A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes. Several species of Orthosiphon are also called Java tea.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The consumption of edible substances.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Excision of kidney.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Glucose in blood.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.

Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer. (1/68726)

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (2/68726)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in rat cardiac myocytes is inhibited by dexrazoxane. (3/68726)

-The clinical efficacy of anthracycline antineoplastic agents is limited by a high incidence of severe and usually irreversible cardiac toxicity, the cause of which remains controversial. In primary cultures of neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes, we found that daunorubicin, at concentrations /=10 micromol/L induced necrotic cell death within 24 hours, with no changes characteristic of apoptosis. To determine whether reactive oxygen species play a role in daunorubicin-mediated apoptosis, we monitored the generation of hydrogen peroxide with dichlorofluorescein (DCF). However, daunorubicin (1 micromol/L) did not increase DCF fluorescence, nor were the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or the combination of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid able to prevent apoptosis. In contrast, dexrazoxane (10 micromol/L), known clinically to limit anthracycline cardiac toxicity, prevented daunorubicin-induced myocyte apoptosis, but not necrosis induced by higher anthracycline concentrations (>/=10 micromol/L). The antiapoptotic action of dexrazoxane was mimicked by the superoxide-dismutase mimetic porphyrin manganese(II/III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-peridyl)porphyrin (50 micromol/L). The recognition that anthracycline-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis, perhaps mediated by superoxide anion generation, occurs at concentrations well below those that result in myocyte necrosis, may aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to limit the toxicity of these drugs.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (4/68726)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

An alternative transcript of the rat renin gene can result in a truncated prorenin that is transported into adrenal mitochondria. (5/68726)

Characterization of the local renin-angiotensin system in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa indicated a dual targeting of renin both to the secretory pathway and mitochondria. To investigate the transport of renin into mitochondria, we constructed a series of amino-terminal deletion variants of preprorenin. One of these variants, lacking the complete signal sequence for the endoplasmic reticulum and 10 amino acids of the profragment, was transported efficiently into isolated mitochondria. The transport was further shown to be dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis. Analysis of adrenal RNA revealed the existence of 2 renin transcripts. While one of the transcripts corresponds to the known full-length transcript, the other one lacks exon 1; instead, exon 2 is preceded by a domain of 80 nucleotides originating from intron 1. This domain, as well as the following region of intron 1 being excised, shows all essential sequence elements defining an additional, so-far-unknown exon. The second mRNA possibly derives from an additional transcription start in intron 1 and an alternative splicing process. Translation of this mRNA could result in a truncated prorenin representing a cytosolic form of renin, which is required for transport into mitochondria. This truncated prorenin corresponds exactly to the deletion variant being imported into mitochondria in vitro.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of K+ channel subunit kv2.2 in brain stem and hypothalamic neurons. (6/68726)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful modulatory actions on cardiovascular function that are mediated by specific receptors located on neurons within the hypothalamus and brain stem. Incubation of neuronal cocultures of rat hypothalamus and brain stem with Ang II elicits an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor-mediated inhibition of total outward K+ current that contributes to an increase in neuronal firing rate. However, the exact K+ conductance(s) that is inhibited by Ang II are not established. Pharmacological manipulation of total neuronal outward K+ current revealed a component of K+ current sensitive to quinine, tetraethylammonium, and 4-aminopyridine, with IC50 values of 21.7 micromol/L, 1.49 mmol/L, and 890 micromol/L, respectively, and insensitive to alpha-dendrotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), charybdotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), and mast cell degranulating peptide (1 micromol/L). Collectively, these data suggest the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Biophysical examination of the quinine-sensitive neuronal K+ current demonstrated a macroscopic conductance with similar biophysical properties to those of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Ang II (100 nmol/L), in the presence of the AT2 receptor blocker PD123,319, elicited an inhibition of neuronal K+ current that was abolished by quinine (50 micromol/L). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b mRNA in these neurons. However, Western blot analyses demonstrated that only Kv2.2 protein was present. Coexpression of Kv2.2 and the AT1 receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated an Ang II-induced inhibition of Kv2.2 current. Therefore, these data suggest that inhibition of Kv2.2 contributes to the AT1 receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal K+ current and subsequently to the modulation of cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (7/68726)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

Kidney aminopeptidase A and hypertension, part II: effects of angiotensin II. (8/68726)

Aminopeptidase A (APA) is the principal enzyme that metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin III. Previously, we showed that kidney APA was elevated in spontaneously hypertensive rats and was reduced after angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. In the present study, we sought to determine whether kidney APA expression was altered after chronically elevated Ang II, either exogenously delivered via osmotic minipumps or endogenously produced in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Ang II (200 ng. kg-1. min-1) was infused subcutaneously for 1 or 2 weeks by osmotic minipumps, and 2K1C rats were tested 4 weeks after unilateral renal artery clipping. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the Ang II-infused animals but was significantly increased at 3 and 4 weeks in the 2K1C animals. APA was significantly elevated approximately 2-fold in kidney cortical membranes from Ang II-infused animals but was decreased 45% in the clipped kidney and 18% in the nonclipped kidneys from 2K1C animals. Isolated glomeruli from Ang II-infused animals and the nonclipped kidneys from 2K1C animals had markedly higher APA activity and immunoreactivity. Likewise, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies indicated that APA levels were increased in glomeruli from angiotensin-infused animals and in both nonclipped and clipped kidneys from 2K1C animals. In contrast, tubular APA was decreased in tubular elements from 2K1C animals, most markedly in the clipped kidneys. Thus, despite the increase in glomerular APA expression in kidneys from 2K1C animals, the decrease in tubular APA expression is more extensive and accounts for the measured reduction in total APA in cortical homogenates. Because clipped kidneys are not exposed to high blood pressure, these results suggest that glomerular APA expression is positively regulated and tubular APA negatively regulated by Ang II. These results further suggest that changes in kidney APA expression could influence the progression of angiotensin-dependent hypertension.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 484643 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase of urinary volume in normal Sprague-Dawley rat at 10 mg/kg, po subsequently dosed orally with 50% aqueous glucose solution measured up to 24 hrs relative to control.
Stress Induces the Danger-Associated Molecular Pattern HMGB-1 in the Hippocampus of Male Sprague Dawley Rats: A Priming Stimulus of Microglia and the NLRP3 Inflammasome Journal Article ...
BioAssay record AID 628198 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of drug uptake in hypothalamus to cerebellum in Sprague-Dawley rat at 25 uCi, iv after 2 mins.
All experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines established by the Canadian Council on Animal Care and were approved by the University of Calgary Animal Care Committee. Attention was paid to use only the number of animals necessary to produce reliable results.. Slice preparation. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (150-250 gm) were decapitated under halothane anesthesia, the brain was removed, and coronal slices 300-400 μm thick containing the SON were generated at 0-2°C in a low-Ca2+, low-Na+-containing buffer solution of composition (in mm): 87 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 7 MgCl2, 0.5 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 25 glucose, and 20 sucrose. Slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) for at least 1 hr in artificial CSF (ACSF) of the following composition (in mm): 126 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 1.2 MgCl2, 2.4 CaCl2, 18 NaHCO3, and 11 glucose. Both solutions were bubbled continuously with a mixture of 95% O2, 5% CO2.. Electrophysiological recording. A hemisected slice was ...
Animals and in vivo procedures. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 275-325 g were housed three per cage for at least 1 week before experimentation, with a 14/10 h light/dark cycle and food and water available ad libitum. To determine the time course of the changes in CREM mRNA and CRH hnRNA, rats were subjected to restraint stress by placing them into plastic restrainers (2.5 × 6 inches). Groups of four rats were killed by decapitation at 0.5, 1, 2, or 3 h after initiation of restraint. Control rats were rapidly removed from the cages and decapitated. Brains were immediately removed, frozen in isopentane at -40°C, and stored at -80°C until being sectioned in a cryostat. Trunk blood was collected in plastic tubes, and serum was separated by centrifugation and stored at -80°C for corticosterone determination. To determine the effect of stress-induced elevations in plasma glucocorticoids on the termination of the CRH transcriptional response to stress, 5 d adrenalectomized rats were ...
Methodology: Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were randomly divided into seven groups of five rats each. GroupAwas the control group, animals in group B received 75mg/kg ofAlCl3,animals ingroup C received 75mg/kg ofAlCl3for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days, animals in group D received 150mg/kg of AlCl3, animals in group E received 150mg/kg of AlCl3 for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days, animals in group F received 300mg/kg of AlCl3 while animals in group G received 300mg/kg of AlCl3 for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days. The treated groups received varied doses ofAlCl3 for 40 days, while the administration of RibCys lasted for the following 3 weeks. BothAlCl3 and RibCys were administered orally ...
Acute oral toxicity: The test item was administered by oral route to a group of 6 female Sprague Dawley rats at the single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality occurred during the study. No clinical signs related to the administration of the test item were observed.The body weight evolution ofthe animals remained normal throughout the study. The macroscopical examination of the animals at the end of the study did not reveal treatment-related changes. In conclusion, the LD50of the test item is higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight by oral route in the rat. Acute dermal toxicity: The test item was applied onto the intact skin of 10 Sprague Dawley rats (5 males and 5 females) at the single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality occurred during the study. Neither cutaneous reactions nor systemic clinical signs related to the administration of the test item were observed. The body weight evolution of the animals remained normal throughout the study, similar between treated and control ...
Introduction: Our lab has identified a unique sub-strain of SD rats that is hyper-responsive (HR) to SU5416 (SU) alone and develops severe progressive PAH in response to single injection of SU, even in absence of chronic hypoxia (CH).. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the HR phenotype in response to SU is conferred by genetic determinants that potentiate the response to VEFR2 blockade.. Methods and Results: Male and female rats were injected with SU (20mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (control). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured at 7 weeks after SU injection. In absence of CH, 72% (13 of 18) male SD rats demonstrated HR-phenotype and developed severe PAH in response to SU with mean RVSP of 97±18 mmHg; whereas only 27% (7 of 26) of the female rats showed HR-phenotype. Furthermore, crossing non-responsive male and female rats from the HR colony markedly decreased the proportion of rats exhibiting HR phenotype in the F1-generation (HR 15% and 0%, male vs. female, respectively), ...
Surgical treatment Intact female Sprague Dawley rats at 6, 26 or 52 weeks of age, weighing 154 eleven g, 281 25 g, and 330 thirty g respectively, were anaes thetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine as described earlier. The left knee was shaved, scrubbed with Betadine Solution, and draped with sterile sheets. A medial incision was made with the knee, the patella was deflected laterally as well as a Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries one. 0 mm hole was drilled in to the inter condylar notch. An intramedullary rod was placed retrograde to the left femur. The incision was closed with wound clips. A closed simple transverse mid diaphyseal femoral fracture was induced using a Bonnarens and Einhorn gadget. Ran domly selected rats from amongst those scheduled for sur gery have been used for 0 time no fracture sham controls. Rats had been euthanized at 0, 0.. four, 1, 2, four, and 6 weeks right after frac ture for a complete of six time points at just about every of the 3 ages. ...
