive book reading with DHH children are presented, and the potentials of technology for interactive reading with DHH children are discussed.
Abstract. Curriculum-based measurement of oral reading fluency (CBM-R) is an established procedure used to index the level and trend of student growth. A substantial literature base exists regarding best practices in the administration and interpretation of CBM-R; however, research has yet to adequately address the potential influence of measurement error. This study extends results of Hintze and Christ (2004) by incorporating research-based estimates of the standard error of the estimate (SEE) to generate likely magnitudes for the standard error of the slope (SEb)across a variety of progress monitoring durations and measurement conditions.Fourteen progress monitoring durations (2-15 weeks) and nine levels of SEE (2, 4,6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18) were used to derive SEb. The outcomes are discussed in relation to assessment practices, such as selecting optimal progress monitoring durations to reduce measurement error. Implications and limitations are discussed ...
There appears to be a close and probably causal relationship between early variations in phoneme skills and later reading skills in typically developing children, though the pattern in children with Down Syndrome is less clear. We present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 49 children with Down Syndrome (DS) and 61 typically developing (TD) control children with similar initial levels of reading skill. Phoneme awareness and vocabulary were strong concurrent predictors of initial levels of reading skill in both groups. However, longitudinally phoneme awareness was a predictor of the growth of reading skills in TD children but not in children with DS. There was a very high degree of longitudinal stability in reading skills in children with DS, and initial levels of reading skills seemed to be highly constrained by general language skills, as indexed by vocabulary knowledge, in this population. We conclude that reading development in children with DS shows similarities and differences to the
CLaRI, the Center for Literacy and Reading Instruction, is an established reading center at the University at Buffalo and has been providing reading services to Western New York since 1963. We are a community resource for the assessment of childrens literacy development and individualized reading instruction, as well as literacy research center.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of left occipitotemporal systems for skilled reading in children after a phonologically-based intervention. AU - Shaywitz, Bennett A.. AU - Shaywitz, Sally E.. AU - Blachman, Benita A.. AU - Pugh, Kenneth R.. AU - Fulbright, Robert K.. AU - Skudlarski, Pawel. AU - Mencl, W. Einar. AU - Constable, R. Todd. AU - Holahan, John M.. AU - Marchione, Karen E.. AU - Fletcher, Jack M.. AU - Lyon, G. Reid. AU - Gore, John C.. PY - 2004/5/1. Y1 - 2004/5/1. N2 - Background A range of neurobiological investigations shows a failure of left hemisphere posterior brain systems to function properly during reading in children and adults with reading disabilities. Such evidence of a disruption in the normal reading pathways provides a neurobiological target for reading interventions. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of an evidence-based, phonologically mediated reading intervention would improve reading fluency and the development of the fast-paced occipitotemporal ...
Abstract. This study, motivated by child reading research in L1, explored the relationships between: 1) Two oral reading rates; 2) Reading comprehension; and 3) Listening comprehension in English in Japanese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Results unexpectedly showed that the correlations between two rates and two modes of comprehension were low or non-significant, which are in marked contrast to high correlations reported for English-speaking children. In addition, and more surprisingly, the EFL readers exhibited only small incremental or even detrimental changes from habitual to maximum rate. These unexpected results are discussed in terms of English language teaching/learning practice and the possible effects of Japanese speech and orthography. ...
The present study aimed to analyze and compare the eye movements of beginning (2nd grade) and more skilled (4th grade) readers, during reading words and pseudo-words aloud, that differ in frequency (just for words), regularity and length. In this way, one intends to analyze the process of visual information extraction, by both groups, and detect experience and practice-related changes in the ocular behavior. The eye movements of 34 children were monitored, while these were reading words/pseudo-words lists, and this was accomplished using eye-tracking technology. The results show statistically significant differences between the two groups, in mean and total fixations duration for high-frequency words, in mean fixation duration for regular words and in the mean saccade amplitude in irregular pseudo-words. However, no significant differences were found between the groups on the study of the other variables. Nevertheless, the results suggest that skilled readers tend to show more effective eye ...
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Professional learning is widely acknowledged as an effective way to improve teacher practice and, consequently, student outcomes. However, this presupposes a direct link from professional learning to the enactment of the content of professional learning in teaching. This paper explores teachers engagement with a continuing professional learning (CPL) program intended to improve teachers knowledge and practice in reading instruction. Six case study subjects, self-selected from 10 schools participating in a year‑long CPL program, provided the opportunity to explore what teachers enacted from the professional learning. This research highlighted the significance of contextual factors on how teachers engaged with and enacted information from the CPL. Contextual factors included individual beliefs about reading instruction and the expectations of the systems in which they are operating. This research emphasised the need to identify the personal and professional contexts of teachers involved in CPL
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Video created by University of California, Santa Cruz for the course Children Acquiring Literacy Naturally. The nature of reading, reading myths, current approaches to teaching reading, demographics of literacy and illiteracy, and technological ...
There continues to be a large disparity between the reading achievement of Hispanic students and their White counterparts in the USA. Previous studies have revealed that Hispanic students enter preschool with weaker literacy skills than their White peers which in turn results in poorer academic achievement in Hispanics. The disparity in reading achievement of Hispanic and White students has been attributed to both societal and cultural factors with the most common factors being race, poverty, timing of exposure to English, and dual language learning (DLL). Many previous studies on the Hispanic population tend to focus on school-aged children who are already able to read. Not many have focused on emergent literacy development in young DLLs as they progress from preschool to elementary school. Previous studies have assumed that the development of language and literacy is similar for monolinguals and bilinguals, but this has not been well established by empirical research. The present longitudinal study
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of visual materials on reading comprehension tests. AU - Ushiro, Yuji. AU - Shimizu, Maki. AU - Hijikata, Yuko. AU - Kasahara, Kiwamu. AU - Nakagawa, Chikako. AU - Morimoto, Yuko. AU - Sato, Tsuyoshi. AU - Innami, Yo. AU - Innami, Yo. PY - 2006/3/16. Y1 - 2006/3/16. M3 - Article. VL - 42. SP - 97. EP - 112. JO - JACET Bulletin. JF - JACET Bulletin. ER - ...
Increasing Literacy Skills for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Effects of Integrating Comprehensive Reading Instruction with Sign Language Larissa Beecher and Amy Childre   Abstract: This study evaluated the impact of a comprehensive reading program enhanced with sign language on the literacy and language skills of three elementary school students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Students received individual and small group comprehensive reading instruction for approximately 55 minutes per session. Reading instruction combined the PCI Reading Program with literacy and language activities to target concepts of print, phonemic and phonological awareness, sight word recognition, vocabulary and oral language, and comprehension Results indicated that all three participants showed growth in their literacy skills, specifically in the areas of letter identification, letter-sound knowledge, sight word knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and listening comprehension
Click here to find IELTS Live Class - Reading Strategies - Learning Vocabulary All (50) Live IELTS class videos and (40) HD videos now available on our websites: www.aehelp.com (Academic IELTS) and www.gieltshelp.com (General IELTS)An IELTS academic reading by www.aehelp.com. This class teache
The present study analyses the impact of phonological awareness instruction on the reading achievement of at-risk Grade 1 readers enrolled in an early French immersion program. Twenty-nine children from diverse linguistic backgrounds participated in the study. At-risk readers were identified on the basis of their text reading performance and phonological awareness test scores, and received 20 weeks of phonological awareness training in small groups. The intervention was initially given in English, and switched to French once students had acquired a foundation in the language. Significant gains were found in the phonological awareness skills of the treatment group. Results also indicated that the end-of-year French reading levels of the treatment group were superior to those of the comparison group. These findings suggest that a phonologically-based intervention can effectively address phonological awareness deficits and facilitate French reading acquisition for early immersion students who are ...
Reading 360: Comprehension, Language and Reading Development - Workbks Level 6, 9780602232627, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
In the reading section one key aspect is the focus on reading level. In todays CCSS age, we are asking students to read increasingly complex material. When teaching strategies, it is essential, however, that the reading material be at the students independent reading level- not at the instructional reading level or at a challenge reading level. Knowing your students and having a variety of readings at a range of levels is important when teaching the strategy. Once the strategy is taught, more complex material can be introduced. It is important to note that many reading strategies are designed to improve a students ability to gather information from text at or near their reading level. If a student is reading significantly below grade level, they need different strategies to approach and learn from readings. The authors introduce TRAP, TRAP IDEAS, and TWA strategies for reading. TRAP is a strategy for students reading at or about at grade level. This will not be a successful strategy for ...
Phonemic Awareness and Literacy Development in Young English Learners With Non-Alphabet-Based Home Language: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3955-1.ch014: This chapter examines a widely accepted assumption that phonemic awareness is a precursor to early literacy development through a review of existing research
4th-5th Grade Reading Comprehension Social Studies provides a great avenue to individualize reading comprehension practice and review material from social sciences classes at the same time. The content is accurate and interesting for the target age group, and the stories are a good length (700-900 words). Questions provided for each story require a nice mix of concrete, rote recall and higher order comprehension skills. They are multiple choice, matching, or true/false format, so students do not get bored by too much repetition.. One outstanding feature of this application is the ability for users to add their own content quickly and easily. Teachers and parents can add passages, pictures and questions of their own design, so it would be very feasible to custom-design programming for a family or classroom. One caution, however, is in order-there is not an obvious way to delete stories once they are added. Even removing the text of title and passage did not work-I was left with a blank entry that ...
This study investigates the genetic relationship among reading performance, IQ, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in a sample of 112, 9-year-old twin pairs and their older siblings. The relationship between reading performance and the other traits was explained by a common genetic factor for reading performance, IQ, WM and STM and a genetic factor that only influenced reading performance and verbal memory. Genetic variation explained 83% of the variation in reading performance; most of this genetic variance was explained by variation in IQ and memory performance. We hypothesize, based on these results, that children with reading problems possibly can be divided into three groups: (1) children low in IQ and with reading problems; (2) children with average IQ but a STM deficit and with reading problems; (3) children with low IQ and STM deficits; this group may experience more reading problems than the other two. ...
