Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Violaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Orthosiphon: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes. Several species of Orthosiphon are also called Java tea.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.BenzoxazolesDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Monocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Rats, Inbred F344Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Annonaceae: The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.

Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer. (1/68726)

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (2/68726)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in rat cardiac myocytes is inhibited by dexrazoxane. (3/68726)

-The clinical efficacy of anthracycline antineoplastic agents is limited by a high incidence of severe and usually irreversible cardiac toxicity, the cause of which remains controversial. In primary cultures of neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes, we found that daunorubicin, at concentrations /=10 micromol/L induced necrotic cell death within 24 hours, with no changes characteristic of apoptosis. To determine whether reactive oxygen species play a role in daunorubicin-mediated apoptosis, we monitored the generation of hydrogen peroxide with dichlorofluorescein (DCF). However, daunorubicin (1 micromol/L) did not increase DCF fluorescence, nor were the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or the combination of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid able to prevent apoptosis. In contrast, dexrazoxane (10 micromol/L), known clinically to limit anthracycline cardiac toxicity, prevented daunorubicin-induced myocyte apoptosis, but not necrosis induced by higher anthracycline concentrations (>/=10 micromol/L). The antiapoptotic action of dexrazoxane was mimicked by the superoxide-dismutase mimetic porphyrin manganese(II/III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-peridyl)porphyrin (50 micromol/L). The recognition that anthracycline-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis, perhaps mediated by superoxide anion generation, occurs at concentrations well below those that result in myocyte necrosis, may aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to limit the toxicity of these drugs.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (4/68726)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

An alternative transcript of the rat renin gene can result in a truncated prorenin that is transported into adrenal mitochondria. (5/68726)

Characterization of the local renin-angiotensin system in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa indicated a dual targeting of renin both to the secretory pathway and mitochondria. To investigate the transport of renin into mitochondria, we constructed a series of amino-terminal deletion variants of preprorenin. One of these variants, lacking the complete signal sequence for the endoplasmic reticulum and 10 amino acids of the profragment, was transported efficiently into isolated mitochondria. The transport was further shown to be dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis. Analysis of adrenal RNA revealed the existence of 2 renin transcripts. While one of the transcripts corresponds to the known full-length transcript, the other one lacks exon 1; instead, exon 2 is preceded by a domain of 80 nucleotides originating from intron 1. This domain, as well as the following region of intron 1 being excised, shows all essential sequence elements defining an additional, so-far-unknown exon. The second mRNA possibly derives from an additional transcription start in intron 1 and an alternative splicing process. Translation of this mRNA could result in a truncated prorenin representing a cytosolic form of renin, which is required for transport into mitochondria. This truncated prorenin corresponds exactly to the deletion variant being imported into mitochondria in vitro.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of K+ channel subunit kv2.2 in brain stem and hypothalamic neurons. (6/68726)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful modulatory actions on cardiovascular function that are mediated by specific receptors located on neurons within the hypothalamus and brain stem. Incubation of neuronal cocultures of rat hypothalamus and brain stem with Ang II elicits an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor-mediated inhibition of total outward K+ current that contributes to an increase in neuronal firing rate. However, the exact K+ conductance(s) that is inhibited by Ang II are not established. Pharmacological manipulation of total neuronal outward K+ current revealed a component of K+ current sensitive to quinine, tetraethylammonium, and 4-aminopyridine, with IC50 values of 21.7 micromol/L, 1.49 mmol/L, and 890 micromol/L, respectively, and insensitive to alpha-dendrotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), charybdotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), and mast cell degranulating peptide (1 micromol/L). Collectively, these data suggest the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Biophysical examination of the quinine-sensitive neuronal K+ current demonstrated a macroscopic conductance with similar biophysical properties to those of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Ang II (100 nmol/L), in the presence of the AT2 receptor blocker PD123,319, elicited an inhibition of neuronal K+ current that was abolished by quinine (50 micromol/L). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b mRNA in these neurons. However, Western blot analyses demonstrated that only Kv2.2 protein was present. Coexpression of Kv2.2 and the AT1 receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated an Ang II-induced inhibition of Kv2.2 current. Therefore, these data suggest that inhibition of Kv2.2 contributes to the AT1 receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal K+ current and subsequently to the modulation of cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (7/68726)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

Kidney aminopeptidase A and hypertension, part II: effects of angiotensin II. (8/68726)

Aminopeptidase A (APA) is the principal enzyme that metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin III. Previously, we showed that kidney APA was elevated in spontaneously hypertensive rats and was reduced after angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. In the present study, we sought to determine whether kidney APA expression was altered after chronically elevated Ang II, either exogenously delivered via osmotic minipumps or endogenously produced in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Ang II (200 ng. kg-1. min-1) was infused subcutaneously for 1 or 2 weeks by osmotic minipumps, and 2K1C rats were tested 4 weeks after unilateral renal artery clipping. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the Ang II-infused animals but was significantly increased at 3 and 4 weeks in the 2K1C animals. APA was significantly elevated approximately 2-fold in kidney cortical membranes from Ang II-infused animals but was decreased 45% in the clipped kidney and 18% in the nonclipped kidneys from 2K1C animals. Isolated glomeruli from Ang II-infused animals and the nonclipped kidneys from 2K1C animals had markedly higher APA activity and immunoreactivity. Likewise, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies indicated that APA levels were increased in glomeruli from angiotensin-infused animals and in both nonclipped and clipped kidneys from 2K1C animals. In contrast, tubular APA was decreased in tubular elements from 2K1C animals, most markedly in the clipped kidneys. Thus, despite the increase in glomerular APA expression in kidneys from 2K1C animals, the decrease in tubular APA expression is more extensive and accounts for the measured reduction in total APA in cortical homogenates. Because clipped kidneys are not exposed to high blood pressure, these results suggest that glomerular APA expression is positively regulated and tubular APA negatively regulated by Ang II. These results further suggest that changes in kidney APA expression could influence the progression of angiotensin-dependent hypertension.  (+info)

  • Most are derived from the albino Wistar rat, which is still widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonlinear dynamic analysis was used to examine the chaotic behavior of renal sympathetic nerve activity in normotensive Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats before and after complete baroreceptor denervation (sinoaortic and cardiac baroreceptor denervation). (ahajournals.org)
  • This suggests that the central neural mechanisms that regulate renal sympathetic nerve activity in response to alterations in cardiovascular reflex inputs are different in spontaneously hypertensive rats from those in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Kyoto rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation on female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. (trivedieffect.com)
  • The present study investigated the response of kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg GO for five days. (mdpi.com)
  • Single oral high dose toxicity study was conducted on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g) by the limit test method. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we study an alternative cerebral malaria model with an experimental Plasmodium berghei Keyberg 173 (K173) infection in Sprague Dawley rats. (plos.org)
  • This study investigated the potential adverse effects of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) on pregnant dams and the embryo-fetal development after maternal exposure on gestational days (GD) 6 through 19 in Sprague-Dawley rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the current study the developmental toxicity of sodium molybdate dihydrate as a representative of a broad class of soluble molybdenum(VI) compounds, was given in the diet to Sprague Dawley rats in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 414. (rti.org)
