A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Loss of the power to comprehend written materials despite preservation of the ability to write (i.e., alexia without agraphia). This condition is generally attributed to lesions that "disconnect" the visual cortex of the non-dominant hemisphere from language centers in the dominant hemisphere. This may occur when a dominant visual cortex injury is combined with underlying white matter lesions that involve crossing fibers from the occipital lobe of the opposite hemisphere. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p483)
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Performance, usually in school work, poorer than that predicted from aptitude and/or intelligence testing.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.

Increased reading speed for stories presented during general anesthesia. (1/1886)

BACKGROUND: In the absence of explicit memories such as the recall and recognition of intraoperative events, memory of auditory information played during general anesthesia has been demonstrated with several tests of implicit memory. In contrast to explicit memory, which requires conscious recollection, implicit memory does not require recollection of previous experiences and is evidenced by a priming effect on task performance. The authors evaluated the effect of a standardized anesthetic technique on implicit memory, first using a word stem completion task, and then a reading speed task in a subsequent study. METHODS: While undergoing lumbar disc surgery, 60 patients were exposed to auditory materials via headphones in two successive experiments. A balanced intravenous technique with propofol and alfentanil infusions and a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture was used to maintain adequate anesthesia. In the first experiment, 30 patients were exposed randomly to one of the two lists of 34 repeated German nouns; in the second experiment, 30 patients were exposed to one of two tapes containing two short stories. Thirty control patients for each experiment heard the tapes without receiving anesthesia. All patients were tested for implicit memory 6-8 h later: A word stem completion task for the words and a reading speed task for the stories were used as measures of implicit memory. RESULTS: The control group completed the word stems significantly more often with the words that they had heard previously, but no such effect was found in the anesthetized group. However, both the control and patient groups showed a decreased reading time of about 40 ms per word for the previously presented stories compared with the new stories. The patients had no explicit memory of intraoperative events. CONCLUSIONS: Implicit memory was demonstrated after anesthesia by the reading speed task but not by the word stem completion task. Some methodologic aspects, such as using low frequency words or varying study and test modalities, may account for the negative results of the word stem completion task. Another explanation is that anesthesia with propofol, alfentanil, and nitrous oxide suppressed the word priming but not the reading speed measure of implicit memory. The reading speed paradigm seems to provide a stable and reliable measurement of implicit memory.  (+info)

Readability of patient information leaflets on antiepileptic drugs in the UK. (2/1886)

The Audit Commission in the UK recommends that patient information leaflets (PILs) should be audited by health professionals using a formal readability test. However, no such study on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been identified in a Medline search. The aim of this study was to audit the readability of PILs prepared for marketed proprietary AEDs in the UK. Twelve PILs were compared with six antiepileptic drug articles from medical journals and six headline articles from UK newspapers. The Gunning Fog index and the Flesch Reading Ease index were calculated for each PIL and article. The results of the Gunning Fog index and the Flesch Reading Ease score were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. PILs were shown to have a statistically significant lower mean reading age than the medical articles and newspapers (P < 0.001). The Gunning Fog index and Flesch Reading Ease score showed that PILs had a mean reading age of 8.8 and mean readability score of 69, respectively. In conclusion, the PILs prepared for proprietary antiepileptic drugs in the UK are suitable for the reading age of the general adult population.  (+info)

Characteristics of discrepancies between self-reported visual function and measured reading speed. Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project Team. (3/1886)

PURPOSE: Visual impairment is a risk factor for morbidity in the elderly and is often screened for by self-report. This study evaluates whether there are subsets for whom there is a discrepancy between self-reported and measured function. METHODS: The prevalence of a discrepancy between self-reported difficulty reading a newspaper and measured reading speed was determined in 2520 community-based men and women, aged 65 to 84 years, and the discrepant group characterized by polychotomous regression. RESULTS: Of subjects who reported minimal difficulty reading a newspaper, 10.8% (227/2107) read newsprint-sized text (0.21 degrees) more slowly than 80 words/min, a level previously shown to be necessary for sustained reading. Poor visual acuity, presence of psychiatric symptoms, and less satisfaction with vision were associated with being in the group that read slowly and reported difficulty with reading. Better cognition, better visual acuity, more years of education, white race, and fewer psychiatric symptoms were associated with being in the group that read more quickly and reported minimal difficulty. When reading the text size at which subjects read their fastest, only 2.6% of those with minimal difficulty remained discrepant. These individuals were more likely to have less education, be male, be African American, and have poorer cognitive status than those who did not remain discrepant. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of the elderly population have a substantial discrepancy between self-reported reading difficulty and measured reading speed. In some, this discrepancy may be based on underlying expectations and experiences, and in others it may represent a transition from no visual impairment to visual impairment.  (+info)

Plasticity of language-related brain function during recovery from stroke. (4/1886)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic, physiological, and functional changes as measured by MRI. METHODS: Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast and echo-planar MRI were used to map language comprehension in 6 normal adults and in 2 adult patients during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia. Perfusion, diffusion, sodium, and conventional anatomic MRI were used to follow physiological and structural changes. RESULTS: The normal activation pattern for language comprehension showed activation predominately in left-sided Wernicke's and Broca's areas, with laterality ratios of 0.8 and 0.3, respectively. Recovery of the patient confirmed as having a completed stroke affecting Broca's area occurred rapidly with a shift of activation to the homologous region in the right hemisphere within 3 days, with continued rightward lateralization over 6 months. In the second patient, in whom mapping was performed fortuitously before stroke, recovery of a Wernicke's aphasia showed a similar increasing rightward shift in activation recruitment over 9 months after the event. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of aphasia in adults can occur rapidly and is concomitant with an activation pattern that changes from left to a homologous right hemispheric pattern. Such recovery occurs even when the stroke evolves to completion. Such plasticity must be considered when evaluating stroke interventions based on behavioral and neurological measurements.  (+info)

Unidirectional dyslexia in a polyglot. (5/1886)

Alexia is usually seen after ischaemic insults to the dominant parietal lobe. A patient is described with a particular alexia to reading Hebrew (right to left), whereas no alexia was noted when reading in English. This deficit evolved after a hypertensive right occipitoparietal intracerebral haemorrhage, and resolved gradually over the ensuing year as the haematoma was resorbed. The deficit suggests the existence of a separate, language associated, neuronal network within the right hemisphere important to different language reading modes.  (+info)

Cortical auditory signal processing in poor readers. (6/1886)

Magnetoencephalographic responses recorded from auditory cortex evoked by brief and rapidly successive stimuli differed between adults with poor vs. good reading abilities in four important ways. First, the response amplitude evoked by short-duration acoustic stimuli was stronger in the post-stimulus time range of 150-200 ms in poor readers than in normal readers. Second, response amplitude to rapidly successive and brief stimuli that were identical or that differed significantly in frequency were substantially weaker in poor readers compared with controls, for interstimulus intervals of 100 or 200 ms, but not for an interstimulus interval of 500 ms. Third, this neurological deficit closely paralleled subjects' ability to distinguish between and to reconstruct the order of presentation of those stimulus sequences. Fourth, the average distributed response coherence evoked by rapidly successive stimuli was significantly weaker in the beta- and gamma-band frequency ranges (20-60 Hz) in poor readers, compared with controls. These results provide direct electrophysiological evidence supporting the hypothesis that reading disabilities are correlated with the abnormal neural representation of brief and rapidly successive sensory inputs, manifested in this study at the entry level of the cortical auditory/aural speech representational system(s).  (+info)

