Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.EthersStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)EstersSurface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.PeroxidasesKetonesAlkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Benzene DerivativesAlkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedAmines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Monomethylhydrazine: Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.Alkanesulfonic Acids: Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)SulfatasesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)GlucosidesChemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Ethyl EthersChemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Alkylmercury Compounds: Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an alkyl group.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Acids, Heterocyclic: A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Cefotiam: One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.HydrazinesBromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Dicarboxylic AcidsAcetalsAcylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.StigmasterolFluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HydrocarbonsSpectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Pyridinium CompoundsTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.TriosesLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arylsulfonates: Organic sulfonic acid esters or salts which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Diazonium CompoundsChemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.AcrylatesBromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Allyl CompoundsImidesHydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Fluorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Diamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ethylene Dichlorides: Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Neutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.IminesGuanineAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)CyclopropanesAldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Hyperbilirubinemia, Hereditary: Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Phenelzine: One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.Propyl Gallate: Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.Organic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Dealkylation: The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Vinyl CompoundsOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.ButanonesAcetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Secondary halides are far less reactive. Vinyl, aryl and tertiary alkyl halides are unreactive. Below some relative rates of ... The classic Finkelstein reaction entails the conversion of an alkyl chloride or an alkyl bromide to an alkyl iodide by ... Alkyl halides differ greatly in the ease with which they undergo the Finkelstein reaction. The reaction works well for primary ... In modern usage the definition of the reaction has been expanded to include the conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides by ...
... is an alkyl halide with the formula C5H11Cl. It is flammable and very reactive. tert-Amyl chloride Record in ...
Alkyl iodides react the fastest, followed by alkyl bromides and then alkyl chlorides. Primary halides are the most reactive ... The Fast Reaction of Lithium Aluminum Hydride with Alkyl Halides in THF. A Reappraisal of the Scope of the Reaction". The ... ISBN 0-13-147871-0. Johnson, J. E.; Blizzard, R. H.; Carhart, H. W. (1948). "Hydrogenolysis of Alkyl Halides by Lithium ... The solid is dangerously reactive toward water, releasing gaseous hydrogen (H2). Some related derivatives have been discussed ...
... alkyl chains); or it can contain reactive surface groups such as polymerizable functionalities. Depending on these ... two reactive groups can lead to the formation of chain structures. If the building blocks contain at least three reactive ... If a reactive functional group is incorporated the system is called a network functionalizer. The situation is different if two ... examples of such well-defined building blocks are modified inorganic clusters or nanoparticles with attached reactive organic ...
Rachel Petkewich (September 29, 2008). "Taming Alkyl Oxonium Ions: Fused tricyclic structure stabilizes famously reactive ...
Rachel Petkewich (September 29, 2008). "Taming Alkyl Oxonium Ions: Fused tricyclic structure stabilizes famously reactive ... Oxatriquinane is an alkyl oxonium ion with formula C 9H 15O+ , remarkable for being stable in aqueous solution. It has a ... Oxonium ions normally are strong alkylating agents and are only observed in solution as reactive intermediates or under extreme ...
... itself has been synthesed but not isolated because it is too reactive. An unstable derivative with 4-alkyl ... 10.1021/ja00776a063 Stabilization of stibabenzene and bismabenzene by 4-alkyl substituents Arthur J. Ashe III, Timothy R. ...
Thus, thioesters are common intermediates in the conversion of alkyl halides to alkyl thiols. Thioesters and amines combine to ... ISBN 1-57259-153-6. Mansuy, D.; Dansette, P. M. (2011). "Sulfenic acids as reactive intermediates in xenobiotic metabolism". ... The carbonyl center in thioesters is reactive toward nucleophiles, even water. ...
Being one of the most reactive carbonyls, formaldehyde is well known to give carbinolamines. Illustrative is the reaction of ... R can be hydrogen or an alkyl group. Hemiaminals are intermediates in imine formation from an amine and a carbonyl by ...
The Grignard reaction (pronounced /ɡriɲar/) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl- or aryl-magnesium halides ( ... First, there is an induction period during which reactive magnesium becomes exposed to the organic reagents. After this ... Grignard knowledge: Alkyl coupling chemistry with inexpensive transition metals by Larry J. Westrum, Fine Chemistry November/ ... Alkyl and aryl bromides and iodides are common substrates. Chlorides are also used, but fluorides are generally unreactive, ...
