Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Inbred WFTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Mutant Strains: Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Rats, Gunn: Mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus which is used as a disease model of kernicterus.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Rats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Rats, Inbred F344Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.AlloxanGlutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Tetragastrin: L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (1/41636)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

Activation of alveolar macrophages in lung injury associated with experimental acute pancreatitis is mediated by the liver. (2/41636)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) whether alveolar macrophages are activated as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (AP), (2) the implication of inflammatory factors released by these macrophages in the process of neutrophil migration into the lungs observed in lung injury induced by AP, and (3) the role of the liver in the activation of alveolar macrophages. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Acute lung injury is the extrapancreatic complication most frequently associated with death and complications in severe AP. Neutrophil infiltration into the lungs seems to be related to the release of systemic and local mediators. The liver and alveolar macrophages are sources of mediators that have been suggested to participate in the lung damage associated with AP. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. The inflammatory process in the lung and the activation of alveolar macrophages were investigated in animals with and without portocaval shunting 3 hours after AP induction. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The generation of nitric oxide, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2 by alveolar macrophages and the chemotactic activity of supernatants of cultured macrophages were evaluated. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs 3 hours after induction. This effect was prevented by the portocaval shunt. Alveolar macrophages obtained after induction of pancreatitis generated increased levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2, but not leukotriene B4. In addition, supernatants of these macrophages exhibited a chemotactic activity for neutrophils when instilled into the lungs of unmanipulated animals. All these effects were abolished when portocaval shunting was carried out before induction of pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Lung damage induced by experimental AP is associated with alveolar macrophage activation. The liver mediates the alveolar macrophage activation in this experimental model.  (+info)

Examination of the transverse tubular system in living cardiac rat myocytes by 2-photon microscopy and digital image-processing techniques. (3/41636)

The transverse tubular system (t-system) of cardiac muscle is a structure that allows rapid propagation of excitation into the cell interior. Using 2-photon molecular excitation microscopy and digital image-processing methods, we have obtained a comprehensive overview of the t-system of rat ventricular myocytes in living cells. We show that it is possible to quantify the morphology of the t-system in terms of average local tubule diameter, branching pattern, and local abundance of the t-system by immersing living myocytes in a dextran-linked fluorescein solution. Our data suggest that previous electron microscopic examinations of t-system structure have underestimated both the geometric complexity of the t-system morphology and the fraction of cell volume occupied by the t-system (3.6% in this species). About 40% of tubules occur between Z-lines, and the t-tubule diameter is 255+/-0.85 nm (mean+/-SEM). The t-tubules leave the outer surface of the cell in an approximately rectangular array; however, at some points junctions between the t-tubules and the surface membrane are missing. In view of the complexity of the t-system apparent from our images, we propose that the t-system be renamed the "sarcolemmal Z rete." The methods presented here are generally applicable to the quantification of the sarcolemmal Z rete and other structures within cells by fluorescence microscopy in a variety of cell types.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (4/41636)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Evidence for a vasopressin system in the rat heart. (5/41636)