Reading with simulated scotomas: attending to the right is better than attending to the left. (7/1886)

Persons with central field loss must learn to read using eccentric retina. To do this, most adopt a preferred retinal locus (PRL), which substitutes for the fovea. Patients who have central field loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), most often adopt PRL adjacent to and to the left of their scotoma in visual field space. It has been hypothesized that this arrangement of PRL and scotoma would benefit reading. We tested this hypothesis by asking normally-sighted subjects to read with the left or right half of their visual field plus 3.2 degrees in the contralateral field masked from view. Letter identification, word identification, and reading were all slower when only the information in the left visual field was available. This was primarily due to the number of saccades required to successfully read to stimuli. These data imply that patients would be better off with PRL to the right of their scotoma than to the left for the purposes of reading.  (+info)

Reading with central field loss: number of letters masked is more important than the size of the mask in degrees. (8/1886)

When the center of a readers, visual field is blocked from view, reading rates decline and eye movement patterns change. This is true whether the central visual field is blocked artificially (i.e. a mask) or through disease (e.g. a retinal scotoma due to macular degeneration). In past studies, when mask size was defined in terms of the number of letters masked from view, reading rates declined sharply as number of letters masked increased. Patients with larger central scotomas (in degrees of visual angle) also read slower. We sought to determine whether number of letters masked or size of the mask in degrees is the predominant factor affecting reading rates and eye movement behavior. By matching number of letters masked across several mask sizes (and compensating for reduced acuity in the periphery), we found that number of letters masked is the more important factor until mask size is quite large (> or = -7.5 degrees) and number of letters masked from view is more than seven.  (+info)

The symptoms of dyslexia can vary from person to person, but may include:

* Difficulty with phonological awareness (the ability to identify and manipulate the sounds within words)
* Trouble with decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling)
* Slow reading speed
* Difficulty with comprehension of text
* Difficulty with writing skills, including grammar, punctuation, and spelling
* Trouble with organization and time management

Dyslexia can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist or learning specialist, through a series of tests and assessments. These may include:

* Reading and spelling tests
* Tests of phonological awareness
* Tests of comprehension and vocabulary
* Behavioral observations

There is no cure for dyslexia, but there are a variety of strategies and interventions that can help individuals with dyslexia to improve their reading and writing skills. These may include:

* Multisensory instruction (using sight, sound, and touch to learn)
* Orton-Gillingham approach (a specific type of multisensory instruction)
* Assistive technology (such as text-to-speech software)
* Accommodations (such as extra time to complete assignments)
* Tutoring and mentoring

It is important to note that dyslexia is not a result of poor intelligence or inadequate instruction, but rather a neurological difference that affects the way an individual processes information. With appropriate support and accommodations, individuals with dyslexia can be successful in school and beyond.

The symptoms of acquired dyslexia may be similar to those of developmental dyslexia, including difficulties with phonological processing, working memory, and language processing. However, individuals with acquired dyslexia may also experience a range of other cognitive impairments, such as difficulty with attention, memory, or executive functions.

The exact causes of acquired dyslexia are not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be related to changes in the brain's language processing networks that occur as a result of brain damage or other forms of cognitive impairment. Treatment for acquired dyslexia typically involves a multimodal approach, including cognitive rehabilitation and remediation strategies tailored to the individual's specific needs and abilities.

Low vision is not the same as blindness, but it does affect an individual's ability to perform daily activities such as reading, driving, and recognizing faces. The condition can be treated with low vision aids such as specialized glasses, telescopes, and video magnifiers that enhance visual acuity and improve the ability to see objects and details more clearly.

In the medical field, Low Vision is often used interchangeably with the term "visual impairment" which refers to any degree of vision loss that cannot be corrected by regular glasses or contact lenses. Visual impairment can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life.

Low Vision is a common condition among older adults, with approximately 20% of people over the age of 65 experiencing some degree of visual impairment. However, Low Vision can also affect younger individuals, particularly those with certain eye conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa or other inherited eye disorders.

Overall, Low Vision is a condition that affects an individual's ability to see clearly and perform daily activities, and it is important for individuals experiencing vision loss to seek medical attention to determine the cause of their symptoms and explore available treatment options.

Scotoma is a term that was first used in the early 19th century to describe blind spots in the visual field caused by defects in the retina or optic nerve. Over time, the term has been broadened to include any type of blind spot or defect in the visual field, regardless of its cause.

There are several different types of scotomas, including:

1. Homonymous hemianopsia: A condition in which there is a blind spot in one side of both eyes, causing difficulty with recognizing objects and people on that side.
2. Hemianopia: A condition in which there is a blind spot in one half of both eyes, often caused by a stroke or brain injury.
3. Quadrantanopia: A condition in which there is a blind spot in one quarter of both eyes, often caused by a stroke or brain injury.
4. Scanning vision: A condition in which the visual field appears to be scanned or sectioned off, often caused by a brain disorder such as multiple sclerosis.
5. Blind spot scotoma: A condition in which there is a small blind spot in the central part of the visual field, often caused by a lesion in the retina or optic nerve.

Scotomas can have a significant impact on daily life, making it difficult to perform everyday tasks such as driving, reading, and recognizing faces. Treatment options for scotomas depend on the underlying cause and may include prism glasses, vision therapy, or surgery. In some cases, scotomas may be a sign of a more serious condition that requires medical attention.

The name Alexia, Pure is derived from the Greek words "alexia," meaning "without word" or "dumbness," and "pure," indicating that the condition is purely genetic in origin. The term was coined by researchers to describe this specific syndrome, which was first identified in the early 2000s.

AP is caused by a mutation in the SLC25A4 gene, which codes for an protein involved in the transport of molecules across mitochondrial membranes. This mutation leads to a deficiency of the protein, which disrupts the normal functioning of mitochondria and causes the neurodegenerative symptoms associated with AP.

There is currently no cure for Alexia, Pure, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and providing supportive care to affected individuals and their families. Research into the genetic mechanisms underlying the condition is ongoing, with the goal of developing new and more effective therapies in the future.

There are several types of learning disorders, including:

1. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing letters, sounds, or word patterns.
2. Dyscalculia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. Individuals with dyscalculia may have difficulty with numbers, quantities, or mathematical concepts.
3. Dysgraphia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to write and spell words. Individuals with dysgraphia may have difficulty with hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, or language processing.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to focus, pay attention, and regulate their behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with organization, time management, or following instructions.
5. Auditory Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand auditory information. Individuals with auditory processing disorder may have difficulty with listening, comprehension, or speech skills.
6. Visual Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand visual information. Individuals with visual processing disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or other tasks that require visual processing.
7. Executive Function Deficits: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan, organize, and execute tasks. Individuals with executive function deficits may have difficulty with time management, organization, or self-regulation.

Learning disorders can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist, through a comprehensive assessment that includes cognitive and academic testing, as well as a review of the individual's medical and educational history. The specific tests and assessments used will depend on the suspected type of learning disorder and the individual's age and background.