While alkyl bromides and iodides are more reactive, alkyl chlorides tend to be less expensive and more readily available. Alkyl ... alkyl. halide. +. H. 2. O. {\displaystyle {\ce {{R-OH}+HCl-,[{\ce {ZnCl2}}][\Delta ]{\overset {alkyl\ halide}{R-Cl}}+H2O}}}. ... Alkyl chlorides readily react with amines to give substituted amines. Alkyl chlorides are substituted by softer halides such as ... Heating alkyl halides with sodium hydroxide or water gives alcohols. Reaction with alkoxides or aroxides give ethers in the ...
... s are reactive compounds that behave as sources of RS+. They are used in the formation of RS-N and RS-O bonds ... Vol., 9, p. 662 Sase, S.; Aoki, Y.; Abe, N.; Goto, K. (2009). "Stable Sulfenyl Iodide Bearing a Primary Alkyl Steric Protection ... Page, P. C. B.; Wilkes, R. D.; Reynolds, D. (1995). "Alkyl Chalcogenides: Sulfur-based Functional Groups". In Ley, Steven V. ... A sulfenyl chloride is a functional group with the connectivity R-S-Cl, where R is alkyl or aryl. ...
In some reactions, alkynes are less reactive than alkenes. For example, in a molecule with an -ene and an -yne group, addition ... Similarly, halogenation of alkynes gives the vinyl dihalides or alkyl tetrahalides: RC≡CR′ + 2 Br2 → RCBr2CR′Br2 The addition ... Featuring a reactive functional group, alkynes participate in many organic reactions. Alkynes characteristically undergo ... Hydrohalogenation gives the corresponding vinyl halides or alkyl dihalides, again depending on the number of equivalents of HX ...
It is a source of the bromide nucleophile to convert alkyl chlorides to more reactive alkyl bromides by the Finkelstein ... NaBr + RCl → RBr + NaCl (R = alkyl). Once a large need in photography, but now shrinking, the photosensitive salt silver ...
They often form dimers, unlike their boron analogues, but this tendency diminishes for branched-chain alkyls (e.g. Pri, Bui, Me ... A variety of compounds of empirical formula AlR3 and AlR1.5Cl1.5 exist.[42] The aluminium trialkyls and triaryls are reactive, ... The only lighter metals are the metals of groups 1 and 2, which apart from beryllium and magnesium are too reactive for ... Aluminium metal is highly reactive, such that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, ...
When pyridine is included, it forms a complex with the electrophilic acylium ion, rendering it even more reactive. Pyridinium ... When the acidic proton is replaced by alkyl, the compounds are called N-alkylpyridinium. A simple representative is N- ...
The alkyl radical in turn abstracts a hydrogen atom from a new molecule of tributylstannane generating the desired deoxygenated ... The alcohol (1) is first converted into a reactive carbonothioyl intermediate such as a thionoester or xanthate (2). Then, ... Commun., 1999, 117-118 117 Article Part 2. Mechanistic aspects of the reduction of S-alkyl-thionocarbonates in the presence of ... The tributyltin radical abstracts the xanthate group from 2 leaving an alkyl radical 5 and tributyltin xanthate (7). The sulfur ...
They are very reactive towards oxygen to form copper(I) oxide and have many uses in chemistry. They are synthesized by treating ... These can undergo substitution with alkyl halides to form coupling products; as such, they are important in the field of ... Li, Yunbo; Trush, Michael; Yager, James (1994). "DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species originating from a copper- ... possibly due to redox cycling and the generation of reactive oxygen species that damage DNA. Corresponding amounts of copper ...
... or alkyl halides are the compounds which have the general formula "RX" where R is an alkyl or substituted alkyl ... The reactive intermediate in this reaction is a free radical and the reaction is called a radical chain reaction. Free radical ... Thus C-X is broken by heterolytic fission resulting in a halide ion, X−. As can be seen, the OH is now attached to the alkyl ... Haloalkanes are reactive towards nucleophiles. They are polar molecules: the carbon to which the halogen is attached is ...
Homoleptic alkyl and aryl complexes of the type R4M are rare, and hexamethyltungsten has no analogue in Cr chemistry. Similar ... Whereas chromocene is a stable compound, the related molybdenocene and tungstenocene are highly reactive. On the other hand, Mo ... Whereas Cr(III) aquo alkyl compounds are well studied, the corresponding Mo(III) and W(III) compounds are not. ... Hans Lorenz trans-Halogeno-alkyl(aryl)carbin-tetracarbonyl-Komplexe von Chrom, Molybdän und Wolfram-Ein neuer Verbindungstyp ...
