Task Performance and Analysis
Pattern Recognition, Visual
Analysis of Variance
Contingent Negative Variation
Event-Related Potentials, P300
Signal Detection, Psychological
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Evoked Potentials, Visual
Evoked Potentials, Motor
Green Chemistry Technology
Statistics as Topic
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Word Association Tests
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Galvanic Skin Response
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Pattern Recognition, Physiological
Evoked Potentials, Auditory
Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (1/13264)It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results. (+info)
Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (2/13264)Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity. (+info)
Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (3/13264)Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3). (+info)
Augmentation is a potentiation of the exocytotic process. (4/13264)Short-term synaptic enhancement is caused by an increase in the probability with which synaptic terminals release transmitter in response to presynaptic action potentials. Since exocytosed vesicles are drawn from a readily releasable pool of packaged transmitter, enhancement must result either from an increase in the size of the pool or an elevation in the fraction of releasable vesicles that undergoes exocytosis with each action potential. We show here that at least one major component of enhancement, augmentation, is not caused by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool but is instead associated with an increase in the efficiency with which action potentials induce the exocytosis of readily releasable vesicles. (+info)
Multiple point electrical stimulation of ulnar and median nerves. (5/13264)A computer-assisted method of isolating single motor units (MUs) by multiple point stimulation (MPS) of peripheral nerves is described. MPS was used to isolate 10-30 single MUs from thenar and hypothenar muscles of normal subjects and patients with entrapment neuropathies, with the original purpose of obtaining a more representative mean motor unit potential for estimating the number of MUs in a muscle. The two important results that evolved from MPS however, were: (1) in the absence of 'alternation' MUs were recruited in an orderly pattern from small to large, and from longer to shorter latencies by graded electrical stimulation in both normal and pathological cases, (2) a comparison of the sizes of MUs recruited by stimulation proximal and distal to the elbow suggested that axonal branching can occur in the forearm 200 mm or more proximal to the motor point in intrinsic hand muscles. (+info)
Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (6/13264)A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5
Source of inappropriate receptive fields in cortical somatotopic maps from rats that sustained neonatal forelimb removal. (7/13264)Previously this laboratory demonstrated that forelimb removal at birth in rats results in the invasion of the cuneate nucleus by sciatic nerve axons and the development of cuneothalamic cells with receptive fields that include both the forelimb-stump and the hindlimb. However, unit-cluster recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of these animals revealed few sites in the forelimb-stump representation where responses to hindlimb stimulation also could be recorded. Recently we reported that hindlimb inputs to the SI forelimb-stump representation are suppressed functionally in neonatally amputated rats and that GABAergic inhibition is involved in this process. The present study was undertaken to assess the role that intracortical projections from the SI hindlimb representation may play in the functional reorganization of the SI forelimb-stump field in these animals. The SI forelimb-stump representation was mapped during gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor blockade, both before and after electrolytic destruction of the SI hindlimb representation. Analysis of eight amputated rats showed that 75.8% of 264 stump recording sites possessed hindlimb receptive fields before destruction of the SI hindlimb. After the lesions, significantly fewer sites (13.2% of 197) were responsive to hindlimb stimulation (P < 0.0001). Electrolytic destruction of the SI lower-jaw representation in four additional control rats with neonatal forelimb amputation did not significantly reduce the percentage of hindlimb-responsive sites in the SI stump field during GABA-receptor blockade (P = 0.98). Similar results were obtained from three manipulated rats in which the SI hindlimb representation was silenced temporarily with a local cobalt chloride injection. Analysis of response latencies to sciatic nerve stimulation in the hindlimb and forelimb-stump representations suggested that the intracortical pathway(s) mediating the hindlimb responses in the forelimb-stump field may be polysynaptic. The mean latency to sciatic nerve stimulation at responsive sites in the GABA-receptor blocked SI stump representation of neonatally amputated rats was significantly longer than that for recording sites in the hindlimb representation [26.3 +/- 8.1 (SD) ms vs. 10.8 +/- 2.4 ms, respectively, P < 0.0001]. These results suggest that hindlimb input to the SI forelimb-stump representation detected in GABA-blocked cortices of neonatally forelimb amputated rats originates primarily from the SI hindlimb representation. (+info)
Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat. (8/13264)Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons. (+info)
A brain concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken inside the skull. This can happen when the head is hit, struck, or shaken violently, causing the brain to bounce around inside the skull. The symptoms of a brain concussion can vary widely and may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and changes in mood or behavior. In some cases, a person may also experience temporary loss of consciousness or amnesia. Concussions are a common type of TBI, and they can occur in a variety of settings, including sports, car accidents, falls, and assaults. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone else may have suffered a concussion, as untreated concussions can lead to long-term complications and even permanent brain damage. Treatment typically involves rest, pain management, and monitoring for any signs of worsening symptoms.