  • In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. (plos.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate therapeutic effect of Livartho drug in paracetamol induced hepatic damage Sprague dawley rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • The results of this study strongly indicate that Livartho drug is most effective medicine which has potent hepatoprotective action and free radical scavenger against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in Sprague dawley rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • The present study thus explored the effects of renalase on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats subjected to MIRI. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of the study was to test whether the DA rat and the SD rat pretreated with the CYP2D1 inhibitor quinine showed attenuation in analgesia to codeine and oxycodone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study 15-and 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed gestationally and lactationally to 1.25 ppm of Aroclor 1254®, a mixture of 52 PCB congeners, via maternal diet, to determine the effect on leptin and thyroid hormones. (osu.edu)
  • The present study investigated the anti‑inflammatory effect of hinoki cypress leaf extracted essential oil on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated WI38 fibroblast cells by inhibiting the nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) pathway, which exhibited lung tissue protection through the olfactory administration of essential oil in SpragueDawley rats. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This study was designed to determine the impact of PIFE on rat renal histology correlated with functional changes. (asahq.org)
  • Conclusions: The renal histopathologic findings in this study are consistent with those reported in previous acute studies in rats after PIFE administration. (asahq.org)
  • The present study is to determine the toxicity effect of E. longifolia (TA164, MEOH preparations) on Sprague Dawley Rats, through the acute and subacute toxicity study. (globinmed.com)
  • The Acute toxicity study (single dose at 5 g/kg BW) showed that generally, there was no acute effect of TA164 to the rats. (globinmed.com)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the herbomineral formulation in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. (vixra.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EPAC, either alone or with linezolid, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), on brain ECF concentrations of serotonin in rats, using microdialysis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify changes in gene transcription that occur in the soleus muscle of untrained, 10 week old rats following a single aerobic exercise bout of 2 hours. (uncg.edu)
  • The present pilot study examines whether exposure to GBHs at doses of glyphosate considered to be "safe" (the US Acceptable Daily Intake - ADI - of 1.75 mg/kg bw/day), starting from in utero, may modify the composition of gut microbiome in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study was conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats aged 2 days (n = 6), 4 days (n = 6), 10 days (n = 6), 16 days (n = 6), 3-4 months (n = 6) and more than 12 months (n = 6). (thescipub.com)
  • This study investigated the effects of cricket ethanol extract when orally administrated in Sprague-Dawley rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Ahn MY, Han JW, Kim SJ, Hwang JS, Yun EY (2011) Thirteen-week oral dose toxicity study of G. bimaculatus in Sprague-Dawley rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • To study the effect of chronic exposure to a low intensity GSM -like signal on health and survival of unrestrained female rats kept under identical conditions. (emf-portal.org)
  • The present study investigated the potential role for activation of PPARα and CAR/PXR by potassium PFOS (K⁺ PFOS) with respect to the etiology of hepatic hypertrophy and hepatocellular adenoma in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The study of distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in rat organs. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Pleurotus tuber-regium on the kidneys of rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) for 13 weeks. (begellhouse.com)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Biofield Energy Treated herbomineral formulation in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats for immune biomarkers modulation. (trivedieffect.com)
  • In the acute study OA was shown to activate Akt and dephosphorylate GS in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction: In this study, we examined the effect of neonatal administration of capsaicin on the magnitude of orthodontic tooth movement in rats. (umn.edu)
  • STUDY DESIGN: Prepubertal Sprague-Dawley rats were fed four different diets including (1) control, (2) 40% galactose, (3) 40% galactose and an aldose reductase inhibitor, and (4) an aldose reductase inhibitor with the control diet. (elsevier.com)
  • This study investigated the curative effect of xylopic acid on endotoxin-induced uveitis in Sprague-Dawley rats. (edu.gh)