The objective of the test was to determine the potential for oral toxicity using the Acute Toxic Class Determination. This study was designed to comply with the standards set forth in the current OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Guideline 423. Guideline 423 is referred to in OPPTS 870.1000 as an acceptable method to assess lethality within a dose range. Initially, three healthy female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed orally with Benzylated Polyamine at 2000 mg/kg. Since the animals died, an additional three healthy females were dosed at 300 mg/kg. There was one death at this level, so an additional three males were dosed as a confirmatory group at 300 mg/kg. The rats were observed at 15 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours postdose and once daily for 14 days for toxicity and pharmacological effects, and twice daily for mortality. Body weights were recorded immediately pretest, weekly, at death and at termination in the survivors. All animals were examined for gross pathology. The test article ...
On 25 January 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Tobacco Scientific Advisory Committee unanimously voted (with one abstention) that Phillip Morris International (PMI) could not claim their heated tobacco product (HTP) IQOS (I-Quit-Ordinary-Smoking) would reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases. Regardless, IQOS is already available in over 30 countries, and thus merits scrutiny from the scientific and medical communities. The preclinical and clinical data PMI submitted to FDA indicate that IQOS exposure may be associated with unexpected liver toxicity. We reviewed preclinical studies conducted by PMI scientists1 and clinical studies of 5 and 90 days of exposure to IQOS and IQOS menthol2-5 included in PMIs Modified Risk Tobacco Product application submitted to the US FDA.. Wong and colleagues1 exposed 92 male and 92 female Sprague Dawley rats to up to 90 days of mainstream aerosol from IQOS, mainstream smoke from 3R4F research cigarettes, or room air (sham). After 90 days of ...
Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats at the age of eight weeks with a mean weight of 275±35 g were included in the study. Subjects were divided into four groups with eight rats in each group: group 1: controls (C), group 2: radiation-only (RT), group 3: radiation plus royal jelly 50 mg/kg (RT+RJ50) and group 4: royal jelly 50 mg/kg-only (RJ50). Radiotherapy was applied to the head and neck area by single fraction at a dose of 22 Gy. The royal jelly was given once daily for seven days. The subjects were sacrificed on the seventh day of the study. Trace elements in blood samples were measured using ICP/MS method ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the spatial relationship between the c-Fos immunoreactive cells elicited by an acute treatment with neuroleptics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI) and enkephalinergic (ENK), substance P (SP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) innervation fields in the rat septum. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of OLA (5 mg), ARI (10 mg), AMI (20 mg), QUE (15 mg/kg/b.w.). Ninety min after antipsychotics administration, the animals were transcardially perfused with a fixative and the brains cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black endproduct. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to ENK, SP, and TH antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent AlexaFluor 564 dye. The data ...
Although cardiac hypertrophy is an important condition that usually precedes heart failure (Carreno et al., 2006), there are limited reports of altered expression of P450 genes during cardiac hypertrophy. The expression of P450 has been studied in SHRs as compared with SD rats (Thum and Borlak, 2002) and the expression of sEH has been studied in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats as compared with normal strains (Monti et al., 2008). Nevertheless, there are no data about the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of P450 and sEH genes and their associated P450-derived metabolites of AA. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of several P450 genes and P450-dependent AA metabolism in rats. In addition, the current study demonstrates the tissue-specific expression of many P450 genes and sEH in male SD rats.. Tissue-specific expression of P450 ...
Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups; control, D-gal, chrysin 10, chrysin 30, D-gal + chrysin 10 and D-gal + chrysin 30 groups. D-gal (50 mg/kg) was administrated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Chrysin (10 and 30 mg/kg) was administrated by oral gavage. Both of D-gal and chrysin were administrated for 8 weeks. After treatments, the body weight and locomotor activity were determined. The memories were evaluated using novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. ...
This study reports that cocaethylene undergoes an esterase-mediated ethyl ester exchange with ethanol, resulting in an increase in the apparent in vitro t½, compared with control conditions. Homogenized liver from male Sprague Dawley rats in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was centrifuged at 9000g, and the resulting supernatant (S9) fraction was collected. Tubes containing the rat S9 fraction and 50 μM cocaethylene plus aqueous buffer (control), 50 mM ethanol, or 51.3 mM2H6-ethanol were incubated at 37°C for 4 hr. Samples were collected from the incubation tubes at various times, extracted with a solid-phase extraction system, and assayed for cocaethylene and2H5-cocaethylene by GC/MS. Concentration-time profiles were constructed and kinetic parameters were determined. The experiment was repeated in the presence of specific and nonspecific esterase inhibitors. Enzyme kinetic parameters were also determined. Cocaethylene underwent ethyl ester exchange, being converted to2H5-cocaethylene in the presence ...
Dimyrcetol was administered in corn oil by gavage to groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at dosages of 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg bwt/day on gestational days 7 to 17. Viability, clinical signs, body weights and feed consumption were observed or measured for all animals. Animals were sacrificed on gestational day 21 and Caesarean sectioning performed. Fetuses were weighed and examined for sex, gross changes, and soft tissue or skeletal alterations. No clinical signs attributable to dimyrcetol administration were observed. At the 1000 mg/kg bwt/day dose level, mean maternal body weight gains were reduced 5% versus controls. Absolute and relative feed consumption were also reduced at this dose level. The minimal maternal effects noted were associated with minimal (approx. 3%) reductions in fetal body weights, reversible variations in ossification and increases in supernumerary thoracic ribs with associated increases or decreases in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Findings of delayed ...
In an in vivo animal model, the left carotid artery was ligated in 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups. The pups were divided into six groups: normoxia (N), hypoxia (8% Oâ‚‚, 92% Nâ‚‚) (H), H with shamoperation, H with operation (HO), HO treated with vehicle and HO treated with SYM 2081. In an in vitro model, the cultured embryonic cortical neuronal cells were divided into three groups: normoxia (95% air, 5% COâ‚‚), hypoxia (94% Nâ‚‚, 5% COâ‚‚) (Hc), and Hc treated with SYM 2081 before a hypoxic insult. Apoptosis was assessed using western blots and real-time polymerase chain reaction with Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 antibodies and mRNAs ...
Two reproductive/developmental screening studies were identified, one within category and the other a read-across study from isomerised olefins; alpha, internal, linear and branched - single carbon number. In key a reproductive/developmental screening study (Thorsud, 2003a), alkenes, C6 dissolved in corn oil were administered via oral gavage to F0 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for at least 4 weeks. There was no mortality or adverse signs of toxicity observed at any dose level and F0 mating, fertility indices, mean gestation lengths, mean number of pups delivered, F1 live birth index, F1 viability index, F1 pups per litter, and F1 pup sex ratios were comparable between control and treatment groups. Gross necroscopy of F0 females revealed no significant treatment-related findings. Organ weight determinations in F0 rats did not reveal any significant difference between treatment and control animals. Based on the lack of significant adverse ...
1Department of Community Nutrition FEMA IPB and Faculty of Health Sciences URINDO, 2Department of Community Nutrition FEMA, IPB, 3Center of Aging Studies, Universitas Indonesia, 4Department of Sports Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.. Abstract. Oestrogens have been found to reduce beta amyloid levels, a risk factor associated with dementia. We hypothesised that phytoestrogenic soybean products such as tempe and tofu might show similar effects. The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of tempe and tofu flour on beta amyloid1-40 serum levels in elderly rats. This research was conducted on white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months. Before the intervention rats underwent ovariectomy (OVx) and were grouped into 5 intervention groups which were given either: tempe flour (PTp), tofu flour (PTh), oestradiol (PE), or casein (KK) in pellets; and there was also a non OVx (KN) control group which was fed a normal diet. The intake of tempe and tofu flour ...
BACKGROUND: Vascular hyporeactivity contributes to hemodynamic alterations and circulatory failure in severe sepsis. Among the identified mechanisms, inflammation and oxidative stress are the most crucial ones in mediating the development of vascular hyporeactivity induced by sepsis. Platonin, a photosensitive dye and an antioxidant, possesses potent antiinflammation effects. We elucidated whether platonin could mitigate vascular hyporeactivity of thoracic aorta in septic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive sham operation (Sham), Sham plus platonin (100 g/kg), cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), or CLP plus platonin (10, 50, or 100 g/kg) and designated as the Sham, P, CLP, CLP + P(10), CLP + P(50), and CLP + P(100) group, respectively (n = 6 in each group). After maintaining for 12 hours, surviving rats were euthanized and thoracic aorta was isolated and vascular reactivity of aortic rings was determined. RESULTS: Vascular reactivity induced by ...
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The vasculature of the eye can provide amazing insight into systemic cardiovascular health. For those studying the vasculature of the eye as an indicator of pathophysiological states, normative ground truth datasets become critically important. Recently, George Azzopardi and Nicolai Petkov have made their annotated database of ground truth imagery of vascular bifurcations and crossovers in […]. ...
Warneke, Wiebke and Klaus, Susanne and Fink, Heidrun and Langley-Evans, Simon C. and Voigt, Jörg-Peter (2014) The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 116 . pp. 45-44. ISSN 1873-5177 ...
At Naturland, kids will have no end of fun on the amazing circuit specially designed for electric vehicles and with a layout simulating city streets.
The principal objective of this study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60g) were randomly divided into six groups namely ...
Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - HO-1 Overexpression Attenuates Endotoxin Effects on CAT-2 Isozymes Expression. AU - Huang, Te Yang. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Background: l-arginine transport mediated by type-2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) isozymes is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We sought to investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression on CAT-2 isozymes, e.g., CAT-2, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to receive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), normal saline, hemin (a HO-1 inducer), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, a HO-1 inhibitor), LPS plus hemin, or LPS plus hemin plus SnPP. After maintaining for 6 h, rats were sacrificed and the expression and activity of individual enzyme was evaluated. Results: LPS increased HO activity, HO-1 concentration, NO production, l-arginine transport, and concentrations of iNOS, ...
A tumor incidence of 57 per cent was observed in 150 female rats allowed to live out their life-span as normal, control animals on standard laboratory chow. One hundred similar rats on a special fatrich diet developed an 80 per cent tumor incidence.. Ninety-five per cent of the tumors observed involved mammary gland tissue. Twelve per cent of all tumors observed were of a malignant type. Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days.. Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. However, three of the four tumors that were examined histologically in the males were classified as malignant.. The mean life span of normal female Sprague-Dawley rats in this laboratory was 760 ± 21 days, with individuals ranging in life span from 193 to 1100 days.. ...
The pathogenesis of hypertension is distinct between men and women. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potential contributor to sex differences in the pathophysiology of hypertension. ET-1 participates in blood pressure regulation through activation of endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors including those in the vasculature. Previous studies demonstrated that sex and sex hormones evoke discrepancies in ET-1-mediated control of vascular tone in different vascular beds. However, little is known about sex- and sex hormone-related differences in ET-1-dependent renal microvascular reactivity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that loss of sex hormones impairs afferent arteriole reactivity to ET-1. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to gonadectomy or sham surgery (n = 6/group). After 3 weeks, kidneys from those rats were prepared for assessment of renal microvascular responses to ET-1 (ETA and ETB agonist, 10−12 to 10−8 M) and sarafotoxin 6c (S6c, ETB agonist, 10−12 to 10−8 M) using the
Ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a key source of myocardial damage in humans following acute myocardial infarction, post-cardiac arrest, and heart transplantation (1). The beneficial effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) in minimising IR-induced damage to cardiac muscle have been extensively studied, and involve activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels (2). No previous studies have investigated the effects of IR injury or IPC in cardiac fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are responsible for maintaining the extracellular matrix in healthy hearts, and differentiate into the wound-healing phenotype, myofibroblasts, following cardiac injury (3). Our goals were to determine if: (a) IR injury induces cardiac fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts; and if so, (b) does IPC ameliorate the IR-induced myofibroblast differentiation? Hearts were removed from isoflurane-anaesthetised (5% induction, 2% maintenance; 1 l/min oxygen) adult female Sprague Dawley rats, and fibroblasts ...
