The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.
Performance of complex motor acts.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A benzodiazepine derivative used as an anticonvulsant and hypnotic.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Force exerted when using the index finger and the thumb. It is a test for determining maximum voluntary contraction force.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A condition of low alertness or cognitive impairment, usually associated with prolonged mental activities or stress.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The position or attitude of the body.
The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.
A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A centrally acting antihypertensive agent with specificity towards ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Propylamines are a class of organic compounds containing a propyl group attached to an amine functional group, which may have various medical applications.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase and an antagonist of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of peppermint oil.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The state or process hypothesized to account for poorer learning rate for elements later in a series as compared to the learning rate for elements coming earlier in a series.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.

Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (1/13264)

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (2/13264)

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (3/13264)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Augmentation is a potentiation of the exocytotic process. (4/13264)

Short-term synaptic enhancement is caused by an increase in the probability with which synaptic terminals release transmitter in response to presynaptic action potentials. Since exocytosed vesicles are drawn from a readily releasable pool of packaged transmitter, enhancement must result either from an increase in the size of the pool or an elevation in the fraction of releasable vesicles that undergoes exocytosis with each action potential. We show here that at least one major component of enhancement, augmentation, is not caused by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool but is instead associated with an increase in the efficiency with which action potentials induce the exocytosis of readily releasable vesicles.  (+info)

Multiple point electrical stimulation of ulnar and median nerves. (5/13264)

A computer-assisted method of isolating single motor units (MUs) by multiple point stimulation (MPS) of peripheral nerves is described. MPS was used to isolate 10-30 single MUs from thenar and hypothenar muscles of normal subjects and patients with entrapment neuropathies, with the original purpose of obtaining a more representative mean motor unit potential for estimating the number of MUs in a muscle. The two important results that evolved from MPS however, were: (1) in the absence of 'alternation' MUs were recruited in an orderly pattern from small to large, and from longer to shorter latencies by graded electrical stimulation in both normal and pathological cases, (2) a comparison of the sizes of MUs recruited by stimulation proximal and distal to the elbow suggested that axonal branching can occur in the forearm 200 mm or more proximal to the motor point in intrinsic hand muscles.  (+info)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (6/13264)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

Source of inappropriate receptive fields in cortical somatotopic maps from rats that sustained neonatal forelimb removal. (7/13264)

Previously this laboratory demonstrated that forelimb removal at birth in rats results in the invasion of the cuneate nucleus by sciatic nerve axons and the development of cuneothalamic cells with receptive fields that include both the forelimb-stump and the hindlimb. However, unit-cluster recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of these animals revealed few sites in the forelimb-stump representation where responses to hindlimb stimulation also could be recorded. Recently we reported that hindlimb inputs to the SI forelimb-stump representation are suppressed functionally in neonatally amputated rats and that GABAergic inhibition is involved in this process. The present study was undertaken to assess the role that intracortical projections from the SI hindlimb representation may play in the functional reorganization of the SI forelimb-stump field in these animals. The SI forelimb-stump representation was mapped during gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor blockade, both before and after electrolytic destruction of the SI hindlimb representation. Analysis of eight amputated rats showed that 75.8% of 264 stump recording sites possessed hindlimb receptive fields before destruction of the SI hindlimb. After the lesions, significantly fewer sites (13.2% of 197) were responsive to hindlimb stimulation (P < 0.0001). Electrolytic destruction of the SI lower-jaw representation in four additional control rats with neonatal forelimb amputation did not significantly reduce the percentage of hindlimb-responsive sites in the SI stump field during GABA-receptor blockade (P = 0.98). Similar results were obtained from three manipulated rats in which the SI hindlimb representation was silenced temporarily with a local cobalt chloride injection. Analysis of response latencies to sciatic nerve stimulation in the hindlimb and forelimb-stump representations suggested that the intracortical pathway(s) mediating the hindlimb responses in the forelimb-stump field may be polysynaptic. The mean latency to sciatic nerve stimulation at responsive sites in the GABA-receptor blocked SI stump representation of neonatally amputated rats was significantly longer than that for recording sites in the hindlimb representation [26.3 +/- 8.1 (SD) ms vs. 10.8 +/- 2.4 ms, respectively, P < 0.0001]. These results suggest that hindlimb input to the SI forelimb-stump representation detected in GABA-blocked cortices of neonatally forelimb amputated rats originates primarily from the SI hindlimb representation.  (+info)

Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat. (8/13264)

Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons.  (+info)

A brain concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken inside the skull. This can happen when the head is hit, struck, or shaken violently, causing the brain to bounce around inside the skull. The symptoms of a brain concussion can vary widely and may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and changes in mood or behavior. In some cases, a person may also experience temporary loss of consciousness or amnesia. Concussions are a common type of TBI, and they can occur in a variety of settings, including sports, car accidents, falls, and assaults. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone else may have suffered a concussion, as untreated concussions can lead to long-term complications and even permanent brain damage. Treatment typically involves rest, pain management, and monitoring for any signs of worsening symptoms.

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty paying attention, excessive hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist into adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can interfere with a person's ability to learn, socialize, and function in daily life. Treatment for ADHD may include medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes.

Cognition disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to think, reason, remember, and learn. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and aging. Cognition disorders can manifest in different ways, depending on the specific area of the brain that is affected. For example, a person with a memory disorder may have difficulty remembering important information, while someone with a language disorder may have trouble expressing themselves or understanding what others are saying. Some common types of cognition disorders include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. 2. Dementia: A general term used to describe a decline in cognitive function that is severe enough to interfere with daily life. 3. Delirium: A sudden onset of confusion and disorientation that can be caused by a variety of factors, including illness, medication side effects, or dehydration. 4. Aphasia: A language disorder that affects a person's ability to speak, understand, or use language. 5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a person's ability to focus, pay attention, and control impulses. 6. Learning disorders: A group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire and use knowledge and skills. Cognition disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and intervention are important for managing these conditions and improving outcomes.

Nitrazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is primarily used to treat anxiety disorders, insomnia, and muscle spasms. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety and muscle tension. Nitrazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, with the latter being used to treat insomnia. It is typically taken orally, although it can also be administered intravenously in certain situations. While nitrazepam can be effective in treating anxiety and insomnia, it can also have side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and memory problems. It can also be habit-forming, and long-term use can lead to dependence and withdrawal symptoms. As such, it is generally only prescribed for short-term use, and patients are advised to avoid driving or operating heavy machinery while taking it.