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With syngo.via, Siemens new imaging software for multimodality reading of clinical cases, the company is placing special focus on reading efficiency through automated case preparation and structured case navigation across multiple specialties, including cardiology, oncology, and neurology. syngo.via uniquely integrates imaging devices and IT, such as Siemens MRI, CT, and PET-CT scanners and its new Picture Archiving and Communications System, syngo®.plaza . Siemens is demonstrating the benefits of this integration, which creates a comprehensive solution based on client-server technology.. Delivering on market demand for improved image-reading tools in the clinical setting requires special capabilities that we are in the unique position to deliver, explains Bernd Montag, CEO, Imaging and IT Division, Siemens Healthcare. In order to develop syngo.via, Siemens tapped into its in-depth knowledge of disease-specific reading processes and was able to deliver a cutting-edge imaging technology that ...
The present study explored whether different executive control and speed measures (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) independently predict individual differences in word reading and reading comprehension. Although previous studies suggest these cognitive constructs are important for reading, the authors analyze the constructs simultaneously to test whether each is a unique predictor. Latent variables from 483 participants (ages 8-16 years) were used to portion each cognitive and reading construct into its unique and shared variance. In these models 2 specific issues are addressed: (a) Given that the wide age range may span the theoretical transition from learning to read to reading to learn, the authors first test whether the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is stable across 2 age groups (ages 8-10 and 11-16); and (b) the main theoretical question of interest: whether what is shared and what is separable for word reading and reading ...
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Focusing on Individual Needs: Daily reading instruction includes three main teaching strategies in every classroom: shared reading, guided reading and independent practice. Shared reading is where teachers provide whole-class instruction on a comprehension strategy. It is important to note that when doing whole class instruction, teachers use reading materials that are at grade level. In other words, if they are teaching 5th grade, they use reading materials that a fifth grader should be able to read. Guided reading is where teachers work with small groups of students to provide them with instruction based on their individual needs. While the teacher is working with small groups of students in guided reading, the other students are working on independent practice. This is where individual students work on a variety of activities designed to practice the reading comprehension strategy that is being focused on at the time. It is also a time where each student works at their individual reading ...
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Background. The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA; Neale, 1997) is a widely used assessment of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy. Spooner, Baddeley, and Gathercole (2004) questioned the suitability of the NARA for identifying children with specific reading comprehension deficits. Aims and methods. An evaluation of the NARA measurement of word reading and reading comprehension level was undertaken in relation to models of reading ability. Appropriate control measures were considered. The strengths and weaknesses of different forms of reading comprehension were also evaluated. Results. Previous research into reading comprehension difficulties using the NARA has adopted satisfactory control measures in relation to word reading ability. There are limitations associated with all the considered forms of reading comprehension assessment. Conclusions. If administered and interpreted appropriately, the NARA is an effective instrument for researchers and practitioners who need to ...
Deficits in the visual attention span (VAS) are thought to hamper reading performance in dyslexic individuals. However, the causal relationship between VAS deficits and reading disability remains unclear. The present study attempts to address this issue by using a VAS-based intervention to explore the possible influence of VAS on reading processes in Chinese children with dyslexia. Given the influence of the heterogeneity of dyslexia on intervention effects, VAS-impaired dyslexic and VAS-intact dyslexic individuals were separately trained. Therefore, there were five groups of participants in this study, including 10 trained dyslexic individuals with VAS deficits and 10 untrained dyslexic individuals with VAS dysfunction as the baseline reference, 10 trained and 10 untrained dyslexic individuals with an intact VAS, and fourteen age-matched normal readers for reference of normal level. All participants completed reading measures and a visual 1-back task, reflecting VAS capacity with non-verbal stimuli and
Reading comprehension skills worksheets , edhelper, No prep reading comprehension skill worksheets to strengthen students understanding while reading.. Free reading comprehension worksheets - printable , k5, Free printable reading comprehension worksheets for grade 1 to grade 5. these reading worksheets will help kids practice their comprehension skills. compliments of k5. Fifth grade worksheets math, english, history, Print free fifth grade math, language arts, and history worksheets. decimals, percentages, word problems, multiplication, division, vocabulary, grammar, and more.. ...
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4th Grade Reading Comprehension Worksheets Reading. Reading comprehension: David Copperfield . Reading comprehension: David Copperfield . Heres an excerpt from David Copperfield by Charles Dickens. In this reading worksheet, your child will read a description of young Davids life and answer questions about the story, point of view, characters feelings, and use of language., Brand New-----This unique resource provides quick, daily reading comprehension practice. Comprehension questions and answer keys are included. In just a few minutes a day when students enter the classroom, transition from school subjects, or just want to review, students can keep their reading …. Printable Grade 5 Reading Comprehension Worksheets Click the buttons to print each worksheet and answer key. The Apprentice - Williamsburg Style. Twelve year-old Henry awoke at dawn on a chilly December morning, reluctant to toss off his warm covers. He slept in the unheated attic of his masters house and he knew the floor ...
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There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a multifaceted approach to reading diagnosis and flexible interventions in order to cater for individual learning needs. In recent times, the Four Roles Model has enabled educators to broaden the focus of literacy programs in many Australian schools. Such a focus can provide a framework to better understand the complex nature of reading comprehension and its various situational applications. This discussion investigates the educational issues for the assessment of students with reading comprehension difficulties and suggests appropriate principles and strategies that teachers can apply to inform assessment and teaching practice.
TEM-8 (Test for English Majors, Band 8) is a large-scale nationwide standard test for. English majors in China. It has been increasingly recognized in China and has already. become one of the criteria for judging English teaching and learning in China. It is. necessary to pay more attention to its development. Meanwhile, reading comprehension is. regarded as vitally important in acquiring a language. It is worthy investigating how to. measure reading comprehension ability accurately and properly in language testing and. whether reading comprehension in TEM-8 can reflect the test-takers reading ability. This. thesis analyzes the content validity of the reading comprehension part of TEM-8 from. 2008 to 2010 in terms of the new framework of task characteristics revised from Bachman. and Palmers framework (1996: 49), and in accordance with The Teaching Syllabus for. TEM-8 and The 2004 Test Syllabus for TEM-8. This study has shown that TEM-8. reading comprehension part has relatively high content ...
The first page is a relevant reading comprehension passage about grade 4 reading comprehension a topic of interest. Reading Comprehension Workbook (Grade 4) Reading Comprehension, Level Q is a levelled reading workbook, intended for grade 4 students. This page has all of the reading worksheets on this website that are written at a 4th grade level! Shark Facts The Monster in the Barn Gazpacho Soup The Butterfly The Horses of Chincoteague 4th Grade …. READING COMPREHENSION 4 GRADE ...
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Speed, Accuracy, and Comprehension of Adolescent Braille Readers in a Specialized School, Online, Abstract: All 30 adolescent braille readers at the Tennessee School for the Blind were interviewed using a questionnaire developed by the authors, and their reading rates, accuracy, and comprehension were determined via the Gilmore Oral Reading Test. The questionnaire tapped information on onset of blindness, early reading experiences, service delivery systems, cause of blindness, and acceptance and use of braille. The most important factor related to braille reading speed was age of onset of blindness. No direct relationships were found between reading speed and comprehension or reading speed and reading for pleasure in braille.
Daily instruction on the reading strategies and comprehension skills your students need to improvereading comprehension and raise test scores! Engage your students in reading, thinking about, and responding to a variety of passages and texts! Daily Reading Comprehension, Grade 4 presents your students with the reading strategies and comprehension skills they need to become strong and successful readers. 30 weeks of instruction cover the following reading skills and strategies: Theme Character & Setting, Main Idea & Details, Fact & Opinion, Visual Information, Authors Purpose, , Make Predictions, Draw Conclusions, Cause & Effect, Compare & Contrast. Strategies: Monitor Comprehension, Make Connections, Visualization, Organization, Determine Important Information, Ask Questions
Many preschool children are at risk for reading problems because of inadequate emergent literacy skills. Evidence supports the effectiveness of interventions to promote these skills, but questions remain about which intervention components work and whether combining intervention components will result in larger gains. In this study, 324 preschoolers (mean age=54.32 months, SD=5.88) from low-income backgrounds (46% girls and 54% boys; 82% African American, 14% White, and 4% other) were randomized to combinations of meaning-focused (dialogic reading or shared reading) and code-focused (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, or both) interventions or a control group. Interventions had statistically significant positive impacts only on measures of their respective skill domains. Combinations of interventions did not enhance outcomes across domains, indicating instructional needs in all areas of weakness for young children at risk for later reading difficulties. Less time for each intervention in ...
A basic paragraph should consist of four key five paragraph essay linking words. This image shows how lancia thesis video review paragraph is divided into its four key sections. Topic Sentences are extremely important sentences. This image highlights the topic and controlling idea in the topic sentence. This does synthesise highlights how the key terms in discursive essay against abortion body five paragraph essay linking words the paragraph connect to the topic and five paragraph essay linking words idea of the five paragraph essay linking words sentence.. This example highlights five paragraph essay linking words the ideas in the paragraph are supported by credible authors, and contains examples of reporting verbs with direct praxis general science essays indirect referencing. This example highlights how cohesive devices are used five paragraph essay linking words connect the ideas together. This worksheet provides a step-by-step guide to the key components five paragraph essay linking words a ...
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Much of the literature on reading impairment is based on Anglophone populations. Because there are so many gaps and inconsistencies in relations between the spelling and pronunciation of English words, the findings from Anglophone populations may not be generalizable to other languages. To test prediction of reading impairment in French children, Fluss et al. (2009) administered individual reading tests to French 7-year-olds who were identified as being at least one year behind in reading skills. One hundred poor readers were then compared with 50 demographically matched good readers on the TRF problem scales, a variety of cognitive measures, and several indices of SES. Multiple regression analyses showed that phonological awareness was the strongest predictor of decoding skills involved in reading, but that the Inattention subscale of the TRF Attention Problems syndrome was the second strongest predictor, accounting for an additional 25% of variance in decoding skills.. Although most of the ...