There are several approaches to treating learning disorders, including:

1. Accommodations: Providing individuals with accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the option to take a test orally, can help level the playing field and enable them to succeed academically.
2. Modifications: Making modifications to the curriculum or instructional methods can help individuals with learning disorders access the material and learn in a way that is tailored to their needs.
3. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of therapy can help individuals with learning disorders develop strategies for managing their challenges and improving their academic performance.
4. Assistive technology: Assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech-to-text software, can help individuals with learning disorders access information and communicate more effectively.
5. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms associated with learning disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. Multi-sensory instruction: Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to learn new information can be helpful for individuals with learning disorders.
7. Self-accommodations: Teaching individuals with learning disorders how to identify and use their own strengths and preferences to accommodate their challenges can be effective in helping them succeed academically.
8. Parental involvement: Encouraging parents to be involved in their child's education and providing them with information and resources can help them support their child's learning and development.
9. Collaboration: Collaborating with other educators, professionals, and family members to develop a comprehensive treatment plan can help ensure that the individual receives the support they need to succeed academically.

It is important to note that each individual with a learning disorder is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by a qualified professional is necessary to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.

The exact causes of dyscalculia are not yet fully understood, but research suggests that it may be related to difficulties with working memory, processing speed, and/or language processing. Dyscalculia is not the result of poor instruction or a lack of effort, and individuals with dyscalculia can have average to above-average intelligence and cognitive abilities in other areas.

Dyscalculia can be diagnosed by a qualified professional, such as a psychologist or neuropsychologist, through a series of tests and assessments that evaluate an individual's math skills and cognitive abilities. There is no cure for dyscalculia, but there are many strategies and interventions that can help individuals with dyscalculia to improve their math skills and overcome their challenges. These may include one-on-one tutoring, adaptive technology, and multisensory instructional approaches that engage both visual and auditory learning pathways.

Some common signs of dyscalculia include:

* Difficulty with basic math facts, such as counting money or telling time
* Struggling with mental math or calculation in their head
* Difficulty understanding mathematical concepts, such as fractions, decimals, or percentages
* Trouble with more complex math problems, such as algebra and geometry
* Difficulty following instructions or completing tasks that involve math
* Avoidance of math-related activities or anxiety related to math
* Difficulty with organizational skills and time management

It is important to note that dyscalculia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, and it is not the result of poor instruction or a lack of effort. With proper diagnosis and intervention, individuals with dyscalculia can learn to overcome their challenges and succeed in math and other areas of life.

Types of Language Disorders:

1. Developmental Language Disorder (DLD): This is a condition where children have difficulty learning language skills, such as grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure, despite being exposed to language in their environment. DLD can be diagnosed in children between the ages of 2 and 5.
2. Acquired Language Disorder: This is a condition that occurs when an individual experiences brain damage or injury that affects their ability to understand and produce language. Acquired language disorders can be caused by stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurological conditions.
3. Aphasia: This is a condition that occurs when an individual experiences damage to the language areas of their brain, typically as a result of stroke or traumatic brain injury. Aphasia can affect an individual's ability to understand, speak, read, and write language.
4. Dysarthria: This is a condition that affects an individual's ability to produce speech sounds due to weakness, paralysis, or incoordination of the muscles used for speaking. Dysarthria can be caused by stroke, cerebral palsy, or other neurological conditions.
5. Apraxia: This is a condition that affects an individual's ability to coordinate the movements of their lips, tongue, and jaw to produce speech sounds. Apraxia can be caused by stroke, head injury, or other neurological conditions.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetic factors: Some language disorders may be inherited from parents or grandparents.
2. Brain damage or injury: Stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurological conditions can cause acquired language disorders.
3. Developmental delays: Children with developmental delays or disorders, such as autism or Down syndrome, may experience language disorders.
4. Hearing loss or impairment: Children who have difficulty hearing may experience language delays or disorders.
5. Environmental factors: Poverty, poor nutrition, and limited access to educational resources can contribute to language disorders in children.

Signs and Symptoms:

1. Difficulty articulating words or sentences
2. Slurred or distorted speech
3. Limited vocabulary or grammar skills
4. Difficulty understanding spoken language
5. Avoidance of speaking or social interactions
6. Behavioral difficulties, such as aggression or frustration
7. Delayed language development in children
8. Difficulty with reading and writing skills

Treatment and Interventions:

1. Speech therapy: A speech-language pathologist (SLP) can work with individuals to improve their language skills through exercises, activities, and strategies.
2. Cognitive training: Individuals with language disorders may benefit from cognitive training programs that target attention, memory, and other cognitive skills.
3. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices: These devices can help individuals with severe language disorders communicate more effectively.
4. Behavioral interventions: Behavioral therapy can help individuals with language disorders manage their behavior and improve their social interactions.
5. Family support: Family members can provide support and encouragement to individuals with language disorders, which can help improve outcomes.
6. Educational accommodations: Individuals with language disorders may be eligible for educational accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the use of a tape recorder during lectures.
7. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms of language disorders, such as anxiety or depression.

Prognosis and Quality of Life:

The prognosis for individuals with language disorders varies depending on the severity of their condition and the effectiveness of their treatment. With appropriate support and intervention, many individuals with language disorders are able to improve their language skills and lead fulfilling lives. However, some individuals may experience ongoing challenges with communication and social interaction, which can impact their quality of life.

In conclusion, language disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's ability to communicate and interact with others. While there is no cure for language disorders, there are many effective treatments and interventions that can help improve outcomes. With appropriate support and accommodations, individuals with language disorders can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

There are several types of deafness, including:

1. Conductive hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by problems with the middle ear, including the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. It can be treated with hearing aids or surgery.
2. Sensorineural hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. It is typically permanent and cannot be treated with medication or surgery.
3. Mixed hearing loss: This type of deafness is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
4. Auditory processing disorder (APD): This is a condition in which the brain has difficulty processing sounds, even though the ears are functioning normally.
5. Tinnitus: This is a condition characterized by ringing or other sounds in the ears when there is no external source of sound. It can be a symptom of deafness or a separate condition.

There are several ways to diagnose deafness, including:

1. Hearing tests: These can be done in a doctor's office or at a hearing aid center. They involve listening to sounds through headphones and responding to them.
2. Imaging tests: These can include X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to look for any physical abnormalities in the ear or brain.
3. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing: This is a test that measures the electrical activity of the brain in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.
4. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) testing: This is a test that measures the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.

There are several ways to treat deafness, including:

1. Hearing aids: These are devices that amplify sound and can be worn in or behind the ear. They can help improve hearing for people with mild to severe hearing loss.
2. Cochlear implants: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve. They can help restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss.
3. Speech therapy: This can help people with hearing loss improve their communication skills, such as speaking and listening.
4. Assistive technology: This can include devices such as captioned phones, alerting systems, and assistive listening devices that can help people with hearing loss communicate more effectively.
5. Medications: There are several medications available that can help treat deafness, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections or steroids to reduce inflammation.
6. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat deafness, such as when there is a blockage in the ear or when a tumor is present.
7. Stem cell therapy: This is a relatively new area of research that involves using stem cells to repair damaged hair cells in the inner ear. It has shown promising results in some studies.
8. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to repair or replace damaged or missing genes that can cause deafness. It is still an experimental area of research, but it has shown promise in some studies.
9. Implantable devices: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can help restore hearing by bypassing damaged hair cells. Examples include cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants.
10. Binaural hearing: This involves using a combination of hearing aids and technology to improve hearing in both ears, which can help improve speech recognition and reduce the risk of falls.