  • The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of darapladib on the foam cell number, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ICAM-1 expression in aorta at early stages of the atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus Sprague-Dawley rat model. (sciendo.com)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in "Sprague-Dawley" rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dawson Jr R, Wallace DR (1989) Central and peripheral actions of α 2 -adrenergic agonists on renal function in Long-Evans and Brattleboro rats. (springer.com)
  • 3-month-old male SD rats were randomly assigned to receive Renal-Capsaicin surgery (Renal-CAP) to ablate the afferent renal nerve (ARN) or sham surgery, followed by an acute 5% body weight i.v.-isotonic volume expansion protocol (5%-VE) in which natriuretic response and cardiovascular functions (HR/MAP) were continuously monitored and analyzed for the duration of the experimental period. (bu.edu)
  • 3/8/16-month-old male SD rats without Renal-CAP surgery were similarly exposed to the 5%-VE protocol. (bu.edu)
  • RESULTS: In response to the 5%-VE protocol, the natriuretic response was attenuated in Renal-Cap rats. (bu.edu)
  • Renal-CAP rats also experienced a significant increase in MAP in response to 5%-VE, while sham Renal-CAP rats did not. (bu.edu)
  • Both Renal-CAP and sham Renal-CAP rats experienced a significant increase in the mean number of PVN Fos-positive cells (Fos+) post-expansion, although the increase in Fos+ cells in Renal-CAP rats was smaller in magnitude in comparison to their sham Renal-CAP counterpart. (bu.edu)
  • An increase in renal/plasma NE content was observed in rats of increasing age on NS-intake, and increases in salt intake in the same age group led to a significant increase in NE content. (bu.edu)
  • NE/Renal-CAP 3-month-old rats in response to HS-intake, and in rats of increasing age on NS-intake. (bu.edu)
  • These results indicate that removal of sinoaortic and cardiac baroreceptor regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity is associated with a greater decrease in the chaotic behavior of renal sympathetic nerve activity in normotensive compared with hypertensive rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sprague-Dawley rats, (30 males and 30 females), were fed AIN-93G diets from 3 to 20 wk of age with the exception of slightly higher fat content (84 g/kg) in all groups with the control group containing only soybean oil and the other dietary groups receiving 0.5% to 1% CLA. (scirp.org)
  • Eight-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on diets containing dietary fiber at the 5% level for 3 weeks to examine the effect on the lipid metabolism and immune function. (go.jp)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In spite of its mild uterotropic potential, dietary equol shows limited bone sparing effects in ovx rats. (galileo-training.com)
  • Hepatocellular hypertrophy and cell proliferation in Sprague-Dawley rats from dietary exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate results from increased expression of xenosensor nuclear receptors PPARα and CAR/PXR. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Is Not Attenuated by Dietary Choline Supplementation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An increase in MAP was also observed in rats of the same age with an increase in dietary salt intake from a NS to HS-intake. (bu.edu)
  • Furthermore, a decrease in NCC/pNCC/WNK1/pOxSR1 expression was observed in rats treated with terazosin in response to HS-intake, whereas protein levels in rats treated with propranolol varied independently of dietary salt intake. (bu.edu)
  • Thus, our objective was to investigate the temporal effect of WB consumption on vascular function and reactivity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat aorta after 4 and 7 weeks of dietary treatment. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a promising model to achieve further understanding the CM pathophysiology in Humans and to evaluate the activity of specific antimalarial drugs in avoiding/limiting cerebral damages from malaria. (plos.org)
  • The salt-sensitive rat, thus, appears to be a more appropriate model than the Sprague Dawley rat for assessing possible effects of salt-sensitivity on vitamin D status of humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If there is a parallel between the disposition of these chemicals in humans and rats, then humans with detectable amounts of PFPiAs in their blood may be undergoing continuous exposure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • and Their Effect on Liver Function and Gut Microflora of Experimental Rats," Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins , 2018. (hindawi.com)
  • As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats exhibiting Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) symptoms while the majority (55%) of the remaining rats developed severe anemia and hyperparasitemia (NoECM). (plos.org)
  • Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All female rats were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: 1) estradiol benzoate group, 2) progesterone group, 3) estradiol benzoate-plus-progesterone group, and 4) ovariectomized group. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rats were either run (experimental) for 2 hours or were rested (controls) and were killed 1 hour post-exercise with controls killed at a matched time. (uncg.edu)