Traditionally, a hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system is thought to be the exclusive source of arginine vasopressin (AVP), a potent antidiuretic, vasoconstricting, and growth-stimulating neuropeptide. We have identified de novo synthesis of AVP in the heart as well as release of the hormone into the cardiac effluents. Specifically, molecular cloning of sequence tags amplified from isolated, buffer-perfused, and pressure-overloaded rat hearts allowed the detection of cardiac AVP mRNA. Subsequent experiments revealed a prominent induction of AVP mRNA (peak at 120 minutes, 59-fold, P<0. 01 versus baseline) and peptide (peak at 120 minutes, 11-fold, P<0. 01 versus baseline) in these isolated hearts. Newly induced vasopressin peptide was localized most prominently to endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells of arterioles and perivascular tissue using immunohistochemistry. In addition to pressure overload, nitric oxide (NO) participated in these alterations, because inhibition of NO synthase by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester markedly depressed cardiac AVP mRNA and peptide induction. Immediate cardiac effects related to cardiac AVP induction in isolated, perfused, pressure-overloaded hearts appeared to be coronary vasoconstriction and impaired relaxation. These functional changes were observed in parallel with AVP induction and largely prevented by addition of a V1 receptor blocker (10(-8) mol/L [deamino-Pen1, O-Me-Tyr2, Arg8]-vasopressin) to the perfusion buffer. Even more interesting, pressure-overloaded, isolated hearts released the peptide into the coronary effluents, offering the potential for systemic actions of AVP from cardiac origin. We conclude that the heart, stressed by acute pressure overload or NO, expresses vasopressin in concentrations sufficient to cause local and potentially systemic effects.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in adrenomedullin-induced vasodilation in the rat. (6/41636)

We previously reported that adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilator peptide discovered in pheochromocytoma cells, stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in the rat kidney. To further investigate whether the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanisms of AM-induced vasodilation, we examined the effects of E-4021, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on AM-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings and perfused kidneys isolated from Wistar rats. We also measured NO release from the kidneys using a chemiluminescence assay. AM (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L) relaxed the aorta precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. Denudation of endothelium (E) attenuated the vasodilatory action of AM (10(-7) mol/L AM: intact (E+) -25.7+/-5.2% versus denuded (E-) -7. 8+/-0.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with 10(-8) mol/L E-4021 augmented AM-induced vasorelaxation in the intact aorta (-49. 0+/-7.9%, P<0.05) but not in the denuded one. E-4021 also enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in the rat intact aorta (10(-7) mol/L ACh -36.6+/-8.4% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-7) mol/L ACh -62.7+/-3.1%, P<0.05). In perfused kidneys, AM-induced vasorelaxation was also augmented by preincubation with E-4021 (10(-9) mol/L AM -15.4+/-0.6% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L AM -23.6+/-1.2%, P<0.01). AM significantly increased NO release from rat kidneys (DeltaNO: +11.3+/-0.8 fmol. min-1. g-1 kidney at 10(-9) mol/L AM), which was not affected by E-4021. E-4021 enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9) mol/L ACh -9.7+/-1.7% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L ACh -18.8+/-2.9%, P<0.01) but did not affect ACh-induced NO release from the kidneys. In the aorta and the kidney, 10(-4) mol/L of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase inhibitor, and 10(-5) mol/L of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the vasodilatory effect of AM. These results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanism of AM-induced vasorelaxation, at least in the rat aorta and kidney.  (+info)

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (7/41636)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (8/41636)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

  • A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. (harvard.edu)
  • The brains of 396 old albino rats of the breed Wistar-AF/Han-EMD were examined for spontaneous tumors of the CNS and the following tumors were diagnosed: 1 oligodendroglioma, 1 astrocytoma, 1 mixed glioma, 1 pleomorphic glioma, and 19 meningiomas. (nih.gov)
  • The study investigated the effect of Theobroma cacao on renal function of phenylhydrazine induced anaemic albino rats. (academicjournals.org)
  • Forty albino rats were divided into 8 groups of five rats each namely control (group A), Phenyl hydrazine (group B) while groups C, D and E were given phenylhydrazine and administered with 100,200 and 500 mg/kg of T. cacao respectively while groups F, G and H were given 200,500 and 1000 mg/kg of T cacao only. (academicjournals.org)