Sleep deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual does not get enough sleep, either in terms of duration or quality. It is a common problem that can have serious consequences on a person's physical and mental health. In the medical field, sleep deprivation is defined as a lack of sufficient sleep that affects a person's ability to function normally. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that adults should aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night, and that children and adolescents need even more. Sleep deprivation can be caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle habits such as irregular sleep schedules, exposure to bright light at night, and the use of electronic devices before bedtime. It can also be caused by underlying medical conditions such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and narcolepsy. The effects of sleep deprivation can range from mild to severe and can include fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. In severe cases, sleep deprivation can lead to more serious health problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. Treatment for sleep deprivation typically involves addressing the underlying cause and making lifestyle changes to improve sleep habits. In some cases, medication or other medical interventions may be necessary to treat underlying sleep disorders.

Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that affects movement. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in controlling movement. The symptoms of Parkinson's disease typically develop gradually and may include tremors, stiffness, slow movement, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Other common symptoms may include loss of smell, constipation, sleep disturbances, and cognitive changes. Parkinson's disease is usually diagnosed based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuroimaging tests. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and other treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for people with the condition.

Learning disorders are a group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire, process, store, and retrieve information. These disorders can affect various aspects of learning, such as reading, writing, spelling, math, and language. Learning disorders are not caused by a lack of intelligence or motivation, but rather by neurological or developmental differences that affect the way the brain processes information. They can be diagnosed in children and adults and can range from mild to severe. Some common types of learning disorders include: 1. Dyslexia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to read and spell. 2. Dysgraphia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to write legibly. 3. Dyscalculia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. 4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A disorder that affects a person's ability to focus and pay attention. 5. Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): A disorder that affects a person's ability to process and understand auditory information. Learning disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of standardized tests, evaluations by educational and medical professionals, and observation of a person's behavior and academic performance. Treatment for learning disorders typically involves a multi-disciplinary approach that may include special education, therapy, and medication.

Glutethimide is a medication that was previously used to treat insomnia and other sleep disorders. It works by increasing the amount of a chemical in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the nervous system and promote sleep. However, glutethimide has been associated with serious side effects, including liver damage, mental health problems, and addiction. As a result, it is no longer widely used in the medical field and is only available in some countries as a prescription medication. If you are considering taking glutethimide or any other medication, it is important to talk to your doctor first to discuss the potential risks and benefits.

Mental fatigue is a state of reduced mental alertness, concentration, and performance that results from prolonged mental effort or prolonged wakefulness. It is a subjective feeling of tiredness or weariness of the mind, which can be accompanied by symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, irritability, and decreased motivation. Mental fatigue can be caused by a variety of factors, including lack of sleep, prolonged mental work, stress, and physical illness. It can also be exacerbated by environmental factors such as noise, poor lighting, and uncomfortable temperatures. In the medical field, mental fatigue is often associated with conditions such as sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, and chronic fatigue syndrome. It can also be a symptom of certain medical conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Mental fatigue can have a significant impact on an individual's daily functioning and quality of life. Treatment options may include addressing underlying medical conditions, improving sleep habits, reducing stress, and practicing relaxation techniques.

Temazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is used to treat anxiety disorders, insomnia, and other conditions. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety and tension. Temazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally. It is a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States, meaning that it has a low potential for abuse and dependence. However, like all benzodiazepines, temazepam can be habit-forming and should be used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Lorazepam is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is primarily used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Lorazepam works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to calm the nervous system and reduce anxiety. Lorazepam is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. It is typically prescribed for short-term use, as prolonged use can lead to dependence and withdrawal symptoms. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's condition and response to the medication. Common side effects of lorazepam include drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, breathing difficulties, and an increased risk of falls and accidents. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking lorazepam and to report any adverse effects immediately.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms that affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms can include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking and speech, and problems with emotional expression and social interaction. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can last for a lifetime, although the severity of symptoms can vary over time. It is not caused by a single factor, but rather by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends. While there is no cure for schizophrenia, with proper treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Perceptual disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to perceive and interpret sensory information from the environment. These disorders can affect any of the five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. Perceptual disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and exposure to toxins or drugs. They can also be caused by psychological factors, such as anxiety or depression. Symptoms of perceptual disorders can vary depending on the type of disorder and the sense that is affected. For example, individuals with visual perceptual disorders may experience difficulty distinguishing colors, shapes, or movement, while those with auditory perceptual disorders may have trouble distinguishing speech sounds or understanding conversations in noisy environments. Treatment for perceptual disorders depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medications or other medical interventions may be used to address the underlying condition. In other cases, therapy or counseling may be recommended to help individuals learn coping strategies or adapt to their perceptual limitations.

Hypokinesia is a medical term that refers to a decrease in the amount of movement or muscle activity in a person's body. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, muscle weakness, or injury. Hypokinesia can manifest in different ways, depending on the affected muscles and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms of hypokinesia include slow or jerky movements, difficulty with coordination and balance, and reduced range of motion. In some cases, hypokinesia may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis. Treatment for hypokinesia depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

Guanfacine is a medication that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that works by increasing the levels of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter that helps to regulate attention, focus, and impulse control. Guanfacine is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken once or twice a day. It can help to reduce symptoms of ADHD such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention, and it may also improve overall functioning and quality of life for people with the condition.

Oxazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorder, and insomnia. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to calm the nervous system and reduce anxiety and panic symptoms. Oxazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally. Common side effects of oxazepam include drowsiness, dizziness, and impaired coordination. It is important to note that benzodiazepines, including oxazepam, can be habit-forming and may cause dependence if used for extended periods of time.

Psychomotor disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the coordination and control of voluntary movements. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Psychomotor disorders can be further classified into two main categories: movement disorders and coordination disorders. Movement disorders are characterized by abnormal movements, such as tremors, stiffness, or jerky movements. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Coordination disorders, on the other hand, are characterized by difficulty with balance, coordination, and fine motor skills. Examples of coordination disorders include ataxia, which is a disorder that affects the ability to coordinate muscle movements, and apraxia, which is a disorder that affects the ability to plan and execute complex movements. Psychomotor disorders can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, communicate, and interact with others. Treatment for psychomotor disorders may include medication, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of therapy, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.

Propylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a propyl group (-CH2CH2CH3) attached to an amine group (-NH2). They are derivatives of ammonia (NH3) and are commonly used in the medical field as medications or as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. One example of a propylamine medication is propanolol, which is used to treat high blood pressure, angina, and other cardiovascular conditions. Another example is procaine, which is a local anesthetic used to numb the skin and other tissues during medical procedures. Propylamines can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs, such as antihistamines, antidepressants, and tranquilizers. For example, diphenhydramine, an antihistamine used to treat allergies and insomnia, is synthesized from a propylamine intermediate. Overall, propylamines play an important role in the medical field as both medications and intermediates in drug synthesis.

Biofuels are not typically used in the medical field. Biofuels are typically derived from organic matter, such as crops or waste, and are used as a source of energy, often as a substitute for fossil fuels. They are commonly used as a fuel for vehicles, power plants, and other industrial applications. In the medical field, energy sources are typically used to power medical equipment and facilities, but they are not typically referred to as biofuels.

Amputation, traumatic refers to the surgical removal of a limb or part of a limb due to a traumatic injury, such as a severe fracture, crush injury, or laceration. The injury may be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, falls, violence, or warfare. Traumatic amputation can result in significant physical and emotional trauma for the patient, and the surgical procedure to remove the affected limb is often complex and may require specialized surgical expertise. In some cases, the amputation may be necessary to save the patient's life or prevent further complications, such as infection or gangrene. After the amputation, the patient will typically undergo a period of rehabilitation to learn how to adapt to life with a prosthetic limb or other assistive devices. This may involve physical therapy, occupational therapy, and counseling to help the patient cope with the emotional and psychological impact of the amputation.

Stuttering is a speech disorder characterized by involuntary repetitions, prolongations, or blocks of sounds, syllables, or words during speech. It can affect the fluency and clarity of speech, making it difficult for individuals to communicate effectively. Stuttering can occur at any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in childhood. It is a complex disorder that is not fully understood, and there is no single cause. Treatment options for stuttering include speech therapy, behavioral therapy, and medication.

Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine medication that is used to treat allergy symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, itching, and watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a chemical that is released by the body in response to an allergic reaction. Chlorpheniramine is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids. It is also available by prescription in higher strengths or in combination with other medications. Chlorpheniramine may cause drowsiness, so it is generally not recommended for use by people who need to be alert, such as drivers or operators of heavy machinery.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the muscles and movement of the body. These disorders can cause involuntary movements, such as tremors, stiffness, or jerking, as well as difficulties with balance, coordination, and posture. Movement disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infections, toxins, and certain medications. Some common movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Treatment for movement disorders depends on the specific disorder and its severity. It may include medications, physical therapy, occupational therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, may also be helpful in managing symptoms.

Flurazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is used to treat anxiety disorders, insomnia, and muscle spasms. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to calm the nervous system and reduce anxiety and muscle tension. Flurazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms. The immediate-release form is typically taken orally, while the extended-release form is taken once a day at bedtime. Flurazepam can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, headache, nausea, and constipation. It can also be habit-forming and may lead to dependence if used for extended periods of time. Therefore, it is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider and to avoid taking it for longer than recommended.

Chlorine compounds are chemical compounds that contain chlorine as an element. In the medical field, chlorine compounds are commonly used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and antifungals. They are also used in the production of various pharmaceuticals and medical devices. One of the most well-known chlorine compounds used in medicine is hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is produced by the immune system as a natural defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is also used as a disinfectant in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Other chlorine compounds used in medicine include chlorhexidine, which is used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and skin cleansers, and chloramphenicol, which is used as an antibiotic to treat bacterial infections. However, it is important to note that some chlorine compounds can be toxic and can cause harm if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow proper safety protocols when handling and using chlorine compounds in the medical field.

Allylglycine is a chemical compound that is formed by the reaction of glycine with allyl chloride. It is a dipeptide, which means it is composed of two amino acids, glycine and allylamine. In the medical field, allylglycine has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of liver disease. One of the main mechanisms by which allylglycine is thought to exert its effects is by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called CYP2E1, which is involved in the metabolism of various drugs and toxins. This inhibition can help to protect the liver from damage caused by these substances. In addition to its potential role in liver disease, allylglycine has also been studied for its potential to improve cognitive function and reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic effects of allylglycine and to determine its safety and efficacy in humans.

Brain injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the brain, which is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. Brain injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, such as a blow to the head, exposure to toxins, infections, or degenerative diseases. Brain injuries can range from mild to severe and can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some common types of brain injuries include concussion, contusion, hematoma, edema, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity and location of the injury, but may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in behavior or personality, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain injuries depends on the severity and type of injury, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. In some cases, rehabilitation may be necessary to help individuals recover from the effects of a brain injury and regain their ability to function in daily life.

Nicotine is a highly addictive psychoactive substance found in tobacco plants. It is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system and can produce feelings of pleasure and relaxation. In the medical field, nicotine is used as a treatment for smoking cessation, as it can help reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms associated with quitting smoking. Nicotine is available in various forms, including patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, and e-cigarettes. However, it is important to note that nicotine is also highly toxic and can be dangerous if not used properly. Long-term use of nicotine can lead to addiction, respiratory problems, heart disease, and other health issues.

Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a naturally occurring sedimentary rock made up of the fossilized remains of diatoms, which are tiny aquatic organisms. In the medical field, DE is sometimes used as a natural remedy for various conditions, including: 1. Acne: DE is believed to help unclog pores and remove excess oil, making it a popular ingredient in acne-fighting skincare products. 2. Allergies: DE is sometimes used as a natural dehumidifier to help reduce indoor allergens like dust mites and mold. 3. Insect bites: DE is believed to have antiseptic properties and can be used to soothe insect bites and stings. 4. Skin conditions: DE is sometimes used as a natural exfoliant to help remove dead skin cells and improve skin texture. However, it's important to note that the medical use of DE is not well-established and more research is needed to determine its effectiveness and safety. Additionally, DE can be harmful if inhaled or ingested in large quantities, so it's important to use it properly and follow all safety guidelines.