The two major determinants of reading comprehension are language comprehension and decoding, but prior studies of the development of reading comprehension from an early age show inconsistent results. To clarify these inconsistencies we report a 6-year longitudinal study (starting at Age 4 years) where we control for measurement error and track the development and interrelationships between a range of predictors of reading comprehension (language, decoding, and cognitive skills). We found two main pathways to reading comprehension: a highly stable language comprehension pathway (reflecting variations in vocabulary, listening comprehension, grammar, and verbal working memory) and a less stable code-related pathway (reflecting variations in phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid automatized naming). Early language comprehension at Age 4 years is strongly related to code-related predictors (phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid naming), and influences decoding indirectly through ...
In order to form the sample of children with reading difficulties, the primary school teachers of ten public schools in the city of Sao Paulo were first asked to suggest names of children with below average reading abilities. From these suggested names, the teachers were given a scale of reading skill that considers the children´s silent and oral reading and generates a score that divides the children into four skill levels from which only children with the worst indicators were selected (i.e., students who read more or less and students who read poorly). Then, the second evaluation phase was conducted with these children with reading difficulties: in this phase a hearing and speech pathologist conducted a Simplified Assessment of Central Auditory Processing in order to evaluate the auditory function, an ophthalmologist evaluated the visual acuity using the Snellen Scale and a psychologist evaluated non-verbal intelligence using the Ravens Progressive Matrices. These three evaluations were ...
This thesis explored the developmental connections from early phonological awareness and related language and cognitive skills to 2nd grade reading accuracy, fluency and specific reading disability, in the context of Finnish: a language with high orthographic regularity. The four studies presented addressed the following three main themes: emerging phonological awareness and its relationship to reading-related language and cognitive skills, links from these childhood skills to 2nd grade outcomes, and early prediction of an individual childs risk for dyslexia. The results are based on behavioural-level tasks and longitudinal assessment of nearly 200 children belonging to the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. The findings indicated that emerging phonological awareness skills can already be measured at the age of 3.5 years using age-appropriate and language-modified tasks. In addition, phonological skills are predicted by prior verbal comprehension, language production and cognitive ...
...One of the key issues in reading disorder is the co-occurrence or comorbidity of reading disorder with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rates of RD are elevated in ADHD emphasizing the need for comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of children and adults with ADHD.Yoshimasu and colleagues published a free access study of the prevalence rates for RD in a population-based cohort of children and adolescents in Rochester, Minnesota.The researchers in this study used analysis of multiple school and academic records to estimate the prevalence of reading disorder in a cohort of 5718 children. Reading disability was assessed by comparing measures of IQ and reading achievement. Using several validated formulas, reading disability can be assigned with reading achievement falls significant below what would be expected based on individual intelligence. Additionally, ADHD was estimated in the cohort using assessment of DSM-IV criteria, ADHD questionnaire results and evidence by
The results, though not surprising, were eye-opening. Intern Browns baseline reaction time at 35 mph of 0.45 second worsened to 0.57 while reading a text, improved to 0.52 while writing a text, and returned almost to the baseline while impaired by alcohol, at 0.46. At 70 mph, his baseline reaction was 0.39 second, while the reading (0.50), texting (0.48), and drinking (0.50) numbers were similar. But the averages dont tell the whole story. Looking at Jordans slowest reaction time at 35 mph, he traveled an extra 21 feet (more than a car length) before hitting the brakes while reading and went 16 feet longer while texting. At 70 mph, a vehicle travels 103 feet every second, and Browns worst reaction time while reading at that speed put him about 30 feet (31 while typing) farther down the road versus 15 feet while drunk.. Alterman fared much, much worse. While reading a text and driving at 35 mph, his average baseline reaction time of 0.57 second nearly tripled, to 1.44 seconds. While texting, ...
Our Reading and Dyslexia research takes place at the Maastricht Brain Imaging Center (M-BIC) where we work with children tailored set-ups at the 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and EEG lab, as well as a simulation-scanner for training children. Our main effort is in studying reading development during school age (6-12 years) with a special focus on understanding what it takes to make the transition from effortful to fluent reading. Furthermore, we are interested in how the failure to become a skilled reader (developmental dyslexia) might be explained by functional and structural deviancies in brain development. Our research covers different projects that focus on various aspects of reading development and dyslexia ranging from auditory/speech perception to visual letter/word recognition and the linking of letters to speech sounds. ...
Reading Comprehension Passages and Questions for Guided MOBI ä Passages and eBook ☆ Passages and Questions for ePUB º Reading Comprehension PDF/EPUB ² Comprehension Passages and eBook ✐ Reading Comprehension Strategies Passages and Questions for Guided Level D Guided Reading Comprehension Workbook Passages and Questions for Homeschool Kindergarten 1st GradeThis produ.
The North Las Vegas Library District is dedicated to encouraging children and teens to participate in their annual Summer Reading Club. Carr, a Substitute Teacher in the Las Vegas Valley, is an advocate for literacy and is looking forward to sharing with children the importance of reading. As a substitute teacher, I had the opportunity to review the test scores of many students and one trend I always noticed is most of their reading test scores drop between the Spring and Fall semester due to their summer break, said Carr. Thats why its so important to encourage kids to participate in programs like this. My presentations not just about reading my book, its about reading in general. It takes a village and WE being apart of that village must encourage all of Clark County students to pick up a book this summer and READ ...
A reading disability is a learning disability that involves significant impairment of reading accuracy, speed, to the extent that the impairment interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily life. People with reading disabilities perform reading tasks well below the level one would expect based on their general intelligence, educational opportunities, and physical health.. Reading involves several steps, including: pronunciation, phonics, silent letters, word recognition, and so forth. People with reading deficiencies can exhibit difficulties in one or more of these areas. For people who experience a reading deficiency, there is a considerable gap between the actual level of achievement and the expected level of performance. People with reading disabilities might experience the following: slow reading speed, poor comprehension, omission of words, reversal of words or letters, difficulty decoding syllables or single words and associating them with specific sounds (phonics), and ...
The present thesis investigated cognitive ability in children with severe to profound hearing impairment who have received cochlear implants (CIs). The auditory stimulation from a cochlear implant early in life influences most cognitive functions as a consequence of the plasticity of the brain in the young child. It is important to understand the cognitive consequences of auditory stimulation from CIs in order to provide adequate support to these children. This thesis examined three specific aspects of cognitive ability (working memory, phonological skill and lexical access), and reading ability in children with CIs, as compared to children with normal hearing in the same age. The relations between cognitive abilities and reading skills were also investigated, as well as the associations between demographic variables (e.g., age at implantation and communication mode), cognitive abilities and reading skills. The children with CI generally had lower performance levels than the normal hearing ...
Reading Comprehension: These reading comprehension cootie catchers are a great way for students to have fun while increasing their reading comprehension skills. Folding Directions (with pictures) and playing directions are Included. These Reading Comprehension Cootie Catchers utilizes questions within Blooms Taxonomy and contains the following versions: 1.
This Reading Comprehension Worksheet - Toms Toys is for teaching reading comprehension. Use this reading comprehension story to teach reading comprehension ...
This Reading Comprehension Worksheet - The Green Frog is for teaching reading comprehension. Use this reading comprehension story to teach reading comprehension.
This Reading Comprehension Worksheet - Pool Time is for teaching reading comprehension. Use this reading comprehension story to teach reading comprehension.
Sylvia offers a 1.25 to 1.5 hour presentation for parents and teachers on reading comprehension (teaching kids how to read their textbooks without dying of boredom) or on reading speed (teaching your teen to read faster AND understand more).. Parents will be interested in ACT prep, and both these topics fit into that interest without actually focusing on the testing. For each of these topics, Sylvia takes a couple of exercises or techniques to teach and has the parents and teachers learn them so they can use them right away with their kids. These are very simple, even obvious, exercises, so theyre easy to learn and teach. If they are used consistently over a period of several months, they really work.. ...
It is often said that, of the subjects taught in school, reading is first among equals - a prerequisite for success in any other area, especially as students move on to college. If thats the case, though, there is cause for concern. While the math achievement of American students has risen steadily in recent decades, especially in the early grades, reading scores have barely budged. Whats behind those trends? And what can teachers do about them?. In this weeks podcast, Education Nexts Marty West talks with Doug Lemov, Colleen Driggs, and Erica Woolway, authors of the new book Reading Reconsidered: A Practical Guide to Rigorous Literacy Instruction.. Doug, Colleen, and Erica are all leaders of the Teach Like a Champion team at Uncommon Schools, where they work to design and implement teacher training programs based on the study of high-performing teachers.. As they explain in the podcast, they were intrigued by data showing that students reading scores are much more correlated with their ...
Students will create seven comprehension questions and three inference questions. Boudicca was an ancient British queen who fought against the Romans as they invaded Britain during the first century AD. Introduce your class to the mythical story of King Midas and the golden touch from ancient Greece using this fantastic differentiated reading comprehension activity. Teach your 7-9-year-old child about vice president-elect Kamala Harris by downloading these great, child-friendly fact files. This bumper pack of Year 1 and Year 2 reading comprehension activities based on fictional texts will enhance and develop reading skills of your KS pupils. A differentiated reading comprehension activity based on the poem Firework Night by Enid Blyton. These sheets are differentiated in the language used in the questions and expectations of the level of inference. These questions are often verbal, but it can be valuable to have students write down answers to reinforce their understanding of how it impacts ...
Year 1 Reading Comprehension Worksheets - Number Writing Practice Kindergarten. Kindergarten Printable. Free Worksheets For Kindergarten. Mathematical problems with solutions. Rounding Decimals Worksheet 5th Grade With Answers. Linking Words Reading Comprehension. kids worksheet 2 common core lessons. Year 1 Reading Comprehension Worksheets.