Sexual difference has been shown in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease induced by hypertension. Females are protected from hypertension and related end-organ damage. Augmentation of renal proximal tubular angiotensinogen (AGT) expression can promote intrarenal angiotensin formation and the development of associated hypertension and kidney injury. Female rodents exhibit lower intrarenal AGT levels than males under normal conditions, suggesting that the suppressed intrarenal AGT production by programmed mechanisms in females may provide protection from these diseases. This study was performed to examine whether epigenetic mechanisms serve as repressors of AGT. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were used to investigate sex differences of systemic, hepatic, and intrarenal AGT levels. All histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA levels in the kidneys were determined using a PCR array. HDAC9 protein expression in the kidneys and cultured renal proximal tubular cells (PTC) was analyzed by Western blot
Stem-cell therapy for ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats: a comparison of three treatment modalities Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Dakheel A Al-Dakheel,1 Sulaiman A AlMousa,1 Fawaz M AlAnii,1 Waleed Y Ebrahim,1 Hussain K AlOmar,1 Hasan N AlSayed,1 Sadananda Acharya,2 Hussain AlHawaj31Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; 2College of Public Health; 3Institute of Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Recent studies have shown that ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats can be reversed by infusion of osteoblasts cultured from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study compares the influence of MSCs, osteoblasts, and exosomes derived from osteoblasts for the treatment of osteoporosis.Methods: Osteoporosis was induced in 40 female Sprague Dawley rats by performing ovariectomy. After 12 weeks, bone marrow was harvested and MSCs separated from bone-marrow aspirate as described by Piao et al. After 15 days, autologous osteogenically differentiated
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The interaction between the fibrotic process and the pulmonary vasculature is incompletely understood. There is evidence in human and experimental pulmonary fibrosis that precursor cells may play a role in fibrogenesis, and that precursor cells may also be important for vascular remodeling in chronic models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). But the contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling and PH in pulmonary fibrosis has not been investigated yet.. This study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling in the AdTGF-β1 model of lung fibrosis and PH.. Female Sprague Dawley rats received AdTGF-β1 or AdDL70 and were sacrificed at different time points (7, 14 and 28 days). Immunofluorescence stainings were performed on 3 μm sections of the left lung after formalin fixation.. We detected cells expressing markers of ...
Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextro-rotatory isomer of levophanol and a major constituent of over 125 over the counter (OTC) cough syrups. In-vivo and ex-vivo studies have shown that DM has pain suppressive properties comparable to ketamine via its N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism. There is a wide spread abuse of Cough syrups in Nigeria particularly amongst adolescent males. NMDA receptor antagonists have been reported to have anti-fertility properties. Pure samples of DM constituted in normal saline was administered orally to twenty mature male adult Sprague-Dawley rats of weight 177.75 ± 7.68 g daily for 8 weeks. The animals were divided randomly into 4 groups; A, B, C, D (n=5). DM-HBr was administered at the following dosages: group A: Normal saline (control); group B: 0.214 mg/ kg b.w; group C: 0.571 mg/ kg b.w; group D: 4.285 mg/ kg b.w. At sacrifice; Routine histology, semen analysis, serum and intra-testicular levels of male reproductive hormones and testicular oxidative ...
This study was undertaken to characterize the toxicokinetics of p-tert-octylphenol (OP), a weak estrogenic compound, in male and female rats. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of OP either by oral gavage (50, 125 or 250 mg/kg), by intravenous (iv) injection (2, 4, or 8 mg/kg), or by subcutaneous (sc) injection (125 mg/kg). In a repeated dosing experiment, rats were given OP (oral) daily (25, 50, or 125 mg/kg) for 35 d (female) or 60 d (male). Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for OP content using gas chromatography with detection by mass spectrometry. Blood OP concentrations were generally higher in female than male rats following a single oral or sc administration but were similar following a single iv injection. Tissue OP concentrations were also higher in female than male rats following oral exposure, consistent with the faster metabolism of OP observed in male rat liver microsomes. After subchronic administration, blood OP concentrations were higher at
Bioassay of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF) for Neutropenia Treatment in Male Sprague Dawley Rats
Losulazine was administered orally by gastric intubation to Sprague-Dawley rats at treatment levels of 0, 4 and 8 mg/kg/day in a neonatal development and reproductive performance study. Twenty-four females were treated at each level in three sections; Section A was treated from postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 4; Section B was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 10; and, Section C was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 21. There were significant decreases in maternal weight gain during treatment in a dose-related manner. Live pup weight means also decreased in a dose-related manner in all sections, persisting throughout maturation in F1 males and to about week nine in F1 females. Significant delays were recorded in the developmental milestone of eye opening. There was also a significant reduction in the copulation rate of F1 females in a dose-related trend ...
Chronic treatment with leptin regulates body weight and energy balance and reduces food intake in obese and lean mice. In 18- to 20-h fasted lean mice (C57BL/6, +/+), we examined the acute effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.12 mg/kg) on food intake and gastric emptying. Leptin reduced food intake, with a peak inhibition at the 5th h postinjection (69 +/- 12%/h), although there was no change in food consumption at the 1st h. Leptin did not alter the 4-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal (free access to Purina chow for either 1-, 2-, or 4-h period). In normal Sprague-Dawley rats fasted for 18-20 h, a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.2 or 1.2 mg/kg) did not modify the 7-h cumulative or hourly food intake. These results show that a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin reduces food intake within 5 h while not influencing gastric emptying of ingested food in lean mice. Sprague-Dawley rats are
Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated i.th. with vehicle (inverted triangle) or PKA-selective siRNA (circle) for 3 days. After the pretreatments, the animals received continuous saline (open symbols, error bars within the symbol) or morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) (closed symbols, error bars within the symbol) infusion for 6 days, with continued i.th. siRNA or vehicle injections on alternate days. Sustained (6 days) systemic morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) infusion caused a rightward shift in the dose-response curve, with the previous A90 dose causing only 20±1% MPE (**p , 0.01 relative to control, one-way ANOVA, n=5). Intrathecal PKAselective siRNA pre-treatment greatly attenuated sustained morphine-mediated rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve. Thus, re-challenge with the naive A90 dose (10 μg/5μl) produced 93±2% antinociception in the PKA-selective siRNA pre-treated rat**p , 0.01 relative to vehicle pre-treated morphine-infused rats, one-way ANOVA, n=5). ...
Background: The renin angiotensin system has become the focus of recent interest in stroke research as accumulating evidence indicates that activation of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mas (ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas) axis exerts neuroprotective benefit in animal stroke models. Pre- and post-stroke activation of this axis by intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7) reduces infarct size and improves neurological function in rats. The recent development of an orally active formulation of Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropylβ-cyclodextrin [HPβCD/Ang-(1-7)] provides a non-invasive avenue for testing the efficacy of systemic post-stroke administration of Ang-(1-7). We tested the hypothesis that post-stroke oral gavage of HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) exerts neuroprotection in a rat model of ischemic stroke.. Methods: Male SD rats underwent ischemic stroke by endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion and were randomly divided into 2 groups of 12 each that received oral gavages of dH2O or ...
Cardiac remodelling is a key risk factor for the development of heart failure in the chronic phase following myocardial infarction. Our previous studies have shown an anti-remodelling role of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) in vivo during hypertension and that these protective effects are mediated through increased circulating levels of Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)]. In the present study, we have demonstrated that cardiac myocytes have modest ACE2 activity, whereas cardiac fibroblasts do not exhibit any endogenous activity. As fibroblasts are the major cell type found in an infarct zone following a myocardial infarction, we examined the effects of ACE2 gene delivery to cultured cardiac fibroblasts after acute hypoxic exposure. Cardiac fibroblasts from 5-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were grown to confluence and transduced with a lentiviral vector containing murine ACE2 cDNA under transcriptional control by the EF1α (elongation factor 1α) promoter (lenti-ACE2). Transduction of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bezaitbrate attenuates the increase in blood pressure in fructose-fed rats. AU - Si, Xiaochen. AU - Richey, Joyce M.. AU - Webb, R Clinton. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - A high fructose diet induces hypertension (HTN). insulin resistance (InsR), and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). The sequence of these metabolic abnormalities associated with this dietary regimen remains to be elucidated. We hypothesize that HTG leads tds to the development of HTN and InsR in the fructose-fed animal model. Thus, we evaluated the effects of the lipid-lowering drug bezafibrate (BZFB) on FRU-induced HTN and InsR. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups and placed on the following diets for five weeks; 60% FRU (n=5). FRU+BZFB (30 mg/kg/days (n=5); regular chow (C) (n=6), and regular chow + BZFB (C+BZFB)) (n=6). The results are summarized below. Groups Blood Pressure (mmHg) Triglyceride (mg/dl) FRU (n=5) 144.4 ± 10 * 130.4 ± 18.* 2 FRU+BZFB (n=S) 126 ± 5 102 ± 37# CB (n=6) 125.5 ± 6 ...
Methods The male SD rats whose body weights were about 250 grams were used. Rats underwent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure occurred 4 weeks later. The survival rats after operation were randomly divided into experimental group, control group and sham-operated group. Adeno-βARKct or empty virus delivery to the rats through the caudal vein. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), hemodynamic index, catecholamine and NT-ProBNP of blood plasma, and catecholamine and the expression of βARK1 of non-infarcted left ventricular tissue was measured.. ...
Introduction: HOE642, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitor, can delay the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and reduce mitochondrial-derived superoxide production. It was reported HOE642 improved neurological recovery after prolonged ischemia.. Hypothesis: We sought to find the effects of HOE642 with or without hypothermia on resuscitation in rats.. Methods: Thirty male SD rats (240-340g) were included. Cardiac arrest was induced by 8 min asphyxia. Rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) normothermia group (N group, n=9), rectal temperature (Trec) maintained at 37±0.5°C; (2) hypothermia group (H group, n=7), Trec maintained at 37±0.5°C during cardiac arrest and CPR periods, rats were cooled to 33°C in 3 min after ROSC, Trec maintained at 33±0.5°C for 1 h, rewarmed gradually to 37±0.5°C during the following 1 h; (3) HOE642 group (n=7), Trec maintained the same as the N group, HOE642 was given (1mg/kg, iv) when initiating CPR; (4) hypothermia and HOE642 group ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impacts of n-3 PUFA and lymph drainage (D) on intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of forty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 16): normal diet (N), enteral nutrition (EN) and EN plus n-3 PUFA. Each group was further divided into lymph drainage (I/R+D) and non-drainage (I/R) sub-groups (n 8). After 5 d with different nutrition regimens, the rats were subjected to 60 min ischaemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. At the same time, the rats in the I/R+D sub-groups were treated with intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. Organs were harvested and we detected the cytokine, endotoxin, and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and its endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We found that the serum levels of HMGB1, inflammatory cytokine and endotoxin in the three I/R+D sub-groups were significantly lower than those in the N ...
This study investigated the effects of magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. There were three groups of 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study: control group (normal control group without diabetes); diabetes group (STZ-induced diabetes control); and magnetized water group (magnetized water supplemented after the induction of diabetes using STZ). Before initiating the study, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose (FBS > 200 dl), and the magnetized water group received magnetized water for 8 weeks instead of general water. After 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to measure the fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, glycated hemoglobin level, degree of DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles. From the fourth week of magnetized water supplementation, blood glucose was decreased in the magnetized water group compared to the diabetes group, and ...