Athletic injuries refer to injuries that occur as a result of physical activity or sports. These injuries can range from minor sprains and strains to more severe fractures, dislocations, and concussions. They can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including overuse, sudden movements, collisions, and poor technique. Athletic injuries can be prevented through proper conditioning, warm-up and cool-down exercises, and the use of appropriate protective gear. Treatment for athletic injuries may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Neurotic disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by excessive anxiety, worry, and emotional distress. These disorders are often referred to as anxiety disorders and include conditions such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individuals with neurotic disorders may experience a range of symptoms, including excessive fear or worry, physical symptoms such as sweating or trembling, avoidance of certain situations or activities, and difficulty concentrating or sleeping. These symptoms can significantly impact an individual's daily life and ability to function normally. Treatment for neurotic disorders typically involves a combination of therapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of therapy used to treat these disorders, as it helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their anxiety and distress. Medications such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read, write, and spell. It is a neurological condition that is characterized by difficulties with phonological processing, which is the ability to recognize and manipulate the sounds of language. People with dyslexia may have difficulty with decoding words, recognizing words, and spelling words correctly. They may also have difficulty with reading fluency, which is the ability to read smoothly and quickly without making errors. Dyslexia can affect individuals of all ages and can be a lifelong condition, although with proper support and intervention, individuals with dyslexia can learn to read and write effectively.

Dextroamphetamine is a medication that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is a central nervous system stimulant that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which can help to improve focus, attention, and alertness. It is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is typically taken orally. Dextroamphetamine can cause side effects such as increased heart rate, difficulty sleeping, and loss of appetite, and should be used with caution in people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease or high blood pressure.

In the medical field, ketones are organic compounds that are produced when the body breaks down fatty acids for energy. They are typically produced in the liver and are released into the bloodstream as a result of starvation, diabetes, or other conditions that cause the body to use fat as its primary source of energy. Ketones are often measured in the blood or urine as a way to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or ketoacidosis. High levels of ketones in the blood or urine can indicate that the body is not getting enough insulin or is not using glucose effectively, which can be a sign of diabetes or other metabolic disorders. In some cases, ketones may be used as a treatment for certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy or cancer. They may also be used as a source of energy for people who are unable to consume carbohydrates due to certain medical conditions or dietary restrictions.

Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, is a type of alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable and has a distinctive odor. Ethanol is effective at killing a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used to clean surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings to prevent the spread of infection. In addition to its use as a disinfectant, ethanol is also used as a solvent for medications and other substances, and as a fuel for medical devices such as inhalers and nebulizers. It is also used as a preservative in some medications and vaccines to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Ethanol can be toxic if consumed in large amounts, and can cause a range of symptoms including dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and even death. It is important to use ethanol and other disinfectants and antiseptics safely and according to the instructions provided, to avoid accidental exposure or injury.

In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.

