Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Inbred WFTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Mutant Strains: Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Rats, Gunn: Mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus which is used as a disease model of kernicterus.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Rats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Rats, Inbred F344Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.AlloxanGlutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Tetragastrin: L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (1/41636)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

Activation of alveolar macrophages in lung injury associated with experimental acute pancreatitis is mediated by the liver. (2/41636)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) whether alveolar macrophages are activated as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (AP), (2) the implication of inflammatory factors released by these macrophages in the process of neutrophil migration into the lungs observed in lung injury induced by AP, and (3) the role of the liver in the activation of alveolar macrophages. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Acute lung injury is the extrapancreatic complication most frequently associated with death and complications in severe AP. Neutrophil infiltration into the lungs seems to be related to the release of systemic and local mediators. The liver and alveolar macrophages are sources of mediators that have been suggested to participate in the lung damage associated with AP. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. The inflammatory process in the lung and the activation of alveolar macrophages were investigated in animals with and without portocaval shunting 3 hours after AP induction. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The generation of nitric oxide, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2 by alveolar macrophages and the chemotactic activity of supernatants of cultured macrophages were evaluated. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs 3 hours after induction. This effect was prevented by the portocaval shunt. Alveolar macrophages obtained after induction of pancreatitis generated increased levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2, but not leukotriene B4. In addition, supernatants of these macrophages exhibited a chemotactic activity for neutrophils when instilled into the lungs of unmanipulated animals. All these effects were abolished when portocaval shunting was carried out before induction of pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Lung damage induced by experimental AP is associated with alveolar macrophage activation. The liver mediates the alveolar macrophage activation in this experimental model.  (+info)

Examination of the transverse tubular system in living cardiac rat myocytes by 2-photon microscopy and digital image-processing techniques. (3/41636)

The transverse tubular system (t-system) of cardiac muscle is a structure that allows rapid propagation of excitation into the cell interior. Using 2-photon molecular excitation microscopy and digital image-processing methods, we have obtained a comprehensive overview of the t-system of rat ventricular myocytes in living cells. We show that it is possible to quantify the morphology of the t-system in terms of average local tubule diameter, branching pattern, and local abundance of the t-system by immersing living myocytes in a dextran-linked fluorescein solution. Our data suggest that previous electron microscopic examinations of t-system structure have underestimated both the geometric complexity of the t-system morphology and the fraction of cell volume occupied by the t-system (3.6% in this species). About 40% of tubules occur between Z-lines, and the t-tubule diameter is 255+/-0.85 nm (mean+/-SEM). The t-tubules leave the outer surface of the cell in an approximately rectangular array; however, at some points junctions between the t-tubules and the surface membrane are missing. In view of the complexity of the t-system apparent from our images, we propose that the t-system be renamed the "sarcolemmal Z rete." The methods presented here are generally applicable to the quantification of the sarcolemmal Z rete and other structures within cells by fluorescence microscopy in a variety of cell types.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (4/41636)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Evidence for a vasopressin system in the rat heart. (5/41636)

Traditionally, a hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system is thought to be the exclusive source of arginine vasopressin (AVP), a potent antidiuretic, vasoconstricting, and growth-stimulating neuropeptide. We have identified de novo synthesis of AVP in the heart as well as release of the hormone into the cardiac effluents. Specifically, molecular cloning of sequence tags amplified from isolated, buffer-perfused, and pressure-overloaded rat hearts allowed the detection of cardiac AVP mRNA. Subsequent experiments revealed a prominent induction of AVP mRNA (peak at 120 minutes, 59-fold, P<0. 01 versus baseline) and peptide (peak at 120 minutes, 11-fold, P<0. 01 versus baseline) in these isolated hearts. Newly induced vasopressin peptide was localized most prominently to endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells of arterioles and perivascular tissue using immunohistochemistry. In addition to pressure overload, nitric oxide (NO) participated in these alterations, because inhibition of NO synthase by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester markedly depressed cardiac AVP mRNA and peptide induction. Immediate cardiac effects related to cardiac AVP induction in isolated, perfused, pressure-overloaded hearts appeared to be coronary vasoconstriction and impaired relaxation. These functional changes were observed in parallel with AVP induction and largely prevented by addition of a V1 receptor blocker (10(-8) mol/L [deamino-Pen1, O-Me-Tyr2, Arg8]-vasopressin) to the perfusion buffer. Even more interesting, pressure-overloaded, isolated hearts released the peptide into the coronary effluents, offering the potential for systemic actions of AVP from cardiac origin. We conclude that the heart, stressed by acute pressure overload or NO, expresses vasopressin in concentrations sufficient to cause local and potentially systemic effects.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in adrenomedullin-induced vasodilation in the rat. (6/41636)

We previously reported that adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilator peptide discovered in pheochromocytoma cells, stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in the rat kidney. To further investigate whether the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanisms of AM-induced vasodilation, we examined the effects of E-4021, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on AM-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings and perfused kidneys isolated from Wistar rats. We also measured NO release from the kidneys using a chemiluminescence assay. AM (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L) relaxed the aorta precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. Denudation of endothelium (E) attenuated the vasodilatory action of AM (10(-7) mol/L AM: intact (E+) -25.7+/-5.2% versus denuded (E-) -7. 8+/-0.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with 10(-8) mol/L E-4021 augmented AM-induced vasorelaxation in the intact aorta (-49. 0+/-7.9%, P<0.05) but not in the denuded one. E-4021 also enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in the rat intact aorta (10(-7) mol/L ACh -36.6+/-8.4% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-7) mol/L ACh -62.7+/-3.1%, P<0.05). In perfused kidneys, AM-induced vasorelaxation was also augmented by preincubation with E-4021 (10(-9) mol/L AM -15.4+/-0.6% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L AM -23.6+/-1.2%, P<0.01). AM significantly increased NO release from rat kidneys (DeltaNO: +11.3+/-0.8 fmol. min-1. g-1 kidney at 10(-9) mol/L AM), which was not affected by E-4021. E-4021 enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9) mol/L ACh -9.7+/-1.7% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L ACh -18.8+/-2.9%, P<0.01) but did not affect ACh-induced NO release from the kidneys. In the aorta and the kidney, 10(-4) mol/L of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase inhibitor, and 10(-5) mol/L of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the vasodilatory effect of AM. These results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanism of AM-induced vasorelaxation, at least in the rat aorta and kidney.  (+info)

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (7/41636)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (8/41636)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

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BioAssay record AID 607075 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of Myod1 mRNA expression in Wistar rat at 60 mg/kg, po qd for 24 days by RT-PCR analysis relative to control.
2 -methylbut-2-ene (2M2B) has a low order of acute toxicity in animals by the dermal and inhalation routes of exposure. It is classifiable as harmful by the oral route of exposure. Non-human data Oral In order to determine the acute oral LD50 of 2M2B a range-finding and definitive study have been performed in albino Wistar rats. In the definitive study, groups of six males and six females were dosed with 1.0, 1.6, 2.5, 4.0, 6.3 and 10 ml/kg. The majority of deaths occurred within the first 3 days following dosing and most survivors had recovered from signs of intoxication by the third day. The author estimated the oral LD50 to be in the range of 1 to 4 ml/kg (i.e., 700 to 2600 mg/kg) (SRC, 1980). Further inspection of the data (OECD SIDS, 2005) allows this to be refined to a range of 1.6 to 2.5 mL/kg (1000 to 1700 mg/kg). Dermal In order to determine the acute dermal LD50 of 2M2B range-finding and definitive studies have been performed in albino Wistar rats. The acute dermal LD50 value of 2M2B ...
seeds on male Wistar albino rats was investigated. The proteins were found to have high true digestibility (TD) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The net protein retention (NPR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention efficiency (PRE), Net protein value (NPV), Nitrogen efficiency ratio (NER), feed efficiency ratio (FER) and relative NPR (RNPR) of the ungerminated seeds were significantly lower ( ...
BioAssay record AID 772436 submitted by ChEMBL: Hepatotoxicity in Triton-X-100-induced hyperlipidemia Wistar albino rat model assessed as SGPT level in serum at 250 mg/kg, po qd for 7 days.
Purpose: We have previously shown that delayed injection of bone marrow stem cell conditioned media (BMSC CM), 24 h after ischemia, rescued ischemic retinal functional and histological properties. We hypothesized that preconditioning the BMSC CM by exposure of the BMSCs to hypoxic conditions will increase the efficacy of this protection. In this study we examined the functional and histological outcomes, and the possible mechanisms of this neuroprotection.. Methods: Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing IOP for 55 min. BMSCs which were harvested from male Wistar rat femurs were cultured and characterized. The cultured BMSCs produced hypoxic conditioned media, by exposure to hypoxia (1% O2) for 72 h, which was injected into the vitreous 24 h after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed one week later using electroretinography (ERG). Scotopic a- and b waves, oscillatory potentials (OPs) and P2 were measured. We also examined 4 micron thick paraffin-embedded sections ...
In this study, we investigate Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expressions in adriamycin (ADR)-induced cadiomyopathy in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two main groups: control and ADR groups. Myocardial histopathological observation was performed; Expressions of 3 isoforms of NOS genes were examined by RT-PCR analysis; Expressions of 3 isoforms of NOS protein was assessed by Western blot analysis. Myocardium exhibited intensive morphological changes after 8 weeks of ADR treatment. The expression levels of inducible NOS (iNOS) gene and protein were significantly increased in ADRtreated rats after 8 weeks of treatment and then slightly increased at weeks 9 and 10 ...
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Furthermore, the examination of DNA-bound FOXO3a by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay demonstrated a marked increase in nuclear, DNA bound FOXO3a in GK rats with MI compared to Sham-GK and corresponding post-MI Wistar controls (Figure 5D). ...
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A study to evaluate efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) as analgesic agent using albino wistar rats as an experimental animal model
Abstract Aloe vera has been used since ages to manage a number of diseases causing pain, inflammation and fever. However, its effectiveness has not been scientifically certified. NSAIDs & Opioid are used continuously for the pain management. Alternative analgesics are needed to escape from the serious adverse effects of NSAIDs. Our study demonstrated significant analgesic activity of Aloe vera at doses of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using Wistar Albino rats (150-200gm). Soxhlets apparatus was used to prepare the aqueous extract of Aloe vera [AEAV]. The animals were divided into 4 groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Hot plate method, acetic acid induced writhing method and tail flick tests were used. The results were subjected to statistical analysis by using one way ANOVA followed by Dunnetts test. Results Analgesic effect of high dose of AEAV at 500 mg/kg was similar with the standard drug indomethacin. The extract (200 & 500 mg/kg) ...
The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide ...
The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide ...
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) (<100 nm) has been widely used in the production of paints, paper, and plastics, as well as in food additives and colorants .It has been classified as biologically inert in both humans and animals. Here we studied the toxicity of TiO2 on Wister rat.
Purpose: Enteric glial cells (EGC) exert a critical role in the structural integrity, defense and metabolic function of enteric neurons. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disorders and chronic autonomic neuropathy. Quercetin supplementation, which is a potent antioxidant, has been used in order to reduce the effects of diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of quercetin supplementation in the drinking water at a daily dose of 40 mg on the glial cells and neurons in the jejunum of diabetic rats.Material and Methods: Twenty 90-day-old male adult Wistar rats were split into four groups: normoglycemic control (C), normoglycemic control supplemented with quercetin (Q), diabetic (D) and diabetic supplemented with quercetin (DQ). After 120 days, the jejunums were collected and immunohistochemical technique was performed to label S-100-immunoreactive glial cells and HuC/D-immunoreactive neurons.Results: An intense
INTRODUCTION Central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic shock is influenced by many neuronal systems, including the melanocortinergic and histaminergic systems. The aim of the study was to examine the involvement of the his-taminergic system in the resuscitating effect of melanocortin type 4 (MC4) receptor agonist Ro 27-3225. MATERIALS AND METHODS Studies were carried out on male Wistar rats subjected to irreversible haemorrhagic shock with a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 20-25 mmHg. In the 5th minute of critical hypotension, the animals were injected intracere-broventricularly (icv) with Ro 27-3225 or a 0.9% NaCl solution (control group). RESULTS Hypovolaemia was accompanied by a decrease in pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR) and renal blood flow (RBF). In the control group, there were no increases in the measured parameters, and a survival rate of 2 h was 0%. Ro 27-3225 (10 nmol, icv) evoked long-lasting rises in MAP, PP and RBF as well as 100% survival at 2 h. Pre-treatment with ...