It's important to note that the best treatment for deafness will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and personal preferences. It's important to work with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.

There are several types of LDDs, including:

1. Expressive Language Disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty with verbal expression, including difficulty with word choice, sentence structure, and coherence.
2. Receptive Language Disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty with understanding spoken language, including difficulty with comprehending vocabulary, grammar, and tone of voice.
3. Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder: This condition is characterized by both receptive and expressive language difficulties.
4. Language Processing Disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty with processing language, including difficulty with auditory processing, syntax, and semantics.
5. Social Communication Disorder: This condition is characterized by difficulty with social communication, including difficulty with understanding and using language in social contexts, eye contact, facial expressions, and body language.

Causes of LDDs include:

1. Genetic factors: Some LDDs may be inherited from parents or grandparents.
2. Brain injury: Traumatic brain injury or stroke can damage the areas of the brain responsible for language processing.
3. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can damage the brain and result in LDDs.
4. Nutritional deficiencies: Severe malnutrition or a lack of certain nutrients, such as vitamin B12, can lead to LDDs.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, such as lead, and poverty can increase the risk of developing an LDD.

Signs and symptoms of LDDs include:

1. Difficulty with word retrieval
2. Incomplete or inappropriate sentences
3. Difficulty with comprehension
4. Limited vocabulary
5. Difficulty with understanding abstract concepts
6. Difficulty with social communication
7. Delayed language development compared to peers
8. Difficulty with speech sounds and articulation
9. Stuttering or repetition of words
10. Limited eye contact and facial expressions

Treatment for LDDs depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Speech and language therapy to improve communication skills
2. Cognitive training to improve problem-solving and memory skills
3. Occupational therapy to improve daily living skills
4. Physical therapy to improve mobility and balance
5. Medication to manage symptoms such as anxiety or depression
6. Surgery to repair any physical abnormalities or damage to the brain.

It is important to note that each individual with an LDD may have a unique combination of strengths, weaknesses, and challenges, and treatment plans should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Early diagnosis and intervention are key to improving outcomes for individuals with LDDs.

Agraphia can result from various causes such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), or tumors. The symptoms of agraphia may include difficulty with writing words, inability to initiate writing, poor handwriting, and difficulty with spelling and grammar.

In some cases, agraphia can be seen as a symptom of a larger neurological disorder, such as aphasia, which is a language disorder that affects both speaking and understanding language. Treatment for agraphia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as physical therapy to improve hand function or speech therapy to improve language skills. In some cases, adaptive writing tools or technology may also be helpful.

Articulation disorders can be classified into different types based on the severity and nature of the speech difficulties. Some common types of articulation disorders include:

1. Articulation errors: These occur when individuals produce speech sounds differently than the expected norm, such as pronouncing "k" and "s" sounds as "t" or "z."
2. Speech sound distortions: This type of disorder involves the exaggeration or alteration of speech sounds, such as speaking with a lisp or a nasal tone.
3. Speech articulation anomalies: These are abnormalities in the production of speech sounds that do not fit into any specific category, such as difficulty pronouncing certain words or sounds.
4. Apraxia of speech: This is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to plan and execute voluntary movements of the articulators (lips, tongue, jaw), resulting in distorted or slurred speech.
5. Dysarthria: This is a speech disorder characterized by weakness, slowness, or incoordination of the muscles used for speaking, often caused by a neurological condition such as a stroke or cerebral palsy.

Articulation disorders can be diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) through a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's speech and language skills. The SLP may use standardized assessments, clinical observations, and interviews with the individual and their family to determine the nature and severity of the articulation disorder.

Treatment for articulation disorders typically involves speech therapy with an SLP, who will work with the individual to improve their speech skills through a series of exercises and activities tailored to their specific needs. Treatment may focus on improving the accuracy and clarity of speech sounds, increasing speech rate and fluency, and enhancing communication skills.

In addition to speech therapy, other interventions that may be helpful for individuals with articulation disorders include:

1. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems: For individuals with severe articulation disorders or those who have difficulty using speech to communicate, AAC systems such as picture communication symbols or electronic devices can provide an alternative means of communication.
2. Supportive technology: Assistive devices such as speech-generating devices, text-to-speech software, and other technology can help individuals with articulation disorders to communicate more effectively.
3. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT): This type of therapy focuses on improving the communication skills of young children with articulation disorders by training parents to use play-based activities and strategies to enhance their child's speech and language development.
4. Social skills training: For individuals with articulation disorders who also have difficulty with social interactions, social skills training can help them develop better communication and social skills.
5. Cognitive communication therapy: This type of therapy focuses on improving the cognitive processes that underlie communication, such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills.
6. Articulation therapy: This type of therapy focuses specifically on improving articulation skills, and may involve exercises and activities to strengthen the muscles used for speech production.
7. Stuttering modification therapy: For individuals who stutter, this type of therapy can help them learn to speak more fluently and with less effort.
8. Voice therapy: This type of therapy can help individuals with voice disorders to improve their vocal quality and communication skills.
9. Counseling and psychotherapy: For individuals with articulation disorders who are experiencing emotional or psychological distress, counseling and psychotherapy can be helpful in addressing these issues and improving overall well-being.

It's important to note that the most effective treatment approach will depend on the specific needs and goals of the individual with an articulation disorder, as well as their age, severity of symptoms, and other factors. A speech-language pathologist can work with the individual and their family to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their unique needs and helps them achieve their communication goals.

There are several causes of hemianopsia, including:

1. Stroke or cerebral vasculitis: These conditions can damage the occipital lobe and result in hemianopsia.
2. Brain tumors: Tumors in the occipital lobe can cause hemianopsia by compressing or damaging the visual pathways.
3. Traumatic brain injury: A head injury can cause damage to the occipital lobe and result in hemianopsia.
4. Cerebral palsy: This condition can cause brain damage that leads to hemianopsia.
5. Multiple sclerosis: This autoimmune disease can cause damage to the visual pathways and result in hemianopsia.

Symptoms of hemianopsia may include:

1. Blindness or impaired vision in one side of both eyes.
2. Difficulty recognizing objects or people on one side of the visual field.
3. Inability to see objects that are peripheral to the affected side.
4. Difficulty with depth perception and spatial awareness.
5. Eye movements that are abnormal or restricted.

Diagnosis of hemianopsia typically involves a comprehensive eye exam, including visual acuity testing, visual field testing, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans to evaluate the brain. Treatment options for hemianopsia depend on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors.
2. Prism lenses to realign the visual image.
3. Visual therapy to improve remaining vision.
4. Medications to treat underlying conditions such as multiple sclerosis or brain tumors.
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or relieve pressure on the brain.

It is important to note that hemianopsia can significantly impact daily life and may affect an individual's ability to perform certain tasks, such as driving or reading. However, with proper diagnosis and treatment, many people with hemianopsia are able to adapt and lead fulfilling lives.