Reaction Time: Climate Change and the Nuclear Option is a book by Professor Ian Lowe which was officially launched by science ... Reaction time: climate change and the nuclear option, p. 19. Ian Lowe, Liam Black and Dean Skinner Is nuclear the answer? ( ... about nuclear issues Renewable energy commercialization List of Australian environmental books Quarterly Essay Reaction time: ...
... influencing reaction-time. As a result, reaction-time to these cues becomes increasingly fast as subjects learn and utilise ... ultimately leading to the reduced reaction-times. Learning from this task is more evident when contrasting the reaction-times ... This decrease in reaction-time suggests increasing familiarity with the repeated components of the stimuli, as there is an ... Serial reaction time (SRT) is a commonly used parameter in the measurement of unconscious learning processes. This parameter is ...
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, or qPCR when used quantitatively) is a laboratory technique of molecular ... Then the reaction is run in a real-time PCR instrument, and after each cycle, the intensity of fluorescence is measured with a ... In real-time PCR with dsDNA dyes the reaction is prepared as usual, with the addition of fluorescent dsDNA dye. ... The acronym "RT-PCR" commonly denotes reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and not real-time PCR, but not all ...
Stop-signal reaction-time task Animal testing on rodents Robbins, TW (October 2002). "The 5-choice serial reaction time task: ... The Five-choice serial-reaction time task (5CSRTT) is a laboratory behavioral task used in psychological research to assess ... Because the 5CSRTT has separate measures of attention, impulsivity, and reaction times, it has proven useful in the pre- ... Bari, A (2008). "The application of the 5-choice serial reaction time task for the assessment of visual attentional processes ...
... and to prevent side reactions that may interfere with the main reaction, the solutions are best prepared a short time before ... In 1958 Boris Pavlovich Belousov discovered the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction (BZ reaction). The BZ reaction is suitable as a ... Field, R. J. (1972). "A Reaction Periodic in Time and Space". J. Chem. Educ. 49: 308. doi:10.1021/ed049p308. Degn, Hans (1972 ... The Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction is one of a small number of known oscillating chemical reactions. It is especially ...
The name for this reaction took some time to develop. In 1985 Professor Agami and associates were the first to name the proline ... The organocatalytic intermolecular aldol reaction is now known as the Barbas-List Aldol reaction. Several reaction mechanisms ... suppresses various possible side-reactions: reaction of the ketone with proline to an oxazolidinone and reaction of the ... In this study the Barbas group demonstrated for the first time that proline can catalyze the cascade Michael-aldol reaction ...
The last three months of the show's existence, Impact! main events continued into Reaction time slot, effectively giving Impact ... Caldwell, James (2010-11-18). "Caldwell's TNA Reaction TV report 11/18: Complete "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV show ... Caldwell, James (2010-08-26). "Caldwell's TNA Reaction TV report 8/26: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of show following Impact ... However, in late June Reaction was pulled from Spike's schedule. On August 3, 2010, TNA announced that Reaction would premiere ...
This is achieved by monitoring the amplification reaction using fluorescence, a technique called real-time PCR or quantitative ... The reaction mix is added to a PCR tube for each reaction, followed by template RNA. The PCR tubes are then placed in a thermal ... Bustin SA (October 2000). "Absolute quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ... The two-step reaction requires that the reverse transcriptase reaction and PCR amplification be performed in separate tubes. ...
... long reaction times, and has an overall low yield. However, adding microwave irradiation shortens the reaction time and ... The Pellizzari reaction was discovered in 1911 by Guido Pellizzari, and is the organic reaction of an amide and a hydrazide to ... Einhorn-Brunner reaction Pellizzari, G. Gazz. Chim. Ital. 1911, 41, 20. Wang, Z (2009). Comprehensive Organic Name Reactions. ... The Pellizzari reaction is limited in the number of substituents that can be on the ring, so other methods have been developed ...
The reaction time was shortened to 30 minutes and yields improved to 20%. The Alder-Logo reaction protocol was further modified ... The Rothemund reactions is common in university teaching labs. The reaction employs an organic acidic medium such as acetic ... The Rothemund reaction is a condensation/oxidation process that converts four pyrroles and four aldehydes into a porphyrin. It ... The reaction entails both condensation of the aldehydes with the 2,5-positions of the pyrrole but also oxidative ...
In general, short reaction times favour kinetic control, whereas longer reaction times favour thermodynamic reaction control. ... Thermodynamic reaction control or kinetic reaction control in a chemical reaction can decide the composition in a reaction ... A process approaches pure kinetic control at low temperature and short reaction time. For a sufficiently long time scale, every ... Reactions are considered to take place under thermodynamic reaction control when the reverse reaction is sufficiently rapid ...
... therefore significantly increasing the reaction time and decreasing the yield. Table 1: Reaction times and yield vary on the ... The reaction of β-mannopyranosides gives low yields and required longer reaction times than with β-glucopyranosides due to the ... The β-glucopyranoside was found to be the best substrate for the Tipson-Cohen reaction as the reaction time and yield were much ... The Tipson-Cohen reaction is a name reaction first discovered by Stuart Tipson and Alex Cohen at the National Bureau of ...
Reaction time. The time between the presentation of a stimulus and an appropriate response can indicate differences between two ... For example, if in a search task the reaction times vary proportionally with the number of elements, then it is evident that ... A person could be presented with a phone number and be asked to recall it after some delay of time; then the accuracy of the ... Even if the technology to map out every neuron in the brain in real-time were available and it were known when each neuron ...
Lacayo, Richard (June 12, 1995). "Violent Reaction". Time. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved October 8, ... "Time's All-Time 100 Movies". As of September 2018, it is number 54 on Metacritic's list of all-time highest scores. The film ... "All-Time 100 Movies: Pulp Fiction (1994)". Time. February 12, 2005. Archived from the original on June 3, 2007. Retrieved May ... He recalls, "we ended up meeting and spending time together, and I liked him, so I was really happy when he asked me to be in ...
reaction time". The Journal of General Psychology. 16 (1): 39-82. doi:10.1080/00221309.1937.9917940. Crowmwell, R. L.; ... doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1937.tb05558.x. Zahn, T. P.; Shakow, D.; Rosenthal, D. (1961). "Reaction time in schizophrenic and ... He compared verbal and manual reaction times and associations in people with schizophrenia compared to normal subjects. Shakow ... Rodnick, Shakow (1940). "Set in the schizophrenic as measured by a composite reaction time index". American Journal of ...
The highly polar protic solvents Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) can shorten reaction time and improve yield. Apart from vinyl ... Coupling reactions, Multiple component reactions, Substitution reactions, Name reactions, Chemical synthesis of amino acids). ... The Petasis reaction (alternatively called the Petasis borono-Mannich (PBM) reaction) is the multi-component reaction of an ... Additionally, the reaction does not require anhydrous or inert conditions. As a mild, selective synthesis, the Petasis reaction ...
ISBN 978-0-394-73938-0. Bangs, Lester (1987). "Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung: A Tale of These Times (1971)". In ... "Psychotic Reaction" is a song by the American garage rock band Count Five, released in June 1966 on their debut studio album of ... "Psychotic Reaction" was born out of an instrumental that Count Five played for six months before their manager Sol Ellner, Kenn ... "Psychotic Reaction" was also covered during the 1970s by The Radiators from Space (B-side to "Enemies", 1977) and by Television ...
Microwave irradiation has been shown beneficial to reaction yields and times. In one variation of the Gewald reaction a 3- ... Ring forming reactions, Sulfur heterocycle forming reactions, Heterocycle forming reactions, Multiple component reactions, Name ... The reaction is named after the German chemist Karl Gewald (born 1930). The reaction mechanism of the Gewald reaction was ... The Gewald reaction is an organic reaction involving the condensation of a ketone (or aldehyde when R2 = H) with a α-cyanoester ...