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty paying attention, excessive hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist into adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can interfere with a person's ability to learn, socialize, and function in daily life. Treatment for ADHD may include medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Cognition disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to think, reason, remember, and learn. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and aging. Cognition disorders can manifest in different ways, depending on the specific area of the brain that is affected. For example, a person with a memory disorder may have difficulty remembering important information, while someone with a language disorder may have trouble expressing themselves or understanding what others are saying. Some common types of cognition disorders include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. 2. Dementia: A general term used to describe a decline in cognitive function that is severe enough to interfere with daily life. 3. Delirium: A sudden onset of confusion and disorientation that can be caused by a variety of factors, including illness, medication side effects, or dehydration. 4. Aphasia: A language disorder that affects a person's ability to speak, understand, or use language. 5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a person's ability to focus, pay attention, and control impulses. 6. Learning disorders: A group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire and use knowledge and skills. Cognition disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and intervention are important for managing these conditions and improving outcomes.
Nitrazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is primarily used to treat anxiety disorders, insomnia, and muscle spasms. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety and muscle tension. Nitrazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, with the latter being used to treat insomnia. It is typically taken orally, although it can also be administered intravenously in certain situations. While nitrazepam can be effective in treating anxiety and insomnia, it can also have side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and memory problems. It can also be habit-forming, and long-term use can lead to dependence and withdrawal symptoms. As such, it is generally only prescribed for short-term use, and patients are advised to avoid driving or operating heavy machinery while taking it.
Sleep deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual does not get enough sleep, either in terms of duration or quality. It is a common problem that can have serious consequences on a person's physical and mental health. In the medical field, sleep deprivation is defined as a lack of sufficient sleep that affects a person's ability to function normally. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that adults should aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night, and that children and adolescents need even more. Sleep deprivation can be caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle habits such as irregular sleep schedules, exposure to bright light at night, and the use of electronic devices before bedtime. It can also be caused by underlying medical conditions such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and narcolepsy. The effects of sleep deprivation can range from mild to severe and can include fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. In severe cases, sleep deprivation can lead to more serious health problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. Treatment for sleep deprivation typically involves addressing the underlying cause and making lifestyle changes to improve sleep habits. In some cases, medication or other medical interventions may be necessary to treat underlying sleep disorders.
Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that affects movement. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in controlling movement. The symptoms of Parkinson's disease typically develop gradually and may include tremors, stiffness, slow movement, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Other common symptoms may include loss of smell, constipation, sleep disturbances, and cognitive changes. Parkinson's disease is usually diagnosed based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuroimaging tests. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and other treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for people with the condition.
Learning disorders are a group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire, process, store, and retrieve information. These disorders can affect various aspects of learning, such as reading, writing, spelling, math, and language. Learning disorders are not caused by a lack of intelligence or motivation, but rather by neurological or developmental differences that affect the way the brain processes information. They can be diagnosed in children and adults and can range from mild to severe. Some common types of learning disorders include: 1. Dyslexia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to read and spell. 2. Dysgraphia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to write legibly. 3. Dyscalculia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. 4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A disorder that affects a person's ability to focus and pay attention. 5. Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): A disorder that affects a person's ability to process and understand auditory information. Learning disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of standardized tests, evaluations by educational and medical professionals, and observation of a person's behavior and academic performance. Treatment for learning disorders typically involves a multi-disciplinary approach that may include special education, therapy, and medication.