UNLABELLED Angiotensin II has articularly shown to play a key role in the regulation of inflammatory processes in hypertension. AIM The present study aims to correlate the angiotensin II-induced hypertension 4th systemic inflammation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted an experimental study on Wistar male rats who received Ang II via subcutaneous miniosmotic pumps for 2 weeks. Rats were exposed to a 12h light /12h dark cycle. Sham rats were used as control. Systolic load pressure measurements and a flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte surface markers were performed. After 14 days, the animals were euthanized under anesthesia with ylazine/ketaniine. RESULTS Systolic BP progressively and significantly increased in rats 4th Ang II chronic infusion. We observed a statistical significant difference (p = 0.00001), in terms of T lymphocytes percentage between control rats plasma and Ang H treated rats lasma, in 14 days. CONCLUSIONS Angiotensin II is an important mediator of hypertension and directly
Fourteen 12- to 16-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 200 to 400 g (Scanbur AB, Sollentuna, Sweden) were used. All animals were treated according to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. With approval from the Linköping regional animal ethics review board, the rats were anesthetized, and a corneal stromal suture was placed 1.5 mm from the temporal limbus as previously described. 13 A second stromal suture was placed at the 3 oclock position, 1.5 mm from the nasal limbus, to provide additional tissue samples for ex vivo analysis. Left eyes served as negative controls. At 0, 6, and 12 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days after the initial surgery, the rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine (Orion Pharma AB, Sollentuna, Sweden) and xylazine (Pfizer AB, Sollentuna, Sweden), and laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the corneas was performed after topical administration of 1% tetracaine. The number of rats ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article EFFECT OF TAMOXIFEN ON LAYER UTERUS AND THE NUMBER OF OFFSPRINGS IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS in Confrence
Download Free Full-Text of an article EFFECT OF TAMOXIFEN ON THE UTERUS TISSUE, AND PITUITARY-OVARY HORMONAL AXIS IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS in Confrence
PURPOSE: To present an animal model to assess the effects of end-to-side innervation in the heterotopically transplanted model with reduced chances of neural contamination.METHODS:The medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle in wistar male rats was isolated and its pedicle dissected and performed a flap in the abdominal portion. To prevent neural contamination in the abdominal region, the muscle was wrapped with a Goretex(r) sheet. The specimens were divided into 2 groups (G). In G1 was performed an end-to-end suture between tibial nerve of the gastrocnemius and femoral motor nerve and between the saphenous sensory nerve and the motor nerve. In G2 was performed a end-to-side suture between the tibial nerve and the motor femoral and between the tibial nerve and saphenous motor nerve. The specimens were evaluated 60 days later to check the structure of the neurorraphy. Sections were obtained proximal and distal to the coaptation site.RESULTS:The medial gastrocnemius muscle had the advantage of ...
The present study investigated the sensitivity to stress and diazepam in weaning (21-day old) Wistar rats. A single 15-min session of forced swimming was used to induce anxiety-like behavior. The group that was forced to swim exhibited...
History of Hannover - Comprehensive information about ancient Hannover history and historical places of Hannover. Book your tour to historical places Hannover at MakeMyTrip.com.
Obsevation: Endotoxic shock is a life-threatening condition and its sequelae represent an array of clinical symptoms that encompass systemic inflammation, coagulopathy, and abnormalities of the renal, hepatic, pulmonary and hematologic systems, followed by multi-organ failure. Furthermore, systemic failure leads to an unfavorable environment in the gut that causes an imbalance in the homeostasis of intestinal microbiota. In the present study, the effect of symbiotics as adjuvant therapy in endotoxic shock was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: Control group received a single intraperitoneal injection of physiological saline solution, and the other two groups received either a symbiotic formulation or a placebo daily, for one week, followed by the administration of a single lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli (20 mg/Kg, IP). Results: The symbiotic formulation used improved the survival rate of LPS-treated rats, ameliorated the clinical symptomatology,
Obsevation: Endotoxic shock is a life-threatening condition and its sequelae represent an array of clinical symptoms that encompass systemic inflammation, coagulopathy, and abnormalities of the renal, hepatic, pulmonary and hematologic systems, followed by multi-organ failure. Furthermore, systemic failure leads to an unfavorable environment in the gut that causes an imbalance in the homeostasis of intestinal microbiota. In the present study, the effect of symbiotics as adjuvant therapy in endotoxic shock was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: Control group received a single intraperitoneal injection of physiological saline solution, and the other two groups received either a symbiotic formulation or a placebo daily, for one week, followed by the administration of a single lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli (20 mg/Kg, IP). Results: The symbiotic formulation used improved the survival rate of LPS-treated rats, ameliorated the clinical symptomatology,
In situ hybridisation showing localisation of Mrap, Mrap2 and Mc2r in foetal and adult Wistar rat adrenal glands. (A-G) Foetal Wistar rat adrenal glands (embr
Bumetanide is a selective inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-co-transporter 1(NKCC1). We studied whether bumetanide could affect axonal growth and behavioral outcome in stroke rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham-operated rats treated with vehicle or bumetanide, and ischemic rats treated with vehicle or bumetanide. Endothelin-1 was used to induce focal cerebral ischemia. Bumetanide administration (i.c.v.) started on postoperative day 7 and continued for 3 weeks. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the right imotor cortex on postoperative day 14 to trace corticospinal tract (CST) fibers sprouting into the denervated cervical spinal cord ...
Methods. Animals and anesthetics. Animal handling and experimental procedures were reviewed and approved by the ethical committee for animal care and use of the Royal Netherlands Academy for Sciences, acting in accordance with the European Community Council directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) and the ARVO statement for the use of animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The procedure to induce transient ischemia followed by reperfusion has been described in detail previously [25-27]. In short, adult male Wistar rats (Harlan, the Netherlands) weighing 200-300 g were anesthetized and mounted onto a stereotactic frame (Stoelting, Wood Dale, IL). A steel 30-gauge infusion needle (BD Biosciences, Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands) connected to a saline reservoir was placed in the middle of the anterior chamber of the left eye. The reservoir was opened and lifted to 1.70 m. Ischemia was confirmed by the white anemic fundus reflex. After 60 min of ischemia, the reservoir was lowered and ...
Affiliation:鶴見大学,歯学部,准教授, Research Field:矯正・小児・社会系歯学,Functional basic dentistry, Keywords:酒石酸耐性酸性ホスファターゼ,adult Wistar rats,骨芽細胞,tension side,osteoblast,tooth movement,破骨細胞,serum BGP,歯の移動,血清BGP, # of Research Projects:5, # of Research Products:0
Myocardial hyperfunction is experimentally modeled by coarctation of the aorta in mature (6-8-month-old) and senescent (26-28-month-old) Wistar rats. During the emergency phase of cardiac...
Archives issue of International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences which aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences
Abstract Background: Nagabhasma is a lead-based Ayurvedic medicine. Numerous reports indicate the toxic effects of lead used in this preparations on various systems of our body. But Ayurveda claims that the toxic effect of lead gets nullified thereby acquiring the medicinal property by following stringent and traditional method of preparation. Objectives: Therefore, the present study is designed to evaluate the effect of such detoxified lead in various stages of authentically prepared Nagabhasma on the histopathology of kidney in comparison with lead acetate treated and commercially available Nagabhasma treated animals. Materials and method: Less than the human equivalent doses of Nagabhasma at four different stages of its preparation were fed orally for 30 days and 60 days (short term and long term) to Wistar rats. The animals were even kept under observation for a period of two months after the treatment period and then the residual effect was studied. After the treatment and observation ...
Cancer Monthly. Liver Cancer treatments. Chemotherapy. Hannover Medical School, Hannover , Germany. Compare therapy differences, longest survival rates, toxicity, side effects, hospitals.
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Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was ...
Background: Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam are the two indigenous herbal formulation being used for healing of wounds in siddha medicine. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the wound healing property of topical application of kungiliya vennai (KV) and kalchunna thailam (KT) on excision wound in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Four groups of eight Sprague dawley female rats in each group were used for the study. Under anesthesia, excision wound of 300 mm2 size was created using scissors. Group 1 served as control with no drugs applied. Group 2, 3 and 4 were applied with mupirocin, KV and KT respectively daily until wound was completely healed. Parameters observed were % wound contraction rate and epithelialization period. Biopsy of wound for histology was taken on day 12 as well as the healed wound was taken after the wound was healed. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukeys test by keeping p,0.05 as statistically significant. ...
CARDIO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON ALBINO WISTER RAT ABTRACT This study evaluates the cardio protactive effect
Besides genetic factors, diet components may contribute to the development of obesity, and it is known that cafeteria diet is characterized by a high caloric intake. Thus, the present study evaluated the mutagenic effects that cafeteria diet exerted on Wistar rats and its consequences on female offspring. Twelve females (generation 1) were separated in control group (CTL) and Cafeteria Diet group (CAF). At 70 days of age, females were mated with non-obese control males. Weaning at 21 days of age, female offspring (2nd generation) were separated into daughters of CTL or CAF mothers and subdivided according to previous diet. Ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) / normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) in a total of 1000 cells and Micronuclei (MN) 1000 PCE were evaluated. Were observed high MN frequencies, body weight, retroperitoneal and perigonadal fat; and low PCE/NCE ratio in generation 1. In generation 2, cafeteria diet caused high body weight, retroperitoneal and perigonadal fat and ...
  This study was aimed at determining the effects of the ethanolic extract of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora Robert on male fertility by evaluating some andrological parameters of the Wistar rat such as morphology of spermatozoa, sperm count, motility, liveability and volume of the semen. Histopathology of the testis was carried out. 20 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. The rats in group A (Control) were administered with 0.9% physiological saline, while rats in groups B, C, D, and E were administered with the extract of 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg per Kg body weight, respectively, once daily for 14 days. The extract caused morphological alterations of sperm cells in this study, predominantly of secondary abnormality. These include bent mid-piece, curved mid-piece, bent tail, curved tail, normal tail without head, normal head without tail, looped tail, and coiled tail, which are indications of interference with maturation stage of spermatogenesis
The mechanism for cardiac hypertrophy process that would be a benefit for improvement of cardiovascular endurance needed to be investigated throughly. Specific intensity of training may play a role for homeostasis process in cardiac during training. In the present study, we examine the effect of different intensity of treadmill training on cardiac hypertrophy process and autophagy related gene expression in male wistar rats. Three different intensities of treadmill training were conducted on 15 male wistar rats (Low Intensity: 10 m/minute, Moderate Intensity: 20 m/minute, and High Intensity: 30 m/minute) compared to 5 sedentary rats as control. Training duration was 30 min per day, frequency was 5 days per week, during 8 weeks period. Heart weight and heart weight/body weight ratio were measured after the experiments. Left ventricle myocardium was taken for microscopic analysis with HE staining. mRNA was extracted from left ventricle myocardium for examining αMHC and autophagy related gene expression
Background: We and others have reported that myocardial protein phosphatase 1(PP1) activity in the end-stage heart failure (HF) is abnormally increased and contributes to the depressed cardiac function. In this regard, in vivo myocardial PP1 inhibition via endogenous cytosolic inhibitors such as inhibitor-2 (INH-2) has prevented HF progression by augmenting phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation and thereby increasing cardiac function in the genetic cardiomyopathy model. However, it remained uncertain how INH-2, a cytosolic protein, exerts PP1 inhibition in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To this end, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which INH-2 inhibits PP1 and regulates contractility in cardiomyocytes.. Methods and Results: Cardiomyocytes were enzymatically isolated from six week-old male Wistar rats (n=10) and subjected to either adenoviral INH-2 infection or chemical PP1 inhibition by an application of 0.01-1microM of tautomycin (TM) and tautomycetin (TMC), followed by assessment of ...
Methods 36 healthy 6-week-old Wistar male rats, weighing (160±10 g), after being fed adaptable for one week, were randomly divided into control group (n=12), Hhcy group (n=12), folic acid treatment group (n=12). The control group was fed with AIN-93G diet. The Hhcy group was fed with high-methionion diet, consisting of AIN-93G diet plus 1.7% methionion. The folic acid treatment group was fed with high-methionion plus folic acid-rich diet, consisting of AIN-93G diet plus 1.7% methionion and 0.008% folic acid. After be maintained for 18 weeks on the previously described diets, the Hcy and folic acid concentrations in the plasma was measured with the IMX assays. The thoracic aorta was harvested for morphology (electron microscopy). The DNA methyltransferase activity was determined using EpiQuik DNA Methyltransferase (DNMT) Activity/Inhibition Assay Kit. The methylation status of LINE-1 was assessed by the combined bisulphite restriction analysis (COBRA) method.. ...
