Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Violaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Orthosiphon: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes. Several species of Orthosiphon are also called Java tea.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.BenzoxazolesDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Monocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Rats, Inbred F344Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Annonaceae: The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.

Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer. (1/68726)

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (2/68726)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in rat cardiac myocytes is inhibited by dexrazoxane. (3/68726)

-The clinical efficacy of anthracycline antineoplastic agents is limited by a high incidence of severe and usually irreversible cardiac toxicity, the cause of which remains controversial. In primary cultures of neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes, we found that daunorubicin, at concentrations /=10 micromol/L induced necrotic cell death within 24 hours, with no changes characteristic of apoptosis. To determine whether reactive oxygen species play a role in daunorubicin-mediated apoptosis, we monitored the generation of hydrogen peroxide with dichlorofluorescein (DCF). However, daunorubicin (1 micromol/L) did not increase DCF fluorescence, nor were the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or the combination of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid able to prevent apoptosis. In contrast, dexrazoxane (10 micromol/L), known clinically to limit anthracycline cardiac toxicity, prevented daunorubicin-induced myocyte apoptosis, but not necrosis induced by higher anthracycline concentrations (>/=10 micromol/L). The antiapoptotic action of dexrazoxane was mimicked by the superoxide-dismutase mimetic porphyrin manganese(II/III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-peridyl)porphyrin (50 micromol/L). The recognition that anthracycline-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis, perhaps mediated by superoxide anion generation, occurs at concentrations well below those that result in myocyte necrosis, may aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to limit the toxicity of these drugs.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (4/68726)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

An alternative transcript of the rat renin gene can result in a truncated prorenin that is transported into adrenal mitochondria. (5/68726)

Characterization of the local renin-angiotensin system in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa indicated a dual targeting of renin both to the secretory pathway and mitochondria. To investigate the transport of renin into mitochondria, we constructed a series of amino-terminal deletion variants of preprorenin. One of these variants, lacking the complete signal sequence for the endoplasmic reticulum and 10 amino acids of the profragment, was transported efficiently into isolated mitochondria. The transport was further shown to be dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis. Analysis of adrenal RNA revealed the existence of 2 renin transcripts. While one of the transcripts corresponds to the known full-length transcript, the other one lacks exon 1; instead, exon 2 is preceded by a domain of 80 nucleotides originating from intron 1. This domain, as well as the following region of intron 1 being excised, shows all essential sequence elements defining an additional, so-far-unknown exon. The second mRNA possibly derives from an additional transcription start in intron 1 and an alternative splicing process. Translation of this mRNA could result in a truncated prorenin representing a cytosolic form of renin, which is required for transport into mitochondria. This truncated prorenin corresponds exactly to the deletion variant being imported into mitochondria in vitro.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of K+ channel subunit kv2.2 in brain stem and hypothalamic neurons. (6/68726)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful modulatory actions on cardiovascular function that are mediated by specific receptors located on neurons within the hypothalamus and brain stem. Incubation of neuronal cocultures of rat hypothalamus and brain stem with Ang II elicits an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor-mediated inhibition of total outward K+ current that contributes to an increase in neuronal firing rate. However, the exact K+ conductance(s) that is inhibited by Ang II are not established. Pharmacological manipulation of total neuronal outward K+ current revealed a component of K+ current sensitive to quinine, tetraethylammonium, and 4-aminopyridine, with IC50 values of 21.7 micromol/L, 1.49 mmol/L, and 890 micromol/L, respectively, and insensitive to alpha-dendrotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), charybdotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), and mast cell degranulating peptide (1 micromol/L). Collectively, these data suggest the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Biophysical examination of the quinine-sensitive neuronal K+ current demonstrated a macroscopic conductance with similar biophysical properties to those of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Ang II (100 nmol/L), in the presence of the AT2 receptor blocker PD123,319, elicited an inhibition of neuronal K+ current that was abolished by quinine (50 micromol/L). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b mRNA in these neurons. However, Western blot analyses demonstrated that only Kv2.2 protein was present. Coexpression of Kv2.2 and the AT1 receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated an Ang II-induced inhibition of Kv2.2 current. Therefore, these data suggest that inhibition of Kv2.2 contributes to the AT1 receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal K+ current and subsequently to the modulation of cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (7/68726)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