Glutethimide is a medication that was previously used to treat insomnia and other sleep disorders. It works by increasing the amount of a chemical in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the nervous system and promote sleep. However, glutethimide has been associated with serious side effects, including liver damage, mental health problems, and addiction. As a result, it is no longer widely used in the medical field and is only available in some countries as a prescription medication. If you are considering taking glutethimide or any other medication, it is important to talk to your doctor first to discuss the potential risks and benefits.
Mental fatigue is a state of reduced mental alertness, concentration, and performance that results from prolonged mental effort or prolonged wakefulness. It is a subjective feeling of tiredness or weariness of the mind, which can be accompanied by symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, irritability, and decreased motivation. Mental fatigue can be caused by a variety of factors, including lack of sleep, prolonged mental work, stress, and physical illness. It can also be exacerbated by environmental factors such as noise, poor lighting, and uncomfortable temperatures. In the medical field, mental fatigue is often associated with conditions such as sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, and chronic fatigue syndrome. It can also be a symptom of certain medical conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Mental fatigue can have a significant impact on an individual's daily functioning and quality of life. Treatment options may include addressing underlying medical conditions, improving sleep habits, reducing stress, and practicing relaxation techniques.
Temazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is used to treat anxiety disorders, insomnia, and other conditions. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety and tension. Temazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally. It is a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States, meaning that it has a low potential for abuse and dependence. However, like all benzodiazepines, temazepam can be habit-forming and should be used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Lorazepam is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is primarily used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Lorazepam works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to calm the nervous system and reduce anxiety. Lorazepam is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. It is typically prescribed for short-term use, as prolonged use can lead to dependence and withdrawal symptoms. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's condition and response to the medication. Common side effects of lorazepam include drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, breathing difficulties, and an increased risk of falls and accidents. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking lorazepam and to report any adverse effects immediately.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms that affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms can include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking and speech, and problems with emotional expression and social interaction. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can last for a lifetime, although the severity of symptoms can vary over time. It is not caused by a single factor, but rather by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends. While there is no cure for schizophrenia, with proper treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Perceptual disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to perceive and interpret sensory information from the environment. These disorders can affect any of the five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. Perceptual disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and exposure to toxins or drugs. They can also be caused by psychological factors, such as anxiety or depression. Symptoms of perceptual disorders can vary depending on the type of disorder and the sense that is affected. For example, individuals with visual perceptual disorders may experience difficulty distinguishing colors, shapes, or movement, while those with auditory perceptual disorders may have trouble distinguishing speech sounds or understanding conversations in noisy environments. Treatment for perceptual disorders depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medications or other medical interventions may be used to address the underlying condition. In other cases, therapy or counseling may be recommended to help individuals learn coping strategies or adapt to their perceptual limitations.
Hypokinesia is a medical term that refers to a decrease in the amount of movement or muscle activity in a person's body. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, muscle weakness, or injury. Hypokinesia can manifest in different ways, depending on the affected muscles and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms of hypokinesia include slow or jerky movements, difficulty with coordination and balance, and reduced range of motion. In some cases, hypokinesia may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis. Treatment for hypokinesia depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery.
Guanfacine is a medication that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that works by increasing the levels of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter that helps to regulate attention, focus, and impulse control. Guanfacine is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken once or twice a day. It can help to reduce symptoms of ADHD such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention, and it may also improve overall functioning and quality of life for people with the condition.
Oxazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorder, and insomnia. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to calm the nervous system and reduce anxiety and panic symptoms. Oxazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally. Common side effects of oxazepam include drowsiness, dizziness, and impaired coordination. It is important to note that benzodiazepines, including oxazepam, can be habit-forming and may cause dependence if used for extended periods of time.
Psychomotor disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the coordination and control of voluntary movements. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Psychomotor disorders can be further classified into two main categories: movement disorders and coordination disorders. Movement disorders are characterized by abnormal movements, such as tremors, stiffness, or jerky movements. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Coordination disorders, on the other hand, are characterized by difficulty with balance, coordination, and fine motor skills. Examples of coordination disorders include ataxia, which is a disorder that affects the ability to coordinate muscle movements, and apraxia, which is a disorder that affects the ability to plan and execute complex movements. Psychomotor disorders can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, communicate, and interact with others. Treatment for psychomotor disorders may include medication, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of therapy, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.
Propylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a propyl group (-CH2CH2CH3) attached to an amine group (-NH2). They are derivatives of ammonia (NH3) and are commonly used in the medical field as medications or as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. One example of a propylamine medication is propanolol, which is used to treat high blood pressure, angina, and other cardiovascular conditions. Another example is procaine, which is a local anesthetic used to numb the skin and other tissues during medical procedures. Propylamines can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs, such as antihistamines, antidepressants, and tranquilizers. For example, diphenhydramine, an antihistamine used to treat allergies and insomnia, is synthesized from a propylamine intermediate. Overall, propylamines play an important role in the medical field as both medications and intermediates in drug synthesis.
Biofuels are not typically used in the medical field. Biofuels are typically derived from organic matter, such as crops or waste, and are used as a source of energy, often as a substitute for fossil fuels. They are commonly used as a fuel for vehicles, power plants, and other industrial applications. In the medical field, energy sources are typically used to power medical equipment and facilities, but they are not typically referred to as biofuels.
Amputation, traumatic refers to the surgical removal of a limb or part of a limb due to a traumatic injury, such as a severe fracture, crush injury, or laceration. The injury may be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, falls, violence, or warfare. Traumatic amputation can result in significant physical and emotional trauma for the patient, and the surgical procedure to remove the affected limb is often complex and may require specialized surgical expertise. In some cases, the amputation may be necessary to save the patient's life or prevent further complications, such as infection or gangrene. After the amputation, the patient will typically undergo a period of rehabilitation to learn how to adapt to life with a prosthetic limb or other assistive devices. This may involve physical therapy, occupational therapy, and counseling to help the patient cope with the emotional and psychological impact of the amputation.
Stuttering is a speech disorder characterized by involuntary repetitions, prolongations, or blocks of sounds, syllables, or words during speech. It can affect the fluency and clarity of speech, making it difficult for individuals to communicate effectively. Stuttering can occur at any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in childhood. It is a complex disorder that is not fully understood, and there is no single cause. Treatment options for stuttering include speech therapy, behavioral therapy, and medication.
Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine medication that is used to treat allergy symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, itching, and watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a chemical that is released by the body in response to an allergic reaction. Chlorpheniramine is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids. It is also available by prescription in higher strengths or in combination with other medications. Chlorpheniramine may cause drowsiness, so it is generally not recommended for use by people who need to be alert, such as drivers or operators of heavy machinery.
Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the muscles and movement of the body. These disorders can cause involuntary movements, such as tremors, stiffness, or jerking, as well as difficulties with balance, coordination, and posture. Movement disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infections, toxins, and certain medications. Some common movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Treatment for movement disorders depends on the specific disorder and its severity. It may include medications, physical therapy, occupational therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, may also be helpful in managing symptoms.
Flurazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is used to treat anxiety disorders, insomnia, and muscle spasms. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to calm the nervous system and reduce anxiety and muscle tension. Flurazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms. The immediate-release form is typically taken orally, while the extended-release form is taken once a day at bedtime. Flurazepam can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, headache, nausea, and constipation. It can also be habit-forming and may lead to dependence if used for extended periods of time. Therefore, it is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider and to avoid taking it for longer than recommended.
Chlorine compounds are chemical compounds that contain chlorine as an element. In the medical field, chlorine compounds are commonly used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and antifungals. They are also used in the production of various pharmaceuticals and medical devices. One of the most well-known chlorine compounds used in medicine is hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is produced by the immune system as a natural defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is also used as a disinfectant in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Other chlorine compounds used in medicine include chlorhexidine, which is used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and skin cleansers, and chloramphenicol, which is used as an antibiotic to treat bacterial infections. However, it is important to note that some chlorine compounds can be toxic and can cause harm if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow proper safety protocols when handling and using chlorine compounds in the medical field.