OBJECTIVE The authors previous studies have suggested that thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, improves functional recovery after neural injury. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) is an active peptide fragment of Tβ4. Its effect as a treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been investigated. Thus, this study was designed to determine whether AcSDKP treatment improves functional recovery in rats after TBI. METHODS Young adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 1) sham group (no injury); 2) TBI + vehicle group (0.01 N acetic acid); and 3) TBI + AcSDKP (0.8 mg/kg/day). TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact over the left parietal cortex. AcSDKP or vehicle was administered subcutaneously starting 1 hour postinjury and continuously for 3 days using an osmotic minipump. Sensorimotor function and spatial learning were assessed using a modified Neurological Severity Score and Morris water maze tests, respectively. Some of the
This study investigated the effects of prior lycopene supplementation on behaviour and haematology of Wistar rats subjected to psychological stress. Four groups of Wistar rats, each comprising seven animals were investigated: unstressed (U-Control), unstressed + lycopene (U+Lyco), stressed (SControl) and stressed + lycopene (S+Lyco). Olive oil was given by oral gavage to each rat in the groups, either singly or mixed with 10 mg/kg lycopene daily for two weeks. S-Control and S+Lyco groups were subjected to psychological stress followed by behavioural assessment using excitability score test. Blood samples were collected after sacrificing the animals and then analyzed. Psychological stress increased (P < 0.05) erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in Wistar rats. Lycopene significantly increased excitability scores and total blood plasma proteins, and decreased (P > 0.05) erythrocyte MDA concentration. In conclusion, antioxidant properties of lycopene may be attenuating the effects of
1. The effects on body composition, measured by direct techniques, of a controlled 25% body-surfacearea thermal injury have been studied in two groups of forty male Wistar rats. 2. The extent of weight loss in the animals was directly related to their energy deficit resulting from a combination of injury, food intake and rate of wound healing. 3. Body fat proved the most labile source of tissue energy, decreasing to a minimum of approximately 30 g/kg body-weight. 4. Relationships between water and fat, and water and protein seen in control animals were not significantly different in the traumatized group ...
Resistant glucan (RG) and hydrogenated resistant glucan (HRG) are new dietary fiber materials developed to decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome and lifestyle-related diseases. We investigated the metabolism and bioavailability of RG and HRG using rats and humans. Purified RG and HRG were used as test substances. After 25 Wistar male rats (270 g) were fed with an experimental diet (AIN93M diet with the cellulose replaced by β-corn starch) ad libitum for 1 week, they were used for the experiment involving blood collection and circulating air collection. Ten participants (5 males, 22.5 y, BMI 20.4 kg/m2; 5 females, 25.8 y, BMI 20.9 kg/m2) voluntarily participated in this study. The study was carried out using a within-subject, repeated measures design. Effects of RG and HRG on the response for blood glucose and insulin and hydrogen excretion were compared with those of glucose and a typical nondigestible and fermentable fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in rats and humans. Available energy was evaluated
Objective: Tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A (CsA), immunosuppressants widely used in post-transplantional therapy, have been reported to protect neurons in the injured brain. This effect can be exerted directly and indirectly via inflammatory cells. Since the data come exclusively from studies on the adult brain, we examined effects of the drugs on the macrophage recruitment in the brain injured at early developmental stages. Methods: Following the brain injury, 1- and 6-day-old Wistar rats (P1s and P6s, respectively) were treated with FK506 or CsA and injected with [3 H] thymidine. Brain sections were processed for BSI-B4 isolectin histochemistry and subjected to autoradiography to visualize proliferating and non-proliferating macrophages. Results: In P1s (n = 33), FK506 evoked a dose-dependent reduction in the number of macrophages. P6s (n = 30) presented greater decreases in macrophage numbers and their proliferative activity than the newborns. CsA application in P1s (n = 27) affected ...
0055]Sixty 30-day-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20. Each group was given a specific diet, the first ordinary chow (placebo), the second group chow of a specific composition S1 and the third group the same feed as Group 2 with additional components (S2); see Table 1. The diets contained identical quantities of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and energy. At the age of 4 months, two of the four carotid arteries of half of each group of animals were occluded (2VO animals). The other half was subjected to a similar operation without occlusion of the arteries. At the age of 7 months the animals were sacrificed for further investigation. Inter alia, the receptor density in specific parts of the brain was determined with the aid of labelling using a radioactive marker substance. Three receptor types, the muscarinic 1, serotonergic 1A and the glutaminergic NMDA receptors were labelled in hippocampal slices by autoradiographic methods. The increased ratio of n-3 fatty acids in ...
The exposure of Nigerians to House Hold Kerosene (HHK) is on the increase following carelessness from handling the product and proliferation of sales outlet. Against this backdrop, hepatotoxicity of HHK on liver enzyme markers and its effect on hematological and oxidative stress parameters on wistar albino rats were investigated. Preliminary toxicity study to determine the volume of HHK that could cause toxicity was carried out using 30 healthy albino rats. Another set of 20 albino rats were grouped into two groups and used for the biochemical analysis: Group I animals were the control group and Group II animals were administered with 1ml/kg body weight of HHK. The results of this study shows that HGB, RBC and HCT values were significantly reduced (P,0.05) in the group administered with kerosene compared to the healthy group. WBC, lymphocyte# count, MCV and MCH values were significantly increased (P,0.05) in the treated group compared to the control group. All the liver enzyme markers: AST, ALT, ...
We aimed to explore the impact of ageing on 11C-Hydroxyephedrine (11C-HED) uptake in the healthy rat heart in a longitudinal setting. To investigate a potential cold mass effect, the influence of specific activity on cardiac 11C-HED uptake was evaluated: 11C-HED was synthesized by N-methylation of (−)-metaraminol as the free base (radiochemical purity ,95%) and a wide range of specific activities (0.2-141.9 GBq/μmol) were prepared. \(^{11}\)C-HED (48.7±9.7MBq, ranged 0.2-60.4μg/kg cold mass) was injected in healthy Wistar Rats. Dynamic 23-frame PET images were obtained over 30 min. Time activity curves were generated for the blood input function and myocardial tissue. Cardiac 11C-HED retention index (%/min) was calculated as myocardial tissue activity at 20-30 min divided by the integral of the blood activity curves. Additionally, the impact of ageing on myocardial 11CHED uptake was investigated longitudinally by PET studies at different ages of healthy Wistar Rats. A dose-dependent ...
Animals. Adult male Wistar rats (Tierzucht Schönwalde GmbH, Schönwalde, Germany), with an initial BW ranging from 180 to 210 gm, were housed in individual cages in the animal house (Max Rubner Laboratory, Bergholz-Rehbrücke, Germany) and used in accordance with ethics authorities and local regulations (ethics approval number 48-3560-1/2). Lights were on from 6:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M., and room temperature (RT) was adjusted to 22 ± 1°C. Animals had constant access to water and were fed standard lab chow available ad libitum. BW was monitored daily, and thereby the rats were handled at least once a day.. Intracerebroventricular cannulation of the lateral ventricle. Animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal injections of a ketamine-xylazine solution [100 mg/kg BW Ketamin Gräub (Albrecht, Aulendorf, Germany); 10 mg/kg BW Rompun (2%; Bayer Vital, Leverkusen, Germany)]. During surgery, body temperature was kept constant at ∼37°C using a self-regulating heating pad (Fine Science Tools, ...
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OECD 420 (2018) - In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD 420), five fasted, 8-12 week old, female Wistar strain rats were given a single oral dose of test item at dose level of 2000 mg/kg bw (limit test). Clinical observations were made 30 minutes, 1, 2, and 4 hours after dosing and then daily for up to 14 days. Morbidity and mortality checks were made twice daily, early and late during normal working days, and once daily at weekends and public holidays. Individual body weights were recorded on Day 0 (the day of dosing) and on Days 7 and 14 or at death. After the 14 days observation, all surviving animals underwent necropsy. Mortality One animal was humaely killed for humane reasons on Day 8 due to occurrence of toxicity that approached the severity limit set forth in the UK Home Office Project Licence. No mortality was observed in the other 4 animals. Clinical observations Hunched posture was noted in all animals. Staining around the ano-genital region was noted in 3/5 animals. Ataxia, lethargy ...
Background: The active components of natural products provide a potential alternative to conventional immunotherapy for a variety of diseases conditions and become subject to scientific investigations currently worldwide. Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the immunostimulatory activity of the chitosan nanoparticle on Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The present investigation was carried out on various groups of healthy adult rats. The assessment of immunomodulatory potential was carried out by neutrophil adhesion test, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression and phagocytic activity were determined in various groups of animals. Results: The administration of chitosan nanoparticle at doses 300 mg/kg BW and 600 mg/kg BW but not at doses 150 mg/kg BW significantly increased in neutrophil adhesion fibers, haemagglutinating antibody titre values and potentiated the inhibited type ...
Twenty male adult albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 210-220g were used in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and the honey-fed (test) group, each containing ten rats. The Control group was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1ml of honey for every initial 10ml of water for each rat daily) for twenty two weeks. After twenty two weeks the rats were weighed after being starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight). Gastric ulceration was induced using 1.5ml acid-alcohol prepared from equivolume of 0.1NHCl and 70% methanol introduced into the stomach via a portex cannula tied and left in place following an incision made on the antral-pyloric junction of the stomach. The acid-alcohol was allowed to stay for 1hr. After 1hr, laparatomy was performed and the stomach isolated, cut open along the greater curvature, rinsed with ...
After years of query, we found that hoof of mule, a compound with contraceptive effect, had been used more than a century ago by the nomadic populatio..
Results of biodistribution studies in Wistar rats. Uptake ratios of uptake in several brain areas compared to cerebellum uptake at different times after intrave
Prof. Dr. med. Samii in Hannover, Ihr Facharzt-Experte für Wirbelsäulenchirurgie in Hannover. International Neuroscience Institute® (INI) Hannover GmbH :: Experte Wirbelsäulenchirurgie
... : IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
The "total normalized rate" (TNR) of each recombinant isoenzyme is calculated based on the method described by Rodrigues (1999).. Pharmacokinetic Studies in Wistar Rats. The animal experimental part of this study was performed at Charles River Wiga Deutschland GmbH (Kisslegg, Germany). ML3403 was administered to eight female and male Wistar rats with a single oral gavage (p.o.) dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. The drug formulation was prepared by grinding 60 mg of ML3403 in a mortar; a small amount of 1% methylcellulose was added until a smooth paste was obtained. The paste was transferred into a graduated flask and made up with 1% methylcellulose to a volume of 10 ml. A dose of 5 ml/kg was administered with continuous stirring of the suspension.. For blood sampling, groups were allocated to schedules A or B. In schedule A, five samples were taken at time points 0 h (predose), 0.5 h, 2.0 h, 6.0 h, and 11.0 h after dosing in animals 1 to 4. In schedule B, five samples were taken at time points 0 h, ...
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AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors, namely, DTCM-G and DHMEQ, were investigated in male Wistar rats with severe colitis, induced by TNBS. The animals were randomized into 3 groups. The control group received 0.5 mL of 0.5% of the ...
Just had a request from one of our pathologists to keep routine surgical specimens for at least a month. CAP guidelines say 2 weeks after final sign out... Is anyone keeping them longer? Tom Mc Nemar, HT(ASCP) Pathology Supervisor Licking Memorial Hospital Newark, Ohio ...
Just digging through articles on taurine on pubmed - I found these to be interesting so I post them here (though this is really quick since I have to
Shares of Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc. are rising in their trading debut on the Nasdaq exchange.The Watertown, Mass., drug developers stock is up more than 15 percent, or $2.15, to $16.15 in morning trading. ...
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH), gegründet 1965, 7.475 Vollkräfte, 3.424 Studierende (WiSe 2015), 22 Zentren (Departmentstruktur) mit 79 Kliniken, Abteilungen und Instituten sowie zahlreichen Forschungseinrichtungen und Zentrale Einrichtungen. Im Zentralklinikum werden jährlich auf 83 Stationen mit 1.520 Betten rund 60.879 Patienten stationär versorgt. Im Rahmen der ambulanten Behandlung in rund 40 Polikliniken, 250 Spezialsprechstunden und -ambulanzen kam es in 2015 zu etwa 439.890 Behandlungskontakten.