  • Healthy male albino Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 50 missed calls (within 1 hour) per day for 4 weeks, keeping a GSM (0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone) in the cage. (buergerwelle.de)
  • Eighty pregnant Wistar albino rats weighing 180 g to 200 g body weight were used. (omicsonline.org)
  • A total of fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 50-60g were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to investigate the haematology, serum biochemistry and organ weight changes on diets containing processed dehulled jack bean. (ajol.info)
  • Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats. (emf-portal.org)
  • This study was undertaken to provide preliminary evidence for beneficial effects of both bilateral as well as unilateral caloric vestibular stimulation as an alternative therapy for enhancement of cognition and motor activity in Scopolamine induced dementia in Wistar albino rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • 36 healthy, adult male Wistar albino rats with body weight ranging from 150-200 g were used in the current study. (alliedacademies.org)
  • To investigate mechanisms involved in hepatic ODN transport, normal mixed backbone phosphodiester/phosphorothioate ODNs ( n -ODN) and two different bile acid-conjugated mixed backbone ODNs (1BA-ODN and 2BA-ODN) were applied to two different rat strains, normal Wistar rats and Wistar TR - rats. (ovid.com)
  • In normal Wistar rats, concentration-dependent hepatobiliary elimination of the ODNs was observed with a remarkable increase of excretion of the cholic acid BA-ODN conjugates. (ovid.com)
  • In contrast to normal Wistar rats, n -ODN excretion into bile by TR - rats, a mutant Wistar rat strain lacking a functional multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (mrp2) at the canalicular membrane, was strongly diminished, whereas these rats excreted an ODN conjugated with two cholic acid molecules (2BA-ODN) into bile. (ovid.com)
  • Adult Wistar rats were instrumented to record ABP via telemetry, and then underwent CSD (n = 9) or sham CSD (n = 9) 5 weeks after renal artery clipping, in comparison with normal Wistar rats (n = 5). (ox.ac.uk)
  • H. Illnerova, J. Vaneek and K. Hoffmann, "Regulation of the Pineal Melatonin Concentration in the Rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus)," Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 74, No. 1, 1983, pp. 155-159. (scirp.org)
  • The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra), commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB) of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. (cogprints.org)
  • Renal tumors were seen in only 3 rats treated with streptozotocin and nicotinamide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DH did not change the s(P)RR levels in the renal homogenates and cytosol fraction of these rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • We found that, at nanomolar concentrations, vMIP-II effectively attenuated leukocyte infiltration to the kidney and significantly reduced the ensuing renal injury in the treated rats. (rupress.org)
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a low-protein diet (LPD) starting from a young age on diabetic status and renal injury in a rat model of type 2 diabetes and obesity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vara Prasad WLNV, Srilatha Ch, Sailaja N, Raju NKB, Jayasree N (2016) Amelioration of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats, Veterinary World, 9 (11): 1331-1337. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • Chronic symptoms include induction of hepatomas in rats, pulmonary tumours in mice, renal lesions and alterations in the liver and kidneys of African Green monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, the data describe decreased adrenomedullary response to cholinergic stimulation in spontaneously diabetic rats as early as 2 weeks after the onset of diabetes and that a similar, although more severe, hyposecretion occurs after acute, severe hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To determine the effect of vagotomy in early stages of experimental acute pancreatitis induced by occlusion of pancreatic duct in Wistar rats. (medigraphic.com)
  • Use of vagotomy improves the course of experimental acute pancreatitis in early stages in Wistar rats. (medigraphic.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and sedative effect of the ethylic extract of Thymelaea lythroides ( Tl ) on Wistar rats. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that acute and prolonged conditional microglial ablation in a rat model would lead to improvements in learning and memory and that this would be associated with changes in synaptic pruning and neuronal maturation. (springer.com)
