Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Intestinal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).Cutaneous Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.Bronchial Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.Vascular Fistula: An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.Rectal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage connecting the RECTUM to the outside, with an orifice at the site of drainage.Gastric Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.Urinary Fistula: An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.Esophageal Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Pancreatic Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.Rectovaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.Vesicovaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the URINARY BLADDER and the VAGINA.Respiratory Tract Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.Vaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage that connects the VAGINA to other organs, such as the bladder (VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA) or the rectum (RECTOVAGINAL FISTULA).Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Abnormal passage between the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA.Urinary Bladder Fistula: An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.Arterio-Arterial Fistula: Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.Digestive System Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations: Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.Pleural DiseasesOral Fistula: An abnormal passage within the mouth communicating between two or more anatomical structures.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Esophageal Atresia: Congenital abnormality characterized by the lack of full development of the ESOPHAGUS that commonly occurs with TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA. Symptoms include excessive SALIVATION; GAGGING; CYANOSIS; and DYSPNEA.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Oroantral Fistula: A fistula between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.ReadingVeins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Fibrin Tissue Adhesive: An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Salivary Gland Fistula: A fistula between a salivary duct or gland and the cutaneous surface of the oral cavity.Ureteral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETERS.Hematemesis: Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Cassia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Tracheal DiseasesRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).PolyvinylsBlood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Pancreaticojejunostomy: Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Arteriovenous Malformations: Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.INDEL Mutation: A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Anus DiseasesKidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Perilymph: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Enbucrilate: A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.Sigmoid Diseases: Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Dental Fistula: An abnormal passage in the oral cavity on the gingiva.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Esophageal Stenosis: A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Cranial Fossa, Anterior: The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Urogenital Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male: Surgery performed on the male genitalia.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Perineum: The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Gastrostomy: Creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Surgical Stapling: A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Pneumoencephalography: Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Esophagoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Esophagostomy: Surgical formation of an external opening (stoma) into the esophagus.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Gastroscopes: Endoscopes used for examining the interior of the stomach.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Chyle: An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.Surgical Wound Dehiscence: Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.RNA Isoforms: The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
  • Figure 2: Illustration of two pathophysiological consequences of the distal tracheo-oesophageal fistula. (starship.org.nz)
  • Nordgren S, Fasth S, Hulten L. Anal fistulas in Crohn's disease: incidence and outcome of surgical treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, is an example of a disease that leads to fistulas between one loop of intestine and another. (medhelp.org)
  • In the article entitled 'Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Crohn's Disease with Fistula,' the authors examine the unique advantages of MSCs, including ease of collection, low immunogenicity when using a patient's own cells for transplant, and the immunoregulatory activity of MSCs. (news-medical.net)
  • Crohn's disease continues to be a major burden on human health despite newer immunomodulatory therapies, and Crohn's-related fistulas are a particularly intractable problem for many patients,' says Editor-in-Chief Terence R. Flotte, MD, Celia and Isaac Haidak Professor of Medical Education and Dean, Provost, and Executive Deputy Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. (news-medical.net)
  • Secondary endpoints included remission (closure of all fistulas), Perianal Crohn's Disease Activity Index, Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ). (bmj.com)
  • A Phase IIIB Multicenter, Open Label, Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Efficacy of Certolizumab Pegol, a PEGylated Fab Fragment of Humanized Antibody to Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in Crohn's Disease Patients With Draining Fistulas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To investigate the clinical efficacy of certolizumab pegol for fistula closure in Crohn's disease subjects with active draining fistulas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Medical disease, such as Crohn's disease or diverticulitis, commonly cause enterovesical fistulas, explains the Urology Care Foundation. (reference.com)
  • Management of enterocutaneous fistulae in Crohn's disease. (bmj.com)
  • The outcome among 39 patients with enterocutaneous fistulae complicating Crohn's disease has been reviewed. (bmj.com)
  • Postoperative fistulae with no evidence of active Crohn's disease healed spontaneously. (bmj.com)