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH), gegründet 1965, 7.475 Vollkräfte, 3.424 Studierende (WiSe 2015), 22 Zentren (Departmentstruktur) mit 79 Kliniken, Abteilungen und Instituten sowie zahlreichen Forschungseinrichtungen und Zentrale Einrichtungen. Im Zentralklinikum werden jährlich auf 83 Stationen mit 1.520 Betten rund 60.879 Patienten stationär versorgt. Im Rahmen der ambulanten Behandlung in rund 40 Polikliniken, 250 Spezialsprechstunden und -ambulanzen kam es in 2015 zu etwa 439.890 Behandlungskontakten.
본 연구는 연령이 증가함에 따라 나타나는 지방대사의 변화에 대하여 식이내 단백질수준이 어떻게 영향을 미치는가를 관찰하고저 행하여졌다. 실험동물은 평균체중이 70.4±2.4g (생후 4주)과 287.1±6.3g(생후 5~6개월)인 Wistar종 수컷 흰쥐 48마리를 연령에 따라 어린군(Young Group)과 성숙한 군(Adult Group)으로 나누었고 각 연령군을 7%, 15%, 50%로 단백질 수준을 각각 달리하여 5주간 사육하였다. 본 실험의 결과들을 요약해 보면 다음과 같다. 체중 100g당 식이 섭취량과 단백질 효율은 연령의 차이없이 7% 단백질군이 50%단백질군에 비해 유의적으로 높았고 체중 증가량은 두 연령군 모두 50% 단백질군에서 가장 높았다. 지방의 흡수율은 성숙한 쥐가 어린쥐보다 약간 낮았고, 단백질수준이 증가할수록 각 연령군 모두에서 낮아졌다. 혈청내 총지방량, 총콜레스테롤 및 ...
خاک نقش مهمی را در چرخه بیوژئوشیمیایی به عنوان یک منبع مهم ذخیره عناصر ایفا می-کند. از عوامل مهمی که در کشاورزی حائز اهمیت است نوع ویژگی-های خاک، پراکنش و میزان تغییرات آن می-باشد. در این مطالعه 600 نمونه خاک با فواصل تقریبی 100 متر در 100 متر از عمق 30-0 سانتی-متری در 800 هکتار از اراضی شرکت کشت و صنعت شریف آباد قزوین جمع-آوری شد. آنالیز آمار توصیفی و زمین آماری داده-های جمع-آوری شده، انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد دامنه تغییرات نیتروژن کل خاک در محدوده 82/0- 02/0% با میانگین 26/0 درصد، فسفر قابل استخراج با اولسن در محدودهmg/kg 07/93-58/9 با میانگین 21/36 میلی-گرم بر کیلوگرم، پتاسیم قابل
Резюме: Оценката на качеството на храните е ключов въпрос и загриженост за всички правителства. Правила и наблюдение на храните в хранителната верига са приети във всички страни. Няма съмнение, че храната е тясно свързана с човешкото здраве. Един от най-често срещаните замърсители са нитрати и нитрити, които имат положително не само отрицателно влияние. В статията са представени резултати от оценка съдържанието на NO3- в различни продукти на пазара на хранителни вериги в България. Открито е по-голямо количество NO3- до 900 mg / kg в пресни картофи, със ...
Diabetes mellitus is a known cause of infertility and erectile dysfunction in men. Sildenafil citrate, used in the management of the latter, has been implicated of toxic role on the testis. This paradoxical impression is significant in diabetic men with erectile dysfunction that are of reproductive age. Histo-morphometric effects of sildenafil citrate was thus, investigated for eight weeks on the testes of twenty-five adult Wistar rats, weighed before and after the experiment and categorized into four treatment groups and one control group of five rats per group (n=5). The control group (A) received feed mash and water ad libitum. Treatment groups B and C (normoglycaemic) received low dose (1mg/kg body weight) and high dose (2mg/kg body weight) of sildenafil citrate, respectively. Groups D and E ( hyperglycaemic) were treated with low dose (1 mg/kg body weight) and high dose (2 mg/kg body weight) of sildenafil citrate, respectively. Blood samples were collected for hormonal assay and the testes ...
The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra), commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB) of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24), average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18) and control (n=6) groups. The rats in the treatment groups A, B and C received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB) was carefully dissected ...
Fasciolosis is one of the major stress factors, leading to malnutrition and low performance and production efficiency in domestic animals. Recent studies indicate that fasciolosis has lead to oxidative stress which is the causative agent in the initiation and progress of lipid peroxidation in the hosts. The antioxidant defences depend on microelements or are microelements themselves. Zinc has been shown to have an antioxidant role in defined chemical systems. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the compound 2Gly.ZnCl2.2H2O on the antioxidant systems comprising vitamins A, C and E, copper, zinc and selenium contents during various stages of fasciolosis. Forty male Wistar albino rats were used. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I, control; Group II, control and treated with 2Gly.ZnCl2.2H2O; Group III, Fasciola hepatica infected rats; and Group IV, Fasciola hepatica infected and treated with 2Gly.ZnCl2.2H2O. Each rat from groups III and IV were orally infected with 25 ...
The pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to acute ischemic renal failure are not completely understood. Melatonin, a compound with well-known antioxidant properties, reduces IR-induced renal injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-beta, and IL-6 in postischemic reperfused renal tissue, and to determine whether the protective effect of melatonin is related the modulation of the production of these inflammatory molecules. Male Wistar albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 1 hr of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 2 hr or 24 hr of reperfusion. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administrated at 10 min prior to ischemia. After 24 hr of the reperfusion, following decapitation, kidney samples were taken both for histologic examination and for the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative stress (TOS), ...
This study aims to investigate the effect of xylopia aethiopica on the sexual behavior of adult male rats. Fort eight adult male wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each: group 1 was control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 were test groups treated daily with 0.5, 2 and 10 mg/kg body weight respectively of hydro-methanolic fruit extract of xylopia aethiopice for 30 consecutive days followed by 30 days recovery. Mating test was performed on six animals from each group on days 30 and 60 of the study. Also, 6 animals were sacrificed from each group and blood collected for serum testosterone assay on 31st and 61st days of the study. Results show significant (P|0.05) dose dependent increase in ejaculation latency (EL), and post ejaculatory interval (PEI) with significant decrease (P|0.05) in ejaculation frequency (EF) and in serum testosterone levels in rats in all the test groups. We conclude that xylopia aethiopice enhances copulatory performance without
Background & Objectives: Lithium is the metal used in bipolar disorder treatment.  As for the prevalence of the disorder infertility (childbearing) age and the use of lithium, this study aimed at studying the effects of drugs on histological changes, and the ovarian function in the first generation of adult female ...
Objective- This study examined the effect of Crataegus hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Design- Experimental study Animals- 25 adult male Wistar rats Procedures- Rats weighing 200±25 g were randomly divided into five individual groups as follows: sham group without intestinal I/R, control group with intestinal I/R, and treatment groups with intestinal I/R and 10 days oral administration of CHE at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. Intestinal I/R was accomplished by occlusion of the cranial mesenteric artery for 30 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion. Then tissue sections of jejunum were prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Histopathological lesions including hyperemia, hemorrhage, necrohemorrhagic inflammation, and villi destruction were scored as mild, moderate and severe. Results- In histopathologic evaluation, sham and control group showed the minimum and maximum injury, respectively. The mean scores of necrohemorrhagic inflammation and villi
This study accessed the Histomorphological effect of the aqueous extract of ginger (rhizome) on the liver and kidney morphologies of an adult wistar rats after paracetamol toxicity. Twenty (20) adult wistar rats weighing between 150g-200g were assigned into four groups with five rats in each group. Group 1 served as negative control; while group two were given oral administration of paracetamol (150mg/150g) to induce toxicity, the third group was also given paracetamol at the same dose level as those in group two followed by oral administration of 1ml of the final aqueous extract of ginger (24mg/ml), and the fourth group served as positive control. Result revealed a slight reduction in the body weight of rat treated with paracetamol (group 2) while the body weight of group 1, 3 and 4 were not statistically significant. Histological, the result revealed that treating animals with paracetamol induced various histological changes in the liver and kidney morphologies. These changes include portal ...
Although chronic stress has been reported to induce deleterious effects on hippocampal structure and function, the possible existence of individual differences in the vulnerability to develop stress-induced cognitive alterations was hypothesized. This study was designed to evaluate (i) whether individual variability in behavioural reactivity to novelty could be related to a differential vulnerability to show spatial learning deficits after chronic stress in young adult rats, and (ii) to what extent, could individual differences in stress-induced cognitive alterations be related to alterations in specific neurobiological substrates. Four month-old Wistar male rats were classified according to their locomotor reactivity to a novel environment, as either low (LR) or highly (HR) reactive, and then either submitted to psychosocial stress for 21-days (consisting of the daily cohabitation of each young adult rat with a new middle-aged rat) or left undisturbed. The results showed that psychosocial ...
AbstractObjective(s)Single injection of naloxone, a selective antagonist of morphine, prior to the drug conditioning testing was used to investigate on morphine dependence.Materials and MethodsConditioning to morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg, s.c.) was established in adult male Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g) using an unbiased procedure. Nitric oxide agents were microinjected into the central amygdala prior to naloxone-paired place conditioning testing.ResultsThe results showed that morphine produced a significant dose-dependent place preference in animals. Naloxone (0.1-0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) injections pre-testing of the response to morphine (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a significant aversion at the higher doses (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.). This response was reversed by microinjection of L-arginine (0.3-3 µg/rat, intra-central amygdala) prior to naloxone on the day of the testing. The response to L-arginine was blocked by pre-injection of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (intra-central amygdala).ConclusionA ...
Our research group has previously studied the role of melatonin in the immune system of birds and mice, finding that incubation with both pharmacological and physiological doses of melatonin augmented the activity of phagocytes from these animals, and that this activity was lowered in pinealectomized animals. Since melatonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan, the aim of the present work was to determine whether the administration of tryptophan might affect the plasma levels of melatonin and the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages over the course of a circadian cycle. The study animals were 14-week-old male Wistar rats. They were administered tryptophan orally in a daily single dose of 125 mg/kg at 19:00 h for 21 days. Prior to beginning this treatment, the circadian rhythms of plasma melatonin and phagocytic activity were evaluated under basal conditions over a 24-h period, taking blood and cell suspension samples each 2 hours during the light period (08:00-20:00) and each ...
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The cause of Alzheimers disease (AD) remains uncertain. The accumulation of amyloid peptides (Ab) is the main pathophysiological hallmark of the disease. Spatial deficit is an important initial sign of AD, while other types of memory impairments that appear in later stages. The Barnes maze allows the detection of subtle alterations in spatial search by the analysis of use of different strategies. Previous findings showed a general performance deficit in this task following long-term (35 days) infusion of Ab, which corresponds to the moderate or severe impairments of the disease. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a low-dose 15-day long treatment with Ab peptides on spatial and non-spatial strategies of rats tested in the Barnes maze. Ab peptides (0.5 mL/site/day; 30 pmoL solution of Ab1-40:Ab1-42 10:1) or saline were bilaterally infused into the CA1 (on the first treatment day) and intraventricularly (on the following 15 days) in 6-month-old Wistar male rats. Ab infusion induced ...
The cause of Alzheimers disease (AD) remains uncertain. The accumulation of amyloid peptides (Ab) is the main pathophysiological hallmark of the disease. Spatial deficit is an important initial sign of AD, while other types of memory impairments that appear in later stages. The Barnes maze allows the detection of subtle alterations in spatial search by the analysis of use of different strategies. Previous findings showed a general performance deficit in this task following long-term (35 days) infusion of Ab, which corresponds to the moderate or severe impairments of the disease. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a low-dose 15-day long treatment with Ab peptides on spatial and non-spatial strategies of rats tested in the Barnes maze. Ab peptides (0.5 mL/site/day; 30 pmoL solution of Ab1-40:Ab1-42 10:1) or saline were bilaterally infused into the CA1 (on the first treatment day) and intraventricularly (on the following 15 days) in 6-month-old Wistar male rats. Ab infusion induced ...