  • Shivarajashankara YM, Shivashankara AR, Bhat PG, Rao SM, Rao SH (2002) Histological changes in the brain of young fluoride-intoxicated rats. (fluoridealert.org)
  • On days 1and 30 after the end of treatment, 6 ovarectomized rat from each group selected randomly and sections of uterus stained with H&E method were investigated histological and also 4 intact female rat from each group with male rats mate and the number of offspring's of them determined. (sid.ir)
  • In the major aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Tamoxifen on the histological structure of uterus estrogen, progesterone and LH concentration in the female Wistar rats. (sid.ir)
  • To evaluate the haematopoietic property of citrullus lanatus seed extract by determining the phytochemical, cytological and histological profiles on the bone marrow of wistar rats. (sciencedomain.org)
  • After 7 weeks of experimental feeding, the rats were euthanized for blood collection and plasma recovery. (springer.com)
  • Effects of Opium Dependency on Testicular Tissue in a Rat Model: An Experimental Study. (harvard.edu)
  • This study aims to establish an experimental model of correction for large diaphragmatic defect with PB and GT patches to compare histologically the tissue interaction between them and diaphragm in young Wistar rats. (scirp.org)
  • To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of this broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist, we studied the antiinflammatory activity of vMIP-II in a rat model of experimental glomerulonephritis induced by an antiglomerular basement membrane antibody. (rupress.org)
  • Twenty rats were divided into two groups: sham-exposed (control) and experimental (10 animals each). (jbsdonline.com)
  • Twenty-two-month-old Wistar rats and SAMP8 (senescence prone) mice of 10 months of age were used as experimental models. (eurekaselect.com)
  • LCDP was also tested in normotensive rats and results obtained from chemistry analysis revealed slight variations in the levels of creatinine kinase (CK), serum glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Rats were killed on PND 53, organ weights were recorded and serum was collected for subsequent analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass showed neither epsilon cell increase nor basal serum changes in ghrelin release. (medworm.com)
  • The feeding trial lasted for 28 days after which four rats per treatments were sampled to evaluate haematological and serum biochemical indices while three rats per treatment were sacrificed by cervical decapitation and the heart, liver, kidneys and the lungs removed and weighed separately. (ajol.info)
  • Rats on T3 and T5 had the highest value for heart weight (0.75) and liver weight (5.67)while rats on T4 had the highest value for lungs (1.59).Rats fed dehulled jack bean seed soaked in ogi liquor showed slight improvement on haematological, serum profile and organ weight changes over those fed lye soaked jack bean and boiled for 15minutes. (ajol.info)
  • The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) in Wistar rats. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we provide a temporal course on lipid profile of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDH in Wistar rats treated with CED and FAD diet that can be useful as reference for future studies. (scirp.org)
  • Cortés-Ortiz, M. , Leal-Galicia, P. , Chávez-Álvarez, B. , Cárdenas-Aguayo, M. and Meraz-Ríos, M. (2014) Effect of Cholesterol Enriched or Fatty-Acid Diets on Cholesterol and Lipid Levels in Young Wistar Rats. (scirp.org)
  • In this study liver nodules were produced in Wistar rats by intermittent feeding with dietary 2-acetylaminofluorene, and the lipid compositions of isolated microsomes, mitochondria, and lysosomes were examined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study was aimed at evaluating the mitigating effect of vitamin C on chronic CPF-evoked alteration in lipid profiles in Wistar rats. (thescipub.com)
  • The rats in group A (Control) were administered with 0.9% physiological saline, while rats in groups B, C, D, and E were administered with the extract of 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg per Kg body weight, respectively, once daily for 14 days. (academicjournals.org)
  • Three groups of rats (200-250gr range) gavaged with doses of 200, 400 and 600ug/kg B.W Tamoxifen dissolved in solvent (ethanol 60% and physiological solution) for 30 days. (sid.ir)
  • This study employed immunologic factors analysis, GC-TOFMS based metabolomics and 16S-rRNA-sequencing microbiome profiling technologies to explore the effects of E. purpurea on young rats, a physiological insufficient immunity status, by compared with pidotimod treatment on young rats and adult animals. (ccsenet.org)
  • The present study was designed to investigate the pharmacodynamics and oral toxicity of PartySmart, a herbal formulation in rats. (redorbit.com)