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether cross-sensitization/tolerance between wheel running and the drugs amphetamine and morphine is possible in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each experiment compared a non-wheel control group and a chronic wheel access group of rats. Following a 24 day period of wheel access all animals were presented with a drug and saline challenge test (counterbalanced) with either 1 mg/kg of amphetamine (Experiment 1) or 10mg/kg or morphine (Experiment 2). Prior to the challenge tests all animals were habituated to the novel testing environment in two 1 hr sessions (Experiment 1) or one 2 hr session (Experiment 2) to attenuate the acute motoric response to a novel environment. Behavioral sensitization/tolerance was measured by locomotion (cm) within long narrow activity boxes with the Ethnovision video tracking system. In the first experiment the wheel access rats were significantly more active during the 1 hr amphetamine challenge test than the non-wheel rats thus showing
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to localize and identify angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtypes in the microcirculation of striated muscle.. METHODS: Cremaster muscles from 7- to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were excised, placed in a dissection solution maintained at 4 degrees C, and 3 branch orders of arterioles and venules, as well as capillaries and a muscle specimen, were microdissected under a stereomicroscope. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were developed for purification and amplification of extremely small amounts of RNA (,5 ng/microL) from whole tissue samples. RNA was isolated from each sample, reverse transcribed, and the cDNA products were amplified by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) specifically primed with either AT(1a), AT(1b), or AT(2) receptor primers. The products were electrophoretically size-fractionated on an agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide to visualize DNA bands, and analyzed to determine the presence or absence ...
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis ...
most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenes is and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health; nutritiondepartment.48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low [0.2% W/W], usual [0.5% W/W] and high [1.2% W/W] dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the ...
Oral gavage administration of delta-3-carene to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 300 or 450 mg/kg body weight/day during the organogenesis and fetal phase of gestation (Days 6-19) was generally well-tolerated maternally, with no unscheduled deaths or effect on clinical condition. Treatment at 600 mg/kg body weight/day, the highest dose tested, resulted in several post dosing signs that indicated marked toxicity in one animal (flattened swaying gait or prostrate posture, unresponsive behavior, shallow respiration and piloerection) following the second dose and the animal was humanely killed. Similar signs were evident in a second animal following the second and third doses; however the general condition of this animal remained good and the animal was retained on the study. Macroscopic examination of the decedent animal revealed no findings. Other post dosing signs were limited to isolated and sporadic incidences of salivation, with associated chin rubbing in some animals at 300, 450 ...
6221 8457627 / +6221 8458258 [email protected] ABSTRACT. Backgroud: Cognitive function impaired in the elderly is not a disease but it can be considered as a Preclinical Alzheimers Disease (AD) one of the most common dementia in the elderly. Results of research on tempe and tofu showed the effects on different cognitive functions. The aims of this study were to analized the effect of tempe and tofu flours cognitive function in ovariectomized female rats. Method: Seventy two (72) white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months used for this study. Before the intervention 52 rats had ovariectomy (OVx) surgical treatments and were grouped into 5 intervention groups: tempe flour, tofu flour, estradiol, casein; and non ovariectomy. Cognitive function was measured using a labyrin. Processing and data analysis, used One-Way ANOVA with Polynomial Contrass Post Hoc LSD. Results: Based on difference test between the tempe flour group (8 weeks) with baseline 2(after OVx) showed that increased ...
To test the hypothesis that gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29) combined with glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) reduce body weight (BW) more than each of the peptides given individually, we infused the two peptides (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta of free feeding, diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 25days and measured BW. We found that GRP-29 and GLP-1 reduce BW, GRP-29 reduced it more than GLP-1 and GRP-29+GLP-1 reduce BW more than each peptide given alone. This reduction was accompanied by decrease 24-hour food intake (normal rat chow), meal size (MS), duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase latency to the first meal, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio (IMI/MS, amount of food consumed per a unit of time ...
Male SD rats (200-240 g) were supplied by Laboratory Animal Center of Ningxia Medical University (Grade II, Certificate No. SCXY 2011-0001). Animals were acclimatized in environmentally controlled breeding cages for at least 3 days before being used and were provided with standard laboratory food and water and were fasted for 12 h prior to the study. Water was freely available for rats during experiments. The experimental protocol was approved by the University Ethics Committee. All procedures involving animals were in accordance with the Regulations of the Experimental Animal Administration, State Committee of Science and Technology, Peoples Republic of China. 20 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5). Group A was the control vehicle (ART alone) and group L, M, and H were the combination groups with CHR in three fixed ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:4). The suspension of CHR was continuously administered (each time per day) to rats in group L, M, and H by gavage at doses of 5, 10, 20 mg/kg ...
Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats received saline injections (0.1 ml) of pH 4.0 or pH 7.4 in the gastrocnemius muscle on alternate days (total 6). A third group received needle prick only, while a forth group was left naive (n = 10 per group). A stimulus response function to graded colorectal distension (CRD) (10-80 mmHg) was recorded at age 8-12 weeks. Extracellular single-unit recordings from spinal neurons (L1-L4) were performed in adult pH 4.0 injected rats and compared to naive controls. Neurons were sub-classified as short latency abrupt (SL-A, n = 24) or short latency sustained (SL-S, n = 23). The spontaneous activity and response to graded CRD was recorded for each neuron. Recordings were repeated following administration of amitriptyline (6 μmol/kg, i.v.).. ...
In order to test the safety of multiple-dose intramuscular Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture we used 40 healthy male and female 6-week old SD rats(male weight 171.79~196.37 g, female weight 127.93~146.43 g). Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture was administered intramuscularly to male and female SD rats at doses of 4.6 (low dose group, n=10), 9.2 (moderate dose group, n=10), and 18.5mg/kg(high dose group, n=10), respectively. General symptoms, body weight changes, blood tests, biochemical testing, necropsy, organ weight and histopathogical findings were examined over a 4-week period ...
Propofol (100 mg/kg) was given to 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats; in some rats, hypoxic preconditioning was administered before intraperitoneal propofol injection by subjecting rats to five cycles of 10 min of hypoxia (8% O2) and 10 min of normoxia (21% O2). Then, the rats were allowed to breathe room air for 2 h. Neuronal mitochondrial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. ATP content was detected using an ATP assay kit. The expression levels of GLUT1, GLUT3, pDrp1, Drp1 and Mfn2 were detected by Western blot, and the expression levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were further examined by immunohistochemistry.. ...
AnavexLifeSci Anavex Life Sciences Reports Potential Normalization of Hypertension with ANAVEX®2-73 Published in The Journal of C… twitter.com/i/web/status/9… ...
Figure 3: IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
Dive into the research topics of Subregional differences in GABA,sub,A,/sub, receptor subunit expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of sedentary versus physically active rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In the high range, my own observation to date is that at or above the 98th percentile there are about twice more males than females, while at or above the 99.9th percentile there are about 15 times more males. Trying to make this fit in terms of standard deviation (variance is the square of the standard deviation by the way), I find that when the male and female mean are both IQ 100, the male standard deviation (SD) must be about 33% greater than the female SD. However, when a mean difference of 5 points in favor of males would exist, the male SD would only need to be about 11% greater. I dont know which is true (or if the truth lies in between) and will not be able to verify it myself as I only deal with high-range tests. I must say though that an SD difference of 33% seems unlikely.. Eysenck, H.J. 1981. Race, Intelligence and Education. Maurice Temple Smith Ltd. Hedges, Larry V. and Amy Nowell. 1995. Sex differences in mental test scores, variability and numbers of high-scoring individuals. ...
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial damage induced by isoproterenol is believed to be secondary to increased oxygen demands on the heart. Our objective was to test an additional primary action of isoproterenol on tissue and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and to compare these effects with the effects of other adrenergic agents in the presence of adrenergic inhibitors. DESIGN: Prospective, dose-response study. SETTING: Research laboratory at a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley female rats (200 to 350 g), slightly anesthetized with ether and divided into several groups. INTERVENTIONS: In 26 rats, the heart was removed, cut into fine slices (0.5-mm thickness), and placed in an ice-cold buffer. In 22 animals, the hearts were perfused in the Langendorff manner and chopped and processed for mitochondrial studies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We determined the following: a) the direct in vitro effects of isoproterenol and related catecholamines on normal oxygen uptake using myocardial ...
The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ... Sprague Dawley, the trademark used by Envigo) is not. The average litter size of the Sprague Dawley rat is 11.0. These rats ... This breed of rat was first produced by the Sprague Dawley farms (later to become the Sprague Dawley Animal Company) in Madison ... Shorn rats were bred from Sprague Dawley rats in Connecticut in 1998. They also suffer from severe kidney problems. The Lewis ...
... in Sprague Dawley rats". Pharmacognosy Research. 5 (2): 113-7. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.110541. PMC 3685759. PMID 23798886. Ali, ...
The study used 100 male and 100 female Sprague Dawley rats, divided into twenty groups with 10 rats each. Ten diets were tested ... if the survival of the rats is less than 50% at 104 weeks (which is likely for Sprague-Dawley rats) the recommended number of ... Sprague-Dawley rats have a lifespan of about two years and have a high risk of cancer over their lifespan (one study concluded ... Suzuki, H; Mohr, U; Kimmerle, G (1979). "Spontaneous endocrine tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of Cancer Research and ...
Suzuki H, Mohr U, Kimmerle G (October 1979). "Spontaneous endocrine tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of Cancer Research ... Criticisms included insufficient statistical power and that Séralini's Sprague-Dawley rats were inappropriate for a lifetime ... "Sprague Dawley" (PDF). Harlan. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2012. Butler D ( ... "Mortality and In-Life Patterns in Sprague-Dawley" (PDF). Huntingdon Life Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on October ...
Sprague-Dawley rats (lab rats) were tested on. The oral median lethal dose in male lab rats was determined to be 23.58 mL/kg ... The median lethal dose in the female lab rats was found to be 19.52 mL/kg BW (15.64 mL/kg BW lower, 24.35 mL/kg BW upper). The ... Charlie ration or "C-Rats" was the name for the field meal then given to troops.) This cookbook came wrapped around a two-ounce ...
"Developmental toxicity evaluation of butylparaben in Sprague-Dawley rats". Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and ...
Wan J, Ernstgård L, Song B, Shoaf S (2006). "Chlorzoxazone metabolism is increased in fasted Sprague-Dawley rats". J Pharm ... Dong DL, Luan Y, Feng TM, Fan CL, Yue P, Sun ZJ, Gu RM, Yang BF (2006). "Chlorzoxazone inhibit contraction of rat thoracic ...
Liu, T.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Chen, C.L.; Chi, C.W. (1999). "Safrole-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Sprague-Dawley Rats". ... "Safrole-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Sprague-Dawley Rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 37 (7): 697-702. doi: ... hydroxysafrole in rats. Further metabolites of safrole that have been found in urine of both rats and humans include 1,2- ... In rats, safrole and related compounds produced both benign and malignant tumors after intake through the mouth. Changes in the ...
"Acute oral toxicity studies of Swietenia macrophylla seeds in Sprague Dawley rats". Pharmacognosy Research. 7 (1): 38-44. doi: ...
"Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and xylazine in young and old Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of the American Association for ... In young rats, the half life is an hour. Xylazine has a large volume of distribution (Vd). The Vd = 1.9-2.5 for horses, cattle ... in rat and human urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn, and LC-HR-MSn". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 405 (30): 9779-9789. doi: ... which is used in rats, mice, hamster, and guinea pigs. The accounts of the actions and uses of xylazine in animals were ...