Brain insulin has had widespread metabolic, neurotrophic, and neuromodulatory functions and has been involved in the central regulation of food intake and body weight, learning and memory, neuronal development, and neuronal apoptosis. Purpose: The present study investigated the role of swimming training on cerebral metabolism on insulin concentrations in cerebellum and the body balance performance of diabetic rats. Methods: Forty Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD), and trained diabetic (TD). Diabetes was induced by alloxan (32 mg kg b.w.), single dose injection. The mean blood glucose of diabetic groups was 367 ± 40 mg/dl. Training program consisted in swimming 5 days/week, 1 h/day, 8 weeks, supporting a workload corresponding to 90% of maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). For the body balance testing rats were trained to traverse for 5 min daily for 5-7 days. All dependent variables were analyzed by one-way ...
We studied the effect of chronic mechanical overloading on the isoenzyme composition of rat cardiac myosin in several experimental models: aortic stenosis (AS), aortic incompetence (AI), aortocaval fistula (ACF), overload of the non-infarcted area after left coronary ligation (INF), and overload of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Samples of the left and right ventricles were isolated from these hearts, and myosins were analyzed by electrophoresis in non-dissociating conditions. The myosin isoenzymes were called V1, V2, and V3 in order of decreasing mobility, according to the nomenclature of Hoh et al. Controls of the Wistar and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) strains were almost exclusively V1, A slow age-dependent shift toward V3 was observed in the left ventricles of adult Wistar rats, which at 30 weeks of age (body weight 600 g) contained approximately 15% of this form. In all models of cardiac hypertrophy, an isoenzymic redistribution was observed with a significant increase in V3. The level ...
This study aimed at determining the effects of cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy on the morphology of the developing heart. Twelve adult female Wistar rats were used for the study. The animals were time mated and grouped into three: a control (A) and two treatment groups (B and C). The treatment groups were exposed to smoke from 2 sticks of cigarette (St. Moritz®) on days 8 - 14 (Group B) and days 15-21 (Group C) of the gestation. Each stick of cigarette contained an average of 0.8375 g of tobacco. The pregnant rats were allowed to litter, and at postnatal day 15, pups from all the groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, the chest wall was dissected and the heart was excised and either placed in 10% formal saline fixative for histological preparation using Haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques, or 0.25 M cold sucrose solution and homogenised for enzyme study on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase using the colorimetric method. The pups exposed to cigarette smoke in ...
Ambient particulate matters and temperature were reported to have additive effects over the respiratory disease hospital admissions and deaths. The purpose of this study is to discuss the interactive pulmonary toxicities of cold stress and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure by estimating inflammation and oxidative stress responses. 48 Wistar male rats, matched by weight and age, were randomly assigned to six groups, which were treated with cold stress alone (0 degrees C, 10 degrees C, and 20 degrees C (Normal control)) and cold stresses plus PM2.5 exposures respectively. Cold stress alone groups were intratracheal instillation of 0.25 mL normal saline, while cold stress plus PM2.5 exposure groups were intratracheal instillation of 8 mg/0.25 mL PM2.5. These procedures were carried out for three times with an interval of 48 hours for each treatment. All rats were sacrificed after 48 hours of the third treatment. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for analyzing inflammatory ...
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Objective Oxygen delivery, underpinned by vascular tone, is the principle limiting factor in the study of skeletal muscle physiology, particularly during muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to develop an autologous perfused rat hind limb preparation for the study of skeletal muscle contractile function. Methods Adult Wistar rats were surgically prepared using a by-pass system for pump-controlled arterial blood flow to, and venous return from the hind limb during periods of quiescence and twitch contraction of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle bundle. Results During rest, hind limb perfusion pressure (102 ± 5 mmHg) was not different to systemic arterial pressure (99 ± 4 mmHg). Hind limb pressure was responsive to vasoconstrictors and vasodilators (±50 mmHg). The arterial PO2 (100 ± 3 mmHg), O2 saturation, and acid-base balance (pH: 7.42 ± 0.01) contributed to resting hind limb (a-v)O2 difference (4.8 ± 0.5 mL/100 mL) and VO2 (0.31 ± 0.03 μmol/g/min wet weight). Repetitive
Aim: Ocimum gratissimum is used commonly in traditional medicine to treat certain diseases. This study accessed the histological and biochemical effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaves on the kidney and liver of adult Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty four adult Wistar rats were assigned into four groups (A, B, C and D) of 6 rats each. Group A was used as control, and B, C, and D were the treatment groups. Each treatment group received 300, 400 and 500mg/kg respectively of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum orally for twenty one days. The animals were sacrificed on the 21st day by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. The liver and the kidney were collected, fixed in 10% formal saline and processed for light microscopy. Results: Rat weight showed no significant difference between control and treatment group. Biochemical analysis showed very mild decrease in serum ALP, ALT and AST levels when compared with the control. There was no ...
SABOGAL, Angélica María; ARANGO, César Augusto; CARDONA, Gloria Patricia e CESPEDES, Ángel Enrique. Atorvastatin protects GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system in an experimental rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Biomédica [online]. 2014, vol.34, n.2, pp.207-217. ISSN 0120-4157. http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v34i2.1851.. Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cerebral ischemia are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal populations in exofocal brain regions in a model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male eight-week-old Wistar ...
Twenty-four male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 350 g were randomly assigned to 4 groups: chronic cerebral hypoperfusion with hypocapnia (group 1; n=6); chronic cerebral hypoperfusion with normocapnia (group 2; n=6); sham operation with hypocapnia (group 3; n=7); and sham operation with normocapnia (group 4; n=5). The procedures for the chronic cerebral hypoperfusion were approved by the animal research committee of Kansai Medical University.. The rats were anesthetized with 3% halothane in 50% N2O and 50% O2 and were left to respirate spontaneously. The bilateral common carotid arteries were exposed through a midline cervical incision and double ligated with silk sutures. Sham-operated animals underwent the same surgical procedure but without bilateral carotid ligation. The rectal temperature was monitored and maintained between 36.5°C and 37.5°C with the use of a warm water mattress and a heating lamp during the surgical procedure. After the operation, the rats were kept under controlled ...
In the present study, we found that tramadol has the ability to lower the plasma glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic rats. This is consistent with our previous report that activation of opioid μ-receptors could decrease the plasma glucose concentration in STZ-induced diabetic rats (7).. Naloxone has been used in studying the relation between β-endorphin and glucose homeostasis (21). Pharmacologically, naloxone is a nonselective antagonist of opioid receptors (21), and naloxonazine is a selective antagonist of opioid μ-receptors (22). We found that naloxone and naloxonazine, at doses sufficient to block opioid μ-receptors, inhibited the plasma glucose-lowering action of tramadol in STZ-induced diabetic rats. It can thus be considered that opioid μ-receptor activation is involved in the plasma glucose-lowering action of tramadol in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Actually, either naloxone or naloxonazine given alone was ineffective in altering plasma glucose, indicating that opioid receptors ...
Mitochondrial Permeability Transition (MPT) is reported as the mechanism of acetaminophen induced hepatic damage, however, rat models are resistant to acetaminophen induced toxicity. The occurrence and degree of mitochondrial permeability transition after treatment with 400 mg kgG1 of acetaminophen in albino Wistar rats were assessed. Animals were randomly distributed into seven groups; control, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h based on varying time (in hour) post acetaminophen prior to sacrifice after treatment. Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition (MMPT) pore opening and mitochondrial cytochrome c release were estimated. Opening of MMPT pore and cytochrome c release were observed in 12, 24, 36 and 72 h, when compared with the control group. Liver function and histological results indicated no liver damage. It is concluded that toxic dose of acetaminophen induced mitochondrial permeability transition in rat hepatic tissues without leading to necrotic damage suggesting that rat hepatic ...
INTRODUCTION The cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata) is an herbaceous and leafy plant which belongs to the Brassicaceae family, native to coastal southern and Western Europe. It presents a high versatility, not only due to its nutritive value, being rich in calcium, protein and vitamin C, but also due to its social character, due to the fact of being cultivated essentially by small-scale farmers(12, 28, 29). Brassica sp. is reported to have been utilized for over one thousand years in the healing process of abscesses, idiopathic cephalgias, internal ulcers; the Romans utilized Brassica sp. in the treatment of injuries(4). Cheney(13) verified that the patients who utilized the fresh cabbage juice obtained a healing action for gastric disorders, particularly for the peptic ulcer, presenting healing effects of the lesion. The chronic administration of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with the development of gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as gastric ...
Hydrated Wistar albino rats Antimicrobial. S. paniculata. Leaves. NA. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus ... Hydrated rats Antioxidant. S. acmella Murr.. Aerial parts. Chloroform, hexane, ethyl actate, methanol. 2,2-Diphenyl-1- ... Carragenan-induced paw edema in rats Aphrodisiac. S. acmella L. Murr.. Flowers. Ethanol. Nitric oxide release in human corpus ... 2004). "Diuretic activity of Spilanthes acmella flowers in rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 91 (2-3): 317-20. doi:10.1016/j ...
"Hepatoprotective activity of Clearliv a polyherbal formulation in Wistar rats". Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences. 1 (2 ... Schläppi B (1984). "The lack of hepatotoxicity in the rat with the new and reversible MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide in contrast ... Schoental, R.; Kelly, JS (April 1959). "Liver lesions in young rats suckled by mothers treated with the pyrrolizidine (Senecio ...
"Citrinin and endosulfan induced teratogenic effects in Wistar rats". J Appl Toxicol. 27 (2): 143-51. doi:10.1002/jat.1185. PMID ... though it has significant teratogenic effects in laboratory rats. A 2009 assessment concluded the endocrine disruption in rats ... The US EPA classifies it as Category I: "Highly Acutely Toxic" based on a LD50 value of 30 mg/kg for female rats, while the ... and that developmental or reproductive toxicity in rats occurs only at endosulfan doses that cause neurotoxicity. Endosulfan is ...
"Immunotoxicity of ethyl-4-isothiocyanatobutanoate in male Wistar rats". Toxicology. 145 (2-3): 217-25. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X( ... "Immunotoxic and cancerostatic effects of ethyl-4-isothiocyanatobutanoate in female Lewis rats with implanted fibrosarcoma". ...
Kart-Teke E, De Souza Silva MA, Huston JP, Dere E (2006). "Wistar rats show episodic-like memory for unique experiences". ... Other studies have demonstrated this type of memory in different animal species, such as dogs, rats, honey bees, and primates. ... Eacott MJ, Easton A, Zinkivskay A (2005). "Recollection in an episodic-like memory task in the rat". Learn. Mem. 12 (3): 221-3 ...
Helbig, E., Dias, A., Tavares, R., Schirmer, M., & Elias, M. (2008). The effect of parboiled rice on glycemia in Wistar rats. ...
Alston roots against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Albino Wistar rats". Journal of Pharmacy Research. 7: 496-501. doi: ...
... weight gain and leptin levels in male Wistar rats". Appetite. 57 (1): 131-133. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.04.001. ISSN 1095-8304. ... In rats, appetizers including a ginger or karpurvalli (Coleus aromaticus) beverage were found to improve food consumption.[27] ... There is no neurological explanation as to why chocolate fudge cake evokes more appetite than porridge, but rats are like ... humans in their preference for sweet and/or fatty foods.[1] Rats show a preference for sucrose over sucralose, suggesting the ...
"A safety assessment of the antimalarial herb Artemisia annua during pregnancy in Wistar rats". Phytotherapy research : PTR. 27 ...
de Cássia da Silveira E, Sá R, de Oliveira Guerra M (2007). "Reproductive toxicity of lapachol in adult male Wistar rats ... Felício AC, Chang CV, Brandão MA, Peters VM, Guerra Mde O (2002). "Fetal growth in rats treated with lapachol". Contraception. ... Guerra Mde O, Mazoni AS, Brandão MA, Peters VM (2001). "Toxicology of Lapachol in rats: embryolethality". Brazilian journal of ... ingredients such as lapachol have been found to possess significant abortifacient and reproductive toxicity effects for rats.[2 ...
"Chelidonium majus is not hepatotoxic in Wistar rats, in a 4 weeks feeding experiment". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 126 (3): ... IP in rats).[14] Caffeic acid derivatives, such as caffeoylmalic acid, are also present.[15] ...