Find and save ideas about Comprehension activities on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Reading comprehension, Reading comprehension activities and Comprehension.
Reading Skills get sharpened by unseen passage reading comprehension test. We provide reading comprehension exercises with answers. These reading comprehension passages with multiple choice questions will help you to solve reading comprehension questions
Developmental dyslexia is defined as a disorder of learning to read. It is thus critical to examine the neural processes that impair learning to read during the early phase of reading acquisition, before compensatory mechanisms are adapted by older readers with dyslexia. Using electroencephalography-based event-related imaging, we investigated how tuning of visual activity for print advances in the same children before and after initial reading training in school. The focus was on a fast, coarse form of visual tuning for print, measured as an increase of the occipito-temporal N1 response at 150-270 ms in the event-related potential (ERP) to words compared to symbol strings. The results demonstrate that the initial development of reading skills and visual tuning for print progressed more slowly in those children who became dyslexic than in their control peers. Print-specific tuning in 2nd grade strongly distinguished dyslexic children from controls. It was maximal in the inferior ...
Reading Comprehension Worksheets 2nd Grade - Reading Comprehension Worksheets 2nd Grade, Free Printable Second Grade Reading Prehension Worksheets
Improving reading comprehension in young students can often be a difficult task. Teaching vocabulary strategies to students is a fun and easy way to improve their reading comprehension skills.
Update: Reviewing RC passages in depth can help you get a sense of their structure and reduce the need to underline. You can find explanations for RC passages to help you review here at my new site: http://lsathacks.com. ---. LSAT reading comprehension passages can be tough to understand. They also present a lot of facts, and its hard to remember everything. So many students make notes and underline their passages.. If you like making notes, and you find it helps you do better, than makes notes. But not everyone is a notetaker.. My students often ask me how they should make notes for reading comprehension passages. Many of these students did not underline their college textbooks, and didnt take many notes in school. Theyre not note-takers. But LSAT prep books have given them the impression that they must use a complex system of notes to succeed on the LSAT reading comprehension section.. Nope. Notes arent even necessary, though they can be a useful tool for some people.. Continue reading → ...
The aim of the present thesis was to examine the cognitive and language profile in children with poor reading comprehension using a longitudinal perspective. Even though comprehension skills are closely connected to educational success, comprehension deficits in children have been neglected in reading research. Understanding factors underlying reading is important as it improves possibilities of early identification of children at risk of developing reading problems. In addition, targeted interventions may prevent or reduce future problems. Descriptions of the cognitive and language profile in children with different types of reading problems from an early age and over time is an important first step.. The three studies included in this thesis have been conducted using data from the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS). In the ILTS, parallel data have been collected in the US, Australia, Sweden and Norway. Altogether, more than 1000 twin pairs have been examined between the ages 5 and 15 ...
The project Early Language Learning in Europe (ELLiE) has studied the longitudinal effects of an early foreign language (FL) start in seven European contexts. This article presents a sub-study of ELLiE that investigates the impact of out-of-school factors on learners listening and reading skills in year four of formal FL instruction. More specifically, we include Parents educational level, parents use of the FL professionally, exposure, interaction and cognate linguistic distance. Data were collected by means of listening and reading tests and a parents questionnaire. Results of the statistical analyses show that cognate linguistic distance was the strongest predictor of both listening and reading scores, followed closely by exposure, and parents FL use at work and international interaction at some distance. Parents educational levels only impacted on reading scores, and domestic interaction did not have any effect on listening or reading. Furthermore, the results confirm previous research ...
Read Books Limited. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-4474-8697-8. "Romsey". Key to English Place-Names. Retrieved 9 April 2021. "Hornsey". Key ... "Reading". Key to English Place-Names. Retrieved 9 April 2021. "Epping". Key to English Place-Names. Retrieved 9 April 2021. " ...
Reading did not extend Baradji's loan and West Ham later released him. In 2010 Baradji was on trial with Premier League club ... He was immediately loaned to Reading. He had been on trial with Derby; Burnley tried to offer him a contract before West Ham ... Sekou Baradji at Soccerbase "Football News , Championship , Reading , Baradji shunned Burnley". Sky Sports. Retrieved 10 August ...
... (or NCR 23) is a route of the National Cycle Network, running from Reading to Sandown. The partially ... Reading , Basingstoke map Basingstoke , Alton , Winchester map Winchester , Eastleigh , Southampton From Winchester City Mill, ...
Reading. Former associate Budd Corporation built passenger rolling stock. An existing engineering factory in Linwood, Scotland ...
Waters, Laurence (1990). Reading. Rail Centres. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1937-1. Vaughan, Adrian (1993). The Great ...
"Reading Evening Post". 3 April 1967. p. 9. "Reading , Club , History , History , Our World War One heroes". Archived from the ... was an English professional footballer who played as a full back in the Football League for Reading, West Ham United and Fulham ...
Reading.) Leslie Roland Sankey, Principal, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. (Belmont.) Henry Albert Saunders, Chief ... Flight Lieutenant Dennis John Read, (4123924). Flight Lieutenant Colin Geoffrey Richardson, (607497). Flight Lieutenant John ...
Reading.) George William Lee, Overman, Leasingthorne Colliery, Durham Division, National Coal Board. (Bishop Auckland.) John ... Roland Geoffrey Gouk, Factory Manager, Huntley, Boorne & Stevens Ltd., Reading, Berkshire. James Brown Sylvester Gould, lately ... Lieutenant-Commander William Ernest Read. Captain (Quartermaster) William Robson, Royal Marines. Lieutenant-Commander Basil ...
"Reading". Youtube.com. Retrieved December 14, 2014. "Leeds". Leedsfestival.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014 ... Reading Festival, Leeds Festival, Bunbury Music Festival, Freakfest, Grammys on the Hill (an awards ceremony honoring artists ...
p. 6. "Lofthouse Jimmy Image 2 Reading 1919". Vintage Footballers. Retrieved 15 July 2019. "Reading , Club , History , History ...
"Reading". Malmaison. Retrieved 24 February 2017. "About the first straw bale hotel in Europe". Pr-inside.com. 1 August 2011. ... The first recorded purpose-built railway hotel was the Great Western Hotel, which opened adjacent to Reading railway station in ... Phillips, Daphne (1980). The Story of Reading. Countryside Books. p. 115. ISBN 0-905392-07-8. Historic England. "Great Western ...
doncasterroversfc.co.uk BBC SPORT , Football , My Club , R , Reading , Mills completes Reading transfer. BBC News (5 August ... from Reading) Statistics includes substitute appearances, but excludes wartime matches. Further information on competitions/ ...
"An old fogey" (6 March 1902). "Sport and anecdote". Reading Observer. Reading. p. 4. "The Channel Swim: A quadruple failure - ... Read Books Limited. pp. 29-32. ISBN 978-1-4474-8668-8. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2020. " ...
Reading. 29 October 1980. p. 14. Striker Andy Needham, forced to pack up League soccer with Aldershot because of a hip injury, ...
"I am reading"). However, one can also say sigo leyendo ("I am still reading"), voy leyendo ("I am slowly but surely reading"), ... "I have read a lot in my life" and "I read a lot this morning" would both be expressed with leí instead of he leído, but "I have ... In this case, one would say Yo jugaba ("I used to play"), Yo leía ("I used to read"), or Yo escribía ("I used to write"). The ... The corresponding preterite forms would be Yo jugué ("I played"), Yo leí ("I read") or Yo escribí ("I wrote"). As stated above ...
"Reading , Club , History , History , Our World War One heroes". Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 14 ... "Crawford Sidney Image 1 Reading 1921". Vintage Footballers. Retrieved 15 July 2019. "Harold Crawford". www.arsenal.com. ... Reading and Woolwich Arsenal. Crawford served as a private in Transport section of the Army Service Corps during the First ...
"Reading". Coludaybyday.co.uk. Retrieved 26 June 2014. "Rochdale". Coludaybyday.co.uk. Retrieved 26 June 2014. "Rotherham United ...
Some ticket types have specific route restrictions, e.g. 'not London', or prescriptions e.g. 'Reading'. The guide allows many ...
... reading; Events, Keeping up with World (2018-11-03). "Elevated Returns Acquires Prominent Thai Broker Dealer". Block Telegraph ...
Lagos, Fadire Olusola A. graduate of Linguistics from the prestigious University Of; Traveling, Loves; reading; writing. (2016- ...
Kelly, Donika (2013). Reading against Genre: Contemporary Westerns and the Problem of White Manhood Kelly, Donika (2009), ... Reading against genre : contemporary Westerns and the problem of white manhood (PhD). Vanderbilt University. 2013. ... Her dissertation was titled Reading against Genre: Contemporary Westerns and the Problem of White Manhood. In it, Kelly ... "Reading , Donika Kelly", Bnnington College, November 2, 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/31/magazine/consent.html?action= ...
She joined Reading in July 2016. In January 2017, Perry rejoined Brighton & Hove Albion. In January 2019, she joined ... She previously played for Reading, Brighton & Hove Albion, Chelsea and Millwall. She represented the Republic of Ireland at ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Sophie Perry: Reading sign full-back following Brighton release". BBC Sport. 6 July ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Sophie Perry player Profile". Reading. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. ...
Reading. Mass.: W. A. Benjamin, Advanced Book Program. ISBN 9780805309829. ISBN 0805309829.. ...
Born at Norwich, son of Peter Stray and Margaret (née Beard), Stray read Classics at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, taking a ... Reading. ISBN 9780704907744. Stray, Christopher (2003). "Mrs Gladstone's drawers: language and identity in Victorian families ...
"Reading , Club , History , History , Our World War One heroes". Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 15 ...