  • It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. (mdpi.com)
  • This study is designed to elucidate the chemopreventive properties of 18β-GA against 2-AAF-induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats and evaluated its effect on inflammatory and tumour promotion marker and activities of different oxidative stress enzymes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cadmium-Induced Testicular Toxicity, Oxidative Stress and Histopathology in Wistar Rats: Sustained Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina (Del. (scopemed.org)
  • Aim: To determine the effects of polyphenol-rich extract of the leaf of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA) on Cd-induced testicular toxicity, oxidative stress, and histopathology in Wistar rats. (scopemed.org)
  • These findings suggest that MON810 has negligible effects on the small intestine of rats at the cellular level compared with the well-documented toxicity observed in susceptible insects. (dtu.dk)
  • The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. (avmi.net)
  • This text provides a complete account of this particular rat strain. (booktopia.com.au)
  • As controls for experiments utilizing SHRs, many scientists have employed normotensive descendants of Wistar rats that NIH investigators obtained in 1971 from a colony in Kyoto from which the SHR strain was originally derived (Wistar-Kyoto rats, WKY). (scielo.br)
  • Although it was previously reported that some normotensive Sprague Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, 7,10 no previous study investigated whether there is difference in baroreflex sensitivity among other types of rats from the same parent strain. (scielo.br)
  • 11 Thus, in this study we aimed to compare baroreflex function among adult WKY rats from the same laboratory in order to identify any intra-strain differences. (scielo.br)
  • Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and further highlight the inherent heterogeneity of the Wistar strain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Wistar rats, an animal strain widely used in the research have been employed to study the effects of dietary interventions due to their metabolic characteristics, which are closer to the human compared to mice. (scirp.org)
  • however, this effect was small (~30%), within the normal range of sperm counts for this strain of rat, was not reflected in testicular spermatid counts nor PND70 data, and is therefore postulated to have no biological significance. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • 0.05) difference in the mean values of semen volume of rats in the control and test groups. (academicjournals.org)
  • 0.05) decreased the gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • 0.05) decrease in number of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Decrease in body weight and organ development in the deficient animals was noticied and these changes were not seen in the rats that recevived 0.05% tryptophan. (arvojournals.org)
  • 0.05) different from rats on T1, T2, T3, and T5 with rats on T3 having the highest value (3.42). (ajol.info)
  • Wistar rats of 60 days of life underwent stereotactic surgery and were divided into two groups: control (infusion of saline 0.9%) and hypoxanthine (10 μM). (springer.com)
  • Male WKY rats (11 week old) underwent sham-operation or bilateral adrenalectomy (BA), thus removing further secretion of glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, and catecholamines. (epa.gov)
  • Twelve adult male, Wistar rats underwent SG and were reoperated 30 or 60 days after the initial surgery. (scielo.br)
  • The objective of this study is to look for preoperative predictors of early T2DM relapse/no remission in patients with obesity and diabetes who underwent Roux ‐en‐Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or loop duodeno‐jejunal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (LDJB‐SG). (medworm.com)
  • All rats underwent occlusion of pancreatic duct. (medigraphic.com)
  • However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. (diva-portal.org)
  • Substantial work has shown that rats although identical in stock, sex, age, and housing conditions can differ considerably in terms of behavior and physiology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the open field, HRA rats not only showed more rearing behavior, but also more locomotor activity than LRA rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the plus-maze, HRA rats again showed more locomotion, but did not differ in open arm time or percentage of open arm entries, that is, conventional measures of anxiety-related behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Diazepam (1 h before the tests) reduced anxiety-like behavior in rats forced to swim compared to the vehicle stressed group. (srce.hr)