"EFFECT OF 11α-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE ON REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF NORMAL AND PREGNANT ADULT WISTAR RATS*". The Journal of Clinical ... possess hypertensinogenic activity in the rat". Hypertension. 27 (3 Pt 1): 421-5. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.27.3.421. PMID 8698448. ... is weakly anti androgenic in castrate rats. Nguyen, Kim Thoa; Virus, Cornelia; Günnewich, Nils; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, ... confer marked mineralocorticoid activity on corticosterone in the ADX rat". Endocrinology. 136 (4): 1809-12. doi:10.1210/endo. ...
... of Wistar Rats Revised by Edmyr Rosa dos Reis, et al.. ...
... and C57BL/6N mice and Wistar rats (mammals) via the PGP gene product. Caparrós-Martín JA, McCarthy-Suárez I, Culiáñez-Macià FA ...
"Studies on the antilithic effect of Rotula aquatica Lour in male Wistar rats". Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical ...
"Thiazolidinedione Treatment Prevents Free Fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Male Wistar Rats". Diabetes. 50 (10): 2316- ... Retracted) Hevener, A.; Reichart, D.; Janez, A.; Olefsky, J. (2002). "Female Rats Do Not Exhibit Free Fatty Acid-Induced ...
Renal deficiency was observed in Wistar rats after two weeks of orally ingesting lead acetate. Chromium(III) oxide (Cr 2O 3) is ... "Toxic Effect of Lead on Kidney Function in Rat Wistar." African Journal of Biochemistry Research 4.2 (2010): 21-27. Print. ...
... suppresses ethanol preference in chronically alcoholized Wistar rats". Alcohol. 39 (3): 125-34. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2006.08. ... on alcohol intake and motivational properties of alcohol in alcohol-preferring sP rats". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 40 (1): 46-53 ... somatic growth and metabolic parameters in rats". Neuropharmacology. 54 (1): 194-205. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.07.004. ...
"Phenobarbital blocks the lung edema induced by centrally injected tityustoxin in adult Wistar rats". Neuroscience Letters. 332 ... In rats, the Tityustoxin caused dramatic effects on the circulatory and respiratory systems, consisting of hypotension, ... in the rat". Toxicon. 15 (3): 225-234. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(77)90048-4. Mesquita, Michel Bernanos Soares; Moraes-Santos, Tasso ... tityustoxin and toxin Ts-γ from Tityus serrulatus scorpion on secretion and structure of the rat submandibular gland". Archives ...
3.5% of a does of dichloroacetylene remains in the corpses of male Wistar rats. The LD50s of mice exposed to dichloroacetylene ... Studies on male rats and rabbits have shown that inhalation of dichloroacetylene can cause tubular necrosis, focal necrosis, ... Inhalation of dichloroacetylene also causes benign tumors of the livers and kidneys of rats. The chemical also caused increased ... It displays nephrotoxic effects to rats, but not to humans. It can be made from the compound trichloroethylene. ...
Ringtail at Rat Guide L.Crippa et al., Ringtail in suckling Munich Wistar Fromter rats: a histopathologic study Ringtail, The ... Ringtail, also known as tail necrosis, is an epidermal disease that may occur in rats, mice, hamsters and other rodents. In ...
de Cássia da Silveira E Sá R, de Oliveira Guerra M (July 2007). "Reproductive toxicity of lapachol in adult male Wistar rats ... Tropical Woods (1925), 1 7-9. Felício AC, Chang CV, Brandão MA, Peters VM, Guerra Mde O (October 2002). "Fetal growth in rats ... Guerra Mde O, Mazoni AS, Brandão MA, Peters VM (February 2001). "Toxicology of Lapachol in rats: embryolethality". Brazilian ...
de Cássia da Silveira E, Sá R, de Oliveira Guerra M (2007). "Reproductive toxicity of lapachol in adult male Wistar rats ... Guerra Mde O, Mazoni AS, Brandão MA, Peters VM (2001). "Toxicology of Lapachol in rats: embryolethality". Brazilian journal of ... "Fetal growth in rats treated with lapachol". Contraception. 66 (4): 289-93. doi:10.1016/S0010-7824(02)00356-6. PMID 12413627. ...
"A safety assessment of the antimalarial herb Artemisia annua during pregnancy in Wistar rats". Phytotherapy Research. 27 (5): ...
"Voltage gated K+ channel expression in arteries of Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats." Am J Hyperten. 21:213-218 ... Cox RH, Fromme S (2016). "Functional expression profile of voltage-gated K+ channel subunits in rat small mesenteric arteries ... Cox RH (1981). "Basis for the altered arterial wall mechanics in the spontaneously hypertensive rat." Hypertension. 3: 485-495 ...
... in Wistar rats". Reprod Toxicol. 18 (6): 819-23. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2004.04.011. PMID 15279880. Kansas Wildflowers - ...
This analysis yielded the conclusion that, in their culture of Wistar rat neocortical cells, the AWSR has long rise and fall ... Studies commonly employ rat cortical, hippocampal, and spinal neurons, although lab mouse neurons have also been used. ... Because of their wide availability, neuronal networks are typically cultured from dissociated rat neurons. ...
"Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the female wistar rat." Toxicol Sci. 2010 Sep;117(1):45-53. doi: ... There have been many studies performed over the years both in vivo and in vitro, in male and female fish and rats and they all ... Studies on rats have shown that triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses. ...
... seventy Wistar rats (35 males and 35 females) weighing 150 ± 50 g were divided into seven groups and each group had 10 rats (5 ... Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats. Rupesh Shirodkar,1 Chandrasekhar Misra,2 Chethan GH,2 ... The study was carried out on both male and female Wistar rats aged between seven and eight weeks, supplied by Central Animal ... P. Sharma, R. Singh, and M. Jan, "Dose-dependent effect of deltamethrin in testis, liver, and Kidney of wistar rats," ...
... on cutaneous wound healing in Wistar rats. Forty Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and DP groups. The skin on ... Dracorhodin Perchlorate Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing in Wistar Rats. Xiao-wen Jiang, Lu Qiao, Lin Liu, Bin-qing Zhang, ... Forty healthy adult male Wistar rats (Harbin Medical University in Harbin, China) weighing g were maintained under standard ... DP can induce complete wound healing in our Wistar rat model. DP can inhibit IL-1α and TNF-α secretion to reduce inflammation ...
Therefore, the metabolism of myosmine has been studied in Wistar rats treated with single oral doses of [pyridine-5-3H]myosmine ... Previous Document: Modulation of P-glycoprotein expression in hyperthyroid rat tissues.. Next Document: More than just water ...
Biological context of Rats, Wistar. *All Wistar rats treated with 5 mg/kg per d of dexamethasone for 24 d exhibited increased ... Disease relevance of Rats, Wistar. *Production of adenocarcinomas of the small intestines of Wistar rats fed panfuran-S ... Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rats, Wistar. *Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats ... of the gastric wall were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats and in control Wistar Kyoto rats and Wistar rats [18]. ...
To test these hypotheses, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured in obese prediabetic Wistar-Fatty rats after two ... Repeated weight fluctuation increases plasma insulin in the obese Wistar fatty diabetic rat.. Stein LJ1. ... Together, these results suggest that insulin resistance of Wistar-Fatty rats was worsened by repeated weight fluctuation. ... Following two cycles of weight loss and regain, glucose levels did not differ between weight-cycled rats and static weight ...
The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats.. Zorrilla LM1, Gibson EK, Jeffay SC, Crofton KM, ... Weanling rats were exposed to 0, 3, 30, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg of triclosan by oral gavage from postnatal day (PND) 23 to 53. ... Rats were killed on PND 53, organ weights were recorded and serum was collected for subsequent analysis. Triclosan did not ... triclosan exposure significantly impacts thyroid hormone concentrations in the male juvenile rat. ...
... in striatum of rats. We also evaluated the effect of cell death parameters (necrosis and apoptosis). Wistar rats of 60 days of ... Hypoxanthine Induces Neuroenergetic Impairment and Cell Death in Striatum of Young Adult Wistar Rats. ... Leong SF, Lai JCK, Lim L, Clark JB (1981) Energy-metabolising enzymes in brain regions of adult and aging rats. J Neurochem 37: ... Bavaresco CS, Chiarani F, Kolling J et al (2008) Biochemical effects of pretreatment with vitamins E and C in rats submitted to ...
Animals: Laboratory bred Wistar rats of either sex were used for the experiments. The animals were housed and acclimatized to a ... Rats of group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.wt. of vehicle (water) and served as control. Rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received PartySmart ... Rats of group 1 received 10 ml/ kg b.wt. of vehicle (water) and served as control. Rats of groups 2 and 3 received PartySmart ... Sixty rats were divided into 3 groups of 20 rats each in a randomized manner with equal number of males and females in each ...
We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein ... Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. ... The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative ... stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. ...
Purpose The aim was to investigate the impact of hypercholesterolemic diet on the metabolome of male Wistar rats by a ... Male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets [control (C) and high-cholesterol diet (HC)-containing 2 % cholesterol and ... The aim was to investigate the impact of hypercholesterolemic diet on the metabolome of male Wistar rats by a multiplatform ... HC feeding stimulated the alteration of multiple pathways in Wistar rats, warning of the risk of developing important diseases ...
... rats wistar include Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of ... Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats, Touchscreen Sustained Attention Task (SAT) for Rats, Investigation of ... Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has ... Touchscreen Sustained Attention Task (SAT) for Rats. Debra A. Bangasser1,2, Brittany Wicks1, David E. Waxler1, Samantha R. Eck1 ...
Buy a discounted Hardcover of Dieseases of the Wistar Rat online from Australias leading online bookstore. ... Booktopia has Dieseases of the Wistar Rat by Mary J. Tucker. ... This text provides a complete account of this particular rat ... Incidence levels are provided for all diseases and these are compared with published data for other rat strains. ...
Wistar Hannover GALAS rats are no longer in live production. ... Formerly used in toxicology and as an all-purpose outbred rat ... The rats were derived by caesarean in 1999. Taconic replaced its previous Wistar Hannover stock with Wistar Hannover GALAS™ in ... The rats were derived by caesarean in 1989. Taconic received breeding stock from RCC in 1998. The rats were refreshed with ... Weighs less than SD rats but comparable to SD rats in reproductive performance ...
Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats ... Biological variability in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Implications for research with the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Hypertension. ... Biological variability in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Implications for research with the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Hypertension. ... Okamoto and Aoki1 in 1963 selectively bred Wistar rats to spontaneously develop hypertension. Recognized as an inbred strain in ...
Wistar rats. Partial least square-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) and a variance im portance in projection (VIP) score was ... Laboratory rats are the most popular animals in toxicology, neurobehavioral, or cancer research. Our study aimed to reveal the ... Our study provides an important insight into sex-specific differences in energy metabolism in rats and indicates that further ... Sexual Dimorphism in Energy Metabolism of Wistar Rats Using Data Analysis by Andrea Leskanicova 1, Olga Chovancova 2, Marian ...
Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats. Contact. National Health and ... EPA Home » Science Inventory » Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats ... Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats. Presented at American Thoracic Society ... BA rats were provided water supplemented with 0.9% sodium chloride to maintain salt balance. Within a week of surgery, sham or ...
Conversely, nondiabetic BB-Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozocin (STZ) and maintained in a hyperglycemic state did not ... A similar defect in catecholamine secretion was also seen in adrenals harvested from nondiabetic BB-Wistar rats following a 3-h ... We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine ... Decreased Adrenal Medullary Catecholamine Release in Spontaneously Diabetic BB-Wistar Rats: Role of Hypoglycemia. ...
... and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar ... WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of ... Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and ... Moreover, the Rcc Wistar rats may be more suitable for studies of alcohol use disorders due to increasing alcohol intake and ...
15 wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: Rats that used BP was named G1; Rats that used GT was named G2; and rats with only ... defect with PB and GT patches to compare histologically the tissue interaction between them and diaphragm in young Wistar rats ... 15 wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: Rats that used BP was named G1; Rats that used GT was named G2; and rats with only ... Shows BP patch between the diaphragm and the liver (L) of the Wistar rat with lymphocytic infiltrate (Li) between the D and BP ...
Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of duodenal ghrelin cells after sleeve gastrectomy in Wistar rats1 ... We analyzed the first 5 cm of the duodenum in two groups of six Wistar rats at 30 and 60 days after SG, and because of the ... Eighteen adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-350g were used in this experiment. The animals were randomly allocated into three ... METHODS: Twelve adult male, Wistar rats underwent SG and were reoperated 30 or 60 days after the initial surgery. During the ...