"Voorlezer" is a Dutch word that can be translated as "fore-reader" or as "one who reads (to others)". A Voorlezer or Voorleser ... A Voorlezer could be an assistant to a pastor or, in the absence of a pastor, hold religious services and read scriptures, or ... Subjects most likely included: 1. Reading. Students may have used hornbooks but there were many textbooks from Amsterdam ...
Readings and Resources for Teachers and Students (2011), co-authored by Harvey Daniels, Penny Kittle, Carol Jago, and Judith ... "Reading". "Hispanic Firsts", By; Nicolas Kanellos, publisher Visible Ink Press; ISBN 0-7876-0519-0; p.40 "Writers hall picks ...
Shower... Reading ... And then bed! listening to a compilation a friend did for me of K Pop. Fab. Thanks Jay" which appeared to ... "Liquor Advertising (Television and Radio) Bill - First Reading". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 30 August 2018. "Battle for ...
"Reading , News , Latest News , Latest News , Brooker set to leave Royals and sign for Brentford on a free transfer". readingfc. ... "Reading , News , Latest News , Latest News , Royals complete double swoop to sign Sonko and Brooker". readingfc.co.uk. 2 July ... "Reading , News , Latest News , Latest News , Royals boss Coppell swoops to sign Premiership player on loan deal". readingfc.co. ... He made just six appearances during the 2003-04 season and spent just over two months on loan at First Division club Reading, ...
"READING [****]". www.victormorales13.com. Conlon, Gerry (4 August 1990). "Proved innocent : the story of Gerry Conlon of the ...
Therapeutic strategies based on in vitro-transcribed mRNA (IVT) are attractive because they avoid the permanent signature of genomic integration that is associated with DNA-based therapy and result in the transient production of proteins of interest. To date, IVT has mainly been used in vaccination protocols to generate immune responses to foreign Ags. In this "proof-of-principle" study, we explore a strategy of combinatorial IVT to recruit and reprogram immune effector cells to acquire divergent biological functions in mice in vivo. First, we demonstrate that synthetic mRNA encoding CCL3 is able to recruit murine monocytes in a nonprogrammed state, exhibiting neither bactericidal nor tissue-repairing properties. However, upon addition of either Ifn-γ mRNA or Il-4 mRNA, we successfully polarized these cells to adopt either M1 or M2 macrophage activation phenotypes. This cellular reprogramming was demonstrated through increased expression of known surface markers and through the differential ...
Further reading: The best smart locks and deadbolts ]. You want to make the modest investment in a surge protector for the same ...
Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... The goal of this study was to characterize technical variation using this method and to develop methods to optimize read depth ...
Liam Gallagher, Reading Festival - review: He sauntered onstage with the swagger of a man gunning for a fight 3 ... Eminem at Reading Festival, review: the hip-hop maverick climbed back on top in a triumphant set that railed against Donald ... French primary pupils to take a dictation a day after humiliating fall in world reading rankings ... Teenage boy, 17, found dead after emergency services called to tent at Reading Festival ...
Reading process is therefore a communication context. Assessment[edit]. Types of tests[edit]. *Sight word reading: reading ... Women reading in art. References[edit]. *^ a b c De Certeau, Michel. "Reading as Poaching." The Practice of Everyday Life. ... Subvocalized reading combines sight reading with internal sounding of the words as if spoken. Advocates of speed reading claim ... Reading is typically an individual activity, though on occasion a person reads out loud for other listeners. Reading aloud for ...
... is an integrated and well-balanced approach to reading and writing instruction. Youll nurture a love of reading ... in your students with Reading Streets award-winning literature. Authentic texts build knowledge around unit themes that ...
By the last time you read it, could you read it fast? This is what I mean when I say reading smooth and fast. But reading fast ... so we can read them smoothly. Listen to me while I read the first page of my book." (Read page slow and choppy at first. Then ... Reading: The Race to Comprehension Rationale: When students are learning to read, they are spending the majority of their time ... Lets list some words on the board to describe the first was I read the page" (read again, if necessary, and list words for ...
If you just starts doing research, I recommend you read through this book ...
reading-college. .ac. .uk. Reading College is a further education college based in Reading, Berkshire, England. It has over ... when the Reading Technical College was opened. This was renamed the Reading College of Technology in 1967 and the Reading ... "About Reading College". Reading College. Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.. .mw-parser- ... Reading College and Activate Learning are lead sponsors of UTC Reading, a university technical college which opened in ...
... You have a toddler who loves books and stories and may even be ready to read simple books but you arent ... Reading specialists can discuss your childs reading development and offer suggestions for activities to try at home. They may ... If youre concerned about your childs reading ability, talk to a pediatrician, teacher, or reading specialist.. Reviewed ... and summer reading programs for kids of all ages. Look for recommended reading lists, prize-winning and new books, and holiday ...
Discussion with Kevin Warwick (Reading University) of articles read in 5 February 2014 session ... Reading sessions. 2014-15. 22 October 2014:. Science fiction film. Discussion led by Jean-Xavier Ridon (French) on time travel ... Cognitive Science Reading Group. 6 May 2009:. Margaret Boden, Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science, Oxford ... Cognitive Science Reading Group. 22 April 2009:. Margaret Boden, Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science, Oxford ...
Reading labels can be confusing and misleading with all of the numbers and health claims. Join our healthy eating specialist, ...
Although its a memoir, Spiegelman tells Required Reading, "It didnt even matter that they were my memories - its just the ... Humberts accounts of the evacuation of Paris and, later, Gestapo search of her apartment, reads like a thriller. And the ...
... www-gsb.stanford.edu/ces/resources/reading.html 5 ∗∗∗∗∗ This is the Stanford Center for Entrepreneurial Studies reading list. ... Reading List * 1. Business & Entrepreneurship Resources (Resources rated 1 to 5 stars. 5 stars = Best, in terms of usefulness ... Reading List • Crossing the Chasm, Geoffrey Moore • A Gardeners Guide to Plant & Grow Your Business, Edward L. Tapley • ...
Thank you for your interest in becoming a Reading Captain! Similar to a block captain, a Reading Captain is a member of the ... Attend an orientation session to learn about Read by 4th, understand what your role as a Reading Captain requires, and receive ... And most importantly, thank you for your interest in becoming a Reading Captain. Your ideas and experience will help us grow ... Read by 4th is a citywide coalition of partners managed by the Free Library of Philadelphia.) ...
All readings are to be read prior to the respective class, especially those for Class Discussions ... Downloads and Additional Reading Materials (grouped by topic). Introduction. Waggoner, P.E., and Ausubel, J.H., A Framework for ... Everyone Reads: Hardin, G., The Tragedy of the Commons, Science, Dec. 13, 1968, Vol. 162, no. 3859, pp. 1243 - 1248. ...
... with the mission to expand opportunities for children in underserved communities by fostering a lifelong love of reading, ... Reading Partners provides children with robust one-on-one reading support through a structured, research-based curriculum that ... On average, Reading Partners students gain 1.6 months of reading skills for every month in the program. ... Current listings by Reading Partners. Jobs. Location. Date Posted. AmeriCorps Member (November, 2021-22). Washington, DC. ...
Here is a sampling of the scores of recent books dealing with spirituality in the workplace, the search for happiness on the job and the quest for more community-minded corporate leadership.Aiming
Strong oral-storytelling skills in preschool lead to better reading scores for black boys later in elementary school, finds a ... Reading. "Different Tales: The Role of Gender in the Oral Narrative-Reading Link Among African American Children". ... Strong oral-storytelling skills in preschool lead to better reading scores for black boys later in elementary school, finds a ... For boys, stronger oral-storytelling skills hurt reading skills in the early years, but the effect became positive as those ...
Complete Reading Program Is Like Balanced Diet. In its final report, the NEAs Task Force on Reading said a complete reading ... Reading Wars. A debate about the "best way" to teach reading has been raging for decades. In what is often described as the " ... IRA Journal Series on Closing the Gap - The International Reading Association (IRA) focuses Reading Research Quarterly (July ... There is virtually no disagreement, though, "that reading is the gateway to learning in all content areas and essential for ...
... reading skills in the final evaluation for its $45.6 million federal Investing in Innovation grant. ... The 1-to-1 tutoring program Reading Recovery boosted struggling 1st graders ... Reading. "Reading Recovery: An Evaluation of the 4-Year i3 Scale-Up". ... The 1-to-1 tutoring program Reading Recovery boosted struggling 1st graders reading skills in the final evaluation for its $ ...
You can read a detailed review and discussion at this link.. Summary and review: In this book, doubt serves as the shining ... Please read the rules below before posting.. This is a place for discussion of practice and conduct concerned with Awakening. ... Summary: These are very practical and worth reading, though they do not have the same cachet as the works of John of the Cross ... Summary:** These are very practical and worth reading, though they do not have the same cachet as the works of John of the ...
Rump The (Fairly) True Tale of Rumplestitskin by Liesl Shurtliff - Chapter 2 Part 1 Read Aloud. Apr 28, 2020 ... Ugly Cat & Pablo by Isabel Quinero Chapter 1 Read Aloud. Apr 28, 2020 ...
Page 24 - I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts: I am no orator, as Brutus is; But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man, That love my friend; and that they know full well That gave me public leave to speak of him: For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth, Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech, To stir mens blood: I only speak right on; I tell you that which you yourselves do know... ...
Quotes are not sourced from all markets and may be delayed up to 20 minutes. Information is provided as is and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice.Disclaimer ...
... and it only strengthened her resolve not to learn to read. "I saw learning to read," she says, "and I still believe rightly, as ... But being read to, curled up on a sofa with someones arm around her, struck Cordelia as infinitely preferable to the ... Read stories based on reporting for "Trump Revealed," a broad, comprehensive biography of the life of the 45th president. ... Her refusal to read as a child was regarded by her intellectual family as a small flaw, like crooked teeth, that she eventually ...