Allylglycine is a chemical compound that is formed by the reaction of glycine with allyl chloride. It is a dipeptide, which means it is composed of two amino acids, glycine and allylamine. In the medical field, allylglycine has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of liver disease. One of the main mechanisms by which allylglycine is thought to exert its effects is by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called CYP2E1, which is involved in the metabolism of various drugs and toxins. This inhibition can help to protect the liver from damage caused by these substances. In addition to its potential role in liver disease, allylglycine has also been studied for its potential to improve cognitive function and reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic effects of allylglycine and to determine its safety and efficacy in humans.
Brain injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the brain, which is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. Brain injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, such as a blow to the head, exposure to toxins, infections, or degenerative diseases. Brain injuries can range from mild to severe and can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some common types of brain injuries include concussion, contusion, hematoma, edema, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity and location of the injury, but may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in behavior or personality, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain injuries depends on the severity and type of injury, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. In some cases, rehabilitation may be necessary to help individuals recover from the effects of a brain injury and regain their ability to function in daily life.
Nicotine is a highly addictive psychoactive substance found in tobacco plants. It is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system and can produce feelings of pleasure and relaxation. In the medical field, nicotine is used as a treatment for smoking cessation, as it can help reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms associated with quitting smoking. Nicotine is available in various forms, including patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, and e-cigarettes. However, it is important to note that nicotine is also highly toxic and can be dangerous if not used properly. Long-term use of nicotine can lead to addiction, respiratory problems, heart disease, and other health issues.
Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a naturally occurring sedimentary rock made up of the fossilized remains of diatoms, which are tiny aquatic organisms. In the medical field, DE is sometimes used as a natural remedy for various conditions, including: 1. Acne: DE is believed to help unclog pores and remove excess oil, making it a popular ingredient in acne-fighting skincare products. 2. Allergies: DE is sometimes used as a natural dehumidifier to help reduce indoor allergens like dust mites and mold. 3. Insect bites: DE is believed to have antiseptic properties and can be used to soothe insect bites and stings. 4. Skin conditions: DE is sometimes used as a natural exfoliant to help remove dead skin cells and improve skin texture. However, it's important to note that the medical use of DE is not well-established and more research is needed to determine its effectiveness and safety. Additionally, DE can be harmful if inhaled or ingested in large quantities, so it's important to use it properly and follow all safety guidelines.
Athletic injuries refer to injuries that occur as a result of physical activity or sports. These injuries can range from minor sprains and strains to more severe fractures, dislocations, and concussions. They can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including overuse, sudden movements, collisions, and poor technique. Athletic injuries can be prevented through proper conditioning, warm-up and cool-down exercises, and the use of appropriate protective gear. Treatment for athletic injuries may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.
Neurotic disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by excessive anxiety, worry, and emotional distress. These disorders are often referred to as anxiety disorders and include conditions such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individuals with neurotic disorders may experience a range of symptoms, including excessive fear or worry, physical symptoms such as sweating or trembling, avoidance of certain situations or activities, and difficulty concentrating or sleeping. These symptoms can significantly impact an individual's daily life and ability to function normally. Treatment for neurotic disorders typically involves a combination of therapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of therapy used to treat these disorders, as it helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their anxiety and distress. Medications such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read, write, and spell. It is a neurological condition that is characterized by difficulties with phonological processing, which is the ability to recognize and manipulate the sounds of language. People with dyslexia may have difficulty with decoding words, recognizing words, and spelling words correctly. They may also have difficulty with reading fluency, which is the ability to read smoothly and quickly without making errors. Dyslexia can affect individuals of all ages and can be a lifelong condition, although with proper support and intervention, individuals with dyslexia can learn to read and write effectively.
Dextroamphetamine is a medication that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is a central nervous system stimulant that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which can help to improve focus, attention, and alertness. It is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is typically taken orally. Dextroamphetamine can cause side effects such as increased heart rate, difficulty sleeping, and loss of appetite, and should be used with caution in people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease or high blood pressure.