"Developmental toxicity of mangafodipir trisodium and manganese chloride in Sprague-Dawley rats". Teratology. 52 (2): 109-115. ... "Alteration of iron homeostasis following chronic exposure to manganese in rats". Brain Research. 833 (1): 125-132. doi:10.1016/ ...
For example, in one experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a low fat or a high fat diet, with the high fat diet ... "Selective breeding for diet-induced obesity and resistance in Sprague-Dawley rats". American Journal of Physiology. 273. " ... Rats have also been used in the diet-induced obesity model. Commonly used in medical research, rats were specifically chosen to ... The results of the study illustrate that the high fat diet rats had a higher adiposity index than the low fat diet rats. Dogs ...
"Developmental toxicity of mangafodipir trisodium and manganese chloride in Sprague-Dawley rats". Teratology. 52 (2): 109-115. ... Furthermore, young rats who were choline-deficient performed as poorly on memory tasks as older rats while older rats that were ... VAD rats had more trouble learning a Radial arm maze than rats who had normal levels of the vitamin. The healthy rats were able ... while rats who had choline-enriched diets showed a diminished memory loss compared to both the choline-low diet and control rat ...
King C, Kendrick F (1962). "Teratogenic effects of thalidomide in the Sprague Dawley rat". The Lancet. 280 (7265): 409-17. doi: ... Similar results were also published showing these effects in rats and other species. Melbourne woman Lynette Rowe, who was born ... McColl JD, Globus M, Robinson S (1965). "Effect of some therapeutic agents on the developing rat fetus". Toxicology and Applied ...
"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicol. Sci. 111 (1): 64-71. doi ... Using rat studies, withdrawal after repeated exposure to nicotine results in less responsive nucleus accumbens cells, which ... "Imaging localised dynamic changes in the nucleus accumbens following nicotine withdrawal in rats". NeuroImage. 22 (2): 847-854 ...
"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicol. Sci. 111 (1): 64-71. doi ...
Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Sci. 2009;111(1):64-71. ...
... does not potentiate self-administration of cocaine in pretreated Sprague-Dawley rats. The mechanism by which ... In mice and rats, the median lethal dose (LD50) of modafinil is approximately or slightly greater than 1250 mg/kg. Oral LD50 ... Korotkova TM, Klyuch BP, Ponomarenko AA, Lin JS, Haas HL, Sergeeva OA (February 2007). "Modafinil inhibits rat midbrain ... in rat striatal tissue. Esmodafinil, the (S)-enantiomer of modafinil, is inactive with respect to the D2 receptor. Modafinil ...
"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicol. Sci. 111 (1): 64-71. doi ...
"Urinary tract effects of phensuximide in the Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344 rat". J Appl Toxicol. 6 (5): 349-56. doi:10.1002/ ...
... -induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Sci. 2009;111(1):64-71. ... Acrylonitrile increases cancer in high dose tests in male and female rats and mice and induces apoptosis in human umbilical ... Routes of exposure include inhalation, oral, and to a certain extent dermal uptake (tested with volunteer humans and in rat ...
... in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 64 (8): 645-60. doi:10.1080/ ...
"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicological Sciences. 111 (1): ...
In Sprague Dawley rats, atomoxetine reduces NR2B protein content without altering transcript levels. Aberrant glutamate and ... In addition to rats, atomoxetine has also been found to induce similar region-specific catecholamine level alteration in mice. ... In rats, atomoxetine increased prefrontal cortex catecholamine concentrations without altering dopamine levels in the striatum ... However, both mouse and rat microdialysis studies have failed to find an increase in extracellular serotonin in the prefrontal ...
... is a species of oral Streptococcus bacteria first isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, hence its name. ... "A new species of oral Streptococcus isolated from Sprague--Dawley rats, Streptococcus orisratti sp. nov". International Journal ...
"Subchronic toxicity study of eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptychanthum) berries in Sprague-Dawley rats." Journal of Food ... A. Davis, K. Renner, C. Sprague, L. Dyer, D. Mutch (2005). Integrated Weed Management. MSU. (Articles containing Ancient Greek ...
"Phospholipid metabolism in livers of young and old fisher 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats". Experimental Gerontology. 16 (2): 163- ... These conclusions are based on the models that were used during these studies as these effects were caused in rats instead of ... During the studies it was also concluded that mice are more resilient to MCT than rats, meaning that more mice survived the ... MCA and retronecine are then condensed to form MCT via an unknown mechanism: MCT is detoxified in rats by the liver via ...
"Trans-Nonachlor and cis-Nonachlor Toxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats: Comparison with Technical Chlordane". Toxicological Sciences ...
It features competitive antagonist activity at 5-HT serotonin receptor in Sprague-Dawley rat stomachs. It exhibits binding ... It has binding affinity towards 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors in rats. ... affinity against rat 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors using [3H]mesulergine as a radioligand. As of October 31, 2016; 2C-H is a ...
"A 90-day Sub-chronic Oral Toxicity Assessment of Mulberry Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats". INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care ... Tests on laboratory rats have not found mulberry extract to present significant toxicity. According to a coroner's report, Lori ... fruit in hyperlipidaemia rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48 (8-9): 2374-2379. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.05.074. ISSN 0278- ... resistin and adiponectin in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet". Physiology & Behavior. 201: 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.12. ...
Lewis rats show more compulsive lever pressing behavior than Sprague Dawley or Wistar rats and are less responsive to the anti- ... Rats are unable to vomit when they ingest a substance that is harmful thus pica in rats is analogous to vomiting in other ... Also, if rats are restricted both in food intake and wheel access, they will adjust accordingly. In fact, if rats are first ... Rats became significantly more tolerant to morphine when they had been exposed to a paired administration than those rats that ...
... is somewhat different from the more selective Type I myofiber atrophy observed in unloaded Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rat muscle ... The center of gravity in rats is much lower than normal. They no longer support their body weight and initiate movement off the ... To our knowledge the only other species besides the rat that has been involved in spaceflight studies on skeletal muscle is the ... McDonald, KS; Delp, MD; Fitts, RH (June 1992). "Effect of hindlimb unweighting on tissue blood flow in the rat". Journal of ...
... lymphocyte 8-OHdG levels correlate with age-associated increase of tissue oxidative DNA damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. ... Young 4-day-old rats have about 3,000 single-strand breaks and 156 double-strand breaks per neuron, whereas in rats older than ... also showed that the oxidative DNA damage 8-OHdG accumulates in rat brain with age. Similarly, it was shown that as humans age ... Swain, U; Subba Rao, K (Aug 2011). "Study of DNA damage via the comet assay and base excision repair activities in rat brain ...
In tests against a control, Sprague-Dawley rats given free access to less-preferred rat chow and trained to operate a lever ... Experiments performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in a European patent for using Phenylpiracetam to treat sleep disorders showed an ... as much non-preferred rat chow than control rats; rats given 10 mg/kg Methylphenidate performed 170% as much work and consumed ... Rats 1 mg/kg amphetamine performed an average of 150% as much work and consumed 50% ...
... in Sprague-Dawley rats". European Journal of Pharmacology. 555 (2-3): 156-63. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.10.038. PMID 17116299. ... In laboratory studies with rats, CBD has been shown to reduce sleep latency due to anxiety in REM sleep, with no negative ... March 2013). "Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats". Journal of ... on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats". ...
... activity of estrogen receptor-alpha agonist propylpyrazole-triol in the mammary gland of ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats". ... Kuiper GG, Enmark E, Pelto-Huikko M, Nilsson S, Gustafsson JA (June 1996). "Cloning of a novel receptor expressed in rat ... Administration of the selective ERβ agonist ERB-041 to immature ovariectomized female rats produced no observable effects in ... Similarly, overexpression of ERβ via lentiviral infection in mature virgin female rats decreases mammary proliferation. ERα ...
... of different types of heavy particles on CNS function and cognitive/behavioral performance was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. ... Irradiated rats demonstrated cognitive impairment that was similar to that seen in aged rats. This leads to the possibility ... 153 notes that "The disruption of operant response in rats was tested 5 and 8 months after exposure, but maintaining the rats ... Radiation exposure impaired the rats' cognitive behavior, since they committed more errors than control rats in the radial maze ...
In different groups of male Sprague-Dawley Rats, the injection of Epo after induction of hemorrhage normalized the ... Research conducted in rat hippocampal neurons demonstrates that the protective role of Epo in hypoxia-induced cell death acts ... Morishita E, Masuda S, Nagao M, Yasuda Y, Sasaki R (January 1997). "Erythropoietin receptor is expressed in rat hippocampal and ... "Erythropoietin improves spatial delayed alternation in a T-maze in fimbria-fornix transected rats". Behav. Brain Res. 186 (2): ...
Another study on Sprague-Dawley albino rats resulted in a lower LD50 of 4,39 mg/kg in females and 5,12 mg/kg in males. ... Its oral LD50 is 4390 to 8200 mg/kg bw/d in rats and the dermal LD50 is 38000 mg/kg bw in rats and more than 4800 mg/kg bw in ... Acute oral toxicity results in an LD50 of 8,2, 5,2, 2,9, 10,1 and 8,6 mg/kg for rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, chicks, and mice ... In both in vitro and in vivo rat studies, DMP-incubated red blood cells released iron. Iron is the site of oxygen binding for ...
The reference strain to best illustrate the ADHD-like deficits of the SHR is the Sprague-Dawley. Although some argue that the ... Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a laboratory rat which is an animal model of essential (or primary) hypertension, used ... The SHR strain was obtained during the 1960s by Okamoto and colleagues, who started breeding Wistar-Kyoto rats with high blood ... Animal models of ischemic stroke Pinto YM, Paul M, Ganten D (July 1998). "Lessons from rat models of hypertension: from ...
... of aqueous root bark extracts of Asparagus africanus Lam and Annona senegalensis Pers combination on female Sprague Dawley rats ...
... and lipoprotein levels in Sprague-Dawley rats". Nutrition & Metabolism. 13: 9. doi:10.1186/s12986-016-0069-y. PMC 4743170. PMID ...
... valvular alterations are associated with 5HT2B receptor and 5HT transporter transcript changes in Sprague-Dawley rats". ... Kennett GA, Trail B, Bright F (Dec 1998). "Anxiolytic-like actions of BW 723C86 in the rat Vogel conflict test are 5-HT2B ... and rat pharmacokinetic properties". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 19 (8): 2206-10. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.02.126 ... First discovered in the stomach of rats, 5-HT2B was challenging to characterize initially because of its structural similarity ...
Babin, Michael (1997). "The uptake and distribution of diethyltoluenediamine in the male sprague dawley rat". Louisiana State ...
... and Inhibits Reproductive Tract Development in Male Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans Rats". Toxicological Sciences. 111 (1): 163- ... The acute toxicity of DEHP is low in animal models: 30 g/kg in rats (oral) and 24 g/kg in rabbits (dermal). Concerns instead ... Numerous studies of DEHP have shown changes in sexual function and development in mice and rats. DEHP exposure during pregnancy ... In another study, pubertal administration of higher-dose DEHP delayed puberty in rats, reduced testosterone production, and ...