Martin Feldsteins new proposal for helping homeowners who now have negative equity in their homes. On the political spectrum of American economists, …
Read stories based on reporting for "Trump Revealed," a broad, comprehensive biography of the life of the 45th president. ... Published in 1961, Sunlight is a good read for anyone interested in developing a better understanding of the roots of modern ... Book World readers are invited to send in recommendations of favorite books for possible inclusion in "Recommended Reading." ( ... Recommended Reading, Washington Post Book World, 1150 15th St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20071. Unused contributions cannot be ...
Burn After Reading (2008) R , 1h 36min , Comedy, Crime, Drama , 12 September 2008 (USA) ...
... what pages the user isnt supposed to read ? ,mcsim, if user read pages in increasing order than it is not supposed to read ... the default behavior is to read clusters. This ,braunr, 322 * results in some read-ahead and read-behind. ,braunr, not sure if ... read returned kr and this kr was used to determine what m_o_ function will be used ,mcsim, now default_read calls m_o_ on its ... from reading following pages, not preceeding ones ,antrik, Im not even sure its useful to read preceding pages at all in the ...
  • in the early 1970s [5] has been proposed the dual-route hypothesis to reading aloud , accordingly to which there were two separate mental mechanisms, or cognitive routes, that are involved in this case, with output of both mechanisms contributing to the pronunciation of a written stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • or reads aloud for one's own use, for better comprehension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reading aloud to your baby is a wonderful shared activity you can continue for years to come - and it's an important form of stimulation. (kidshealth.org)
  • The more stories you read aloud, the more words your child will be exposed to and the better he or she will be able to talk. (kidshealth.org)
  • But perhaps the most important reason to read aloud is that it makes a connection between the things your baby loves the most - your voice and closeness to you - and books. (kidshealth.org)
  • Here's a great thing about reading aloud: It doesn't take special skills or equipment, just you, your baby, and some books. (kidshealth.org)
  • Read aloud for a few minutes at a time, but do it often. (kidshealth.org)
  • Half of the sample used a program where a human voice reads the story aloud as the text appears on the computer screen, highlighted line by line for pupils to follow. (smh.com.au)
  • The Best Books for 6-Year-Olds, According to Librarians Including books to read aloud, easy-reader books, early chapter books, and the most popular books as determined by 6-year-olds. (nymag.com)
  • Humbert's accounts of the evacuation of Paris and, later, Gestapo search of her apartment, reads like a thriller. (nypost.com)
  • Reading specialists can discuss your child's reading development and offer suggestions for activities to try at home. (kidshealth.org)
  • The reading specialist or your child's teacher should be able to direct you to such programs in your area. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you're concerned about your child's reading ability, talk to a pediatrician, teacher, or reading specialist. (kidshealth.org)
  • In order to learn to read, a young child's brain must be developed enough to process the information, but still capable of fast growth, according to a longitudinal study published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (edweek.org)
  • Use common sight words to develop your child's pre-reading skills. (scholastic.com)
  • If you have concerns, talk to your child's doctor, teacher, or the reading specialist at school. (kidshealth.org)
  • By keeping reading streaks in Home Base, kids will unlock a donation of 100,000 books from Scholastic to Save the Children for kids in rural America with limited or no access to books. (scholastic.com)
  • The following readings look at America from many perspectives. (pbs.org)
  • While they carried on their discussions, I rotated among the groups, listening to their discussions, asking further questions, and checking their reading logs (180 minutes per week of graded readers of their choice), giving personalized advice on speed, level, and future books they might enjoy. (yahoo.com)
  • Personalised books for children are recommended to improve engagement in reading by featuring the child themselves in the story. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are going to practice reading to each other, and we are going to know our books well, so we can read them smoothly. (auburn.edu)
  • Let's read our books all the way through once, and then pick your favorite page to use for your chart. (auburn.edu)
  • This website has been designed to allow people to read articles, books and poems that I have written on line. (angelfire.com)
  • I hope you enjoy reading what I have written and would like to support my work by purchasing the books I have written through various publishers. (angelfire.com)
  • You have a toddler who loves books and stories and may even be ready to read simple books but you aren't quite sure how to encourage that. (kidshealth.org)
  • Or maybe your school-age child is having trouble reading books for homework. (kidshealth.org)
  • Look for recommended reading lists, prize-winning and new books, and holiday or theme-related books throughout the year. (kidshealth.org)
  • The device A few things distinguish the Nook from other e-readers: You navigate via an LCD color touch screen, you can lend certain books you've purchased to friends for 14 days, and you can read some e-books and magazines free for an hour per day while in Barnes & Noble brick-and-mortars. (timeout.com)
  • With this in mind, our Scholastic Summer Reading Promise is to help you get books in the hands of kids, support social-emotional well-being, build skills and create community among kids. (scholastic.com)
  • It's the perfect way to provide students with access to new books, favorite characters, and series to keep them reading all summer long. (scholastic.com)
  • With a Summer Reading Book Fair, parents get to fuel their children's love of reading and also help raise critical funds for books and resources that will benefit their school. (scholastic.com)
  • Her refusal to read as a child was regarded by her intellectual family as a small flaw, like crooked teeth, that she eventually would overcome, with a little help, and her older sisters, brother and parents -- an intimidating phalanx of scholars and writers -- kept presenting her with books and reading to her at every opportunity. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Book World readers are invited to send in recommendations of favorite books for possible inclusion in "Recommended Reading. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In the US, about half of all adults read one or more books for pleasure each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 5% read more than 50 books per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reading books and writing are among brain-stimulating activities shown to slow down cognitive decline in seniors. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, if infants and children are read to often with joy, excitement, and closeness, they begin to associate books with happiness - and budding readers are created. (kidshealth.org)
  • Read the books of the Bible as they were written historically, according to the estimated date of their writing. (biblegateway.com)
  • One of the best books I've read in the last several years is John Barry's Rising Tide . (gmu.edu)
  • Meg Williams, Co-founder of The Slow Reading Club is now relishing an enjoyment of books again. (radionz.co.nz)
  • Lots of people want to get back into reading and getting books back into their lives. (radionz.co.nz)
  • My collection grew to a few thousand books and while most of them are long gone now, the memories of reading all those certainly aren't. (wired.com)
  • Yes, I learned the ABCs in elementary school, but my love of comics drove me to read more and more, both comics and actual fiction books. (wired.com)
  • That night, instead of his normal bedtime books, I read him the first two issues. (wired.com)
  • Describing some software as 'more entertainment than education', the researchers have warned teachers and parents not to abandon simple storytelling and reading books to young children. (smh.com.au)
  • Michelle Donnelly, an information and communication technology teacher who carried out the research, said schools needed to think very carefully about using talking books to teach children to read. (smh.com.au)
  • 8 Fiction Books By Black British Authors, Recommended by Bloggers and Writers A reading list for those looking for fiction book recommendations by Black British authors. (nymag.com)
  • 10 Books Recommended by Black-Owned Bookstores Black-owned bookstores recommended books on their reading lists, including the latest book from Brit Bennett and a book written in 1645. (nymag.com)
  • 8 Black British History Books, Recommended by Educators and Activists A reading list for those wanting to learn more about the history of Britain through an intersectional lens. (nymag.com)
  • 7 Books About Race to Read to Your Kids A reading list for parents committed to raising anti-racist children. (nymag.com)
  • The Books Our Political Writers Are Reaching for Right Now A reading list for finding some perspective in a crisis. (nymag.com)
  • 23 Authors on 26 Books They're Reading to Escape the Present Moment Anne Tyler, Ottessa Moshfegh, Garth Greenwell and 20 others weigh in. (nymag.com)
  • The 15 Best Board Books for Babies, According to Booksellers It's never too early to start reading to your little one. (nymag.com)
  • Reading Partners launched with the mission to expand opportunities for children in underserved communities by fostering a lifelong love of reading, developing strong literacy skills, and building the confidence and self-esteem critical to empowerment and community development. (idealist.org)
  • Reading is an essential part of literacy, yet from a historical perspective literacy is about having the ability to both read and write. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, since the 1990s some organizations have defined literacy in a wide variety of ways that may go beyond the traditional ability to read and write. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Reading Partners program works to improve their literacy skills. (idealist.org)
  • But being read to, curled up on a sofa with someone's arm around her, struck Cordelia as infinitely preferable to the solitariness of reading alone, and it only strengthened her resolve not to learn to read. (washingtonpost.com)
  • You don't have to be a psychic to read someone's mind. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Because this process requires the volunteer's full participation, this approach cannot be used to read someone's mind against their will, Just said. (usatoday.com)
  • This lesson design focuses on repeated readings with partners, and will include graphing activities. (auburn.edu)
  • IRA Journal Series on Closing 'the Gap' - The International Reading Association (IRA) focuses Reading Research Quarterly (July 2007) on closing the achievement gap, especially among adolescents. (nea.org)
  • This reading group focuses on empirical aspects of computer science. (ubc.ca)
  • Including titles solicited from and published by local and international small presses, artist-run projects, and community archives and organizations, the Reading Room focuses on collective and collaborative practices of making and circulating independent publications. (moma.org)
  • There is virtually no disagreement, though, "that reading is the gateway to learning in all content areas and essential for achieving high standards," as stated in the National Education Association's official reading policy. (nea.org)
  • To save this item to your list of favorite Light Reading content so you can find it later in your Profile page, click the "Save It" button next to the item. (lightreading.com)
  • These experts delineated the content of new research and provided the framework for a team of writers representing various locations in Florida and populations impacted by the Reading Endorsement (ESE, ELL, higher education, etc. (fldoe.org)
  • The content/concept goals for this activity are whatever content is covered by course reading assignments, so it is highly adaptable in a wide variety of types and levels of courses. (carleton.edu)
  • Students are asked to summarize the content of the reading (understand), they are asked to describe what is new or interesting (analyze, evaluate, create), and they are asked to identify those parts of the reading that are confusing (analyze, evaluate). (carleton.edu)