It is a trialkylsilicon hydride compound with a reactive Si-H bond. This colorless liquid is often used in organic synthesis, ... specifically for the hydrosilation of olefins to give alkyl silanes. It can also be used as a reducing agent since it has an ...
It is the simplest chemical that contains both an alkene group and an alkyl group with an ether linkage. The compound can be ... The alkene portion of the molecule is reactive in many ways. It is prone to polymerization, leading to formation of poly(methyl ...
Most initiators for ATRP are alkyl halides. Alkyl halides such as alkyl bromides are more reactive than alkyl chlorides and ... Given two alkyl halides (R1-X and R2-X) and two ligands (L1 and L2), there will be four combinations between different alkyl ... The KATRP value depends on the homo-cleavage energy of the alkyl halide and the redox potential of the Cu catalyst with ... The KATRP value increases dramatically with the polarity of the solvent for the same alkyl halide and the same Cu catalyst. The ...
6) Alkylation of enolates generated through the reduction of monohalo ketones is limited to the most reactive alkyl halides. ... In the absence of an electrophile the monoalkyl ketone is isolated in good yield; when an alkyl iodide is added, the dialkyl ... The α-halo ketones are readily prepared from ketones by various ketone halogenation reactions, and the products are reactive ...
... from most reactive to least reactive) RCOX > RCH 2 X > RR ′ CHX ≫ RR ′ R ″ CX {\displaystyle {\ce {RCOX>RCH2X>RR'CHX\gg RR'R'' ... The Michaelis-Arbuzov reaction (also called the Arbuzov reaction) is the chemical reaction of a trialkyl phosphite and an alkyl ... Part I. Some new methods for the preparation of alkyl halides". J. Chem. Soc.: 2224. doi:10.1039/jr9530002224. Gerrard, W.; ... Likewise, aryl and vinyl halides are less reactive towards phosphites. The displaced halide anion reacts via another SN2 ...
When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are ... because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in ... If both alkyl groups in a ketone are the same then the ketone is said to be symmetrical, otherwise unsymmetrical. ... The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group ...
The reactive surfactants are comprised of ring sulfonated half esters of maleic anhydride with alkoxylated alkyl arylols. ... New reactive surfactants or emulsifiers useful in a broad range of emulsion polymerization processes are provided, along with ... Such preferred alkoxylated alkyl phenols typically are mixtures of ortho-alkyl substituted and para alkyl substituted phenols ... The reactive surfactants are comprised of ring sulfonated half esters of maleic anhydride with alkoxylated alkyl arylols.... ...
Examples of include co-monomers, include but are not limited to, acrylonitrile, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, acrylic ... alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, styrene, and combinations thereof. 16. The latex of claim ... alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, styrene, and combinations thereof. 11. The method of ... alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, styrene, and combinations thereof. ...
... thin film provides a reactive surface platform through facile post-modification with primary alkyl amines. We report the effect ... The results of this study may provide a good physical background for developing reactive poly(PFPA) thin film platforms based ... The aliphatic chain length of primary alkyl amines markedly influenced the penetration kinetics into low-molecular weight poly( ... in terms of penetration and exchange kinetics as a function of molecular weight of reactive ester polymers and primary amines. ...
... between the thermal cycloreversion reactivity of diarylethenes and the bulkiness of the substituents at the reactive carbons ... Systematic study on the thermal cycloreversion reactivity of diarylethenes with alkoxy and alkyl groups at the reactive carbons ... the relationship between the thermal cycloreversion reactivity of diarylethenes with alkyl and alkoxy groups at the reactive ... because there is insufficient data for diarylethenes with alkoxy groups at the reactive carbons. The steric substituent ...
Various High Quality C12-c14 Alkyl Glycidyl Ether Products from Global C12-c14 Alkyl Glycidyl Ether Suppliers and C12-c14 Alkyl ... Alkyl (C12-C14) Glycidyl Ether (CAS NO: 68609-97-2)-Best Epoxy Reactive Diluents For Epoxy Resins In Epoxy Coatings ... Tags: Alkyl (c12-c14) Glycidyl Ether (cas No.:68609-97-2 ) , Selling Alkyl (c12-c14) Glycidyl Ether , High Quality Alkyl (c12- ... Alkyl (C12-C14) Glycidyl Ether (CAS NO: 68609-97-2)-best epoxy reactive diluents for epoxy resins in epoxy coatings ...
Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage ... Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl ...
1.4.5 Reactive hydrogen atom 22. 1.4.6 Compounds containing fluorine or phosphor atoms 23 ... 1.4.3 Normal long-chain alkyl group 21. 1.4.4 Carbonyl compounds 21 ...
... anisotropic layer formed of a liquid crystalline composition comprising a compound having two or more types of reactive groups ... polyvinyl alcohol and alkyl-modified polyvinyl alcohol having at least one alkyl group (preferably C6 or longer alkyl group). ... In formula (I), Q1 and Q2 respectively represent a reactive group. The polymerization reaction of the reactive group is ... an unsubstituted alkyl group or an alkyl group substituted with fluorine atom is more preferable), a substituted or ...
7.7 Pyrophoric Materials: Aluminum Alkyls.. 7.8 Peroxide Formers: 1,3-Butadiene.. 7.9 Water-Reactive Materials: Sodium. ... Necessary elements of a reliable system to prevent equipment or human failures that might lead to a reactive chemical incident ... With new and growing interest in dealing with the hazards of reactive chemicals, this book offers guidelines that can ... Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials. CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety) ...
It can use either NADH or NADPH as electron donor for direct reduction of redox dyes or of alkyl hydroperoxides when combined ... Serves to protect the cell against DNA damage by alkyl hydroperoxides. ... response to reactive oxygen species Source: InterPro. View the complete GO annotation on QuickGO ... ... Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit FAdd BLAST. 521. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
It can use either NADH or NADPH as electron donor for direct reduction of redox dyes or of alkyl hydroperoxides when combined ... Serves to protect the cell against DNA damage by alkyl hydroperoxides. ... response to reactive oxygen species Source: InterPro. Complete GO annotation on QuickGO ... ... Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit FAdd BLAST. 521. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
Self-reactive substances and mixtures. Reason for no classification:. data lacking. Pyrophoric liquids. Reason for no ... alkyl 2-alkyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,8,8a-octahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene-2-carboxylate. ...
Self-reactive substances and mixtures. Reason for no classification:. conclusive but not sufficient for classification. ... Reaction mass of C5 alkyl polypentosides (APPYCLEAN-6505). Implementation:. EU. Remarks:. Most of the tests were conducted on ...
Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage ... Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions; Alcohols ...
... alkyl-4-cyanobiaryls on the basis of the terephthalonitrile dianion and neutral aromatic nitrile cross-coupling ... Table 1: Interaction of dianion 12− with benzonitrile (2a), followed by alkylation of 3 with ω-substituted-alkyl bromides 6a-f ... The highest yield of 5 (5ab, 70%) was obtained for 5-bromopent-1-ene (6b). Reactions with ω-substituted alkyl bromides 6d and ... 1.5 h, which is necessary for cross-coupling, and final quenching by the addition of an excess of alkyl halide 6. The reaction ...
When any of R1, R2, R4, R7 or R8 is alkyl, alkyl is for example methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl or tert- ... m is zero to 2; at least three of A either consists of a reactive vinyl containing group of the formula ##STR2## where R4 is ... at least three of A either consists of a reactive vinyl containing group of the formula ##STR24## where R4 is arylene of 6 to ... When R4 is arylene, it is for example phenylene, phenylene substituted by one or more C1 -C4 -alkyl or is naphthylene. ...
The template comprises non-reactive organic compound, non-reactive oligomer, non-reactive polymer, or combinations thereof. ... R2 can be the same or different and is alkyl group or haloalkyl group. Accordingly, the first oxide gel precursor can be 3- ... R3 can be the same or different and alkyl group or haloalkyl group. Accordingly, the second oxide gel precursor can be ... a non-reactive polymer template in an amount of 5 to 55 parts by weight; and ...
21. Tris(pyrazolyl)hydroborato Magnesium and Aluminum Alkyl Derivatives: Alkyl Exchange with Methyl Iodide and Enolate ... 18. (h5-C5Me5)2W=O: An Exceptionally Reactive Organometallic Oxo Derivative. Reduction with H2 and Reaction with O2 Resulting ... 24. Insertion of O2 into the Mg-C Bonds of the Alkyl Derivatives {h3‑HB(3‑Butpz)3}MgR (R = CH3, CH2CH3, CH(CH3)2, C(CH3)3): ... 89. Alkyl, Hydride, and Hydroxide Derivatives of the s‑ and p‑Block Elements Supported by Poly(pyrazolyl)borato Ligation: ...