In the medical field, ketones are organic compounds that are produced when the body breaks down fatty acids for energy. They are typically produced in the liver and are released into the bloodstream as a result of starvation, diabetes, or other conditions that cause the body to use fat as its primary source of energy. Ketones are often measured in the blood or urine as a way to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or ketoacidosis. High levels of ketones in the blood or urine can indicate that the body is not getting enough insulin or is not using glucose effectively, which can be a sign of diabetes or other metabolic disorders. In some cases, ketones may be used as a treatment for certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy or cancer. They may also be used as a source of energy for people who are unable to consume carbohydrates due to certain medical conditions or dietary restrictions.
Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, is a type of alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable and has a distinctive odor. Ethanol is effective at killing a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used to clean surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings to prevent the spread of infection. In addition to its use as a disinfectant, ethanol is also used as a solvent for medications and other substances, and as a fuel for medical devices such as inhalers and nebulizers. It is also used as a preservative in some medications and vaccines to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Ethanol can be toxic if consumed in large amounts, and can cause a range of symptoms including dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and even death. It is important to use ethanol and other disinfectants and antiseptics safely and according to the instructions provided, to avoid accidental exposure or injury.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
Reaction Time (book)
Serial reaction time
Real-time polymerase chain reaction
Five-choice serial-reaction time task
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Thermodynamic versus kinetic reaction control
Central nervous system fatigue
History and culture of substituted amphetamines
Comparison of Reactions for First-Time Vaccinees and Revaccinees | Smallpox | CDC
Rickettsia prowazekii and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction - Volume 12, Number 3-March 2006 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
Reaction To Obama's Prime-Time Stimulus Pitch
Israel torpedoed sale of Iron Dome to Ukraine, fearing Russian reaction - report | The Times of Israel
WHO EMRO | Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis | TDR-news | Tropical diseases...
DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY SPECIFIC FOR ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI in: The American...
Reaction time and intelligence: strong data for a week explanation
Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for SARS-associated Coronavirus
Sport-specific reaction time after dehydration varies between sexes | Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition ...
reaction time - Mana Obscura
Basic Molecular Biology Module 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Real-Time PCR | OneLab REACH
Slow reaction time switching back to PM
Xylenes | ToxFAQs™ | ATSDR
Breath alcohol test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Jac Mantle: 'Pre-speech tongue movements and verbal reaction times in acquired apraxia of speech' - NINE DTP
ONCE UPON A TIME IN HOLLYWOOD Teaser Reaction - HideoutTV
First-Time CPR: Med Students Jump in to Save a Friend
Typical Dosage and Reaction Times to kill Bacteria with Ozone
Bone tissue reaction, setting time, solubility, and pH of root repair materials. | Clin Oral Investig;23(3): 1359-1366, 2019...
Frontiers | Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Wild Bird-Origin H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus
Escape Room In A Box - Time Drifters 'Third Game' [Reaction] - Room Escape Artist
'The Return' initial reactions - Once Upon a Time podcast ...
German Shepherd Meets Kittens For The First time. Her Reaction? Oh My Gosh! - Tabooya
SOTU: Real-Time Voter Reactions to Obama's Tax Remarks - Morning Consult
AGT Time: America's Got Talent | Season 18 | Semifinals 4 - Quick Reactions
Molecular Vision: Increased importin 13 activity is associated with the pathogenesis of pterygium
- We developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay by using a species-specific probe targeting the gltA gene. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, a definite diagnosis of epidemic typhus is often delayed because the sensitivity of cell culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods is low ( 13 ), and serologic diagnosis can be obtained only by using advanced serologic methods such as Western blot analysis after cross-adsorptions. (cdc.gov)
- Several studies have shown that conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays could provide a rapid, sensitive and specific testing alternative to serology and culture for the diagnosis of brucellosis. (who.int)