Kidney aminopeptidase A and hypertension, part II: effects of angiotensin II. (8/68726)

Aminopeptidase A (APA) is the principal enzyme that metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin III. Previously, we showed that kidney APA was elevated in spontaneously hypertensive rats and was reduced after angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. In the present study, we sought to determine whether kidney APA expression was altered after chronically elevated Ang II, either exogenously delivered via osmotic minipumps or endogenously produced in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Ang II (200 ng. kg-1. min-1) was infused subcutaneously for 1 or 2 weeks by osmotic minipumps, and 2K1C rats were tested 4 weeks after unilateral renal artery clipping. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the Ang II-infused animals but was significantly increased at 3 and 4 weeks in the 2K1C animals. APA was significantly elevated approximately 2-fold in kidney cortical membranes from Ang II-infused animals but was decreased 45% in the clipped kidney and 18% in the nonclipped kidneys from 2K1C animals. Isolated glomeruli from Ang II-infused animals and the nonclipped kidneys from 2K1C animals had markedly higher APA activity and immunoreactivity. Likewise, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies indicated that APA levels were increased in glomeruli from angiotensin-infused animals and in both nonclipped and clipped kidneys from 2K1C animals. In contrast, tubular APA was decreased in tubular elements from 2K1C animals, most markedly in the clipped kidneys. Thus, despite the increase in glomerular APA expression in kidneys from 2K1C animals, the decrease in tubular APA expression is more extensive and accounts for the measured reduction in total APA in cortical homogenates. Because clipped kidneys are not exposed to high blood pressure, these results suggest that glomerular APA expression is positively regulated and tubular APA negatively regulated by Ang II. These results further suggest that changes in kidney APA expression could influence the progression of angiotensin-dependent hypertension.  (+info)

*Tridax procumbens

... in Sprague Dawley rats". Pharmacognosy Research. 5 (2): 113-7. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.110541. PMC 3685759 . PMID 23798886. Ali, ...

*Chlorzoxazone

Wan J, Ernstgård L, Song B, Shoaf S (2006). "Chlorzoxazone metabolism is increased in fasted Sprague-Dawley rats". J Pharm ... "Chlorzoxazone inhibit contraction of rat thoracic aorta". Eur J Pharmacol. 545 (2-3): 161-6. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.06.063. ...

*2-Furoic acid

Hall, Iris; Wong, Oi; Reynolds, David; Chang, J. J. (2006). "Hypolipidemic Effects of 2-Furoic Acid in Sprague-Dawley Rats". ... Research on the effects of 2-furoic acid in rats showed an increase in bile salts and acute toxicity suggesting potential toxic ...

*Laboratory rat

The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rats were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like ... Sprague Dawley®, Envigo, Inc.) is not. The average litter size of the Sprague Dawley rat is 11.0. These rats typically have a ... Rat Genome Rat Genome Database Charles River Laboratories Harlan Sprague Dawley Jax Index of Inbred Rat Strains Knock Out Rat ... This breed of rat was first produced by the Sprague-Dawley farms (later to become the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company) in Madison ...

*Safrole

"Safrole-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Sprague-Dawley Rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 37 (7): 697-702. doi: ... "Safrole-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Sprague-Dawley Rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 37 (7): 697-702. doi: ... hydroxysafrole in rats. Further metabolites of safrole that have been found in urine of both rats and human include 1,2- ... In rats, safrole and related compounds produced both benign and malignant tumors after intake through the mouth. Changes in the ...

*Xylazine

"Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and xylazine in young and old Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of the American Association for ... In young rats, the half life is an hour. Xylazine has a large volume of distribution (Vd). The Vd is 1.9-2.5 for horse, cattle ... In scientific research, xylazine is a component of the most common anesthetic, ketamine-xylazine, which is used in rats, mice, ... in rat and human urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn, and LC-HR-MSn". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 405 (30): 9779-89. doi: ...

*Diet-induced obesity model

For example, in one experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a low fat or a high fat diet, with the high fat diet ... "Selective breeding for diet-induced obesity and resistance in Sprague-Dawley rats". American Journal of Physiology. 273. " ... Rats have also been used in the diet-induced obesity model. Commonly used in medical research, rats were specifically chosen to ... The results of the study illustrate that the high fat diet rats had a higher adiposity index than the low fat diet rats. Dogs ...