Substantial work has shown that rats although identical in stock, sex, age, and housing conditions can differ considerably in ... Rats. Rats, Wistar. Species Specificity. Temperament / physiology*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... As in our previous work, we used the degree of rearing activity in a novel open field to assign male adult outbred Wistar rats ... Furthermore, HRA rats visited more arms and made relatively less reference memory errors than LRA rats. This allowed them to ...
... *. ... The Effect of Different Types of Bariatric Surgery on Metabolic and Hormonal Parameters in Rats with a Decompensated Form of ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Wistar rats with 307 ± 21 g average weight were used. These were divided in two groups of five rats each. All rats underwent ... Evolution of experimental acute pancreatitis in Wistar rats that underwent vagotomy. Cir Cir 2002; 70 (4) ... Use of vagotomy improves the course of experimental acute pancreatitis in early stages in Wistar rats. ... All rats were sacrificed and submitted to excision of pancreas for histopatologic study. Results: Both groups had similar basal ...
... on Wistar rats. The study was based on the gavage administration of the ethylic extract of Tl with different doses (i.e. 200, ... Moreover, when compared to the control rats, the animals treated with 5000 mg/kg of the extract exhibited significant reduction ... results of the psychotropic test conducted during this study showed visible effects on the exploratory activity of the rats. ... Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Sedative Effects of Ethylic Extract of Thymelaea lythroides in Wistar Rats ...
  • 0.05) difference in the mean values of semen volume of rats in the control and test groups. (academicjournals.org)
  • 0.05) decreased the gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • 0.05) decrease in number of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Decrease in body weight and organ development in the deficient animals was noticied and these changes were not seen in the rats that recevived 0.05% tryptophan. (arvojournals.org)
  • 0.05) different from rats on T1, T2, T3, and T5 with rats on T3 having the highest value (3.42). (ajol.info)
  • 0.05) decrease in the concentration of serum sodium ion (141.00±5.02 mmol L -1 ) but an increase in that of potassium ion (9.39±3.24 mmol L -1 ) was observed in the group C rats. (scialert.net)
  • The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra), commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB) of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. (cogprints.org)
  • The present study was designed to investigate the pharmacodynamics and oral toxicity of PartySmart, a herbal formulation in rats. (redorbit.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and sedative effect of the ethylic extract of Thymelaea lythroides ( Tl ) on Wistar rats. (scirp.org)
  • The present study investigated the possible protective effect of SALEE on MSG-induced toxicity in rats. (ajol.info)
  • Vara Prasad WLNV, Srilatha Ch, Sailaja N, Raju NKB, Jayasree N (2016) Amelioration of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats, Veterinary World, 9 (11): 1331-1337. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • These findings suggest that MON810 has negligible effects on the small intestine of rats at the cellular level compared with the well-documented toxicity observed in susceptible insects. (dtu.dk)
  • The result of the acute toxicity test showed that up to 5,000 mg/kg body weight of the extract did not cause any mortality of the wistar rats. (sciepub.com)
  • LCDP was also tested in normotensive rats and results obtained from chemistry analysis revealed slight variations in the levels of creatinine kinase (CK), serum glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Rats were killed on PND 53, organ weights were recorded and serum was collected for subsequent analysis. (nih.gov)
  • We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, suggesting that neurohumoral mediators may be responsible for the ozone-induced metabolic impairment. (epa.gov)
  • Furthermore, after ozone exposure, serum triglycerides were decreased only in sham-operated but not BA rats. (epa.gov)
  • The Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass showed neither epsilon cell increase nor basal serum changes in ghrelin release. (medworm.com)
  • The feeding trial lasted for 28 days after which four rats per treatments were sampled to evaluate haematological and serum biochemical indices while three rats per treatment were sacrificed by cervical decapitation and the heart, liver, kidneys and the lungs removed and weighed separately. (ajol.info)
  • Rats on T3 and T5 had the highest value for heart weight (0.75) and liver weight (5.67)while rats on T4 had the highest value for lungs (1.59).Rats fed dehulled jack bean seed soaked in ogi liquor showed slight improvement on haematological, serum profile and organ weight changes over those fed lye soaked jack bean and boiled for 15minutes. (ajol.info)
  • The study assessed the effect on some serum functions and organ histology following esculetin exposure in rats. (scialert.net)
  • Thus, the study aimed to assess the effect on some serum functions and organ histology following esculetin exposure in rats. (scialert.net)
  • To study the effects of electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones on serum testosterone levels in rats . (emf-portal.org)
  • The data showed that exposure to mobile phones for 60 minutes/day for the total period of 3 months significantly decreased the serum testosterone level in rats compared to the control group . (emf-portal.org)
  • Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats. (emf-portal.org)
  • Collectively, the data describe decreased adrenomedullary response to cholinergic stimulation in spontaneously diabetic rats as early as 2 weeks after the onset of diabetes and that a similar, although more severe, hyposecretion occurs after acute, severe hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To determine the effect of vagotomy in early stages of experimental acute pancreatitis induced by occlusion of pancreatic duct in Wistar rats. (medigraphic.com)
  • Use of vagotomy improves the course of experimental acute pancreatitis in early stages in Wistar rats. (medigraphic.com)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that acute and prolonged conditional microglial ablation in a rat model would lead to improvements in learning and memory and that this would be associated with changes in synaptic pruning and neuronal maturation. (springer.com)
  • On days 1and 30 after the end of treatment, 6 ovarectomized rat from each group selected randomly and sections of uterus stained with H&E method were investigated histological and also 4 intact female rat from each group with male rats mate and the number of offspring's of them determined. (sid.ir)
  • In the major aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Tamoxifen on the histological structure of uterus estrogen, progesterone and LH concentration in the female Wistar rats. (sid.ir)
  • Histological examination revealed a severely dilated hepatic vein (A) and proliferated cells around the bile canaliculi (B) in group C rats. (scialert.net)
  • To evaluate the haematopoietic property of citrullus lanatus seed extract by determining the phytochemical, cytological and histological profiles on the bone marrow of wistar rats. (sciencedomain.org)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the chronic effects in bone tissue of energy-protein restriction in rats during lactation period through a histological and morphometric analysis of the cortical mass of the femur. (jcdr.net)
  • The rats in group A (Control) were administered with 0.9% physiological saline, while rats in groups B, C, D, and E were administered with the extract of 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg per Kg body weight, respectively, once daily for 14 days. (academicjournals.org)
  • Three groups of rats (200-250gr range) gavaged with doses of 200, 400 and 600ug/kg B.W Tamoxifen dissolved in solvent (ethanol 60% and physiological solution) for 30 days. (sid.ir)
  • This study employed immunologic factors analysis, GC-TOFMS based metabolomics and 16S-rRNA-sequencing microbiome profiling technologies to explore the effects of E. purpurea on young rats, a physiological insufficient immunity status, by compared with pidotimod treatment on young rats and adult animals. (ccsenet.org)
  • Therefore, the metabolism of myosmine has been studied in Wistar rats treated with single oral doses of [pyridine-5-3H]myosmine at 0.001, 0.005, 0.5, and 50 micromol/kg body weight. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results of the present study showed that in spite of resistance training, use of TE in high doses can cause significantly alterations in some of hematologic factors in male rats. (springermedizin.de)
  • Wistar rats of 60 days of life underwent stereotactic surgery and were divided into two groups: control (infusion of saline 0.9%) and hypoxanthine (10 μM). (springer.com)
  • Male WKY rats (11 week old) underwent sham-operation or bilateral adrenalectomy (BA), thus removing further secretion of glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, and catecholamines. (epa.gov)
  • Twelve adult male, Wistar rats underwent SG and were reoperated 30 or 60 days after the initial surgery. (scielo.br)
  • The objective of this study is to look for preoperative predictors of early T2DM relapse/no remission in patients with obesity and diabetes who underwent Roux ‐en‐Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or loop duodeno‐jejunal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (LDJB‐SG). (medworm.com)
  • All rats underwent occlusion of pancreatic duct. (medigraphic.com)
  • Okamoto and Aoki 1 in 1963 selectively bred Wistar rats to spontaneously develop hypertension. (scielo.br)
  • Although it was previously reported that some normotensive Sprague Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, 7,10 no previous study investigated whether there is difference in baroreflex sensitivity among other types of rats from the same parent strain. (scielo.br)
  • We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Animals: Laboratory bred Wistar rats of either sex were used for the experiments. (redorbit.com)
  • There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory. (scielo.br)
  • 11 Thus, in this study we aimed to compare baroreflex function among adult WKY rats from the same laboratory in order to identify any intra-strain differences. (scielo.br)
  • The experiments were performed on 16-week-old male WKY rats from the same initial laboratory. (scielo.br)
  • Rats were housed individually in plastic cages under standard laboratory conditions. (scielo.br)
  • Laboratory rats are the most popular animals in toxicology, neurobehavioral, or cancer research. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we exposed 30 laboratory-raised Wistar rats, a suitable model for the infestation, at six different places characterized by different microenvironments in a hyperendemic fishing village in northeastern Brazil. (ajtmh.org)
  • Apomorphine, an unselective dopamine Dl and D2 receptor agonist, induces in laboratory animals (mice and rats), several behavioural phenomena such as stereotyped behaviour, hyperlocomotion, aggressiveness, etc 1-3 . (springer.com)
  • Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum . (veterinaryworld.org)
  • Over the next 30 years rats were used for several more experiments and eventually the laboratory rat became the first animal domesticated for purely scientific reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory rats not sacrificed may be euthanized or, in some cases, become pets . (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, insulin concentrations of weight-cycled rats were 74% higher than those of controls, suggesting an impairment of insulin resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these results suggest that insulin resistance of Wistar-Fatty rats was worsened by repeated weight fluctuation. (nih.gov)
  • In sham operated rats, ozone resulted in lung injury as determined by analysis of BALF for protein leakage. (epa.gov)
  • After 72 hours, rats were killed, and (P)RR protein levels in plasma, urine and kidney were examined by using Western blot. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rafecas I. Whole-rat protein content estimation : applicability of the N x 6.25 factor. (harvard.edu)
  • Biochemical studies revealed that there is a decrease in protein content, reduced glutathione (GSH), anti-oxidant enzyme levels and tryptophan-fluorescence in Gr-III rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • Radio frequency radiation effects on protein kinase C activity in rats' brain. (emf-portal.org)
  • Diabetic male Wistar fatty ( fa/fa ) rats (WFRs) were fed a standard diet (23.84% protein) or an LPD (5.77% protein) for 24 weeks beginning at 6 weeks of age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum , and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition . (wikipedia.org)
  • As controls for experiments utilizing SHRs, many scientists have employed normotensive descendants of Wistar rats that NIH investigators obtained in 1971 from a colony in Kyoto from which the SHR strain was originally derived (Wistar-Kyoto rats, WKY). (scielo.br)
  • This text provides a complete account of this particular rat strain. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and further highlight the inherent heterogeneity of the Wistar strain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Wistar rats, an animal strain widely used in the research have been employed to study the effects of dietary interventions due to their metabolic characteristics, which are closer to the human compared to mice. (scirp.org)
  • however, this effect was small (~30%), within the normal range of sperm counts for this strain of rat, was not reflected in testicular spermatid counts nor PND70 data, and is therefore postulated to have no biological significance. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Complement/sera from mouse (CD1 and C57BL/6 strains), rat (Wistar strain), guinea pig and human were purchased from Innovative Research (Novi, MI) . (innov-research.com)
  • Substantial work has shown that rats although identical in stock, sex, age, and housing conditions can differ considerably in terms of behavior and physiology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. (hindawi.com)
  • Our study aimed to reveal the basic differences in blood metabolome (amino acids, biogenic amines, and acylcarnitines) of the adult male ( n = 10) and female ( n = 10) Wistar rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Ethanol extract was evaluated at dose levels of 100, 250, 500 mg/kg on fertility, implantation, decidualization and local cytokine signaling during decidualization in female Wistar rats with artificially induced decidualization. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The present study revealed that Moringa oleifera ethanol extract at dose level 250 and 500 mg/kg produced antifertility activity by inhibiting the implantation in female rats, which required further evaluation for potential contraceptive action. (ijpsonline.com)