So we could get RMgBr from magnesium and alkyl bromide. But where do we get the alkyl bromide? The rules of the game has us ... But this one has no special virtues that make it reactive, so that one is the tough one to make. ... We want the alkyl metal. But we can only start from alcohols. In fact, we cant even start with this, because thats a carbon ... So you have R with a metal, like a Grignard reagent or an alkyl lithium, right? You do this reaction. Then, of course, those ...
The anion-reactive compound is an alkyl halide, aralkyl halide, ester, amide, carbonate, aldehyde, unsaturated ester, or a ... Exemplary anion-reactive compounds include C1-30 alkyl halides, C1-30 carbonyl compounds including acids, esters, amides, ... Other anion-reactive compounds useful herein include carbon dioxide, peroxides, epoxides, and the like. The anion-reactive ... depending on the anion radical reactive compound used. In an exemplary embodiment, graphene is functionalized with alkyl groups ...
Presentation] Modification of tubulins by reactive quinone derived from serotonin in neuronal cells2014. *. Author(s). Yoji ... Presentation] Formation of reactive quinone from 5-hydoroxyindoleacetic acid catalyzed by myeloperoxidase - Covalent adduction ... Establishment and application of evaluation system of brain aging using alkyl-amide adducts as probe. Research Project ...
Conjugates prepared with the thiol-reactive azide, succinimidyl ester can be detected with an alkyne-containing molecule in a ... Reactive Moiety:. Alkyl Halide, Iodoacetamide. Molecular Weight:. 310.14 Da. Solubility:. DMSO (Dimethylsulfoxide). ... Conjugates prepared with the thiol-reactive azide, succinimidyl ester can be detected with an alkyne-containing molecule in a ...
NHC and nucleophile chelation effects on reactive iron(ii) species in alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling. ... Intermediates and Reactivity in Iron-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings of Alkynyl Grignards with Alkyl Halides. ... 4 as a key reactive species for cross-coupling catalysis. ... Cross-Couplings of Phenyl Nucleophiles and Secondary Alkyl ...
Effect of anodized oxide layer ageing on wettability of alkyl silane coating.... ... Performance evaluation of reactive direct current unbalanced magnetron.... Performance evaluation of reactive direct current ... Home > Publication > Performance evaluation of reactive direct current unbalanced magnetron... Performance evaluation of ... Reactive sputtering of hard nitride coatings using asymmetric-bipolar pulsed DC generator. ...
Presentation] Carbonylative Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Alkyl Iodides under Pd/Photoirradiation System2015. *. Author(s). Shuhei ... Presentation] Palladium Catalyzed Radical Vinylation of Alkyl Iodides under Photoirradiation Conditions2015. *. Author(s). ... Journal Article] Carbonylation of Alkyl Radicals Derived from Organosilicates through Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis2019. * ... Journal Article] Carbonylative Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Alkyl Iodides with Arylalkenes Using a Pd/Photoirradiation System2015 ...