  • It may or may not be associated with an abscess, but like abscesses, certain illnesses such as Crohn's disease can cause fistulas to develop. (gicare.com)
  • Cx601 is expected to be indicated for the treatment of complex perianal fistulas in adult patients with non-active/mildly active luminal Crohn's disease, when fistulas have shown an inadequate response to at least one conventional or biologic therapy. (takeda.com)
  • Perianal fistulas are estimated to affect up to 28% of patients in the first two decades after Crohn's disease diagnosis and Cx601 offers new hope for those suffering from this severe and debilitating condition. (takeda.com)
  • 1 Further follow-up data indicated that Cx601 maintained long-term remission of treatment refractory complex perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease over 52 weeks. (takeda.com)
  • A fistula can also be created due to conditions that affect the intestines such as ulcerative colitis or crohn's disease. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Over 50 to 55 percent people with crohn's disease get anal fistula problem. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Most intestinal fistulas occur either infective (as in Tuberculosis), inflammatory (as in Crohn's disease) or neoplastic (as in cancer). (ndtv.com)
  • In gastro-enterology practice it is generally accepted that in young people fistula is due to Crohn's disease but tuberculosis must be tested for and treated. (ndtv.com)
  • During the procedure, contrast was found to pass through the collecting system into the bowel, demonstrating evidence of a fistula to the Case report duodenum. (deepdyve.com)
  • The closure of the fistula was done using autologous pericardial patch under cardiopulmonary bypass. (springer.com)
  • Direct closure of the fistula without a protection flap carries a high possibility of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, respiratory compromise, and wound breakdown. (ctsnet.org)
  • As we mark this year's International Fistula Day (May 23), it is crucial to understand that we may not achieve the objectives set in the campaign to end fistula without embracing a communication vehicle that is so relevant to the most vulnerable populations in Africa, the poor women and girls affected in developing countries like Uganda. (grandchallenges.ca)
  • Human Rights Watch interviewed 55 fistula survivors in Kenya in 2009 and 2010, documenting the devastating impact of fistula on women's lives, as well as the barriers to prevention and treatment. (hrw.org)
  • The MDD approach not only provided fistula survivors with a platform to share their experiences, it also avails them with opportunities to utilize their talents and knowledge to earn income from their performances for economic self-reliance. (grandchallenges.ca)
  • The grief of losing a child - which, tragically, happens to over 90% of fistula survivors - and becoming disabled exacerbates the pain. (endfistula.org)
  • On their blog, they wrote about how our support is funding fistula treatment to help heal women like Safina: A New Start for Safina Uganda Village Project (UVP) is wrapping up one of the thrice-yearly fistula repair camps that happen at Kamuli Mission Hospital. (fistulafoundation.org)
  • Postoperative pancreatic fistula is one of the most frequent and potentially life-threatening complications following pancreatic resections. (cochrane.org)
  • We more than doubled what we set out to achieve," said Kate Grant, The Fistula Foundation's chief executive, with almost 2,500 operations performed by 2017 thanks to funding by the organisation. (reuters.com)
  • In 2017, with support from Johnson & Johnson, we launched a new countrywide treatment network to build Zambia's long-term capacity for fistula care. (fistulafoundation.org)
  • Reports showed that the problem of adolescent pregnancy contributes to the burden of fistula. (vanguardngr.com)
  • These types of fistulas are caused by the diseased condition of any tooth in the upper jaw. (petmd.com)
  • The Minister assisted at a USAID-supported clinic to highlight an initiative to shrink Nigeria's large backlog of fistula cases. (usaid.gov)
  • Sunday Vanguard found that stories of rejection and mental frustration, from victims of fistula, are commonplace. (vanguardngr.com)
  • For Ekaete and other numerous unreported victims of fistula, healing, recovering, and reintegrating into the family and community after suffering the consequences of obstaetric fistula involves a number of challenges, even after successful treatment. (leadership.ng)
  • It's estimated that up to 3.5 million women currently suffer from fistulas , with somewhere from 50,000 to 130,000 new cases each year--and most of them go untreated. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The World Health Organization estimates that 2 million women and girls are living with untreated fistula and between 50,000 and 100,000 are affected each year, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. (hrw.org)
  • According to statistics from UNFPA, over two million women are living with fistula worldwide and 50,000 to 100,000 new cases develop annually. (vanguardngr.com)
  • If vesicovaginal or ureterovaginal fistula is suspected, as an immediate therapy, insertion of a urethral catheter to minimize urine leakage and the patient's distress can be considered. (medscape.com)
  • The commonly chosen surgical approaches for the correction of vesicovaginal fistula include the transabdominal and transvaginal approaches. (medscape.com)
  • In the United States, more than 50% of vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistulas occur after hysterectomy for benign diseases such as uterine fibroids, menstrual dysfunction, or uterine prolapse. (medscape.com)
  • Vesicovaginal fistula may occur with or without cancer recurrence. (medscape.com)
  • The clinic took place at the Wesley Guild a Federal Medical Center in Ilesha, the first of a series of hospitals nationwide to boost its fistula treatment capacity under a new Ministry initiative supported by USAID to establish a network of "centers of excellence" for fistula intervention in thirteen of Nigeria's 36 states. (usaid.gov)
  • Successful Intervention for High-Output Cardiac Failure Caused by Massive Renal Ateriovenous Fistula. (ebscohost.com)
  • Alice is resident in Bekwarra Local Government Area of Cross River State but despite being repaired during the just-concluded intervention facilitated by Engender Health, implementing partners of USAID Fistula Care Plus project, is still leaking. (vanguardngr.com)
  • According to United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in Sub-Saharan Africa alone between 3,000 and 130,000 of women giving birth develop fistula each year. (leadership.ng)