"The Science of Reading". The Reading League. "Science of reading eBook, The reading league" (PDF). "Science for Early Literacy ... Read' , meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary". "What is reading? Reading Rockets". 24 April 2013. "National reading ... "NAEP Reading 2019 Highlights". "Teaching, Reading, and Learning: The Reading League Podcast". "NAEP Reading: State Average ... In the United States, Guided Reading is part of the Reading Workshop model of reading instruction. The reading workshop model ...
The viaduct was built by the Reading Company as an approach to the new Reading Terminal. The viaduct heads north from Reading ... The Philadelphia and Reading Terminal Railroad was incorporated on April 13, 1888, leased by the Philadelphia and Reading ... Reading Company lines, Reading Railroad bridges, Urban public parks, Viaducts in the United States, Pages using the ... The Reading Viaduct, also called The Rail Park, is a disused elevated rail line in the Callowhill district of Philadelphia that ...
"Speed Reading Tip: A Study on 7 Reading Strategies To Read More Proficiently - Read Write Work". speedreadinfo.com. 15 August ... Reading different types of texts requires the use of different reading strategies and approaches. Making reading an active, ... There are a wide range of reading strategies suggested by reading programs and educators. Effective reading strategies may ... Partner reading is a strategy created for pairs. The teacher chooses two appropriate books for the students to read. First, the ...
Generation Online: How to Read Marx's Capital Liberation School: Reading Capital with Comrades (Articles with short description ... Reading Capital (French: Lire le Capital) is a 1965 book about the philosopher Karl Marx's Das Kapital by the philosophers ... The appearance of Reading Capital and For Marx in English translation influenced the development of Marxist thought in the ... William S. Lewis described Reading Capital as the culmination of the rereading of Marx that Althusser began in 1953. He ...
Reading, Pennsylvania: March 9, 1882. Stahr, Samuel A. Reading Artillerists in Reading Times. Reading, Pennsylvania: April 26, ... Reading, Pennsylvania: August 2, 1886. Reading Artillerists, in Reading Times. Reading, Pennsylvania: January 7, February 15, ... Reading Artillerists, Attention!, in Reading Times. Reading, Pennsylvania: September 12, 1861. Reading Artillerists, Condensed ... Reading, Pennsylvania: Press of James E. Norton & Co., 1897. Reading Artillerist articles and meeting notices, The Reading ...
This is the slowest form of reading. Auditory reading: hearing out the read words. This is a faster process. Visual reading: ... Speed reading is any of many techniques claiming to improve one's ability to read quickly. Speed-reading methods include ... In speed reading practice this is done through multiple reading processes: preview, overview, read, review and recite; and by ... Critics point out that it is possible to beat some speed reading world records by reading a pre-read or pre-memorized text, ...
... ". British Geological Survey. Retrieved 5 February 2016. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Woolwich-and-Reading ... The Reading Formation is a geologic formation in southern England. It dates to the Paleocene period, and is part of the Lambeth ... the Surrey whitewares pottery kilns were located near the Reading Formation, most notably the area between Farnham and Tongham ...
Most billet reading is an example of a generalized class of tricks known as "one ahead" reading. It is accomplished by having ... Billet reading, or the envelope trick, is a mentalist effect in which a performer pretends to use clairvoyance to read messages ... The mentalist then selects the next envelope and proceeds to mind-read the contents of the rest, one by one. Billet reading has ... The mentalist pretends to mind read it, but reads aloud the statement from the envelope previously opened. This time a real ...
In 1976, The Reading Railroad was acquired by Conrail, which continued to use the line as a conduit between North Jersey and ... The Reading Line is a main freight line in Pennsylvania owned and operated by Norfolk Southern Railway. It stretches from the ... On March 14, 2018, Norfolk Southern increased speeds along the Reading Line from 50 mph (80 km/h) to 60 mph (97 km/h) at 33 ... This railroad became part of the Reading Railroad, and carried traffic from the Allentown area to their main line. ...
The Reading Express were a professional indoor football team based in Reading, Pennsylvania. They were most recently a member ... The team was originally going to be named the Reading RiverRats, but passed on that name in favor of the "Reading Express." The ... Reading Eagle. Retrieved March 27, 2015. Official Site of the Reading Express Express' 2006 Season & Results Official Site of ... Shawn Liotta (August 18, 2010). "Reading Express Moving to IFL". www.shawnliotta.com. The Twenty Eleven Theme. Retrieved March ...
"READING REBELS Se anuncia nuevo equipo profesional de baloncesto en Reading". WFMZ69. March 1, 2021. "Reading Rebels pro ... The Reading Rebels are a professional basketball team in Reading, Pennsylvania, and members of The Basketball League (TBL). On ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Sports in Reading, Pennsylvania, Basketball teams ... March 1, 2021 it was announced that Reading, Pennsylvania would be awarded a franchise for the upcoming 2022 TBL season. On ...
... at World Athletics Brendon Reading at Australian Athletics Historical Results Brendon Reading at Olympedia ... Brendon Reading (born 26 January 1989) is an Australian racewalker. He competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, ... "Brendon Reading". rio2016.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016. ... Brendon Reading at the Australian Olympic Committee v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ...
... (run by the Reading Museum Service) is a museum of the history of the town of Reading, in the English county of ... "Story of Reading Gallery". Reading Museum. 12 December 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2020. Britain's Bayeux Tapestry at the Reading ... Museum of Reading website The Window Gallery - Museum of Reading website "Opening times". Reading Museum. 31 March 2017. ... Reading Museum, Culture24, UK. "Open of New Public Building". Reading Mercury. 3 June 1882.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status ...
The Reading Company initially assigned to pull heavy freight trains on the Reading's Branch lines, and sometimes, on the Main ... In September 1945, 2045 became the very first I10sa to be moved inside the Reading's own locomotive shops in Reading to be ... "Up Close and Personal With the Reading 2100". 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2022-03-12. Reading T-1 No. 2100--60 MPH pacing on the Ohio ... Reading 1187 Reading 1251 Grand Trunk Western 6325 Canadian National 6060 Spokane, Portland and Seattle 700 "Philadelphia & ...
... Quarter Reading Museum blog posts on Reading Abbey Catholic Encyclopedia: Reading Abbey Friends of Reading Abbey ... Reading, Berkshire: Scallop Shell Press. ISBN 978-0957277274. Cram, Leslie (1988). Reading Abbey. Reading, Berkshire: Reading ... Reading: Reading Museum and Art Gallery. p. 13. Charles Tomkins, Views of Reading abbey, with those of the churches originally ... "Reading Abbey Quarter - The Vision". Reading Museum. Retrieved 15 September 2016. "Reading Abbey Re-Opened to the Public". ...
... (ISBN 0-201-79940-5) is a 2003 software development book written by Diomidis Spinellis. The book is directed to ... It discusses specific techniques for reading code written by others and outlines common programming concepts. The code examples ... programmers who want to improve their code reading abilities. ...
Poetry readings almost always involve poets reading their own work or reciting it from memory but readings often involve ... A public reading is typically given on a small stage in a café or bookstore, although reading by prominent poets frequently are ... A poetry reading is a public oral recitation or performance of poetry. Reading poetry aloud allows the reader to express their ... A poetry reading typically takes place on a small stage in a café or bookstore where multiple poets recite their own work. A ...
"Patrick Reading signs for United". Ayr United F.C. Retrieved 21 July 2020. Patrick Reading at the Scottish Football Association ... Patrick James Reading (born 29 May 1999) is a Scottish professional footballer who plays for Ayr United, as a left-back. ... Reading spent his youth career at Middlesbrough, before he joined Stevenage on 31 January 2020. He was released by Stevenage at ... "Stevenage: Ben Folami, Canice Carroll & Patrick Reading join League Two strugglers". 31 January 2020 - via www.bbc.co.uk. " ...