  • The dose-response curve for diazepam indicated that the 0.5 mg kg-1 dose (1 h before the EPM and OFT) was the minimum effective dose in reducing anxiety-like behavior without altering locomotor activity in weaning rats. (srce.hr)
  • These results indicate that weaning rats can develop anxiety-like behavior after a brief, single session of stress, and that rats at this age are seemingly more sensitive to diazepam than adult rats, which may be taken into account for clinical applications. (srce.hr)
  • Social investigation was impaired in maternally deprived rats only, while saline injection, independently of MD, was associated with increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and an impaired intake decrement in the negative sucrose contrast. (frontiersin.org)
  • have reported supplier-dependent differences in alcohol intake, open field and Y-maze behavior, and responsivity to opioid antagonist naltrexone in outbred Wistar rats obtained from three different vendors in Europe. (frontiersin.org)
  • To test these hypotheses, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured in obese prediabetic Wistar-Fatty rats after two episodes of diet switching, with and without concomitant weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these results suggest that insulin resistance of Wistar-Fatty rats was worsened by repeated weight fluctuation. (nih.gov)
  • Male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets [control (C) and high-cholesterol diet (HC)-containing 2 % cholesterol and 0.5 % cholic acid]. (springer.com)
  • Greenwood, C.E. and Winocur, G. (1996) Cognitive Impairment in Rats Fed High Fat Diets: A Specific Effect of Saturated Fatty-Acid Intake. (scirp.org)
  • To address this important knowledge-gap and to gain insights into the underlying molecular responses in rat to MON810, differential gene expression in the epithelial cells of the small intestine of rats fed formulated diets containing MON810, its near isogenic line, two conventional corn varieties, and a commercial (Purina™) corn-based control diet were investigated using comparative proteomic profiling. (dtu.dk)
  • No adverse clinical or behavioural effects, or biomarkers of adverse health, were observed in rats fed GM corn compared to the other corn diets. (dtu.dk)
  • Initially the animals (newborn male Wistar rats) consumed the diets containing MSG for a period of 70 days. (scirp.org)
  • Moreover, when compared to the control rats, the animals treated with 5000 mg/kg of the extract exhibited significant reduction in appetite for food and water in the first week. (scirp.org)
  • Forty Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and DP groups. (hindawi.com)
  • These were divided in two groups of five rats each. (medigraphic.com)
  • Ten adult male Wistar rats in the weight range of 250±30 gr were randomly divided into two groups, including one healthy control group (C) and one group with decreased physical activity (SNL). (magiran.com)
  • The rats of both sexes (n=24), average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18) and control (n=6) groups. (cogprints.org)
  • The rats in the treatment groups 'A', 'B' and 'C' received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. (cogprints.org)
  • They were arranged into eight groups (n=8) such as control, atorvastatin (1 mg/kg), pomegranate (0.5 ml 50%/ rat), atorvastatin and pomegranate, hyper ccholesterolemic group (3% cholesterol diet for 6 weeks before onset of gestation), hypercholesterolemia and atorvastatin and/or pomegranate. (omicsonline.org)
  • Male Wistar-NIN rats of weanling age (21-24 days) of an avg. body weight 35-40g, were randomly assigned into three groups. (arvojournals.org)
  • Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum . (veterinaryworld.org)
  • Twenty young adult male Wistar rats were assigned at random to four groups of five rats each. (thescipub.com)
  • The remaining 48 rats were divided into six groups of four males and four females each. (scopemed.org)
  • Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals: control group and intervention group, treated for 6 weeks with fish oil capsules containing 45 mg eicosapentanoic acid and 30 mg docosahexanoic acid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fifteen (15) wistar rats average weights of 150 g were divided into three groups A, B, and C of 5 rats each. (sciencedomain.org)
  • Animals: Laboratory bred Wistar rats of either sex were used for the experiments. (redorbit.com)
  • There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory. (scielo.br)
  • The experiments were performed on 16-week-old male WKY rats from the same initial laboratory. (scielo.br)
  • Rats were housed individually in plastic cages under standard laboratory conditions. (scielo.br)