  • The reactive surfactants are comprised of ring sulfonated half esters of maleic anhydride with alkoxylated alkyl arylols. (google.co.uk)
  • The invention provides a class of ring sulfonated half esters of maleic anhydride and alkoxylated alkyl arylols which surprisingly not only are true anionic emulsifiers (surfactants), but also are reactive functional monomers which are copolymerizable under emulsion polymerization conditions. (google.co.uk)
  • Such class of sulfonated esters displays an extremely broad range of applications in emulsion polymerization, depending upon the wishes of the user, and such class of reactive surfactants appears to overcome many of the above indicated limitations and disadvantages associated with prior art surfactants and functional monomers employed in emulsion polymerization. (google.co.uk)
  • No. 3,847,978 includes within its disclosure acids and esters of the formula ##STR6## wherein R is H or alkyl, X is CF 3 COCF 2 , ##STR7## RO 2 CCF 2 or ##STR8## and m is an integer within the range 1-50. (google.co.uk)
  • Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium. (europa.eu)
  • Esters are reactive with water and can hydrolyze under either acidic or basic conditions. (europa.eu)
  • Formally they are alkyl esters of nitrous acid. (factbites.com)
  • 5) Alkyl nitrites are aliphatic esters of nitric acid. (factbites.com)
  • Coupling of preactivated small molecule and biomolecule with chemical reactive groups such as Amine reaction with NHS or other active esters. (biosyn.com)
  • Amine-reactive chemical groups in biomolecular probes for labeling and crosslinking primary amines include NHS esters (N-hydroxysuccinimide esters) and imidoesters. (thermofisher.com)
  • NHS esters are reactive groups formed by carbodiimide-activation of carboxylate molecules (see Carbodiimide Crosslinker Chemistry ). (thermofisher.com)
  • Two photochromic diarylethenes, 1,2-bis(2-isobutoxy-5-phenyl-3-thienyl)perfluorocyclopentene ( 1a ) and 1,2-bis(2-neopentoxy-5-phenyl-3-thienyl)perfluorocyclopentene ( 2a ), were newly synthesized and their optical properties and thermal cycloreversion reactivity were examined, because there is insufficient data for diarylethenes with alkoxy groups at the reactive carbons. (springer.com)
  • The steric substituent constant was employed to correlate the relationship between the thermal cycloreversion reactivity of diarylethenes with alkyl and alkoxy groups at the reactive carbons and the bulkiness of the substituent. (springer.com)
  • 3. The ink composition of claim 2, wherein the electron-donating functional group is an amino, hydroxyl, alkoxy, or alkyl group. (patentgenius.com)
  • With the exception of methyl and benzyl, the other alkyl groups present a steric hindrance to the back-side approach of the nucleophile, which increases with substitution alpha and beta to the bromine. (factbites.com)
  • These two examples demonstrate that for monofluorinated alkyl carbons, a neighboring nucleophile may be a concern, and the chemical stability needs to be assessed. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The method is based on biaryl cross-coupling between the sodium salt of the terephthalonitrile dianion and a neutral aromatic nitrile in liquid ammonia, and successive alkylation of the long-lived anionic intermediate with alkyl bromides. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • it is also possible and, depending on the sample, even more likely that only one end of the bifunctional cross-linker will react with the protein because the other end does not come into contact with another cross-linkable residue, or the second reactive group is deactivated, e.g. by hydrolysis, before forming a cross-link. (mcponline.org)
  • Unfortunately, the preparation of alkyl glycosides cannot be carried out with unprotected thio-glycosides, implying orthogonal protection and deprotection steps in order to obtain unprotected glycolipids. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • glycosides from unprotected sugar anomeric thiols, commercial n -alkenes and one synthetic lipophilic scaffold presenting two reactive alkenyl ends. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Serves to protect the cell against DNA damage by alkyl hydroperoxides. (uniprot.org)
  • It can use either NADH or NADPH as electron donor for direct reduction of redox dyes or of alkyl hydroperoxides when combined with the AhpC protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Moreover, the isolation of a strain with enhanced aerotolerance and high-level resistance to alkyl hydroperoxides from an ahpCF katB parent suggests that the physiological responses to peroxide toxicity and to the toxic effects of molecular oxygen are overlapping and complex in this obligate anaerobe. (asm.org)
  • AhpF uses NADH or NADPH as electron donor to AhpC, which reduces physiological lipid peroxides such as linoleic acid hydroperoxide and thymine hydroperoxide and nonphysiological alkyl hydroperoxides to their respective nontoxic alcohol forms ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • New reactive surfactants or emulsifiers useful in a broad range of emulsion polymerization processes are provided, along with processes for making and using such. (google.co.uk)
  • Surfactants containing sulfonate groups are, of course, known, but, so far as now known to me, these materials are apparently not chemically reactive so as to be incorporatable by emulsion polymerization directly into an emulsion polymerized product because of inherent molecular structural considerations. (google.co.uk)
  • The results of this study may provide a good physical background for developing reactive poly(PFPA) thin film platforms based on simple and quantitative post-modification with amine-containing molecules. (nature.com)
  • As the C-F bond-dissociation energy (BDE) is very high (typically 109 kcal/mol or above), fluorine is often used by medicinal chemists to block a metabolic soft spot, which can reduce a molecule's metabolic clearance and/or prevent the formation of reactive metabolites. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The catalyst is able to protonate the alkenes (propylene, butylene) to produce reactive carbocations , which alkylate isobutane. (wikidoc.org)
  • Wink DA, Cook JA, Krishna MC, et al: Nitric oxide protects against alkyl peroxide mediated cytotoxicity: further insights into the role nitric oxide plays in oxidative stress. (springer.com)