*Radiobiology evidence for protons and HZE nuclei

"In vivo mammary tumourigenesis in the Sprague-Dawley rat and microdosimetric correlates". Physics in Medicine and Biology. 49 ( ... Relative biological effectiveness factors comparing gamma rays to HZE ions were measured in mice or rats for tumors of the skin ... "The Low Carcinogenicity of Electron Radiation Relative to Argon Ions in Rat Skin". radiation research. 135: 178-188. doi: ...

*Toluene toxicity

Laham, S; Potvin M (1987). "Biological conversion of benzaldehyde to benzylmercapturic acid in the Sprague-Dawley rat". Drug ... Studies in rats have shown that p-cresol is primarily conjugated with glucuronide to produce p-cresylglucuronide, though this ...

*Tobacco smoking

"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicol. Sci. 111 (1): 64-71. doi ... Using rat studies, withdrawal after repeated exposure to nicotine results in less responsive nucleus accumbens cells, which ... "Imaging localised dynamic changes in the nucleus accumbens following nicotine withdrawal in rats". NeuroImage. 22 (2): 847-854 ...

*Phensuximide

"Urinary tract effects of phensuximide in the Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344 rat". J Appl Toxicol. 6 (5): 349-56. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Heterocyclic amine

... in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part a. 64 (8): 645-60. doi:10.1080/ ...

*Head and neck cancer

"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicol. Sci. 111 (1): 64-71. doi ...

*Atomoxetine

In Sprague Dawley rats, atomoxetine reduces NR2B protein content without altering transcript levels. Aberrant glutamate and ... In rats, atomoxetine increased prefrontal cortex catecholamine concentrations without altering dopamine levels in the striatum ... However, both mouse and rat microdialysis studies have failed to find an increase in extracellular serotonin in the prefrontal ... Atomoxetine's ability to increase prefrontal cortex firing rate in anesthetized rats could not be blocked by D1 or α2- ...

*Solanum ptychanthum

"Subchronic toxicity study of eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptychanthum) berries in Sprague-Dawley rats." Journal of Food ... A. Davis, K. Renner, C. Sprague, L. Dyer, D. Mutch (2005). Integrated Weed Management. MSU. Solanum ptychanthum at the ...

*The Thumbs

Sprague Dawley Rats - 7" EP Sneezeguard Records Sweet Merciful Crap - 7" EP Soda Jerk Records All Lesser Devils - 7"/CD EP ... Sprague Dawley Rats "If It's Not Punk, It's Junk" CD (GFY Records, 1997.) Song- Shuck "Exploitational Sampler" CD (Creep ... Sprague Dawley Rats recording (1996), Sweet Merciful Crap (1997), Make America Strong (1998) Lee Ashlin - Drums scattered ...

*Chlordane

"Trans-Nonachlor and cis-Nonachlor Toxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats: Comparison with Technical Chlordane". Toxicological Sciences ...

*2C-H

It features competitive antagonist activity at 5-HT serotonin receptor in Sprague-Dawley rat stomachs. It exhibits binding ... It has binding affinity towards 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors in rats. ... affinity against rat 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors using [3H]mesulergine as a radioligand. As of October 31, 2016; 2C-H is a ...

*Glossostemon bruguieri

Water extract of G. bruguieri roots has reversed induced juvenile osteopenia in Sprague Dawley rats. However, human clinical ... Induced Juvenile Osteopenia in Rats; the Potential Therapeutic Effect of Egyptian Moghat Roots Water Extract (Glossostemon ...

*Proteinuria

Also leptin administration to normotensive Sprague Dawley rats during pregnancy significantly increases urinary protein ... Leptin increases blood pressure and markers of endothelial activation during pregnancy in rats". BioMed Research International ...

*Persicaria minor

... mechanisms underlying gastroprotective activities of the fractions obtained from Polygonum minus in Sprague Dawley rats". ...