- The diagnosis of many infectious diseases, both viral and bacterial, may include the use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] The resultant complementary DNA is amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (medscape.com)
- The expressions of TLR4, NF-κ B and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cortical were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, immunohistochemistry, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (karger.com)
- We screened for inv22 with our previously reported conventional polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) method , as well as with a newly developed real-time PCR method . (bvsalud.org)
- The reaction time on elementary and complex cognitive tasks is statistically correlated with intelligence tests. (bvsalud.org)
- Subjects with higher cognitive capacity present shorter reaction times, namely in more complex tasks involving choice. (bvsalud.org)
- Even though literature analyses the individual differences in reaction time as reflecting central components of information processing, for example, suggesting that short-term memory mediates the relationship between intelligence and reaction time, in this study we will try to introduce non cognitive factors on decision making to explain these correlation coefficients. (bvsalud.org)
- 46,59,50 the time of rapid physical, cognitive, social, and emotional turmoil, and there was a congenital cardiac defects, especially those who time sildenafil reaction are not equal, but some may be cys- tic objects insonated with either lesion alone. (lowerbricktown.com)
- Among these factors are age-related changes in reaction time and visual, cognitive, and/or muscle disorders that become more common with age. (msdmanuals.com)
- The aim of our study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR assay by using a species-specific probe that is rapid, sensitive, and specific for detecting R. prowazekii in clinical samples or in body lice in outbreaks of epidemic typhus. (cdc.gov)
- The use of real-time quantitative RT-PCR to quantify specific mRNAs allows for more rapid testing, higher sensitivity, increased simplicity, and more accuracy. (medscape.com)
- Your mental reaction time is how quickly you notice an enemy peeking round the corner, and your physical reaction time is how quickly you can pull the trigger. (teamcommand.com)
- Substances that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can trigger allergic reactions in certain people. (medlineplus.gov)
- Once a person has had an exposure or an allergic reaction (is sensitized), even a very limited exposure to a very small amount of allergen can trigger a severe reaction. (medlineplus.gov)
- Zachary's reaction to a trigger develops over time. (cdc.gov)
- The data are interpreted as indicating two populations, rapid or slow reaction, with covert anxiety being a factor in emergency situations. (cdc.gov)
- At the time, Republicans in committee and on the Senate floor criticized the measure's approach to the crime of burglary. (republictimes.net)
- Subsequently, we developed a method for the measurement of relative allelic expression, by taking advantage of the capability for melting-curve analysis in real-time PCR. (aspetjournals.org)
- This basic-level eLearning course provides information on the principle of PCR and real-time PCR. (cdc.gov)
- Topics covered include PCR steps, PCR product analysis, and real-time PCR characteristics. (cdc.gov)
- This online course is designed for public health and clinical laboratory staff, and persons interested in PCR and real-time PCR techniques. (cdc.gov)
- Having a gaming monitor with a high refresh rate means it will be able to keep up with the game you're playing in real-time. (teamcommand.com)
- With the real-time PCR method , 10 of the severe haemophilia A patients and 3 carriers tested inv22-positive. (bvsalud.org)
- The discrepancy between the real-time reactions of voters and their responses to questions posed after the fact may show that Obama is a polarizing enough force to elicit disapproval from Republican voters even when he says things they might generally agree. (morningconsult.com)
- In addition to tracking real-time reactions to the clip, the poll also asked respondents to indicate their general support for Obama's statements after watching the clip. (morningconsult.com)
- Below are real-time reactions to the second segment. (morningconsult.com)
- The target DNA segment is amplified in the range of 10 5 - to 10 6 -fold by repeating this cycle no less than 30-40 times. (medscape.com)
- I have the amounts of persulphate used for several solutions of differing concentrations and the time it took for the blue to appear once all the sodium thiosulphate was used up. (chemicalforums.com)
- Urinary NNAL concentrations among employees increased by 9.5%, per 10 mug/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS after controlling for the time of day and day of week. (who.int)
- Many allergic reactions are mild, while others can be severe and life threatening. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most severe allergic reactions occur within seconds or minutes after exposure to the allergen. (medlineplus.gov)
- Anaphylaxis is a sudden and severe allergic reaction that occurs within minutes of exposure. (medlineplus.gov)