"Reading Hospital adds 6 academic programs". Reading Eagle. "Accreditations & Affiliations , Reading Hospital". reading. ... The Reading Dispensary opened in downtown Reading on Jan. 27, 1868, and moved to northwest Reading in 1886 under its new name, ... reading.towerhealth.org. Archived from the original on 2019-10-08. "Residencies". Reading Health. "PCOM/Reading Hospital and ... The Reading Hospital is a 738-bed non-profit teaching hospital located in the borough of West Reading, in the US state of ...
The Reading Open was a golf tournament on the PGA Tour that was played in Reading, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s and early ... "Hogan Cops Reading Open; Has 8-Under-Par Round". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. July 26, 1948. p. 15. "Reading Open to Harrison". ... "Turnesa Wins Reading Open". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. September 24, 1951. "Snead Sets Record , Wins Reading Golf". Pittsburgh ... "Middlecoff, Reading Golf Winner, En Route Here". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. July 11, 1949. p. 20. " ...
Sir Robert Reading, first and last Baronet Reading, (c. 1640 - c. March 1689) built several privately owned lighthouses in ... "Sir Robert Reading, 1st and last Bt". The Peerage.[unreliable source] 'Volume 91: 16 June - 19 October 1704', Calendar of ... He was made 1st Baronet Reading of Dublin on 27 August 1675. On his death, he was buried in Newark, Nottinghamshire. The ... off 24 January 1683/4) Elizabeth (then aged about 15), only child of Robert Reading, of Dublin, Bart. (so created 1675) ..." " ...
In 1973, Reading left America for the United Kingdom. She recorded an LP, 'Wilma Reading' at EMI's studios at Abbey Road. She ... Reading began her singing career in 1959 after singing for friends at a Brisbane jazz club. Reading performed on The Tonight ... In August 2019, Reading was inducted into the National Indigenous Music Awards Hall of Fame. On 2 November 2019, Reading opened ... "Wilma Reading". Australian Music Vault. Retrieved 11 December 2021. Innes, Matt. "Wilma Reading Is A Hidden Gem That Still ...
"Reading Royals will remain in Reading after team is sold". WFMZ. January 23, 2019. Guarente, Jason (2019-05-09). "Reading ... "Reading Royals purchased by Stokesay owner". Reading Eagle. February 16, 2014. "Flyers announce affiliation with Reading Royals ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reading Royals. Reading Royals official site Reading Royals Booster Club (Articles with ... "Reading Royals fire Larry Courville as head coach". Reading Eagle. April 3, 2017. "ROYALS NAME KIRK MACDONALD AS HEAD COACH/ ...
... with the Reading to Basingstoke Line split into the curve from Reading West to Reading to the east, and the curve connecting ... Reading TMD is a railway motive power depot situated in Reading, England, and operated by Great Western Railway. The depot code ... The depot was situated to the west of Reading station and to the north of Reading West station until 2012. It was located ... The new "Reading Train Care Depot" was announced as "completed" on 31 July 2013. 21st-century modernisation of the Great ...
... was a weekly current events newsmagazine series in Canada, airing on TVOntario from 1992 to 2006. It was hosted ... In 1994, Between the Lines was replaced with Studio 2, although Fourth Reading continued to air; however, when Studio 2 was ... Its name derived from the parliamentary convention that a bill receives three readings in a legislative house before becoming ... replaced with The Agenda in 2006, Fourth Reading ceased to air as a standalone program, and was subsumed into The Agenda as a ...
Commonly called the Reading Railroad, and logotyped as Reading Lines, the Reading Company was a railroad holding company for ... Reading Eagle Quote: "1902: Reading Belt Line, which runs through West Reading and bypasses the city, is dedicated, 1900: ... Reading Company. OCLC 17181292. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reading Company. Reading Company Technical and ... Also in 1893, the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad built its most famous structure, Reading Terminal in Philadelphia. Reading ...
Reading East Moto official website - Reading West Motorway Services Online - Reading v t e v t e (Webarchive template wayback ... with Reading West services serving westbound traffic and Reading East services serving eastbound traffic. Reading services are ... Reading services comprises a pair of adjacent motorway service areas on the M4 motorway to the south of the town of Reading in ... Crockett, A, Iron Age to Saxon settlement at Wickhams Field, near Reading, Berkshire: excavations on the site of the M4 Granada ...
It means to read a text as it was not meant to be read; in fact reading the text against itself. By way of illustration, ... A resistant reading is a reading of a text which moves beyond the dominant cultural beliefs to challenge prevailing views. ... A resistant reading may develop from an alternative reading, pointing out how the representation of gender in the poem furthers ... As such, it will be read by readers who share feminist views of the world as a place structured by gender inequality and ...
... (La Liseuse) is an oil on board painting by French artist Henri Matisse, from 1896. It is displayed at the Musée ... It shows a woman, dressed in black, seated and reading, with her back to the viewer, in the calmness of a room. The painting ... 2002 Woman Reading at henri-matisse.net v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All ...
Reading is a small town in the parish of Saint James in northwestern Jamaica. It is located West of Montego Bay. "Reading ( ...
These materials are easier for people with limited health literacy to read, understand, and use. ... Find easy to read health information on MedlinePlus. ... Find links to health information that is easier to read, ... MedlinePlus identifies easy-to-read materials using this Health Education Materials Assessment Tool (PDF). ...
... involve difficulty with specific reading skills, such as sounding out words. ... Disorders of reading and language, such as dyslexia, ... How does reading work? * What is the best way to teach reading? ... Most reading problems are present from the time a child learns to read. But some people lose the ability to read after a stroke ... Reading disorders occur when a person has trouble reading words or understanding what they read. Dyslexia is one type of ...
A Reading List for Arab American Heritage Month. For Arab American Heritage Month, observed annually during the month of April ... and others-to share with us some of the Arabic and Arab American literature they recommend reading in celebration. The ... The Common also releases related classroom readings and interviews with contributing authors. ...
You can read more about Googles data retention periods, including how long it takes us to delete your information. ...
Many people find it helpful to take notes during their reading. If you wish to do so, have a pen & paper ready. ... Keen is the worlds largest network of talented psychics, providing psychic readings to help you find answers to your most ... Get an in-depth psychic reading or test drive more than one advisor - the choice is yours! ...
Learn how to read and understand the product date, ingredient list, and Nutrition Facts label. ... Reading food labels can help you make smart food choices. ... How to read the Nutrition Facts label. *How to read the ... Read on to learn about the types of information that may be printed on food and beverage packaging and get tips for how to best ... How to read the Nutrition Facts label. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires a Nutrition Facts label on most ...
These materials are easier for people with limited health literacy to read, understand, and use. ... Find easy to read health information on MedlinePlus. ... Find links to health information that is easier to read, ... MedlinePlus identifies easy-to-read materials using this Health Education Materials Assessment Tool (PDF). ...
Dark Reading Newsletter. Get daily or weekly Dark Reading top stories delivered straight into your inbox. ... Dark Reading Webinar. Learn about New Cybersecurity Threats, Vulnerabilities and Technology Trends. ... Black Hat USA 2022 Attendee Report , Supply Chain & Cloud Security Risks Are Top of Mind , ,READ IT NOW, ...
Read on to learn more about why some ankles are larger than others, and if you need to do anything about it. ... You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our. editorial policy. ...
... videos and resources to help you get the most from Read&Write for Education. Resources for beginners, intermediate and advanced ... Intro to Read&Write. A short video to introduce you to Read&Write for Education. The perfect place to start for first time ... Bite-sized articles, videos, and FAQs for teachers and students showing you how to get the most out of Read&Write for Education ... This user manual contains step-by-step instructions and practice exercises for all of the tools in Read&Write for Google Chrome ...