*Icariin

"Effects of icariin on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis action and cytokine levels in stressed Sprague-Dawley rats". Biol. ... It also has neuroprotective effects in rats. Liu JJ, Li SP, Wang YT (2006). "Optimization for quantitative determination of ... as well as mimicking the effects of testosterone in rats. In vitro evidence suggests it is a weak antioxidant. It has ... "Effect of lipid-based suspension of Epimedium koreanum Nakai extract on sexual behavior in rats". J Ethnopharmacol. 114 (3): ...

*Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate

... phosphate in Sprague-Dawley rat". International Journal of Toxicology. 19 (13674): 119-125. California Office of Environmental ... in the rat". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 57 (3): 401-13. doi:10.1016/0041-008X(81)90238-6. ISSN 0041-008X. PMID ... and excretion of flame retardants halogenated alkyl phosphate in rats". Eisei Kagaku. 34 (2): 102-114. doi:10.1248/jhs1956.34. ...

*Lindera aggregata

In a study this compound showed cytoprotective action against ethanol-induced gastric injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Four ...

*Decabromodiphenyl ether

... and debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether in male sprague-dawley rats following dietary exposure". Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 ... ATSDR stated in 2004 "We don't know if PBDEs can cause cancer in people, although liver tumors developed in rats and mice that ... In 2006-2007 studies, metabolic debromination of decaBDE was demonstrated in fish, birds, cows, and rats. A 2007 study by La ... Administration of decaBDE to male rats at 3 days of age in another 2007 study "was shown to disrupt normal spontaneous ...