  • Reading reflections are designed to encourage students to complete readings before coming to class, to reflect more deeply on the content of the reading, to make personal meaning from the meaning, and to develop their metacognitive skills for lifelong learning. (carleton.edu)
  • The primary goals of this activity are to help students develop their skills of self-assessment, and to reflect more deeply on the content of their reading assignments. (carleton.edu)
  • These professionals support teachers in the classroom by working on specific reading skills with individual students, assessing and organizing the reading curriculum, and acting as a resource for parents. (kidshealth.org)
  • Reading Partners provides children with robust one-on-one reading support through a structured, research-based curriculum that engages students and provides basic building blocks to supplement their academic growth. (idealist.org)
  • Paine said reading skills depend, not just on what is learned in direct reading lessons, but on reading throughout the curriculum and outside of school. (nea.org)
  • Thanks to a merger with the Berkshire College of Art and Design (in Maidenhead), it became the Reading College and School of Arts and Design in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reading , town and unitary authority, geographic and historic county of Berkshire , southern England , 38 miles (61 km) west of London . (britannica.com)
  • Images relating to the town of Reading, in Berkshire, England. (wikimedia.org)
  • Bilder über die Stadt Reading, in Berkshire, England. (wikimedia.org)
  • Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Wikipedia-Artikel über die Reading, Berkshire . (wikimedia.org)
  • Des images relatives à la ville de Reading, dans le Berkshire, Angleterre. (wikimedia.org)
  • Currently most reading is either of the printed word from ink or toner on paper, such as in a book , magazine , newspaper , leaflet , or notebook , or of electronic displays, such as computer displays , television , mobile phones or e-readers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Each pair of students will have the same book to read each student with their own copy. (auburn.edu)
  • Listen to me while I read the first page of my book. (auburn.edu)
  • Kids can read any book of their choice and download and print a report of their reading progress at any time. (scholastic.com)
  • Join Scholastic authors, education experts, and booksellers for a virtual panel where they will give tips and book recommendations that will keep kids excited to read all summer long! (scholastic.com)
  • March 14, 2007 Religion scholars Elaine Pagels and Karen King's new book, Reading Judas: The Gospel of Judas and the Shaping of Christianity , interprets and translates the recently discovered gnostic gospel of Judas. (npr.org)
  • When she is done reading, his mom usually lets him hold the sturdy board book, which he promptly sticks into his mouth. (kidshealth.org)
  • Your baby will respond while you read, grabbing for the book and making sounds, and by 12 months will turn pages (with some help from you), pat or start to point to objects on a page, and repeat your sounds. (kidshealth.org)
  • Daily Old and New Testament readings based on the Book of Common Prayer. (biblegateway.com)
  • Read through the book of Proverbs every month of the year. (biblegateway.com)
  • Then at work one day I read an article in Oprah Magazine about a book she read that addressed the need to change how you think. (livejournal.com)
  • Get reading tips, ideas, activities, and book recommendations to set your preschooler on the right path to reading! (scholastic.com)
  • Plus suggestions for great discussions in 2013, new ideas for activities in the coming year, Neely's Favorite Classics, new On the Bookcase blog posts, young readers book club ideas, NPR's Best Book Club Reads, McDonald's joins the book bandwagon, and ways to rejuvenate your book club. (constantcontact.com)
  • The children were more highly motivated to read a talking story than a conventional book,' she said, 'but the findings show that the interactive group had significantly poorer recall. (smh.com.au)
  • Quality childcare centers, pre-kindergarten programs, and homes full of language and book reading can build an environment for reading milestones to happen. (kidshealth.org)
  • Or sometimes questions that you might have after reading the book. (yahoo.com)
  • So: Read the book and be familiar with it. (yahoo.com)
  • To obtain fluency, students need to read and reread text that have decodable words and that have some kind of meaning to them. (auburn.edu)
  • The right way in obtaining fluency is by repeated readings. (auburn.edu)
  • There are no concrete laws in reading, but rather it provides readers an escape to produce their own products introspectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Readers use a variety of reading strategies to decode (to translate symbols into sounds or visual representations of speech ) and comprehension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Readers integrate the words they have read into their existing framework of knowledge or schema . (wikipedia.org)
  • The device Like most e-readers, the Kindle uses electronic ink, which doesn't need a backlight and reads like an old-school printed page, in black-and-white only. (timeout.com)
  • Sun test Of all the electronic ink e-readers I tested, the Daily is most difficult to read in bright light (but still pretty readable): The contrast between background and ink isn't so sharp and the screen is a bit too shiny. (timeout.com)
  • Similar to a block captain, a Reading Captain is a member of the community who connects families to resources and tips that will help their children become great readers. (google.com)
  • Reading Partners is dedicated to transforming struggling young readers into confident readers who are excited about learning. (idealist.org)
  • In a similar fashion, beginning readers might require different amounts of certain types of reading activities than more proficient readers. (nea.org)
  • They found significant differences between the children who would eventually become above-average readers and those who became below-average readers in the level and net growth of white matter in brain areas associated with reading. (edweek.org)
  • Children become better readers when they know more about the world in general, and when they perceive reading as fun rather than another chore to be performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Audiobooks allow pre-readers to read along and/or listen to their favorite Clifford stories with lively narration, music, sound effects, and optional page-turn signals. (scholastic.com)
  • Afterwards, call on individuals to read one word on the list until everyone has had a turn. (auburn.edu)
  • Ask Chris Black: What's On Your Summer Reading List? (nymag.com)
  • Americans read more if they: have more education, read fluently and easily, are female, live in cities, and have higher socioeconomic status. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lesson will teach students about the long vowel correspondence i_e=/I/. Knowing this correspondence along with all the other ones we have been/will be working on are crucial for children to learn to read fluently. (auburn.edu)
  • Reading is typically an individual activity, though on occasion a person reads out loud for other listeners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stronger oral-narrative skills among girls in preschool translated to stronger reading-comprehension skills in early elementary, but the effect decreased over time. (edweek.org)
  • This team's mission is to develop and evaluate the next generation of assessments of reading comprehension skills. (ets.org)
  • In this lesson, students will be able to recognize, spell and read words with the i_e in the word's spelling. (auburn.edu)
  • Reading Street is an integrated and well-balanced approach to reading and writing instruction. (google.com)
  • Give one-on-one instruction at the student's reading level. (idealist.org)
  • To open that gateway for all students, the NEA, International Reading Association, and many others believe it is counterproductive to promote any particular program, procedure, or method of reading instruction to the exclusion of all others. (nea.org)
  • We know summertime can provide tremendous opportunities for kids to accelerate reading, to experience the social-emotional impact of good literature and stories, and to make up for any lost learning time as access to instruction and reading has had to be completely rethought due to the pandemic. (scholastic.com)
  • This reading plan is provided by Brian Hardin from Daily Audio Bible . (biblegateway.com)
  • Students responded very positively to the reading circles, though I doubt that any of them continued on their own after the course ended (like the group in the forward to the textbook). (yahoo.com)
  • You'll nurture a love of reading in your students with Reading Street's award-winning literature. (google.com)
  • Rationale: When students are learning to read, they are spending the majority of their time on decoding. (auburn.edu)
  • After decoding skills have been mastered, students need to concentrate on reading the text for comprehension and meaning. (auburn.edu)
  • Pass out sentence with incorrect word and have students read the sentence, monitor if they are cross-checking upon the realization that he sentence is wrong. (auburn.edu)
  • On average, Reading Partners students gain 1.6 months of reading skills for every month in the program. (idealist.org)
  • Working in partnership with teachers, schools, AmeriCorps, and community volunteers, Reading Partners has grown from serving 100 students in 2003 in northern California to serving over 11,000 students in 10 states and the District of Columbia. (idealist.org)
  • We work with students who are reading 0.5 - 2.5 years behind their grade level. (idealist.org)
  • Have students read the words in unison. (auburn.edu)
  • By allowing more teachers the opportunity to secure a Reading Certification or Reading Endorsement, teachers will have the opportunity to impact more students by implementing best practices. (fldoe.org)
  • Most students who participate in our Reading M.Ed. program are practicing licensed teachers, and those aspiring to specialist licensure must have at least three (3) years successful classroom experience as such. (etsu.edu)
  • Graduate students, working toward qualification as licensed reading specialists in Tennessee, will be advised to take a specific set of courses that fulfills both the East Tennessee State University requirements for the Reading M.Ed. degree and the requirements outlined by the Tennessee Standards for Licensure as Reading Specialist, PreK-12. (etsu.edu)
  • Many of my students have trouble reading English outloud (one part of the exam is to be evaluated while reading a paragraph). (usingenglish.com)
  • This activity also helps students develop their skills for critical reading, writing, and self-assessment. (carleton.edu)
  • If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read. (wikipedia.org)
  • The teacher as reading instructor is a role model of a reader for students, demonstrating what it means to be an effective reader and the rewards of being one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Reading for Understanding initiative is designed to provide effective strategies for improving reading comprehension for students in grades preK-12. (ets.org)
  • Reading is the complex cognitive process of decoding symbols to derive meaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reading for pleasure has been linked to increased cognitive progress in vocabulary and mathematics during adolescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cognitive benefits of reading continue into mid-life and the senior years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The six Reading for Understanding teams involve over 130 researchers representing linguistics, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, reading, speech and language pathology, assessment and evaluation working together in close collaboration. (ets.org)
  • Any time remaining after the discussion could be used for starting on the next week's story, reviewing the story they had just discussed, planning the two group projects, or free reading. (yahoo.com)
  • The first time you read the sentence, it was new to you so you might have to read it a little slow. (auburn.edu)
  • By the last time you read it, could you read it fast? (auburn.edu)
  • Wow there are some big differences in the way I read that page the first time then the second time. (auburn.edu)
  • 3. "Okay, let me tell you about the chart that we are going to use" (explains chart and how it will be filled in -Time of reading -Total words in passage, -words missed). (auburn.edu)