  • To obtain clarity about the actual effect possessed by M. oleifera leaf, an attempt was made in this investigation to study it's antifertility activity in Wistar female rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The aim of this study effect of Tamoxifen on the tissue uterus layers and the number of offspring's of females in female Wistar rats were investigated. (sid.ir)
  • 100 rats (200-250 weighing) in this of study were used 60 ovarectomized rats and 40 intact female Wistar rats. (sid.ir)
  • These finding suggest Tamoxifen decreases the fertilization ability and has negative effects on uterus layers and the number of offspring's in female Wistar rats. (sid.ir)
  • Female Wistar rats, kept under reverse lighting (lights off 11.00-23.00 hr), were sampled during the dark phase at pregnancy days 4, 12 and 18 and lactation days 0, 5, 10 and 25. (open.ac.uk)
  • These finding suggest that Tamoxifen decreases the fertilization ability and has negative effects uterus tissue and hormones in female Wistar rats. (sid.ir)
  • We tested the effects of Hoof on female rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Sixty adult male and female Wistar rats were used for the study. (scopemed.org)
  • Groups of 75 (control vehicle) or 55 (50, 200 or 1000 ng of TCDD kg-1 bodyweight) female Wistar(Han) rats were exposed to TCDD on Gestational Day (GD) 15, then allowed to litter. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The highly elevated aldosterone levels in rats on low salt diet with spironolactone or flutamide treatment were reduced by androgen treatment. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • To test these hypotheses, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured in obese prediabetic Wistar-Fatty rats after two episodes of diet switching, with and without concomitant weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • Pancreas is a preeminent source of ghrelin after sleeve gastrectomy in Wistar rats. (medworm.com)
  • In recent years, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have been the most commonly performed bariatric procedures worldwide. (medworm.com)
  • Moreover, when compared to the control rats, the animals treated with 5000 mg/kg of the extract exhibited significant reduction in appetite for food and water in the first week. (scirp.org)
  • It was concluded that extract of L. breviflora exerts toxic effect on the seminiferous tubular epithelium with concomitant reduction in the reproductive potential of the male rats. (academicjournals.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant) using pylorus ligation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Hence, the present work was designed to investigate the antiulcer potential of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata in pylorus ligation and indomethacin-induced rat ulceration model. (ijpsonline.com)
  • As a step in this direction, this study was carried out on effects of aqueous leaf extract of Citrus medica on Neurobehavioral study of the Prefrontal cortex of hyperglycemic Wistar rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • Ikpeazu O.V., Elekwa I., Ugbogu A.E., Arunsi U.O., Uche-Ikonne C.. Preliminary Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Potential of Aqueous Extract of Fermented Unripe Musa paradisiaca in Wistar Rats. (sciepub.com)
  • Forty-eight Wistar rats randomly divided into eight groups comprised of six animals each were used for this study. (nih.gov)
  • Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals: control group and intervention group, treated for 6 weeks with fish oil capsules containing 45 mg eicosapentanoic acid and 30 mg docosahexanoic acid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • At day 0, male WKY rats (Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA), 10-12 weeks of age and 200-220 g of body weight, were given one intravenous injection of anti-GBM antibody (( 7 )) at a dose of 25 μl/100 g body weight. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, both CED and FAD induced a decrease in HDL as compared to control levels in treatments of more than 6 weeks, whereas LDL transiently increased in animals treated with FAD from 10 to 12 weeks, but after this period LDL levels returned to baseline, suggesting that young rats have a compensatory effect at least for the period of time analyzed here. (scirp.org)
  • Development of the muscular saphenous artery and the effect of surgical denervation on normal development was investigated in young rats at 3 and 6 weeks of age. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both the immunologic factors and the global metabolome of E. purpurea treated young rats were close to the status of mature individuals. (ccsenet.org)
  • BACKGROUND A previous study indicated that selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) rats self-administered ethanol (EtOH) directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), whereas the alcohol-nonpreferring line did not. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the open field, HRA rats not only showed more rearing behavior, but also more locomotor activity than LRA rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the plus-maze, HRA rats again showed more locomotion, but did not differ in open arm time or percentage of open arm entries, that is, conventional measures of anxiety-related behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Diazepam (1 h before the tests) reduced anxiety-like behavior in rats forced to swim compared to the vehicle stressed group. (srce.hr)
  • The dose-response curve for diazepam indicated that the 0.5 mg kg-1 dose (1 h before the EPM and OFT) was the minimum effective dose in reducing anxiety-like behavior without altering locomotor activity in weaning rats. (srce.hr)
  • These results indicate that weaning rats can develop anxiety-like behavior after a brief, single session of stress, and that rats at this age are seemingly more sensitive to diazepam than adult rats, which may be taken into account for clinical applications. (srce.hr)
  • have reported supplier-dependent differences in alcohol intake, open field and Y-maze behavior, and responsivity to opioid antagonist naltrexone in outbred Wistar rats obtained from three different vendors in Europe. (frontiersin.org)
  • Male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets [control (C) and high-cholesterol diet (HC)-containing 2 % cholesterol and 0.5 % cholic acid]. (springer.com)
  • Greenwood, C.E. and Winocur, G. (1996) Cognitive Impairment in Rats Fed High Fat Diets: A Specific Effect of Saturated Fatty-Acid Intake. (scirp.org)
  • To address this important knowledge-gap and to gain insights into the underlying molecular responses in rat to MON810, differential gene expression in the epithelial cells of the small intestine of rats fed formulated diets containing MON810, its near isogenic line, two conventional corn varieties, and a commercial (Purina™) corn-based control diet were investigated using comparative proteomic profiling. (dtu.dk)
  • No adverse clinical or behavioural effects, or biomarkers of adverse health, were observed in rats fed GM corn compared to the other corn diets. (dtu.dk)
  • To better understand the role that water and urea fluxes play in the urine concentrating mechanism, we determined transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) and urea permeability (Purea) in isolated perfused Munich-Wistar rat long-loop descending thin limbs (DTLs) and ascending thin limbs (ATLs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • On days 3 and 5, 24-h rat urine excretion was collected. (rupress.org)
  • Calvo-Ochoa, E., Hernández-Ortega, K., Ferrera, P., Morimoto, S. and Arias, C. (2014) Short-Term High-Fat-and-Fructose Feeding Produces Insulin Signaling Alterations Accompanied by Neurite and Synaptic Reduction and Astroglial Activation in the Rat Hippocampus. (scirp.org)
  • Marked morphological changes were also observed in the CA(3) region of the hippocampus of the mobile phone-exposed rats in comparison to the control rats. (buergerwelle.de)
  • The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine effects of triclosan on pubertal development and thyroid hormone concentrations in the male rat. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, results of the psychotropic test conducted during this study showed visible effects on the exploratory activity of the rats. (scirp.org)
  • Our present study aims to investigate the interaction of melatonin (MEL) with this system by exploring the effects of MEL with or without a facilitator of GABA-ergic neurotransmission, diazepam (DZ) on the levels of depression and anxiety in Wistar rats. (scirp.org)
  • Colonic and systemic effects of extruded whole-grain sorghum consumption in growing Wistar rats. (nextbio.com)
  • Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB) of adult Wistar rats. (cogprints.org)
  • Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Effects of electromagnetic field produced by mobile phones on the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. (emf-portal.org)
  • Two new quinoxalinone derivatives have been synthesized adopting the HONG method, and investigated for some neuropharmacological effects (anxietyand depressive-like responses) in rats. (scirp.org)
  • Malgor L, Valsecia M, Verges E et al (1997) Blockade of the in vitro effects of testosterone and erythropoietin on Cfu-E and Bfu-E proliferation by pretreatment of the donor rats with cyproterone and flutamide. (springermedizin.de)
  • This study investigated the antinociceptive and neuroprotective effects of bromelain in sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain in Wistar rats. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on brain tissue oxidative status in aged wistar rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Overexpression of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels into the ventral tegmental area increases the rewarding effects of ethanol in UChB drinking rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Maternal malnutrition during lactation has negative effects on femur growth even after normalization of the diet in adult aged Wistar rats. (jcdr.net)
  • The aim was to investigate the impact of hypercholesterolemic diet on the metabolome of male Wistar rats by a multiplatform metabolomic fingerprinting. (springer.com)
  • El-Sayyad HI, Amin AH, El-Ghawet HA, El- Shahari EA, El-Gebaly A (2017) Role of Pomegranate Juice and Atorvastatin in Ameliorating Spinal Neurotoxicity of Wistar Rats Maternally Fed on Hypercholesterolemic Diet. (omicsonline.org)
  • We conclude that dietary APP has an anti-adipogenic effect in Wistar rats without any anorectic phenomenon. (go.jp)
  • In this paper, attempts were made to determine the effect of MEin rat stroke model. (magiran.com)
  • The food intake in rats varies diurnally and that may influence the effect of GABA(A)-receptor active compounds. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, it is easy to envisage that allopregnanolone would have a hyperphagic effect, but earlier reports in rat have given ambiguous results. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of allopregnanolone on intake of standard chow in male Wistar rats at different time points of the day. (diva-portal.org)
  • We evaluated the effect of RF-EMR from mobile phones on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats. (buergerwelle.de)
  • Davasaztabrizi A, Rakhshiasl A, Mousavi G, Rakhshiasl P (2012) Evaluating the effect of high concentration of testosterone enanthate on some of blood factors in male rat. (springermedizin.de)
  • Swathilatha Rewanthwar and P.K. Lakshmi, "Effect of Piperine, Quercetin, Polysorbate 80 on the Oral Bioavailability of Losartan in Male Wistar Rats", Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology (2014) 2: 49. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Effect of sex hormones on plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition in intact rats and rats with bilaterally occluded carotid arteries. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In additional experiments, rats were treated with mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg weight per day) or androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (30 mg/kg weight per day). (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • We therefore undertook this study to evaluate pharmacodynamics and toxicological profile of oral administration of PartySmart in rats. (redorbit.com)
  • Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. (scielo.br)
  • In addition, a previous study demonstrated that WKY rats from two different laboratories showed differences in arterial pressure and growth rate. (scielo.br)
  • Our study provides an important insight into sex-specific differences in energy metabolism in rats and indicates that further studies should consider sex as the main aspect in design and data interpretation. (mdpi.com)
  • All rats were sacrificed and submitted to excision of pancreas for histopatologic study. (medigraphic.com)
  • In this study, types of fibers constituting male Wistar rats semitendinous and their myosin heavy chains, as well as influence of intermittent training on hypertrophy of these fibers have been checked through MATPase histochemical technique and electrophoretic proteins separation. (scielo.cl)
  • The present study investigated the sensitivity to stress and diazepam in weaning (21-day old) Wistar rats. (srce.hr)
  • In conclusion, even though our study proves both unilateral left and bilateral hot water vestibular stimulation is beneficial in Scopolamine induced dementic rats in improving spatial cognition as well as motor control, unilateral left vestibular stimulation was found to be more beneficial. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This study aimed to evaluate iron (Fe) bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (FP) by Ultra Rice® (UR) technology with or without addition of yacon flour as a source of 7.5% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). (alanrevista.org)
  • Conclusion: PEVA administration is not a suitable therapeutic choice for fertility enhancement in male Wistar rat model of Cd-induced decline in reproductive function. (scopemed.org)
  • Control rats were fed with water. (hindawi.com)
  • Forty Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and DP groups. (hindawi.com)
  • and rats with only scraping in the diphragm, named G3 (control). (scirp.org)
  • however, fat necrosis and hemorrhage were present only in control group in one rat. (medigraphic.com)
  • Forty adult male Wistar rats weighing between 160-200 g were randomly grouped into four consisting of ten rats each viz: A. normal control, B. hyperglycemic only, C. hyperglycemic treated with Citrus medica and D. Citrus medica only. (omicsonline.org)
  • The rats of both sexes (n=24), average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18) and control (n=6) groups. (cogprints.org)
  • The rats in the treatment groups 'A', 'B' and 'C' received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. (cogprints.org)
  • They were arranged into eight groups (n=8) such as control, atorvastatin (1 mg/kg), pomegranate (0.5 ml 50%/ rat), atorvastatin and pomegranate, hyper ccholesterolemic group (3% cholesterol diet for 6 weeks before onset of gestation), hypercholesterolemia and atorvastatin and/or pomegranate. (omicsonline.org)
  • Rats on T4 had the highest PCV (47.00%), and neutrophil (25.67%) values, while rat on control had the highest value of RBC 5.95 (×10 6 /mm3). (ajol.info)