... rats, zucker MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.750 - rats, sprague-dawley MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.900 - rats, ... rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 - rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050.157.760.110 - rats, inbred bn MeSH B01.050.157.760.130 ... rats, inbred f344 MeSH B01.050.157.760.275 - rats, inbred lec MeSH B01.050.157.760.280 - rats, inbred lew MeSH B01.050.157.760. ... rats, inbred shr MeSH B01.050.157.760.360 - rats, inbred wf MeSH B01.050.157.760.390 - rats, inbred wky MeSH B01.050.199.040 - ...
Sprague Dawley SD rats (Whole Body Exposure)". bioRxiv 10.1101/055699. Storrs C (27 May 2016). "Cell phone radiation increases ... cancers in rats, but should we worry?". CNN. Retrieved 29 May 2016. Michaelis M, Baumgarten P, Mittelbronn M, Driever PH, Doerr ...
... of Sprague-Dawley rats in various stages of reproductive development, they found that rats who had interrupted pregnancies had ... They observed that abortion left the rats highly susceptible to developing cancer, but that the aborted rats "were at the same ... However, because rats do not exhibit naturally occurring breast cancer, the extrapolation of these results to human abortion ... After differentiation of the mammary gland resulting from a full-term pregnancy of the rat, the rate of cell division decreases ...
Colonic mucosal explants from Sprague-Dawley rats and human colon cancer HT29 cells add glutathione to 13-oxo-ODE in a Michael ... the protein for which has been partially purified from rat colon. The formation of 13-oxo-ODE may represent the first step in ... Distribution of activity for the enzymatic oxidation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid to 13-oxooctadecadienoic acid in rat ... Characterization of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid dehydrogenase activity from rat colonic tissue". Biochimica et Biophysica ...
in Sprague-Dawley rats. Beatriz Badilla1, Gerardo Mora2, Antonio José Lapa3 and Jose Arthur Silva Emim3. Received 8-VI-1998 ... Experimental animals: The animals used were adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) with a corporal weight from 180 ... Rat paw edema : The intraplantar injection of the hind paw induced a progressive edema reaching its maximum at 3 h. Animals ... Biphasic development of carrageenan edema in rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp.Ther.150: 328-334. [ Links ]. Winter, C.A., E.A Risley & G ...
... comparative in vitro hepatic clearance and metabolism of BPS and derivatives and the disposition and metabolism of BPS in rats ... in Harlan Sprague Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice and in vitro in hepatocytes from rats, mice, and humans. ... in Harlan Sprague Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice and in vitro in hepatocytes from rats, mice, and humans. Toxicology and Applied ... in Harlan Sprague Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice and in vitro in hepatocytes from rats, mice, and humans ...
... rat) model assessed as decrease in ST interval at 5 mg/kg, po for 15 days challenged with adrenaline on day 14 and day 15 ... Cardioprotective activity in adrenaline-induced MI Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley ( ...
This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets ... This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets ... This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets ... This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets ...
Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally, three times daily with olanzapine (0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg ... Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally, three times daily with olanzapine (0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg ... Olanzapine treatment and metabolic dysfunction: a dose response study in female Sprague Dawley rats Journal Article ... a dose response study in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 217 (2), 337-346. ...
Effect of chronic exposure to a GSM-like signal (mobile phone) on survival of female Sprague-Dawley rats: Modulatory effects by ... 2018): Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural ... on DMBA-induced mammary tumours in Sprague-Dawley rats * Smith P et al. (2007): GSM and DCS Wireless Communication Signals: ... To study the effect of chronic exposure to a low intensity GSM-like signal on health and survival of unrestrained female rats ...
Using male Sprague Dawley rats 70-95 animals: a longitudinal study using sprague dawley rats lifespan Sprague Dawley, 2006 ) ... SAS Sprague Dawley Rat Details. We determined the fecal microbiota composition of healthy Sprague Dawley laboratory rats from 3 ... 7 ] on ovarian follicle reserves rats... Are Sprague Dawley, Inc. NIH received stock from sprague dawley rats lifespan age of ... The pathological investigation is another area that Sprague-Dawley rats are frequently utilized. old Sprague-Dawley rats ...
Transepithelial transport of theasinensins through Caco-2 cell monolayers and their absorption in sprague-dawley rats after ... Transepithelial transport of theasinensins through Caco-2 cell monolayers and their absorption in sprague-dawley rats after ... Transepithelial transport of theasinensins through Caco-2 cell monolayers and their absorption in sprague-dawley rats after ... Transepithelial transport of theasinensins through Caco-2 cell monolayers and their absorption in sprague-dawley rats after ...
150 kHz electromagnetic radiation on the development of polycystic ovaries induced by estradiol Valerate in Sprague Dawley rats ... For three-dimensional cell culture 25 000 BT4Ca cells in 68 µl culture medium were mixed with 32 µl rat collagen I solution (5 ... Polycystic ovary rat model exposure to 150 kHz intermediate frequency: hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis at the receptor, ... To verify the modelled parameters, we cultivated four different rat glioma cell lines (BT4Ca, C6, F98, RG-2) and applied ...
Effects of Pithecellobium Jiringa Ethanol Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Sprague-Dawley Rats ... Effects of Pithecellobium Jiringa Ethanol Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Sprague-Dawley Rats. ...
Rats. ; Animals ; Rats. , Inbred Dahl ; Hyperalgesia ; Rodentia ; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System ; Rats. , Sprague. -. Dawley. ... Rats. ; Animals, Newborn ; Rats. , Sprague. -. Dawley. ; Brain-Gut Axis ; Disease Models, Animal ; Chemokine CXCL1/metabolism ... Rats. ; Male ; Ethanol/pharmacology ; Rats. , Sprague. -. Dawley. ; Amygdala/physiology ; Basal Nucleus of Meynert ... Rats. ; Animals ; Down-Regulation ; Rats. , Sprague. -. Dawley. ; Apoptosis ; Albumins/metabolism ; Albumins/pharmacology ; ...
Rats, Sprague-Dawley * Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology* * Rivaroxaban * Thiophenes / antagonists & inhibitors Substances * ... In rats, r-Antidote administration dose-dependently and completely corrected increases in blood loss resulting from ATIII- ...
Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats are divided into six group, four groups (negative control, metformin 100mg/kgBW/day, AI extract ... Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats are divided into six group, four groups (negative control, metformin 100mg/kgBW/day, AI extract ... Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats are divided into six group, four groups (negative control, metformin 100mg/kgBW/day, AI extract ... Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats are divided into six group, four groups (negative control, metformin 100mg/kgBW/day, AI extract ...
Sprague-Dawley Rat Study.. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were obtained from CLEA Japan, Inc. For the hormone secretion experiment in ... Matrices shown are pooled plasma samples of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old), pooled plasma samples of 10 male beagles ... A pharmacokinetic study was performed using nonfasted 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3) obtained from Charles River ... Diet-Induced Obese Rat Study.. Male F344 rats aged 29 weeks were obtained from CLEA Japan, Inc., and fed a high-fat diet ( ...
... Int J ... The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute exposure of organophosphate pesticide in male Sprague-Dawley rats ... Sniper-organophosphate pesticide exposure induces neurotoxicity and biochemical agitation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. ... Twenty rats divided into five groups of four rats per group were used for the study. Groups A, B, C, D, and E were administered ...
Sprague-Dawley rats (lungs) 2/501 208/501 IFA Seoul, Korea Wistar rats (lungs) 1/480 165/480 IFA ... Other isolations: laboratory rat, 1 Japan (25); laboratory rat tumor, 1 Japan (26); Rattus nitidus 1 China (27); Bandicota ... It has not been established that the bandicoot rat isolate is identical to other rat isolates or to Hantaan virus. ... Clinically severe and moderate hospitalized cases in Seoul City where only urban rats were found. The patients have never been ...
Some studies on Campylobacter jejuni in Sprague Dawley and Wistar female rats / by Mbaruk A. Suleman. By: Suleman, Mbaruk A ... Details for: Some studies on Campylobacter jejuni in Sprague Dawley and Wistar female rats / ... TextPublication details: 1986. Description: 37 leavesSubject(s): Campylobacter fetus , Rats, Inbred strains , Dissertations, ...
Bioavailability of karanjin from Pongamia pinnata L. in Sprague dawley rats using validated RP-HPLC method. Journal of Applied ... Thus, in the present research work the pharmacokinetics of karanjin was determined in Sprague dawley female rats using a ... Bioavailability of karanjin from Pongamia pinnata L. in Sprague dawley rats using validated RP-HPLC method. ...
... causes hematological changes in the peripheral blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Five groups of female SD rats were ... Hematologic evaluation of peripheral blood in Sprague Dawley rats by chronic exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl3). ... At the AlCl3 concentration of 40 mg Al/kg bw of rats/day, the mean ferritin value in the serum iron kinetic profile was 29.81± ... study revealed that serum ferritin concentration was the only parameter affected by AlCl3 exposure at 40 mg of Al/kg bw of rats ...
Lee, HJ, Kim, SH, Choi, SY, Gimm, YM, Pack, JK, Choi, HD & Lee, YS 2006, Long-term exposure of Sprague Dawley rats to 20 kHz ... Long-term exposure of Sprague Dawley rats to 20 kHz triangular magnetic fields. / Lee, H. J.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, S. Y. et al. ... Long-term exposure of Sprague Dawley rats to 20 kHz triangular magnetic fields. In: International Journal of Radiation Biology ... Materials and methods: Eighty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups (half male and female in each sham and exposed ...
Landscape of lipidomic metabolites in gut-liver axis of Sprague-Dawley rats after oral exposure to titanium dioxide ... Landscape of lipidomic metabolites in gut-liver axis of Sprague-Dawley rats after oral exp ... liver axis of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg body weight per day for 90 days. RESULTS:. ... Ratos Sprague-Dawley; Titânio/toxicidade Gut-liver axis; Lipid peroxidation; Lipidomics; Nanotoxicity; Titanium dioxide ...
Rats, Sprague-Dawley * Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / metabolism* * Synapses / metabolism* * Synapses / pathology* ... In terminals, pY1472 levels were elevated in aged rats but reduced by estradiol treatment to levels seen in young rats. ... The number of gold particles labeling pY1472 was higher in presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments of aged rats with low ... In the postsynaptic density and dendritic spines, estradiol reduced pY1472 in young and aged rats. As phosphorylation at Y1472 ...
Sprague-Dawley rats.. Revista. Radiation Research 2003;160:492-497.. Ir al resumen, ... on DMBA-induced mammary tumours in Sprague-Dawley rats.. Revista Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental ... DNA damage in rat brain cells after in vivo exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation and various methods of euthanasia.. ... No effect of short-term exposure to GSM-modulated low-power microwaves on benzo(a)pyrene-induced tumours in rat. Revista Int J ...
... in rats for thirty days. For this purpose, forty immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were equally allocated into five groups. ... in rats for thirty days. For this purpose, forty immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were equally allocated into five groups. ... in rats for thirty days. For this purpose, forty immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were equally allocated into five groups. ... in rats for thirty days. For this purpose, forty immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were equally allocated into five groups. ...
The Effects of Maternal Behavior and Environmental Enrichment on Behavior and Cognition in Sprague-Dawley Rats ... The Effects of Maternal Behavior and Environmental Enrichment on Behavior and Cognition in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Download ... The Effects of Maternal Behavior and Environmental Enrichment on Behavior and Cognition in Sprague-Dawley Rats ... Maternal rats were identified as Good or Bad mothers based on their pup retrieval speed. Their pups were then sorted by ...