I am thrilled at the opportunity to work with you! My readings have a particular emphasis on lunar cycles and fixed stars, as ... If you have questions or need assistance with choosing a reading, you can always email me at: [email protected] All sessions ... Aid Accessibility! This enables me to give discounted readings to marginalized and low-income folks! $25.00 ...
Hydroxychloroquine has been used to successfully treat 39 elderly COVID-19 patients in Texas City, according to Dr. Robin Armstrong.
Reading: Amazon closing AmazonSmile to focus its philanthropic giving to programs with greater impact ...
The NIDDK has developed a Strategic Plan to accelerate research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of diseases and conditions under the Institutes mission. This overarching 5-year trans-NIDDK Strategic Plan complements our disease-specific planning efforts. External input has been integral to the strategic planning process, and the NIDDK thanks all those who provided input to the development of the Plan.. The Plan highlights NIDDKs commitment to empowering a multidisciplinary research community; engaging diverse stakeholders; and leveraging discoveries of connections among diseases across NIDDKs mission to improve prevention, treatment, and health equity-pursuing pathways to health for all.. ...
If the answer is no, would you like us to provide you with a list of generic questions I will answer during the beta reading ... Please fill out the form below if you are interested in my beta reading services. You will be notified via email when your ... Do you have a list of questions you would like answered during the beta reading process? * ...
This research aims to understand how these types and patterns of sensory neuron networks in joints change with disease and aging.
Stories worth reading on what makes schools for boys of color work, and on reading-comprehension research. ... Friday Reading Roundup. By Catherine Gewertz. - May 07, 2010 1 min read ... A couple end-of-week things to read. First is an interesting study of supplemental reading comprehension programs that was ...
Reading & Writing. The New York City Department of Youth and Community Development (DYCD) supports reading, writing, GED, and ... Programs help adults gain the reading and writing skills they need to further their education or feel more comfortable in the ... Programs help New Yorkers attain the reading,writing and communication skills they want and need to gain employment and/or ... The program works with students in grades 6 through 8 to strengthen their reading, writing, and communication skills.. Learn ...
De novo assembled mitogenome analysis of Trichuris trichiura from Korean individuals using nanopore-based long-read sequencing ... De novo assembled mitogenome analysis of Trichuris trichiura from Korean individuals using nanopore-based long-read sequencing ... To provide high quality mitogenomes, we utilized long-read sequencing technology of Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) to ... thus proving the advantage of long-read sequencing in resolving unreported non-coding regions. Furthermore, variant detection ...
Burn After Reading: Directed by Ethan Coen, Joel Coen. With George Clooney, Frances McDormand, Brad Pitt, John Malkovich. A ... BURN AFTER READING is laugh-out-loud funny. Its more Big Lebowski than Intolerable Cruelty, though there are wisps of both ... Featured in Siskel & Ebert: Burn After Reading/Traitor/College/Babylon A.D./Hamlet 2 (2008) ... What is the streaming release date of Burn After Reading (2008) in Canada? ...
public static java.lang.Object apply(gnu.kawa.io.InPort in, java.lang.String handling) throws java.io. ...
Kidd reading Franks reports By Tim Bontemps Social Links for Tim Bontemps * View Author Archive ... "Unfortunately, I havent read anything," Kidd said of the various media reports on their relationship. "Ive been focused on ... "Ive been reading the reports [Frank is filing], and thats as far as its going." ...
... Bigger screens are a better read for e-books, blog posts, news reports, sports pages, or just plain text plainly ... Large screens enable readers to enjoy reading naturally without squinting or pressing their noses to the screen to read tiny ... Capture the experience of reading a real book with a two-page layout on a large screen foldable open like a bound book. Its an ... Expand the reading experience with comments, notes, bookmarks, and other related content in a collapsible supporting pane. ...
NHTSA maintains other Reading Room records that can be accessed from the following conventional (paper) Reading Rooms:. DOT ... Only Reading Room records created on or after November 1, 1996, are required to be made available electronically. ... In accordance with 5 USC 552(a)(2), the following four categories of records ("Reading Room" records) are available without the ... NHTSA Technical Information Services, Reading Room, 1201 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Room E12-100, Washington, D.C. 20590; Hours of ...
... is for communications industry professionals who are developing and commercializing services and networks using ... Prime Reading Playlist: The Divide on the Light Reading Podcast Nicole Ferraro , Editor, Light Reading , 5/28/2023 ... Heavy Reading Analysts Market Leader Programs 5G Transport - A 2023 Heavy Reading Survey 2023 Open RAN Operator Survey Coherent ... Playlist: Whats the Story? on the Light Reading Podcast The Staff , Light Reading , 5/23/2023 ...
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Get shareable link. Sorry, a shareable link is not ... Eisenstein, M. Reading between the lines. Nat Methods 6, 632 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth0909-632 ...
The library and writing space Wendys Subway presents the Reading Room, a rotating collection of publications developed in ... the Reading Room focuses on collective and collaborative practices of making and circulating independent publications. Visitors ... in the belief that collaborative practice and equitable access to reading are catalysts for social transformation. Reading ... The Reading Room display structure is designed by New York/Brussels-based architectural practice common room. ...
Download the FP mobile app to read anytime, anywhere. Download the new FP mobile app to read anytime, anywhere. *Read the ... A curated selection of FPs must-read stories.. Enter your email. Sign Up ✓ Signed Up Unsubscribe Youre on the list! More ways ... In a widely read Foreign Affairs essay, Tellis makes the case that the White House should recalibrate its expectations of India ... What Were Reading. Preeti Aroon Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition. The official dictionary of the ...
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Web Site
  • The Ultrasound Reading Center will assist in protocol development for the performance of B-scan and doppler examinations of study participants, train CHS Field Center staff at four sites, perform measurements and interpretations of 112 studies per week (5,089 initial studies and 509 blind duplicates) in a standardized and reproducible manner, and participate in analysis and publication of data in collaboration with other study investigators and NHLBI staff. (nih.gov)
  • Poor reading comprehension. (nih.gov)
  • People with poor reading comprehension have trouble understanding what they read. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding specific reading comprehension deficit: A review. (nih.gov)
  • First is an interesting study of supplemental reading comprehension programs that was released this week. (edweek.org)
  • Treat your users to a delightful, immersive full-screen reading experience, or enable them to explore related content in multi-window mode without closing the book on their reading enjoyment. (android.com)
  • Expand the reading experience with comments, notes, bookmarks, and other related content in a collapsible supporting pane. (android.com)
  • For Arab American Heritage Month, observed annually during the month of April, we asked our members-independent presses, literary journals, and others-to share with us some of the Arabic and Arab American literature they recommend reading in celebration. (clmp.org)
  • But before I share the latest buzzworthy tomes (a few of which I hope to read over the holidays), I should mention that the trend toward longer form digital reads, i.e. (forbes.com)
  • Reading disorders are not a type of intellectual or developmental disorder , and they are not a sign of lower intelligence or unwillingness to learn. (nih.gov)
  • Read on to learn about the types of information that may be printed on food and beverage packaging and get tips for how to best interpret that information. (nih.gov)
  • Read on to learn more about why some ankles are larger than others, and if you need to do anything about it. (healthline.com)
  • Read this full feature to learn more. (middlebury.edu)