  • A woman quoted in Kristof and WuDunn's "Half the Sky," an Australian gynecologist who has worked in Ethiopia for more than 30 years, notes that women with fistulas "are the women most to be pitied in the world. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Women told Human Rights Watch that they had lived with untreated fistula for years because they did not know that it is treatable, and many lacked money for treatment. (hrw.org)
  • Fistula strips women of their dignity, and makes them outcasts in their own families and communities," Odhiambo said. (hrw.org)
  • More than 400,000 women suffer from the painful and debilitating condition - half the cases in the world, according to the National Strategic Framework for Fistula Prevention and Control. (usaid.gov)
  • Far too many women in Nigeria needlessly suffer through life with fistula after having given birth," said USAID Mission Director Stephen M. Haykin. (usaid.gov)
  • Women with fistula are often abandoned by their husbands and shunned by the members of their village. (usaid.gov)
  • The USAID initiative, known as Fistula Care Plus, also rolled out a set of awareness building activities to educate women about options on diagnosis and treatment of the condition. (usaid.gov)
  • Pouch-vaginal fistulae affect 6 % of women after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • At least two million women globally live with fistula, which is caused by prolonged labour without access to caesarean section. (reuters.com)
  • Women with fistula are subject to severe social stigma due to odour, which is constant and humiliating, and in many cases drives their family and friends away. (reuters.com)
  • Stuck" babies account for 8% of all maternal deaths world wide and leave many more women suffering from fistulas. (birthingnaturally.net)
  • As it is usually the case with women down with fistula, Alice lost her child. (vanguardngr.com)
  • The surgical repair of fistula can address the physical symptoms, but may not end the psychological challenges that women with fistula face. (springer.com)
  • A small group of women also have fistulas from traditional medical practices. (msf.org.uk)
  • Thankfully, many of these women hear about the MSF VVF programme, and attend for management of their fistulas. (msf.org.uk)
  • Women are at especially high risk for fistula in some countries where early marriage is prevalent, their bodies not sufficiently mature for pregnancy. (pbs.org)
  • Too many women with fistula, not enough doctors. (scoop.it)
  • Fistula is such a traumatizing and isolating condition that women are often reluctant to come forward, and some are not even aware that they have a medical condition for which treatment is available. (fistulafoundation.org)
  • In partnership with Zambia's Ministry of Health and provincial and district health offices, Fistula Foundation is supporting fistula treatment to women across Zambia at the following hospitals. (fistulafoundation.org)
  • We are currently partnering with SIM Danja Fistula Center to deliver fistula treatment to women in Niger. (fistulafoundation.org)
  • It is well-positioned to serve women in need on either side of the Niger/Nigeria border where fistula is particularly prevalent. (fistulafoundation.org)
  • But most of all, this programme is helping significantly more women affected by fistula, and this should be widely celebrated. (figo.org)
  • Although an increasing number of women undergo surgical fistula repair, little is known about how they see their life prospects after repair and how they perceive being reintegrated into their community. (leadership.ng)
  • Through the Fistula Care Plus project, the largest U.S. government-funded effort to-date dedicated to treating and preventing fistula, EngenderHealth works to restore dignity to women with fistula and to prevent other women from developing the condition. (leadership.ng)
  • Chief Iyeme Efem says Nigeria currently has over 200,000 women living with fistula with 12,000 new cases occurring every year. (leadership.ng)
  • The prevalence of fistula is much lower in places that discourage early marriage, encourage and provide general education for women, and grant women access to family planning and skilled medical teams to assist during childbirth. (leadership.ng)
  • Seeing the suffering of women with fistula, I was eager to contribute to their care and treatment. (figo.org)
  • Being a fistula surgeon means a lot to me, because I was able to learn how to diagnose and repair fistula, I can give back dignity and a smile to these poor, abandoned and stigmatised women, and that makes me happy. (figo.org)
  • Sadly, COVID-19 is affecting my work right now, there are fewer consultations with women with fistula, and a decrease in financial support. (figo.org)
  • Although some women with fistula display amazing courage and resilience, many others succumb to illness and despair. (endfistula.org)
  • Although many women with fistula have supportive families, the smell can drive even loving husbands and friends away. (endfistula.org)
  • And because so many women with fistula remain marginalized and out of sight, many policy makers - and even some health providers - have failed to recognize the scope and severity of the tragedy. (endfistula.org)
  • Contact information of Shri Dhanwantari Clinic, Ghaziabad, Delhi-NCR, where quality Ayurvedic treatments available for anorectal diseases like Bleeding Piles/Haemorrhoids, Fissure in ano/anal fissure, Fistula in ano, Anorectal abscess, Pilonidal sinus etc. using ayurvedic/herbal medicines and Kshara sutra therapy. (scoop.it)
  • A H-type tracheoesophageal fistula was suspected and the study was aborted. (bmj.com)
  • Subsequent bronchoscopy and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) performed confirmed the presence of the tracheoesophageal fistula approximately 4 cm inferior to the level of the vocal cords ( figure 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • 1 Early diagnosis of tracheoesophageal fistula is critical in guiding feeding, surgical repair and preventing further complications which include recurrent respiratory infections and death. (bmj.com)
  • The oblique configuration of the H-shaped tracheoesophageal fistula and close apposition of the trachea and oesophagus makes it difficult to appreciate radiologically. (bmj.com)
  • Although VFS studies are performed primarily to evaluate oral, pharyngeal and upper oesophageal swallowing function, our case report illustrates the importance of careful review of the images to ensure that uncommon diagnoses such as a tracheoesophageal fistula are not missed. (bmj.com)