  • Laboratory rats are the most popular animals in toxicology, neurobehavioral, or cancer research. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we exposed 30 laboratory-raised Wistar rats, a suitable model for the infestation, at six different places characterized by different microenvironments in a hyperendemic fishing village in northeastern Brazil. (ajtmh.org)
  • Apomorphine, an unselective dopamine Dl and D2 receptor agonist, induces in laboratory animals (mice and rats), several behavioural phenomena such as stereotyped behaviour, hyperlocomotion, aggressiveness, etc 1-3 . (springer.com)
  • Finally, both CED and FAD induced a decrease in HDL as compared to control levels in treatments of more than 6 weeks, whereas LDL transiently increased in animals treated with FAD from 10 to 12 weeks, but after this period LDL levels returned to baseline, suggesting that young rats have a compensatory effect at least for the period of time analyzed here. (scirp.org)
  • Development of the muscular saphenous artery and the effect of surgical denervation on normal development was investigated in young rats at 3 and 6 weeks of age. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both the immunologic factors and the global metabolome of E. purpurea treated young rats were close to the status of mature individuals. (ccsenet.org)
  • Results: Transmission electron microscopy imaging of pancreatic β-cells revealed loss of integrity of the inner membrane of the mitochondria in the diabetic rats, which was not observed in the baicalin-treated group. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine effects of triclosan on pubertal development and thyroid hormone concentrations in the male rat. (nih.gov)
  • Beneficial effects of dapsone on ischemia/reperfusion injury following torsion/detorsion in ipsilateral and contralateral testes in rat. (harvard.edu)
  • Based on this claim, the present study investigated the effects of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) essential oil on Wistar, male rats evaluated in the elevated plus-maze followed by the light/dark paradigm. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, results of the psychotropic test conducted during this study showed visible effects on the exploratory activity of the rats. (scirp.org)
  • Our present study aims to investigate the interaction of melatonin (MEL) with this system by exploring the effects of MEL with or without a facilitator of GABA-ergic neurotransmission, diazepam (DZ) on the levels of depression and anxiety in Wistar rats. (scirp.org)
  • Colonic and systemic effects of extruded whole-grain sorghum consumption in growing Wistar rats. (nextbio.com)
  • As a step in this direction, this study was carried out on effects of aqueous leaf extract of Citrus medica on Neurobehavioral study of the Prefrontal cortex of hyperglycemic Wistar rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB) of adult Wistar rats. (cogprints.org)
  • Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Two new quinoxalinone derivatives have been synthesized adopting the HONG method, and investigated for some neuropharmacological effects (anxietyand depressive-like responses) in rats. (scirp.org)
  • Effects of electromagnetic field produced by mobile phones on the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. (emf-portal.org)
  • This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic potentials and neuroprotective effects of methanol extract of Buchholzia coriacea (BC) seeds on sodium azide (NaN 3 ) induced neurotoxicity of the prefrontal cortex in male Wistar rats. (ajol.info)
  • Malgor L, Valsecia M, Verges E et al (1997) Blockade of the in vitro effects of testosterone and erythropoietin on Cfu-E and Bfu-E proliferation by pretreatment of the donor rats with cyproterone and flutamide. (springermedizin.de)
  • Prolonged exercise of medium to high intensity is known to promote a substantial effect on the energy balance of rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We conclude that dietary APP has an anti-adipogenic effect in Wistar rats without any anorectic phenomenon. (go.jp)
  • In this paper, attempts were made to determine the effect of MEin rat stroke model. (magiran.com)
  • The food intake in rats varies diurnally and that may influence the effect of GABA(A)-receptor active compounds. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, it is easy to envisage that allopregnanolone would have a hyperphagic effect, but earlier reports in rat have given ambiguous results. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of allopregnanolone on intake of standard chow in male Wistar rats at different time points of the day. (diva-portal.org)
  • It was concluded that extract of L. breviflora exerts toxic effect on the seminiferous tubular epithelium with concomitant reduction in the reproductive potential of the male rats. (academicjournals.org)