Jacobs, Emma (4 December 2011). "Interview: Chain reaction". Financial Times. Retrieved 16 May 2015. "London Cocktail Club". ... In January 2016, Willingham was named one of The Sunday Times' '500 Most Influential people in Britain'. In 2017 Willingham ... "Britain's 500 most influential". The Sunday Times. 24 January 2016.[dead link](subscription required) University, Staffordshire ... Time Out London. "Oxford Circus". London Cocktail Club. Retrieved 16 May 2015. Emma De Vita (1 July 2007). "MT's 35 Women Under ...
Short Reaction Time. High Hit Capability. Coordinated use with the Command and Control System. 8 km Range. 3 crew. Fire on-the- ...
Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, ... Improved reaction time • Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue • Increased acceleration • Increased alertness ... by improving muscle strength and endurance while decreasing reaction time and fatigue;. Stimulants are commonly used in lengthy ... Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs timing, while amphetamine releases synaptic dopamine and speeds up timing ...
... while improving reaction time. Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and ... Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, ... Improved reaction time • Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue • Increased acceleration • Increased alertness ... Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs timing, while amphetamine releases synaptic dopamine and speeds up timing. ...
Most studies, however, found improvements in reaction time. The ingestion of caffeine does not seem to affect long-term memory ... At normal doses, caffeine has variable effects on learning and memory, but it generally improves reaction time, wakefulness, ... Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, ... Caffeine also improves power output and reduces time to completion in aerobic time trials, an effect positively (but not ...
... while improving reaction time. Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and ... It induces physical effects such as improved reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength. Larger doses of ... Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, ... Krimen LI, Cota DJ (March 2011). "The Ritter Reaction". Organic Reactions. Vol. 17. p. 216. doi:10.1002/0471264180.or017.03. ...
Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, ... Methylphenidate has also been shown to increase exercise performance in time to fatigue and time trial studies. Caffeine is the ... reaction time, acceleration, anaerobic exercise performance, power output at fixed levels of perceived exertion, and endurance ... Improved reaction time • Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue • Increased acceleration • Increased alertness ...
Reaction time in such a task is often measured by the total amount of time it takes to complete the task. Choice reaction time ... Models of choice reaction time are closely aligned with Hick's Law, which posits that average reaction times lengthen as a ... Reaction time (RT; sometimes incorrectly referred to as "response time") is measured by the elapsed time between stimulus onset ... Welford, A. T. (1980). "Chapter 3: Choice Reaction Time: Basic Concepts". In Welford, A. T. (ed.). Reaction Times. London: ...
Likewise, it induces physical effects such as decreased reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength. In ... Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, ... Improved reaction time • Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue • Increased acceleration • Increased alertness ... For example, (S)-amphetamine, commonly known as d-amphetamine or dextroamphetamine, displays five times greater psychostimulant ...
Why 200ms? Human reaction time. (reply 9050645)". Hacker News. Retrieved 9 May 2018. [...] One of the few legit cases for ... Worse, over slow links, many such packets can be in transit at the same time, potentially leading to congestion collapse. ... Applications that expect real-time responses and low latency can react poorly with Nagle's algorithm. Applications such as ... For this reason applications with low-bandwidth time-sensitive transmissions typically use TCP_NODELAY to bypass the Nagle- ...
Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, ... Improved reaction time • Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue • Increased acceleration • Increased alertness ... At the time, Alles referred to the amphetamine compound as Benzedrine, a term derived from the name benzyl-methyl carbinamine. ... The New York Times Book Review, pp.17. 'Hunter S. Thompson's Letters to His Enemies: The great gonzo journalist understood ...
... while improving reaction time. Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and ... Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, ... Improved reaction time • Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue • Increased acceleration • Increased alertness ... The condensation reaction occurs with loss of water: (S)-PhCH 2CH(CH 3)NH 2 + (S)-HOOCCH(NH 2)CH 2CH 2CH 2CH 2NH 2 → (S,S)-PhCH ...
Comparison of Reactions for First-Time Vaccinees and Revaccinees ... Comparison of Reactions for First-Time Vaccinees and ... Comparison of Reactions for First-Time Vaccinees and Revaccinees. *Examples of Major or "Take" Reactions to Smallpox ... The images below compare reactions between primary vaccinees and revaccinees.. Note: Not all vaccine reactions photos are ... Source: Vaccination reactions in vaccinia-naïve and previously vaccinated volunteers in a clinical study of diluted Dryvax ...
Rickettsia prowazekii and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction On This Page Materials and Methods Results Discussion Cite This ... We developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay by using a species-specific probe targeting the gltA gene ... Svraka S, Rolain J, Bechah Y, Gatabazi J, Raoult D. Rickettsia prowazekii and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Emerg Infect ... Rickettsia prowazekii and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(3):428-432. doi:10.3201/ ...
President Barack Obama delivered the first prime-time news conference. Obama warned that if a stimulus package is not passed ... Last night, President Barack Obama delivered the first prime-time news conference. Obama warned that if a stimulus package is ...
At the time, when then there were no worries of a possible Russian invasion, both Democratic and Republican lawmakers supported ... Get The Times of Israels Daily Edition by email and never miss our top stories ... Kan quoted a Ukrainian source as saying Ukraine has discussed the Iron Dome system "several times" with Israel, as well as ... Israel torpedoed sale of Iron Dome to Ukraine, fearing Russian reaction - report. Kyiv approached US officials last year in bid ...
Several studies have shown that conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays could provide a rapid, sensitive, and ... Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis ... Tropical disease research , News , Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid diagnosis of human brucellosis ... Development and evaluation of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays on whole blood and paraffin-embedded tissues for rapid ...
Similar agent specificity for the real-time PCR assay, which used the same primers and a 31-basepair fluorescent probe, was ... Two specific and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed to detect and quantitate Orientia ... DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY SPECIFIC FOR ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI ... Detection of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by gene amplification using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Ann N Y Acad Sci 590 : ...
RIBEIRO, Rui Bártolo e ALMEIDA, Leandro S.. Reaction time and intelligence: strong data for a week explanation. Aval. psicol. [ ... Palavras-chave : Processing speed; Reaction time; Intelligence; Short-term memory. · resumo em Português · texto em Português ... The reaction time on elementary and complex cognitive tasks is statistically correlated with intelligence tests. Subjects with ... suggesting that short-term memory mediates the relationship between intelligence and reaction time, in this study we will try ...
A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to rapidly detect the severe acute ... 2004). Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for SARS-associated Coronavirus. Emery, Shannon L. et al ... "Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for SARS-associated Coronavirus" (2004). Emery, Shannon L. et ... "Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for SARS-associated Coronavirus" , 2004. Export RIS Citation ...
... womens average reaction time was significantly greater after dehydration, and mens reaction time trended upward, but did not ... total body reaction time performance of athletic men and women differently. Overall, average reaction time was significantly ... Falcone, P., Tai, C., Carson, L. et al. Sport-specific reaction time after dehydration varies between sexes. J Int Soc Sports ... Reaction times were separated into quartiles (each quartile being a 30-second interval of the two minutes) and averaged to ...