  • In this fact sheet, you will learn how to read food labels. (nih.gov)
  • Bigger screens are a better read for e-books, blog posts, news reports, sports pages, or just plain text plainly readable on large screens. (android.com)
  • In November 2008, NIOSH hosted the Direct Reading Exposure Assessment Methods (DREAM) Workshop (reference DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2009-133), which gathered stakeholder input from academia, labor, management, developers, governmental agencies, and manufacturers on the research needs in the area of direct-reading methods for assessing occupational exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of the NIOSH Center for Direct Reading and Sensor Technologies is to coordinate a national research agenda for direct-reading methods and sensor technologies. (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals with dyslexia have normal intelligence, but they read at levels significantly lower than expected. (nih.gov)
  • The NIOSH Center for Direct Reading and Sensor Technologies (NCDRST) was established in May 2014 to coordinate research and to develop recommendations on the use of 21st century technologies in occupational safety and health. (cdc.gov)
  • Including titles solicited from and published by local and international small presses, artist-run projects, and community archives and organizations, the Reading Room focuses on collective and collaborative practices of making and circulating independent publications. (moma.org)
  • Wendy's Subway is dedicated to encouraging creative, critical, and discursive engagement with arts and literature, in the belief that collaborative practice and equitable access to reading are catalysts for social transformation. (moma.org)
  • Capture the experience of reading a real book with a two-page layout on a large screen foldable open like a bound book. (android.com)
  • Find links to health information that is easier to read, understand, and use. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MedlinePlus identifies easy-to-read materials using this Health Education Materials Assessment Tool (PDF) . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The initiative intends to investigate, disseminate, and provide guidance for the selection and use of direct-reading and sensors technologies for health and safety environments. (cdc.gov)
  • In accordance with 5 USC 552(a)(2), the following four categories of records ("Reading Room" records) are available without the need for a FOIA request. (nhtsa.gov)
  • Only Reading Room records created on or after November 1, 1996, are required to be made available electronically. (nhtsa.gov)
  • A computer terminal and printer are available at this location for accessing Electronic Reading Room records. (nhtsa.gov)
  • The library and writing space Wendy's Subway presents the Reading Room, a rotating collection of publications developed in conjunction with The People's Studio: Collective Imagination and selected specifically to respond to works on view in the galleries. (moma.org)
  • The Reading Room display structure is designed by New York/Brussels-based architectural practice common room. (moma.org)
  • The study compared the eye visual input and visuomotor activity generated by humans performing two visual tasks that are associated with different risk of myopia progression, reading (high risk) and walking (low risk). (nih.gov)
  • Standing office blood pressure (BP) readings, alone or in combination with seated BP readings, outperform seated BP readings for the initial diagnosis of hypertension, a new study suggests. (medscape.com)
  • Should Patients Stand for Office BP Readings? (medscape.com)
  • Many people find it helpful to take notes during their reading. (keen.com)
  • It generally refers to difficulties reading individual words and can lead to problems understanding text. (nih.gov)
  • Most reading disorders result from specific differences in the way the brain processes written words and text. (nih.gov)
  • People with reading disorders often have problems recognizing words they already know and understanding text they read. (nih.gov)
  • Large screens enable readers to enjoy reading naturally without squinting or pressing their noses to the screen to read tiny text. (android.com)
  • Receive professional yet personal psychic advice & readings. (keen.com)
  • Most reading problems are present from the time a child learns to read. (nih.gov)
  • After adapting for large screens, we have received a lot of positive feedback and have noticed a significant increase in the amount of time users spend reading books and documents on tablets. (android.com)
  • Under this mechanism, sustained reading for prolonged periods of time reduces the activation of ON pathways making the eye grow beyond its focus plane and blurring vision at far distance. (nih.gov)
  • Create an FP account to save articles to read later and in the FP mobile app. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Get daily or weekly Dark Reading top stories delivered straight into your inbox. (darkreading.com)
  • A curated selection of FP's must-read stories. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • It specifically impairs a person's ability to read. (nih.gov)
  • The New York City Department of Youth and Community Development (DYCD) supports reading, writing, GED, and English language classes for youth and adults. (nyc.gov)
  • Dyslexia is one type of reading disorder. (nih.gov)
  • To provide high quality mitogenomes, we utilized long-read sequencing technology of Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) to better resolve repetitive regions and to construct de novo mitogenome assembly minimizing reference biases. (nih.gov)
  • Create custom news feeds that display the headlines of the day alongside unabridged articles for easy browsing and fully informed reading. (android.com)
  • Reading Rooms have previously been installed at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, Bard Graduate Center, White Columns, NADA New York, Brown University, and the Carnegie Mellon University School of the Arts. (moma.org)
  • Please fill out the form below if you are interested in my beta reading services. (google.com)
  • So I thought it has phase values(degree, 0~2pi) and power, but there are two columns when I open it in matlab using the function, afni_niml_read. (nih.gov)
  • Large screens in immersive mode optimize readability with long line lengths and plenty of white space for an eye-pleasing, eye‑comforting reading experience. (android.com)
  • The Center for Direct Reading and Sensor Technologies has an active initiative called Right Sensors Used Right . (cdc.gov)
  • Reached for comment, Johanna Contreras, MD, a cardiologist at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, noted that diagnosing hypertension is "difficult" and she agrees that multiple readings are important. (medscape.com)
  • By adding support for tablets and foldable devices, we gave users more options for easy and comfortable reading. (android.com)
  • But a person can develop a reading problem from an injury to the brain at any age. (nih.gov)
  • Do you have a list of questions you would like answered during the beta reading process? (google.com)
  • If the answer is no, would you like us to provide you with a list of generic questions I will answer during the beta reading process? (google.com)
  • Read the nutrition label as a whole to determine how a particular food or drink fits into your healthy eating pattern . (nih.gov)
  • But some people lose the ability to read after a stroke or an injury to the area of the brain involved with reading . (nih.gov)
  • Remove on-screen distractions and annoyances so readers can focus their attention and immerse themselves in their reading. (android.com)
  • People who lack fluency have difficulty reading quickly, accurately, and with proper expression (if reading aloud). (nih.gov)
  • A team led by Jose-Manuel Alonso found that the images formed by our eyes during reading lack the diversity of contrasts, luminance transients, visual motion, and visual change needed to activate major visual pathways signaling light stimuli, generally known as ON pathways. (nih.gov)
  • The results indicate that multiple factors including low light, low contrast, and the lack of self-motion make reading less effective at driving ON pathways than walking. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperlexia is a disorder where people have advanced reading skills but may have problems understanding what is read or spoken aloud. (nih.gov)
  • Other people may have normal reading skills but have problems understanding written words. (nih.gov)
  • The program works with students in grades 6 through 8 to strengthen their reading, writing, and communication skills. (nyc.gov)
  • Unfortunately, I haven't read anything," Kidd said of the various media reports on their relationship. (nypost.com)
  • I've been reading the reports [Frank is filing], and that's as far as it's going. (nypost.com)