*Reduced muscle mass, strength and performance in space

... is somewhat different from the more selective Type I myofiber atrophy observed in unloaded Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rat muscle ... The center of gravity in rats is much lower than normal. They no longer support their body weight and initiate movement off the ... To our knowledge the only other species besides the rat that has been involved in spaceflight studies on skeletal muscle is the ... McDonald, KS; Delp, MD; Fitts, RH (June 1992). "Effect of hindlimb unweighting on tissue blood flow in the rat". Journal of ...
BioAssay record AID 484643 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase of urinary volume in normal Sprague-Dawley rat at 10 mg/kg, po subsequently dosed orally with 50% aqueous glucose solution measured up to 24 hrs relative to control.
The mobile communication technology, although integral to our everyday life, has been accounted to suffer negative impacts on the living body via two effects, thermal and non-thermal. The aims of this study were to assess the thermal effects by using Infra-red camera techniques and thermographic analysis and to find out how much electromagnetic fields from mobile phones contribute to increase the skin temperature due to thermal effects from chronic exposure to Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone radiation. Eighty female Sprague Dawley rats were employed throughout the experiment, and the animals were dealt into four groups, control, 15, 30 and 60 days respectively (n=20) for 1h/day whole body expo-sure at SAR levels of 0.048 W/Kg. GSM-like signals at a frequency of 1800 MHz were provided by a signal generator. Thermographic analysis was done by using FLIR Tool software to estimate the changes in skin temperature in different regions of the physical structure. Statistical ...
BioAssay record AID 628198 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of drug uptake in hypothalamus to cerebellum in Sprague-Dawley rat at 25 uCi, iv after 2 mins.
Animals and drugs. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (230-300 gm) were used according to Massachusetts General Hospital Animal Care institutional guidelines. Animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.). Complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) (100 μl) was injected into the plantar surface of a hindpaw. For intrathecal drug delivery, a polyethylene-10 catheter was implanted into the intrathecal space of the spinal cord at the lumbar enlargement, and 10 μl of the MEK (MAP kinase kinase) inhibitor U0126 (1 μg; dissolved in 10% DMSO; Calbiochem, La Jolla, CA) was administered. DMSO (10%) was injected as vehicle control. For sustained drug delivery, an Alzet osmotic pump (3 d pump, 1 μl/hr) was filled with the MEK inhibitor U0126 (0.5 μg/ml) in 50% DMSO, and the catheter of the pump was implanted intrathecally at least 3 hr before CFA injection. DMSO (50%) was used as vehicle control.. Immunohistochemistry. Rats were deeply anesthetized with pentobarbital (120 mg/kg, i.p.) and perfused ...
All experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines established by the Canadian Council on Animal Care and were approved by the University of Calgary Animal Care Committee. Attention was paid to use only the number of animals necessary to produce reliable results.. Slice preparation. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (150-250 gm) were decapitated under halothane anesthesia, the brain was removed, and coronal slices 300-400 μm thick containing the SON were generated at 0-2°C in a low-Ca2+, low-Na+-containing buffer solution of composition (in mm): 87 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 7 MgCl2, 0.5 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 25 glucose, and 20 sucrose. Slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) for at least 1 hr in artificial CSF (ACSF) of the following composition (in mm): 126 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 1.2 MgCl2, 2.4 CaCl2, 18 NaHCO3, and 11 glucose. Both solutions were bubbled continuously with a mixture of 95% O2, 5% CO2.. Electrophysiological recording. A hemisected slice was ...
Neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects of manganese phosphate/sulfate mixture in male sprague-dawley rats following subchronic inhalation ...
Estrogen is known to exhibit cardioprotective and antihyperlipidemic action. Valproic acid has been shown to upregulate estrogen receptors (ERs) in breast and prostate cancer tissues. No pharmacological evaluations for magnesium valproate (MgV) so far have been done for diabetic cadio-lipidemic complications. Based on the above context, current study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of MgV in cardiac complications associated with type-1 diabetes mellitus in rats wherein diabetes was induced by single tail vein injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45mg/kg, IV) in female Sprague Dawley rats and treatment of MgV (210mg/kg, PO) was given for eight weeks to diabetic animals, after which, various biochemical and cardiac biomarkers, hypertrophic, hemodynamic and histological parameters along with immunohistochemistry of ERs in the left ventricle (LV) were estimated ...
Introduction: Our lab has identified a unique sub-strain of SD rats that is hyper-responsive (HR) to SU5416 (SU) alone and develops severe progressive PAH in response to single injection of SU, even in absence of chronic hypoxia (CH).. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the HR phenotype in response to SU is conferred by genetic determinants that potentiate the response to VEFR2 blockade.. Methods and Results: Male and female rats were injected with SU (20mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (control). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured at 7 weeks after SU injection. In absence of CH, 72% (13 of 18) male SD rats demonstrated HR-phenotype and developed severe PAH in response to SU with mean RVSP of 97±18 mmHg; whereas only 27% (7 of 26) of the female rats showed HR-phenotype. Furthermore, crossing non-responsive male and female rats from the HR colony markedly decreased the proportion of rats exhibiting HR phenotype in the F1-generation (HR 15% and 0%, male vs. female, respectively), ...
On 25 January 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Tobacco Scientific Advisory Committee unanimously voted (with one abstention) that Phillip Morris International (PMI) could not claim their heated tobacco product (HTP) IQOS (I-Quit-Ordinary-Smoking) would reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases. Regardless, IQOS is already available in over 30 countries, and thus merits scrutiny from the scientific and medical communities. The preclinical and clinical data PMI submitted to FDA indicate that IQOS exposure may be associated with unexpected liver toxicity. We reviewed preclinical studies conducted by PMI scientists1 and clinical studies of 5 and 90 days of exposure to IQOS and IQOS menthol2-5 included in PMIs Modified Risk Tobacco Product application submitted to the US FDA.. Wong and colleagues1 exposed 92 male and 92 female Sprague Dawley rats to up to 90 days of mainstream aerosol from IQOS, mainstream smoke from 3R4F research cigarettes, or room air (sham). After 90 days of ...