  • Experimental group (rats fed with lactic acid bacteria) showed less accumulation of heavy metal than control group (rats fed with saline solution). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by Herbert McLean Evans and Joseph A. Long. (wikipedia.org)
  • One hundred similar rats on a special fatrich diet developed an 80 per cent tumor incidence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because there are potentially significant drawbacks associated with plethysmography, we determined whether blood pressure changes could be detected by long-term monitoring with telemetry in age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a normal or high-fructose diet for 8 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The rat had been on a 12hour light:dark cycle (lights on at 07:00) and had access ad libitum to drinking water and a diet of commercially available cubes for mice (Epol, South Africa). (scielo.org.za)
  • The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of cyadox fed to rats was 2000 mg/kg diet (132.18-156.28 mg/kg b.w./day). (ovid.com)
  • 1 H NMR based metabolomics was applied to compare the metabolic profile of rats fed a high saturated fat diet (HFD), rats fed with a normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks. (omicsonline.org)
  • Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of tomato juice consumption on the urinary peptide profile in rats with NAFLD induced by an atherogenic diet and to identify potential peptide biomarkers for diagnosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The syndrome was induced by high fructose and fat diet in Sprague Dawley rat. (ajol.info)
  • The rats received fructose and fat diet (10ml/kg per day) during 29 days. (ajol.info)
  • Plasma 25-OHD concentrations are similar in young S and R rats when the rats are fed a low salt diet (0.3% sodium chloride). (biomedcentral.com)
  • They were housed in a room with 12 h light - dark cycles and, after one week of acclimation, six rats of each type were fed either a low (3 g/kg) or high (80 g/kg) salt diet (Harlan Teklad, Madison, WI) for three weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Design : Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
  • Ahn MY, Kim MJ, Kwon RH, Hwang JS, Park KK (2015b) Gene expression profiling and inhibition of adipose tissue accumulation of G. bimaculatus extract in rats on high fat diet. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Shown are the blood pressure changes in rats fed with basal diet (control), fresh soy oil (FSO), soy oil heated once (1HSO), soy oil heated twice (2HSO), soy oil heated five times (5HSO) or soy oil heated ten times (10HSO) after 24 weeks of feeding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mate Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either AIN-93 diet or AIN-93G diet + 10% ground rosehips for two weeks. (islandscholar.ca)
  • The temporal effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet on vasomotor tone in the Sprague-Dawley rat. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The albino laboratory rat with its red eyes and white fur is an iconic model organism for scientific research in a variety of fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in color, notably the albino and hooded varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnant rats were treated either throughout gestation (GD 1-20) with 30 mg/kg per day (chronic cocaine) or with one 15-mg/kg dose immediately following parturition (acute cocaine). (ovid.com)
  • We present the behavior profile of adult female offspring produced using a maternal immune activation (MIA) model where pregnant rats receive an immune stimulant and the offspring typically show various abnormalities consistent with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism. (eneuro.org)
  • The immunomodulatory effect of the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated test formulations was studied in SD rats to determine any alteration in humoral immune response (IgG and IgM), cellular immune response, hematological parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes, and the sex hormone (testosterone). (vixra.org)
  • Tomato Juice Consumption Modifies the Urinary Peptide Profile in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Induced Hepatic Steatosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Rats with steatosis after tomato juice intake showed a profile intermediate between that of healthy rats and that of rats with induced hepatic steatosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Histopathological evaluation showed significant morphological alterations of kidneys in GO-treated rats compared to controls. (mdpi.com)
  • Assessment of the blood-brain barrier revealed loss of integrity, and interestingly histopathological analysis highlighted cyto-adherence and sequestration of infected RBCs in brain vessels from ECM rats only. (plos.org)