  • Paying heed to the importance of physical activity in neural plasticity, this study focuses on the investigation of chronic effect of decreased activity on the form of spinal nerve ligation on NT-4 gene expression of male Wistar rat's sciatic nerve fiber. (magiran.com)
  • We evaluated the effect of RF-EMR from mobile phones on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats. (buergerwelle.de)
  • Davasaztabrizi A, Rakhshiasl A, Mousavi G, Rakhshiasl P (2012) Evaluating the effect of high concentration of testosterone enanthate on some of blood factors in male rat. (springermedizin.de)
  • Swathilatha Rewanthwar and P.K. Lakshmi, "Effect of Piperine, Quercetin, Polysorbate 80 on the Oral Bioavailability of Losartan in Male Wistar Rats", Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology (2014) 2: 49. (eurekaselect.com)
  • amongst others, showed that parenteral (4.0 mg/g b.w.) or oral (2.5 and 5.0 g/day) administration of MSG in newborn rats resulted in an injurious effect on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. (scirp.org)
  • Effect of sex hormones on plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition in intact rats and rats with bilaterally occluded carotid arteries. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, types of fibers constituting male Wistar rats semitendinous and their myosin heavy chains, as well as influence of intermittent training on hypertrophy of these fibers have been checked through MATPase histochemical technique and electrophoretic proteins separation. (scielo.cl)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant) using pylorus ligation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Hence, the present work was designed to investigate the antiulcer potential of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata in pylorus ligation and indomethacin-induced rat ulceration model. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Therefore, the metabolism of myosmine has been studied in Wistar rats treated with single oral doses of [pyridine-5-3H]myosmine at 0.001, 0.005, 0.5, and 50 micromol/kg body weight. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. (diva-portal.org)
  • To better understand the role that water and urea fluxes play in the urine concentrating mechanism, we determined transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) and urea permeability (Purea) in isolated perfused Munich-Wistar rat long-loop descending thin limbs (DTLs) and ascending thin limbs (ATLs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • On days 3 and 5, 24-h rat urine excretion was collected. (rupress.org)
  • Calvo-Ochoa, E., Hernández-Ortega, K., Ferrera, P., Morimoto, S. and Arias, C. (2014) Short-Term High-Fat-and-Fructose Feeding Produces Insulin Signaling Alterations Accompanied by Neurite and Synaptic Reduction and Astroglial Activation in the Rat Hippocampus. (scirp.org)
  • Marked morphological changes were also observed in the CA(3) region of the hippocampus of the mobile phone-exposed rats in comparison to the control rats. (buergerwelle.de)
  • Control rats were fed with water. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we show that intracerebroventricular insulin or leptin infusion reduced food intake in exercised rats to a greater extent than that observed in control animals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Catecholamine release in response to perfusion with 20 mM K + was the same in adrenals from diabetic and control rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • and rats with only scraping in the diphragm, named G3 (control). (scirp.org)
  • however, fat necrosis and hemorrhage were present only in control group in one rat. (medigraphic.com)
  • In the open field, center exploration was reduced in all maternally-deprived adolescents and in control rats challenged with saline injection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Forty adult male Wistar rats weighing between 160-200 g were randomly grouped into four consisting of ten rats each viz: A. normal control, B. hyperglycemic only, C. hyperglycemic treated with Citrus medica and D. Citrus medica only. (omicsonline.org)
  • Rats on T4 had the highest PCV (47.00%), and neutrophil (25.67%) values, while rat on control had the highest value of RBC 5.95 (×10 6 /mm3). (ajol.info)
  • In conclusion, even though our study proves both unilateral left and bilateral hot water vestibular stimulation is beneficial in Scopolamine induced dementic rats in improving spatial cognition as well as motor control, unilateral left vestibular stimulation was found to be more beneficial. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The current study provides direct measurements of leptin and insulin signaling in the hypothalamus and documents increased sensitivity to these hormones in the hypothalamus of exercised rats in an IL-6-dependent manner. (diabetesjournals.org)