  • To determine whether TSO activates gene expression in a CAR-dependent manner, male and female Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with TSO for 3 days. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Eight-week-old F-344, Wistar, and Sprague-Dawley rats received 20 μCi [3 H]DFP via the jugular vein. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Some studies on Campylobacter jejuni in Sprague Dawley and Wistar female rats / by Mbaruk A. Suleman. (who.int)
  • 2022. Providing environmental enrichment without altering behavior in male and female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). (awionline.org)
  • Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the developing male Wistar(Han) rat. (endocrinedisruption.com)
  • The animals used were adult male Sprague-Dawley rats ( Rattus norvegicus) with a corporal weight from 180 g to 220 g, supplied by the Animal Care Unit of the University of Costa Rica, and adult male mice ( Mus musculus ) with corporal weight from 25 g to 35 g supplied by the Pharmacology Department of Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, Brazil. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Pilot comparison of outcome measures across chemical and surgical experimental models of chronic osteoarthritis in the rat (Rattus norvegicus). (wroc.pl)
  • This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined the effects of choline supplementation in young Sprague-Dawley rats. (uwi.edu)
  • Methods: Sixty adult maleSprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. (edu.pk)
  • Materials and methods: Eighty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups (half male and female in each sham and exposed groups), and they were exposed to 20 kHz triangular magnetic fields at 6.25 μT rms for 8 h/day for 12 or 18 months. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Methods: MRMT-1 breast cancer cells were injected into the proximal segment of tibia in female Sprague-Dawley rats. (amrita.edu)
  • 2022. Refinement of handling and dosing methods for rats and mice. (awionline.org)
  • The ACMS methods determine the molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of drugs/xenobiotics when incubated at 37°C for 2 to 3 hours using freshly isolated hepatocytes from Sprague-Dawley male rats. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fractionally irradiated at 28 days of age to a total dose of 30 Gy to establish a radiation-induced brain injury model. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS Animal Treatments To assess the effect of simvastatin on periodontal disease, we used an established rat model of periodontal disease induced by LPS (17C19). (gasyblog.com)
  • METHODS: To create a rat model of AMI, left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligations were performed on 40 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effect of chronic exposure to a GSM-like signal (mobile phone) on survival of female Sprague-Dawley rats: Modulatory effects by month of birth and possibly stage of the solar cycle med. (emf-portal.org)
  • To study the effect of chronic exposure to a low intensity GSM -like signal on health and survival of unrestrained female rats kept under identical conditions. (emf-portal.org)
  • Median survival was significantly shortened under exposure in experiments III and IV by 9.06%, i.e by 72 days in experiment III and 77 days in experiment IV as compared to the sham exposed rats . (emf-portal.org)
  • old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, or 3Gy of g-radiation delivered in a single acute exposure. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • A lifespan whole-body exposure study was conducted to evaluate the possible carcinogenic effects of ELFEMF exposure administered alone to Sprague-Dawley rats, as part of the integrated project of the Ramazzini Institute (RI) for studying the effects on health of ELFEMF alone or in combination with other known carcinogens. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • This report deals with the effects of γ‐radiation in groups of 416-1,051 6‐weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, or 3 Gy of γ‐radiation delivered in a single acute exposure. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute exposure of organophosphate pesticide in male Sprague-Dawley rats and a possible effective antidote therapy. (biochemjournal.com)
  • Landscape of lipidomic metabolites in gut-liver axis of Sprague-Dawley rats after oral exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study revealed that serum ferritin concentration was the only parameter affected by AlCl 3 exposure at 40 mg of Al/kg bw of rats/day. (eaht.org)
  • The number of neutrophiles was significantly increased in female rats on the 12th month after exposure, and the number of lymphocytes in female rats was significantly decreased on the 18th month. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Conclusion: Long-term exposure of rats to 20 kHz triangular magnetic fields did not induce any significantly harmful effects, except changes in neutrophiles at 12 months and lymphocytes at 18 months of exposure in female rats. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • The effect of age and exposure duration on cancer induction by a known carcinogen in rats, mice, and hamsters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Based on these results, that study authors concluded that the LC50 for 1-octene in male Sprague-Dawley rats for a four hour exposure period is 8050 parts per million, with a 95% confidence interval of 6600-9800 parts per million. (europa.eu)
  • Developmental neurotoxicity of inorganic arsenic exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rats were euthanized at 7, 12, and 24wk to evaluate local and systemic immune markers corresponding to the baseline, exposure, and recovery phases of the study, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • In BN rats, resolution of immune alterations was further compromised by HF diet, as many exposure-induced alterations in local/systemic immune markers were still evident in HF/WF animals at 24wk. (cdc.gov)
  • Collectively, HF diet appeared to have a greater impact on global immune status and exposure-induced lung injury in SD rats, but a more pronounced effect on inflammation resolution in BN rats. (cdc.gov)
  • These studies investigated the comparative in vitro hepatic clearance and metabolism of BPS and derivatives and the disposition and metabolism of BPS in rats and mice following gavage and intravenous administration. (rti.org)
  • The disposition was similar in female rats and male and female mice following gavage administration. (rti.org)
  • Following an intravenous dose in rats and mice, the pattern of excretion was similar to gavage. (rti.org)
  • Single or repeated dosing effects were evaluated in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (N-STZ-1.5 rats), diet-induced obese (DIO) rats, and GPR40-knockout ( Ffar1 -/- ) mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Suppression of cellular immunity in rats and mice by maternal treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Environmental enrichment for rats and mice housed in laboratories: A metareview. (awionline.org)
  • A systematic review on the effect of environmental enrichment on the welfare of laboratory rats and mice. (awionline.org)
  • Results from this study suggest that AZA-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes may be partly due to ROS formation and GSH depletion that resulted in oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury. (hindawi.com)
  • Using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a model pro-oxidant to induce oxidative stress, we have examined the ability of the natural food supplement Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK-4) to decrease oxidative damage in potassium-arrested isolated rat hearts. (mapi.com)
  • Coconut oil was found to reduce oxidative stress in the testes of rats, resulting in significantly higher levels of testosterone. (crazygoodcreations.com)
  • used a rat model with ligature-induced periodontitis and found that simvastatin reduced gingival inflammatory cytokine manifestation, oxidative stress, and bone loss (15). (gasyblog.com)
  • In female rats, the Synergy 1 supplementation (SYN1-F) group also reduced body weight, cholesterol and triacylglycerolaemia levels, but results were less consistent over the experiment. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Rats were place into two groups and received either choline supplementation or vehicle over a period of two weeks. (uwi.edu)
  • We found that the two-week choline supplementation in young rats improved the consolidation of short-term memory into intermediate long-term memory. (uwi.edu)
  • however, there were no changes in the serum cholesterol of female rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Serum choline concentrations were increased in female rats relative to the male rats across all treatment groups. (elsevier.com)
  • The maximum tolerated dose for male and female rats were the 15× and 10× choline supplements, respectively, based on decreased mean body weight and body weight gains. (elsevier.com)
  • Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally, three times daily with olanzapine (0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg), self-administered in a sweet cookie dough pellet at eight-hourly intervals) or vehicle (n = 12/group) for 14-days. (edu.au)
  • Randomly breed healthy female Sprague Dawley rats body weight ranges between 132-183 grams, were used for the study. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Thus, in the present research work the pharmacokinetics of karanjin was determined in Sprague dawley female rats using a validated RP-HPLC method from the ethanolic extract of P. pinnata (p.o. (who.int)
  • Five groups of female SD rats were intragastrically administered with 4 different concentrations of AlCl 3 for 5 days a week for a total of 90 days. (eaht.org)
  • Results: No significant differences were seen between 20 kHz magnetic-fields exposed rats and sham-exposed rats in body and organ weights, hematological analysis, blood biochemistry, urinalysis data, and histopathological examination, except for the numbers of neutrophiles and lymphocytes in female rats. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • For this purpose, forty immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were equally allocated into five groups. (elsevier.com)
  • Groups of 12 male and 12 female Crl:CD(SD) rats were administered the test material daily, by gavage, at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day. (europa.eu)
  • A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. (bvsalud.org)
  • Woman Sprague-Dawley rats (10-week older and 250 g excess weight), purchased from Charles River Laboratory (Wilmington, MA), were fed regular rat chow and tap water (strain Y4, serotype B) was extracted by the warm phenol-water method as explained (18, 19) and diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). (gasyblog.com)
  • In lifespan studies of 2,242 rats of three strains, 32 neoplasms were identified in brain, meninges and pineal gland. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Hepatitis E is caused principally by HEV rats was unique and only distantly related to known strains genotypes 1 and 2 ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Activity was not measurable in the case of dog, mouse, rabbit, or rat, for the latter under five different treatment conditions for one of the strains. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since the liver is a key organ for lipid metabolism , this study focused on the landscape of lipidomic metabolites in gut- liver axis of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg body weight per day for 90 days. (bvsalud.org)
  • Absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of a single oral dose of [`"Cl tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) in the male rat. (cdc.gov)
  • We determined the fecal microbiota composition of healthy Sprague Dawley laboratory rats from 3 weeks to 2 y of age, kept under controlled environmental and dietary conditions. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • After four weeks of treatment, rats were terminated and laboratory test was performed to see plasma insulin level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ui.ac.id)
  • and characterized its ability to infect laboratory rats and However, many, if not most, persons who have unexplained nonhuman primates. (cdc.gov)
  • HEV in Rats, Los Angeles, California, USA genomic sequence or to transmit an agent to laboratory Table 1. (cdc.gov)
  • Our laboratory successfully used ACMS techniques to investigate molecular mechanisms of drugs/xenobiotics-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • In terminals, pY1472 levels were elevated in aged rats but reduced by estradiol treatment to levels seen in young rats. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative carcinogenicity in Sprague-Dawley rats of the polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures Aroclors 1016, 1242, 1254, and 1260. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) male rats are known to differ in their emotional reactivity on a range of measures of spontaneous anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. (nature.com)
  • At the AlCl 3 concentration of 40 mg Al/kg bw of rats/day, the mean ferritin value in the serum iron kinetic profile was 29.81±6.1 ng/mL, and this value showed a significant difference between experimental treatments. (eaht.org)
  • Acute and Subacute Toxicity Assessment of Andrographolide-2-hydroxypropyl- β -cyclodextrin Complex via Oral and Inhalation Route of Administration in Sprague - Dawley Rats . (wroc.pl)
  • toxicity in adult male albino rats. (edu.pk)
  • Joint toxicity of a multi-heavy metal mixture and chemoprevention in Sprague Dawley rats. (cdc.gov)
  • To explore the joint toxicity and bio-accumulation of multi-heavy metals and potential chemoprevention strategies, Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 30) were treated orally once a week for six months with 500mg/kg.bw of eight heavy metals which were commonly identified in aquatic products in the Ningbo area including chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium , mercury, and lead. (cdc.gov)
  • In an acute inhalation toxicity study, a limit test was first performed on a group of 10 young male adult Sprague-Dawley rats. (europa.eu)
  • A genetically distinct HEV have been isolated from humans with hepatitis E, regularly was recently isolated from rats in Germany, and its genome infect pigs worldwide ( 6 ), and infection in humans caused was sequenced. (cdc.gov)