One of the things that Ive seen thrown around lately is how reaction times are going to become important in Cataclysm. Its ... not enough to have phased fights where a boss might require you to change tactics three or four times in order to defeat it. In ...
Speed/Timing/Reaction. Speed/Timing/Reaction. Speed is an important skill for any sport with a time limit or where two players ... Reaction time is critical to many sports. There are two parts to being able to react quickly. The first is the actual time that ... Reaction Ball Game. In this training we throw reaction balls and have the student see who can get them first. Reaction balls ... The other trick to reaction time is guessing correctly. This is why veterans seem to react faster than rookies. The rookies ...
Topics covered include PCR steps, PCR product analysis, real-time PCR characteristics. ... Learn information on the principle of PCR and real-time PCR. ... Identify the techniques used to detect products in real-time ... Basic Molecular Biology Module 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Real-Time PCR. ... This online course is designed for public health and clinical laboratory staff, and persons interested in PCR and real-time PCR ...
Author Topic: Slow reaction time switching back to PM (Read 10966 times) ... Re: Slow reaction time switching back to PM « Reply #1 on: August 12, 2006, 10:46:47 PM » ... Re: Slow reaction time switching back to PM « Reply #2 on: August 13, 2006, 03:35:34 AM » ... Re: Slow reaction time switching back to PM « Reply #3 on: August 13, 2006, 09:18:58 AM » ...
... delayed reaction time; memory difficulties; stomach discomfort; and possibly changes in the liver and kidneys. It can cause ...
A longer reaction time. *Impaired judgment and responses. Driving and operating machinery when youre "high" or drunk ( ...
Jac Mantle: "Pre-speech tongue movements and verbal reaction times in acquired apraxia of speech". In Students by jvnf65. \2017 ...
The controversies surrounding Quentin Tarantino seem to have dissipated as the new teaser for his upcoming...
His reaction time was amazing.. Yash felt for a pulse and couldnt find one. Brian was doing compressions on Dannys chest. A ... First-Time CPR: Med Students Jump in to Save a Friend. By Brian Hou, Joel Johnson, and Daniel Ragheb as told to Sarah Yahr ... If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. Log out Cancel ... Cite this: First-Time CPR: Med Students Jump in to Save a Friend - Medscape - Sep 19, 2023. ...
Typical doses and reaction times to kill some of the common bacteria and pathogens with novel ozone technology ... Typical Dosage and Reaction Times to kill bacteria with Ozone. *Benefits of Using Venturi Injection Over Diffuser in Commercial ... Home » Ozone Library » Typical Dosage and Reaction Times to kill Bacteria with Ozone. ...
Bone tissue reaction, setting time, solubility, and pH of root repair materials.. Quintana, Ramiro Martins; Jardine, Alexander ... This study aims to compare the bone tissue reaction, setting time, solubility, and pH of NeoMTA Plus, Biodentine (BD), and MTA ... ANOVA and Tukeys tests compared setting time, solubility, and pH data; bone reactions data were compared by Kruskal-Wallis and ... NeoMTA Plus, BD, and MTA-A showed satisfactory setting time, high mass loss, alkaline pH, and allowed bone repair. CLINICAL ...
Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that following infection with H5N6, AIVs immune- ... Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that following infection with H5N6, AIVs immune- ... Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed ... Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that following infection with H5N6, AIVs immune- ...
Kiras Story and Time Drifters: Isabels Story from Mattels Escape Room In A Box. ... This game was unlocked by solving both Time Drifters: ... Escape Room In A Box - Time Drifters "Third Game" [Reaction]. ... REA Reaction. In this third (nameless?) game, unlocked by solving both Time Drifters: Kiras Story and Time Drifters: Isabels ... PreviousEscape Room In A Box - Time Drifters: Isabels Story [Reaction]. Next. Trap Door Escape - Mad Hatters Tea Party [ ...
These are just our first thoughts about this Once Upon a Time episode, and well share more in our upcoming full discussion ... Initial reactions. These are just our first thoughts about this Once Upon a Time episode, and well share more in our upcoming ... "The Return" initial reactions - ONCE031. April 22, 2012. by Daniel J. Lewis in ONCE podcast • 6 Comments ... Once Upon a Time Pod (@ONCEpodcast) April 23, 2012. What did you think?. *Email [email protected] (audio files welcome) ...
German Shepherd Meets Kittens For The First time. Her Reaction? Oh My Gosh!. ... Many times, the men and women that work day in and day out to keep our… ... Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. ...
The discrepancy between the real-time reactions of voters and their responses to questions posed after the fact may show that ... In addition to tracking real-time reactions to the clip, the poll also asked respondents to indicate their general support for ... A Morning Consult survey of voter reactions during the Jan. 20 address shows that despite public support for overhauling the U. ... the idea itself would get more of a positive reaction." ...
About AGT Time Podcast AGT Time Podcast is a weekly podcast covering the hit NBC talent competition Americas Got Talent. The ... About AGT Time Podcast. AGT Time Podcast is a weekly podcast covering the hit NBC talent competition Americas Got Talent. The ... AGT Time is a weekly podcast that covers the NBC hit talent competition, Americas Got Talent. Cody and Jay recap the season ... Americas Got Talent , Season 18 , Semifinals 4 - Quick Reactions. Americas Got Talent , Season 18 , Semifinals 4 - Quick ...
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed in a 20 μl reaction mixture ... The reaction was performed using a 7500 Real-time System (Applied Biosystems) in the following procedure: 2 min incubation at ... The effect of silencing of the IPO13 gene on K17 mRNA levels in PECs was investigated with quantitative real-time PCR after ... In the present study, we for the first time investigated the role of IPO13, a member of the importin-β family of nuclear import ...
  • We developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay by using a species-specific probe targeting the gltA gene. (
  • Moreover, a definite diagnosis of epidemic typhus is often delayed because the sensitivity of cell culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods is low ( 13 ), and serologic diagnosis can be obtained only by using advanced serologic methods such as Western blot analysis after cross-adsorptions. (
  • Several studies have shown that conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays could provide a rapid, sensitive and specific testing alternative to serology and culture for the diagnosis of brucellosis. (
  • The diagnosis of many infectious diseases, both viral and bacterial, may include the use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (
  • [ 1 ] The resultant complementary DNA is amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (
  • The expressions of TLR4, NF-κ B and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cortical were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, immunohistochemistry, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • We screened for inv22 with our previously reported conventional polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) method , as well as with a newly developed real-time PCR method . (
  • The reaction time on elementary and complex cognitive tasks is statistically correlated with intelligence tests. (
  • Subjects with higher cognitive capacity present shorter reaction times, namely in more complex tasks involving choice. (
  • Even though literature analyses the individual differences in reaction time as reflecting central components of information processing, for example, suggesting that short-term memory mediates the relationship between intelligence and reaction time, in this study we will try to introduce non cognitive factors on decision making to explain these correlation coefficients. (
  • 46,59,50 the time of rapid physical, cognitive, social, and emotional turmoil, and there was a congenital cardiac defects, especially those who time sildenafil reaction are not equal, but some may be cys- tic objects insonated with either lesion alone. (
  • Among these factors are age-related changes in reaction time and visual, cognitive, and/or muscle disorders that become more common with age. (
  • The aim of our study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR assay by using a species-specific probe that is rapid, sensitive, and specific for detecting R. prowazekii in clinical samples or in body lice in outbreaks of epidemic typhus. (
  • The use of real-time quantitative RT-PCR to quantify specific mRNAs allows for more rapid testing, higher sensitivity, increased simplicity, and more accuracy. (