  • Histopathological observation revealed that the alveolar capacity was enhanced in the essential oil olfactory administered rat group, compared with that in the normal rat group. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Torsion of the uterus can be accompanied by haemostatic and metabolic complications, which could have caused the death of the rat. (scielo.org.za)
  • Treatment with MLE (250mg/kg) resulted in an improvement of the metabolic profiles which were closer to the metabolic profiles of rats fed the ND. (omicsonline.org)
  • Rat pups treated with sodium selenite are typically used as an in vivo model to mimic age-related nuclear cataract. (molvis.org)
  • Microscopic resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired from an 80 day old male Sprague-Dawley rat, including T2* anatomical images with 39 μm isotropic voxels, and diffusion tensor images (DTI) with 78 μm isotropic voxels. (neuroinformatics2012.org)
  • López-Picón FR, Kirjavainen AK, Forsback S, Takkinen JS, Peters D, Haaparanta-Solin M, Solin O. In vivo characterization of a novel norepinephrine transporter PET tracer [ 18 F]NS12137 in adult and immature Sprague-Dawley rats. (thno.org)
  • Differences between groups were tested using a GLIMMIX model with sex and feeding state as fixed effects and individual rats as a random effect. (scirp.org)
  • Objective To explore possible electrophysiological mechanisms of single atrial myocyte by evaluating the effects of angiotensinII (AngII) and telmisartan on transient outward potassium currents (I to ) and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L ) in Sprague-Dawley rats. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion AngII and telmisartan had directly electrophysiological effects on SD rat atrial myocytes as well as telmisartan had antagonist effects on AngII at the level of angiotensin receptor. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a daidzein metabolite equol on bone mass density (BMD) and markers of bone remodelling in an ovariectomized (ovx) rat model of postmenopausal bone loss and compare them with the effects of 17beta-estradiol. (galileo-training.com)
  • as well as in evaluating alterations in blood parameters in relation to the pharmacological interventions and/or toxicological effects in inbred Sprague Dawley rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We tested the effects of 28-day administration of five ketone supplements on blood glucose, ketones, and lipids in male Sprague-Dawley rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The OSAE did not cause toxicity effects, rather, it stimulate erythropoiesis in rats and need further investigation. (plantsjournal.com)
  • Only mild to moderate respiratory effects were found in rats exposed to nano-sized carbon black at 9 mg/m3 for 13 weeks. (bvsalud.org)
  • After treatment with Livartho drug (206.6 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 16 days to paracetamol treated rats shows significantly lowered the afore mentioned biochemical parameter whereas protein and albumin levels were increased along with significant increased above mentioned antioxidant enzymatic parameters. (omicsonline.org)
  • Innovative Research's Sprague Dawley Rat Albumin is a water-soluble protein with considerable structural stability which makes up 60% of the total protein of plasma. (innov-research.com)
  • Immunoblotting was performed on 3-month-old control saline-infused, s.c.-norepinephrine (NE), and s.c.-norepinephrine+terazosin/propranolol male SD rats to assess NCC, phosphorylated NCC (pNCCT58), SPAK, WNK1, OxSR1, and phosphorylated OxSR1 protein levels, to evaluate the roles of the α1/β-adrenoceptors in the NCC-implicated ARN-mediated sympathoinhibitory pathway. (bu.edu)
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum , and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition . (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in MAP and decrease in urinary volume/sodium excretion was observed in male SD rats of increasing age in response to 5%-VE. (bu.edu)
  • Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of neurological signs within 24-48 hours. (plos.org)
  • Spontaneously hypertensive rats had a similar correlation dimension, which was unaffected by complete baroreceptor denervation (2.42±0.02 versus 2.42±0.03), and a lower value for the greatest Lyapunov exponent, which decreased to a lesser extent after complete baroreceptor denervation (0.183±0.006 versus 0.158±0.006). (ahajournals.org)
  • 0.05) foam cells number as well as iNOS expression in aorta in rats with T2DM after both treatment times. (sciendo.com)
  • 0.05) in ICAM-1 expression in aorta was observed after darapladib treatment in rats with T2DM only after 8 weeks of treatment. (sciendo.com)
  • Our data indicate that darapladib can decrease the foam cells number, iNOS, and ICAM-1 expression in aorta at the early stages of atherosclerosis in T2DM rat model. (sciendo.com)
  • There were significant reductions (P≤ 0.05) in vasodilatation of iris vessels, exudation, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and total proteins in the aqueous humour of xylopic acid and prednisolone treated uveitic rats compare to the untreated (control). (edu.gh)
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)