- An asthma diagnosis in a child under the age of two is rare, but are sometimes given by a doctor if a child endures repeated episodes in a short period of time. (cdc.gov)
- Aim Lab has tasks designed specifically for improving your reaction time, and just aim training in general will help you to click those headshots faster. (teamcommand.com)
- The idea is instead that perceptual organization involves the coming together of interdependent processes that operate on different time scales, including processes in neurophysiology, motor behavior, attention, and intention. (frontiersin.org)
- For example, as we get older, our reaction times will inevitably slow down. (teamcommand.com)
- Behavioral analysis of reaction of unindoctrinated subjects exposed to simulated emergency rapid decompression, from 5,000 to 20,000 feet in an altitude chamber. (cdc.gov)
- Average reaction times vary from person to person, but usually sit at around 200-300 milliseconds. (teamcommand.com)
- Calm and reassure the person having the reaction. (medlineplus.gov)
- If the person has injectable emergency allergy medicine (Epinephrine), administer it at the beginning of a reaction. (medlineplus.gov)
- this was our first time ever doing CPR on a real person. (medscape.com)
- Triggers are different for everyone, and can change for a person over time. (cdc.gov)
- The percent of lead absorbed in the gut, especially in an empty stomach, is estimated to be as much as 5 to 10 times greater in infants and young children than in adults [Ziegler et al. (cdc.gov)
- When it comes to gaming, people talk all the time about aim training, getting the perfect gaming setup, and PC settings, but there's one vital factor that can really make all the difference to your high scores - your reaction time. (teamcommand.com)
- Allergic reactions occur more often in people who have a family history of allergies . (medlineplus.gov)
- Parents of and people with asthma are on alert all of the time, not just in the event of an episode or when disaster looms . (cdc.gov)
- Source: Vaccination reactions in vaccinia-naïve and previously vaccinated volunteers in a clinical study of diluted Dryvax smallpox vaccine enrolled at the NIAID-supported Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Units at Saint Louis University in 2002. (cdc.gov)
- About the same time, an Australian study observed lead poisoning among children and identified household dust and paint as the sources of the lead. (cdc.gov)
- The PPI dendrimer encapsulated Cu ions in the internal nanovoids to form adjacent Cu species, which exhibited significantly high catalytic activity for the regioselective coupling reaction of DMP compared to previously reported enzyme and metal complex catalysts. (mdpi.com)
- Often when the graph of reactant concentration is plotted against time, it is found that gradient is approximately constant during the short initial leg of of the reaction. (chemicalforums.com)
- We can split reaction time into two main categories - mental reaction time, and physical reaction time. (teamcommand.com)
- Also, higher levels of fitness have been linked to better reaction times too. (teamcommand.com)
- The times required to notice, obtain, don, and breathe from automatically presented oxygen masks are compared to times used by experienced pilots. (cdc.gov)
- The images below compare reactions between primary vaccinees and revaccinees. (cdc.gov)
- generally it takes 20-30 seconds to get back to PM - sometime PM draws the contact sheet in 10-15 seconds but I still get no reaction from PM for another 10 seconds. (camerabits.com)
- My BIGGEST problem at this point is the amount of time it takes to get control of PM back after switching (multitasking) to any other program. (camerabits.com)
- There are a few things that affect your reaction time - some of which, sadly, you can't control. (teamcommand.com)
- And the idea that patience is a virtue is of no consolation even though the reality is that it takes time and-at least in the beginning-some educated guesswork to learn how to control asthma. (cdc.gov)
- For a short time, we thought we had his asthma under control. (cdc.gov)
- When it comes to gaming, your reaction times mean the difference between getting the drop on the enemy and getting a bullet right between the eyes. (teamcommand.com)
- Allergic reactions are sensitivities to substances called allergens that come into contact with the skin, nose, eyes, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. (medlineplus.gov)
- We even have a quick and easy reaction test on our Instagram profile so you can test your mettle (but don't blame us if you spend the next few hours trying to beat your high score). (teamcommand.com)
- To get at the question of self-organization, reaction times were submitted to a detrended fluctuation analysis and a recurrence quantification analysis. (frontiersin.org)
- At this time, all participants will be on listen-only until the question and answer session of today's conference. (cdc.gov)
- At which time you may press star 1 to ask a question. (cdc.gov)
- You may also submit questions through the webinar system at any time during the presentation by selecting the Q&A tab at the top of the webinar screen and typing in your question. (cdc.gov)
- Cody and Jay recap the season when the show airs during the summer-time. (agttime.com)