  • Your mental reaction time is how quickly you notice an enemy peeking round the corner, and your physical reaction time is how quickly you can pull the trigger. (
  • Substances that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can trigger allergic reactions in certain people. (
  • Once a person has had an exposure or an allergic reaction (is sensitized), even a very limited exposure to a very small amount of allergen can trigger a severe reaction. (
  • Zachary's reaction to a trigger develops over time. (
  • Researchers found that real-time PCR is more rapid and reportedly more sensitive than conventional PCR. (
  • The conventional PCR method and real-time PCR results were comparable in all but one case, where the discrepancy was attributed to sample-specific degradation. (
  • The data are interpreted as indicating two populations, rapid or slow reaction, with covert anxiety being a factor in emergency situations. (
  • At the time, Republicans in committee and on the Senate floor criticized the measure's approach to the crime of burglary. (
  • Subsequently, we developed a method for the measurement of relative allelic expression, by taking advantage of the capability for melting-curve analysis in real-time PCR. (
  • This basic-level eLearning course provides information on the principle of PCR and real-time PCR. (
  • Topics covered include PCR steps, PCR product analysis, and real-time PCR characteristics. (
  • This online course is designed for public health and clinical laboratory staff, and persons interested in PCR and real-time PCR techniques. (
  • Having a gaming monitor with a high refresh rate means it will be able to keep up with the game you're playing in real-time. (
  • With the real-time PCR method , 10 of the severe haemophilia A patients and 3 carriers tested inv22-positive. (
  • The discrepancy between the real-time reactions of voters and their responses to questions posed after the fact may show that Obama is a polarizing enough force to elicit disapproval from Republican voters even when he says things they might generally agree. (
  • In addition to tracking real-time reactions to the clip, the poll also asked respondents to indicate their general support for Obama's statements after watching the clip. (
  • Below are real-time reactions to the second segment. (
  • The target DNA segment is amplified in the range of 10 5 - to 10 6 -fold by repeating this cycle no less than 30-40 times. (
  • I have the amounts of persulphate used for several solutions of differing concentrations and the time it took for the blue to appear once all the sodium thiosulphate was used up. (
  • Urinary NNAL concentrations among employees increased by 9.5%, per 10 mug/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS after controlling for the time of day and day of week. (
  • Many allergic reactions are mild, while others can be severe and life threatening. (
  • Most severe allergic reactions occur within seconds or minutes after exposure to the allergen. (
  • Anaphylaxis is a sudden and severe allergic reaction that occurs within minutes of exposure. (
  • An asthma diagnosis in a child under the age of two is rare, but are sometimes given by a doctor if a child endures repeated episodes in a short period of time. (
  • Aim Lab has tasks designed specifically for improving your reaction time, and just aim training in general will help you to click those headshots faster. (
  • The idea is instead that perceptual organization involves the coming together of interdependent processes that operate on different time scales, including processes in neurophysiology, motor behavior, attention, and intention. (
  • For example, as we get older, our reaction times will inevitably slow down. (
  • Behavioral analysis of reaction of unindoctrinated subjects exposed to simulated emergency rapid decompression, from 5,000 to 20,000 feet in an altitude chamber. (
  • Average reaction times vary from person to person, but usually sit at around 200-300 milliseconds. (
  • Calm and reassure the person having the reaction. (
  • If the person has injectable emergency allergy medicine (Epinephrine), administer it at the beginning of a reaction. (
  • this was our first time ever doing CPR on a real person. (
  • Triggers are different for everyone, and can change for a person over time. (
  • The percent of lead absorbed in the gut, especially in an empty stomach, is estimated to be as much as 5 to 10 times greater in infants and young children than in adults [Ziegler et al. (
  • similar times on all - 15 - 20 seconds. (
  • The immune response that causes an allergic reaction is similar to the response that causes hay fever. (
  • When it comes to gaming, people talk all the time about aim training, getting the perfect gaming setup, and PC settings, but there's one vital factor that can really make all the difference to your high scores - your reaction time. (
  • Allergic reactions occur more often in people who have a family history of allergies . (
  • Parents of and people with asthma are on alert all of the time, not just in the event of an episode or when disaster looms . (
  • Source: Vaccination reactions in vaccinia-naïve and previously vaccinated volunteers in a clinical study of diluted Dryvax smallpox vaccine enrolled at the NIAID-supported Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Units at Saint Louis University in 2002. (
  • About the same time, an Australian study observed lead poisoning among children and identified household dust and paint as the sources of the lead. (
  • If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. (
  • Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. (
  • The PPI dendrimer encapsulated Cu ions in the internal nanovoids to form adjacent Cu species, which exhibited significantly high catalytic activity for the regioselective coupling reaction of DMP compared to previously reported enzyme and metal complex catalysts. (
  • Often when the graph of reactant concentration is plotted against time, it is found that gradient is approximately constant during the short initial leg of of the reaction. (
  • We can split reaction time into two main categories - mental reaction time, and physical reaction time. (
  • Also, higher levels of fitness have been linked to better reaction times too. (
  • In very rare cases, reactions develop after 24 hours. (
  • Equal rates of drug resistance in leprosy cases with relapse and recurrent/chronic Type 2 reaction: time to revise the guidelines for drug-resistance testing in leprosy? (
  • The times required to notice, obtain, don, and breathe from automatically presented oxygen masks are compared to times used by experienced pilots. (
  • Last night, President Barack Obama delivered the first prime-time news conference. (
  • Chicago GLBT Nightlife News) and Windy City Times (a Chicago Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transegender News and Feature Publication). (
  • The images below compare reactions between primary vaccinees and revaccinees. (
  • generally it takes 20-30 seconds to get back to PM - sometime PM draws the contact sheet in 10-15 seconds but I still get no reaction from PM for another 10 seconds. (
  • My BIGGEST problem at this point is the amount of time it takes to get control of PM back after switching (multitasking) to any other program. (
  • There are a few things that affect your reaction time - some of which, sadly, you can't control. (
  • And the idea that patience is a virtue is of no consolation even though the reality is that it takes time and-at least in the beginning-some educated guesswork to learn how to control asthma. (
  • For a short time, we thought we had his asthma under control. (
  • If an idea was proposed and it wasn't attached to the president's name, the idea itself would get more of a positive reaction. (
  • the idea of clock reaction has its grounds in some trivia calculus. (
  • When it comes to gaming, your reaction times mean the difference between getting the drop on the enemy and getting a bullet right between the eyes. (
  • Allergic reactions are sensitivities to substances called allergens that come into contact with the skin, nose, eyes, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. (
  • We even have a quick and easy reaction test on our Instagram profile so you can test your mettle (but don't blame us if you spend the next few hours trying to beat your high score). (
  • To get at the question of self-organization, reaction times were submitted to a detrended fluctuation analysis and a recurrence quantification analysis. (
  • At this time, all participants will be on listen-only until the question and answer session of today's conference. (
  • At which time you may press star 1 to ask a question. (
  • You may also submit questions through the webinar system at any time during the presentation by selecting the Q&A tab at the top of the webinar screen and typing in your question. (
  • Vaccination site 3 days after vaccination in first-time vaccinee. (
  • Vaccination site 18 days after vaccination in first-time vaccinee. (
  • Cody and Jay recap the season when the show airs during the summer-time. (