  • Now that you have picked another page, we are going to make a graph of the time it takes you to read the page. (auburn.edu)
  • Should our time go up or down after we have read a couple of times? (auburn.edu)
  • Hand out the blocked graph worksheets, and have children color in the blocks for the amount of time their reading takes. (auburn.edu)
  • Besides a wealth of reading materials, many libraries offer story-time programs for babies and toddlers, homework help for school-age youngsters, and summer reading programs for kids of all ages. (kidshealth.org)
  • By contrast, if you're interested in reading about how to spend your time in later life, consider these recommendations from Ron Manheimer, executive director of the North Carolina Center for Creative Retirement at the University of North Carolina in Asheville. (wsj.com)
  • And kids who are read to during their early years are more likely to learn to read at the right time. (kidshealth.org)
  • Spending time reading to your baby shows that reading is a skill worth learning. (kidshealth.org)
  • Try to set aside time to read every day - perhaps before naptime and bedtime. (kidshealth.org)
  • You can start, pause, or end a reading plan at any time - at your own pace. (biblegateway.com)
  • So, choose a reading plan and get ready for the incredible journey of reading through the Bible, one day at a time! (biblegateway.com)
  • Most of the reading plans start on January 1, but you're free to join in at any time! (biblegateway.com)
  • But reading once with understanding is a lot better use of your time than doing the reading and coming up blank at the end. (smu.edu)
  • About 20% of the time they miss the beginning of the word (usually a prefix) and only read the root. (usingenglish.com)
  • Swans right-back Alan Tate surrendered ground every time fit-again Royals winger Jimmy Kebe was in possession and the Reading man underlined his intent with one particularly dangerous run from inside his own half to the edge of his opponent's area. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Reading magazines on the iPad in full color…wow-possibly even better than print. (timeout.com)
  • Then you can track your progress, receive daily reading reminder emails, and print monthly lists of readings for offline use. (biblegateway.com)
  • Cultivate the sound-print connection when reading with your child. (scholastic.com)
  • Lots of kids struggle with reading. (kidshealth.org)
  • Those on the autism spectrum or those afflicted with psychotic disorders struggle mightily to read minds. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Between the 12th and 16th centuries Reading was dominated by a struggle for privileges between the abbey and the emergent merchants' guild . (britannica.com)
  • Early intervention is key in helping kids who struggle to read. (kidshealth.org)
  • In order to volunteer with Reading Partners, we will ask that you're generally able to commit consistently to one hour per week for the remainder of the semester. (idealist.org)
  • A debate about the "best way" to teach reading has been raging for decades. (nea.org)
  • No 'Best Way' to Teach Reading - Research supports NEA's view that there may not even be a "best way. (nea.org)
  • INTERACTIVE computers used in British schools to teach children to read are harming their learning, research shows. (smh.com.au)
  • For more information about Reading Partners, please visit www.readingpartners.org . (idealist.org)
  • Internationally recognized organizations that award a Reading Certificate may apply to have their certificate program recognized as fulfilling the requirements of the reading endorsement by filling out this application . (fldoe.org)
  • Strong oral-storytelling skills in preschool lead to better reading scores for black boys later in elementary school, finds a new study in the journal Child Development. (edweek.org)
  • For boys, stronger oral-storytelling skills hurt reading skills in the early years, but the effect became positive as those boys progressed through elementary school. (edweek.org)
  • Researchers at Stanford University in Palo Alto, Calif., and Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel, tracked the growth of reading skills and brain development in 55 children ages 7 to 12 over three years. (edweek.org)
  • Major predictors of an individual's ability to read both alphabetic and non-alphabetic scripts are oral language skills, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and verbal IQ. (wikipedia.org)
  • We envision a future where all children in this nation have the reading skills they need to reach their full potential. (idealist.org)
  • Reading also invites your baby to look, point, touch, and answer questions - all of which promote social development and thinking skills. (kidshealth.org)
  • Prepare your preschooler for reading with fun Clifford games that offer practice with letter, phonics, and vocabulary skills! (scholastic.com)
  • DOG and early reading skills! (scholastic.com)
  • Reading reflections involve a range of higher order thinking skills. (carleton.edu)
  • Try Personal Readings and Get Real Answers from the World's best Psychics and Astrologers! (usmagazine.com)
  • Read stories based on reporting for "Trump Revealed," a broad, comprehensive biography of the life of the 45th president. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Read the Bible in the chronological order in which its stories and events occurred. (biblegateway.com)
  • Daily Bible readings that follow the church liturgical year, with sequential stories told across multiple weeks. (biblegateway.com)
  • Sure, he wasn't doing any of the actual reading (though he may've been following along a bit), but the characters and stories completely hooked him in. (wired.com)
  • However, research published in the journal Education 3 to 13 has found that pupils who use interactive programs cannot remember stories they have just read because they are distracted by cartoons and sound effects. (smh.com.au)
  • Teachers who are currently employed in a Florida school district may add the Reading Endorsement to their certificate through an approved district add-on program. (fldoe.org)
  • Teachers who have one of the approved certificates may apply to the Bureau of Certification to have the Reading Endorsement added to their Florida Teaching Certificate. (fldoe.org)
  • Proficient reading depends on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best of this year's CARLING WEEKEND: READING festival is to be shown on MTV2 tonight (September 11). (nme.com)
  • The reading process requires continuous practice, development, and refinement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Reading Room display structure is designed by New York/Brussels-based architectural practice common room. (moma.org)
  • Wendy's Subway is dedicated to encouraging creative, critical, and discursive engagement with arts and literature, in the belief that collaborative practice and equitable access to reading are catalysts for social transformation. (moma.org)
  • Your group may want to make these readings optional, or you may choose to integrate these readings more formally into your discussions. (pbs.org)
  • Reading comprehension is the ability to process text, understand its meaning, and to integrate with what the reader already knows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curious Mind-enjoy the stimulation that reading brings, improve your spelling and expand your vocabulary. (radionz.co.nz)
  • There are many reading strategies to improve reading comprehension and inferences, including improving one's vocabulary, critical text analysis (intertextuality, actual events vs. narration of events, etc.) and practicing deep reading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Look for reading readiness milestones in your pre-reader to ensure they are on track for reading success. (scholastic.com)
  • This is a general outline of the milestones on the road to reading success. (kidshealth.org)
  • As a leisure activity, children and adults read because it is pleasant and interesting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The online graduate program in reading education is designed to provide the necessary educational experiences for persons who are either preparing to or are already involved in working toward enhancing the reading, writing, and oral language competencies of children and adults. (etsu.edu)
  • But as my parents can attest, reading all those comics did one other important thing for me: it helped me learn to read. (wired.com)
  • In the fall of 2019, new pathways were identified for educators to obtain the Reading Endorsement. (fldoe.org)
  • But reading fast does not mean that we speed through and make mistakes and trying to figure them out and forgetting what we are reading. (auburn.edu)
  • Make that six -- he reads the American Banker every day too. (cnbc.com)
  • Discover how to make reading to your child a valuable learning moment with these great tips. (scholastic.com)
  • Reading the Bible is rewarding, and these plans make it easy! (biblegateway.com)
  • Reading this way can improve retention and make prepping for exams much easier. (smu.edu)
  • office spearheaded the effort to revise the Reading Endorsement in 2011 to incorporate new research conducted since the National Reading Panel Report. (fldoe.org)
  • Reading Endorsement State Board of Education Rule 6A-4.0163, F.A.C. (fldoe.org)
  • If you are currently employed by a school district in Florida and would like to attain the Reading Endorsement through the Reading Certification Exam, please visit the Florida Teacher Certification Examinations (FTCE) site to register for the Reading Certification Exam. (fldoe.org)
  • Elementary schools often have a reading specialist on staff. (kidshealth.org)
  • Her will was broken finally in the third grade by a reading specialist, armed with chocolate. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Thanks so much for your interest in Reading Partners-Tulsa. (idealist.org)
  • Scientists explore possibilities of mind reading At Yale University, researchers recently used a brain scanner to identify which face someone was looking about - just from their brain activity. (usatoday.com)
  • Mind reading technology isn't yet where the sci-fi thrillers predict it will go, but researchers like Just aren't ruling out such a future. (usatoday.com)
  • Kids whose parents frequently talk/read to them know more words by age 2 than children who have not been read to. (kidshealth.org)
  • Before the reintroduction of separated text in the late Middle Ages , the ability to read silently was considered rather remarkable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods described in this article facilitate determination of sequencing depth in the context of empirically defined read depth to achieve desired marker density for genetic mapping studies. (genetics.org)
  • Approximately 76% of potentially observable cut site-adjacent sequence fragments had no sequencing reads whereas a portion had substantially greater read depth than expected, up to 2369 times the expected mean. (genetics.org)
  • The Kings Road site that is the principal location of Reading College has been used for further education since 1955, when the Reading Technical College was opened. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010 the responsibility for further education, along with the Kings Road site, were transferred to a relaunched Reading College. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of visual word recognition studies how people read individual words. (wikipedia.org)
  • No one can read minds, but we can improve our ability to guess what people are thinking and feeling, and to know when what they say is not what they think. (psychologytoday.com)
  • But he prefers to envision a more positive one, with mind reading devices offering opportunities to people with disabilities - and the rest of us. (usatoday.com)
  • Although Bujor was born in Romania in 1989-the year Nicolae Ceausescu's regime fell-and never lived under a dictatorship, the story reads as an anti-totalitarian parable in which the Council deprives people "of their liberty, their dreams, their ambition. (villagevoice.com)
  • Research has proven that in a typical year, summer reading supports skill gains, and its absence leads to widening skill gaps. (scholastic.com)
  • Reading to young children is a recommended way to instill language and expression, and to promote comprehension of text. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning at the beginning and reading through to the end is not always the best way to approach a text. (smu.edu)
  • and "Do I need to read the entire text? (wikipedia.org)
  • Reading comprehension is the level of understanding of a text/message. (wikipedia.org)
  • He can imagine a terrifying version of that future, where officials read minds in order to gain control over them. (usatoday.com)