  • This study aimed to evaluate whether aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) causes hematological changes in the peripheral blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. (eaht.org)
  • ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of curcumin on renal function, hemodynamics, and renal oxidative profile of rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). (bvsalud.org)
  • With 24 halobenzenes, it was found that the relative lethal concentrations required to cause 50% cytotoxicity in 2 hrs at 37°C (LC 50 , according to ACMS) that was determined using hepatocytes isolated from phenobarbital-induced Sprague-Dawley rats in vitro correlated with hepatotoxicity in vivo at 24 to 54 hrs [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, using these techniques, the molecular hepatocytotoxic mechanisms found in vitro for seven classes of xenobiotics/drugs were found to be similar to the rat hepatotoxic mechanisms reported in vivo [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on our in vitro studies, we hypothesized that statin is definitely capable of reducing periodontal swelling and alveolar bone loss in rats with LPS-induced periodontal disease. (gasyblog.com)
  • Second, I investigated whether lifetime or adult genistein intake can prevent tamoxifen-induced endometrial carcinogenesis in outbred Sprague Dawley rats. (georgetown.edu)
  • Olanzapine orally self-administered in multiple doses (eight-hourly intervals) may circumvent a drop in plasma drug concentration and ensure the maintenance of a consistently high olanzapine level in the rat. (edu.au)
  • A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group, fat diet group, simvastatin group, and arginine group. (medscimonit.com)
  • ACTH ( c ) and Corticosterone ( d ) plasma concentrations in stressed non prediabetic (NPD) and prediabetic (PD) rats (n = 6, per group). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cardiomyocytes from neonatal rat hearts were cultured and treated with different concentrations of bilobalide (500-0.5 ng/ml). (portlandpress.com)
  • BPA concentrations as low as 10 −8 M reduced testosterone secretion by human testes from day 1 of culture onwards, but not by mouse and rat testes where concentrations equal to 10 −5 M BPA were required. (plos.org)
  • Previous studies performed with rat hepatocyte primary cultures showed that toxic concentrations of AZA (25-250 μ M) led to profound intracellular GSH depletion, mitochondrial injury, metabolic activity reduction, decreased adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) levels, and cell death due to necrosis, not apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigated the effect of different types of dietary protein on glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle of exercise-trained rats. (cambridge.org)
  • The goal of this work is to explore if the changes induced by d-fagomine in the gut microbiota are compatible with its effect on body weight and inflammation markers in rats. (upf.edu)
  • 2022. Voluntary oral dosing for precise experimental compound delivery in adult rats. (awionline.org)
  • Clinically severe and moderate hospitalized cases in Seoul City where only urban rats were found. (cdc.gov)
  • We have isolated a genetically similar by eating undercooked meat from domestic pigs, wild boar, HEV from urban rats in Los Angeles, California, USA, and several species of wild deer has been documented ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The Sprague Dawley rat is an outbred multipurpose breed of albino rat used extensively in medical research. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Studies on the glycemic and lipidemic effect of monopril and losartan in normal and diabetic rats. (shengsci.com)
  • rat reproduction at hormonal and histopathological levels. (edu.pk)
  • Results showed that bisperoxovanadium (pyridin-2-squaramide) attenuated not only cognitive dysfunction but also alleviated histopathological changes in rats with vascular dementia. (imrpress.com)
  • The Sprague Dawley® outbred model was developed by Sprague Dawley, Inc. NIH received stock from Sprague Dawley, Inc in 1945. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Try out the SAS Sprague Dawley rat with our animal model evaluation program→ The employer, a Mr Sprague Dawley of the Upper 666th Pitcairns Fucken Parallel, was unavailable for comment via fucken Zoom. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • In this study, we aim to understand how tumor-induced primary and distal pain sensitivities are affected by bupivacaine-induced block of bone nerve endings in a rat model of CIBP. (amrita.edu)
  • We used our voluntary rat model of reaching and grasping to study the effect of performing a high-repetition and high-force (HRHF) task for 12 weeks on wrist joints. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of different low-temperature range interventions at different time-points in a rat model of pressure injury (PI) produced by Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, in old male sprague-dawley rats aged 20-22 mo, a model of accelerated renal aging, gfr was reduced by ∼50% compared with young. (showoffleisure.com)
  • Estrogens have a stimulating effect on the uterine tissue and the mammary gland of ovariectomized rats, who are an established model for testing estrogen-like acting substances, as they are a hormonal equivalent to the postmenopausal woman. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Here, the potential neuroprotective effect of bisperoxovanadium is shown for the first time in a model of vascular dementia induced in 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by two-vessel occlusion injury applied to 6-month-old. (imrpress.com)
  • The model rats were intragastrical administered bpV(pis) for 28 days after the 2-vessel occlusion surgery by ligating two sides of CCA. (imrpress.com)
  • In the present study, we used a rat model with LPS-induced periodontal disease and treated the rats with AMG-458 simvastatin for 8 weeks concurrently with LPS injection. (gasyblog.com)
  • In this study, we sought to study the synergistic effects of marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and atorvastatin in a rat model of AMI. (bvsalud.org)
  • J. D. Sibonga and Turner, R. T. , " Evidence that the Cells Responsible for Bone Marrow Fibrosis in a Rat Model for Hyperparathyroidism Are Preosteoblasts " , Endocrinology , vol. 146, pp. 4074-4081, 2005. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 15. Abstract: Neoplastic lesions were observed in untreated aged Sprague Dawley (SD) rats throughout their lifespan starting at 5 weeks. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Here we characterized fear conditioning and extinction in rats selectively bred for differences in their locomotor response to a novel environment. (nature.com)
  • Overall, environmental enrichment and early maternal behavior had an influence on the memory and resiliency in rats. (longwood.edu)
  • A two-generation inhalation reproduction study in Sprague-Dawley rats is available. (europa.eu)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether TSO also induces transporter expression in rat liver and whether gene induction in rat liver after TSO occurs in a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)-dependent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Effects of nicotine self-administration on incentive salience in male Sprague Dawley rats. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Hormone secretions and effects on fasting glucose were tested in rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mohammed, AT, Mohamed, AAR & Ali, H 2017, ' Pulmonary apoptotic and oxidative damaging effects of Triclosan alone or in combination with Fluoride in Sprague Dawley rats ', Acta Histochemica , المجلد 119, رقم 4, الصفحات 357-363. (elsevier.com)
  • A multigeneration study to ascertain the toxicological effects of Great Lakes salmon fed to rats: Study overview and design. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arginine in the development of atherosclerosis in rats fed a high-fat diet supplemented with arginine and to evaluate the role of CD36 in this process. (medscimonit.com)
  • At 7wk, HF-fed animals exhibited several immune alterations (blood leukocyte/neutrophil number, lymph node B-cell proportionality)-effects which were more pronounced in SD rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Twenty rats divided into five groups of four rats per group were used for the study. (biochemjournal.com)
  • The brain histological examination showed that there were no visible abnormalities in the brain, liver and kidney tissues of rats in the groups. (biochemjournal.com)
  • The number of gold particles labeling pY1472 was higher in presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments of aged rats with low estradiol (vehicle-treated) compared to other groups. (nih.gov)
  • Rats in the exercised groups were trained during 2 weeks using swimming exercise for 120 min/d, 6 d/week. (cambridge.org)
  • The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of AZA towards isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated in this study using "Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening" techniques. (hindawi.com)
  • Do lignans in wheat- and flaxseed bread have an estrogen-like effect on uterus and mammary gland of the ovariectomized rat compared to 17-β-estradiol? (uni-goettingen.de)
  • flaxseed bread has an estrogenic effect on the uterine tissue and the mammary gland of the ovariectomized rat. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • After a trial-period of two months the rats were sacrificed and the following data was collected: uterine weight, uterine layer thickness and the mammary gland morphology. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • In bile duct cannulated rats 53% of a gavage dose was secreted in bile suggesting extensive enterohepatic recirculation of [14C]BPS. (rti.org)
  • In rats, r-Antidote administration dose-dependently and completely corrected increases in blood loss resulting from ATIII-dependent anticoagulation by enoxaparin or fondaparinux. (nih.gov)
  • One third of tamoxifen treated rats developed premalignant endometrial lesions. (georgetown.edu)
  • In addition, a GLP study (oral gavage in rats) according to OECD guideline 422 is available for dipropylene glycol butyl ether (DPnB). (europa.eu)
  • Como medicamento, los adultos han utilizado con mayor frecuencia el aceite de palma roja en dosis de 7 a 12 gramos por vía oral al día durante un máximo de 6 meses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • En los niños, el aceite de palma roja se ha utilizado en dosis de 6 a 9 gramos por vía oral al día durante un máximo de 6 meses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To determine the effect of simvastatin on LPS-induced periodontal disease, rats were treated with both LPS via periodontal injection and simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) daily via oral gavage for 8 weeks (n=13). (gasyblog.com)
  • Considering oral gavage-associated trauma or death (20), more rats were included in this group. (gasyblog.com)
  • reported that oral administration of simvastatin at 20 mg/kg/day led to a reversal of the cyclosporine A-induced bone loss in rats (16). (gasyblog.com)
  • reported that oral administration of simvastatin at 25 mg/kg/day suppresses the development of cerebral aneurysms by inhibiting inflammatory reactions in rats (21). (gasyblog.com)
  • Another study of 7,803 Sprague-Dawley rats described 34 brain or meningeal tumors, an incidence of 0.44% [4]. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • The aim of this study was toinvestigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement inplasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. (edu.pk)
  • The LD50 in rats was determined in a pilot study to be 11.6mg/kg. (biochemjournal.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the potential apoptotic and oxidative damaging impacts of Triclosan (TCS) and Sodium Fluoride (NaF) administered separately or in combination, in rats for thirty days. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study is the first to demonstrate that a diet based on whey protein may increase glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle of exercise-trained rats. (cambridge.org)
  • In this study, we assessed the ability to train adult male Long Evans rats. (awionline.org)
  • Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. (endocrinedisruption.com)
  • This study clearly shows that PBN alleviated mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel in rats. (asahq.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO) in hypercholesterolemic rats. (csic.es)
  • 1992. Effect of tricresyl phosphate on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in albino rats. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin as an antiestrogen: Effect on rat uterine peroxidase activity. (cdc.gov)
  • The addition of arginine has a significant effect on reducing rat atherosclerosis development, which may be attributed to both the down-regulation of CD36 expression in rat aortic endothelial and blood mononuclear cells and the NO pathway. (medscimonit.com)
  • Electrolyzed hydrogen-saturated water for drinking use elicits an antioxidative effect: a feeding test with rats. (h2bev.com)
  • Virus was transmissible venison, raising the possibility that other animals or modes to seronegative Sprague-Dawley rats, but transmission was of zoonotic transmission exist. (cdc.gov)
  • however, diet appeared to preferentially impact SD rats at this time point, as several inflammatory markers (lymph node cellularity, lung neutrophils) were further elevated in HF over Reg animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Rats injected with PBS were used as control animals (n=7). (gasyblog.com)
  • trans -Stilbene oxide (TSO) is a synthetic proestrogen that induces phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1990a, 1990b, 1995) reportaron un aumento de la proliferación celular en experimentos realizados utilizando células de un glioma cerebral, linfocitos humanos y células ováricas de Hámster. (rfcom.ca)
  • Maternal rats were identified as Good or Bad mothers based on their pup retrieval speed. (longwood.edu)
  • 0.05) in brain acetylcholine esterase activity but no significant difference in the hematological profile and cytochrome p450 in treated rats compared to the control. (biochemjournal.com)
  • Then the rats were anesthetized by pentobarbital sodium (40 mg/kg.bw) to obtain blood samples for biochemical analysis and organs (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, brain, testis) to be conducted for biopsy and organ coefficients. (cdc.gov)