The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein
Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats at the age of eight weeks with a mean weight of 275±35 g were included in the study. Subjects were divided into four groups with eight rats in each group: group 1: controls (C), group 2: radiation-only (RT), group 3: radiation plus royal jelly 50 mg/kg (RT+RJ50) and group 4: royal jelly 50 mg/kg-only (RJ50). Radiotherapy was applied to the head and neck area by single fraction at a dose of 22 Gy. The royal jelly was given once daily for seven days. The subjects were sacrificed on the seventh day of the study. Trace elements in blood samples were measured using ICP/MS method ...
Although cardiac hypertrophy is an important condition that usually precedes heart failure (Carreno et al., 2006), there are limited reports of altered expression of P450 genes during cardiac hypertrophy. The expression of P450 has been studied in SHRs as compared with SD rats (Thum and Borlak, 2002) and the expression of sEH has been studied in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats as compared with normal strains (Monti et al., 2008). Nevertheless, there are no data about the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of P450 and sEH genes and their associated P450-derived metabolites of AA. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of several P450 genes and P450-dependent AA metabolism in rats. In addition, the current study demonstrates the tissue-specific expression of many P450 genes and sEH in male SD rats.. Tissue-specific expression of P450 ...
1Department of Community Nutrition FEMA IPB and Faculty of Health Sciences URINDO, 2Department of Community Nutrition FEMA, IPB, 3Center of Aging Studies, Universitas Indonesia, 4Department of Sports Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.. Abstract. Oestrogens have been found to reduce beta amyloid levels, a risk factor associated with dementia. We hypothesised that phytoestrogenic soybean products such as tempe and tofu might show similar effects. The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of tempe and tofu flour on beta amyloid1-40 serum levels in elderly rats. This research was conducted on white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months. Before the intervention rats underwent ovariectomy (OVx) and were grouped into 5 intervention groups which were given either: tempe flour (PTp), tofu flour (PTh), oestradiol (PE), or casein (KK) in pellets; and there was also a non OVx (KN) control group which was fed a normal diet. The intake of tempe and tofu flour ...
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The vasculature of the eye can provide amazing insight into systemic cardiovascular health. For those studying the vasculature of the eye as an indicator of pathophysiological states, normative ground truth datasets become critically important. Recently, George Azzopardi and Nicolai Petkov have made their annotated database of ground truth imagery of vascular bifurcations and crossovers in […]. ...
Warneke, Wiebke and Klaus, Susanne and Fink, Heidrun and Langley-Evans, Simon C. and Voigt, Jörg-Peter (2014) The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 116 . pp. 45-44. ISSN 1873-5177 ...
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Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days) to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT). Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing) and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not
A tumor incidence of 57 per cent was observed in 150 female rats allowed to live out their life-span as normal, control animals on standard laboratory chow. One hundred similar rats on a special fatrich diet developed an 80 per cent tumor incidence.. Ninety-five per cent of the tumors observed involved mammary gland tissue. Twelve per cent of all tumors observed were of a malignant type. Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days.. Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. However, three of the four tumors that were examined histologically in the males were classified as malignant.. The mean life span of normal female Sprague-Dawley rats in this laboratory was 760 ± 21 days, with individuals ranging in life span from 193 to 1100 days.. ...
Ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a key source of myocardial damage in humans following acute myocardial infarction, post-cardiac arrest, and heart transplantation (1). The beneficial effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) in minimising IR-induced damage to cardiac muscle have been extensively studied, and involve activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels (2). No previous studies have investigated the effects of IR injury or IPC in cardiac fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are responsible for maintaining the extracellular matrix in healthy hearts, and differentiate into the wound-healing phenotype, myofibroblasts, following cardiac injury (3). Our goals were to determine if: (a) IR injury induces cardiac fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts; and if so, (b) does IPC ameliorate the IR-induced myofibroblast differentiation? Hearts were removed from isoflurane-anaesthetised (5% induction, 2% maintenance; 1 l/min oxygen) adult female Sprague Dawley rats, and fibroblasts ...
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The interaction between the fibrotic process and the pulmonary vasculature is incompletely understood. There is evidence in human and experimental pulmonary fibrosis that precursor cells may play a role in fibrogenesis, and that precursor cells may also be important for vascular remodeling in chronic models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). But the contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling and PH in pulmonary fibrosis has not been investigated yet.. This study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling in the AdTGF-β1 model of lung fibrosis and PH.. Female Sprague Dawley rats received AdTGF-β1 or AdDL70 and were sacrificed at different time points (7, 14 and 28 days). Immunofluorescence stainings were performed on 3 μm sections of the left lung after formalin fixation.. We detected cells expressing markers of ...
Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextro-rotatory isomer of levophanol and a major constituent of over 125 over the counter (OTC) cough syrups. In-vivo and ex-vivo studies have shown that DM has pain suppressive properties comparable to ketamine via its N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism. There is a wide spread abuse of Cough syrups in Nigeria particularly amongst adolescent males. NMDA receptor antagonists have been reported to have anti-fertility properties. Pure samples of DM constituted in normal saline was administered orally to twenty mature male adult Sprague-Dawley rats of weight 177.75 ± 7.68 g daily for 8 weeks. The animals were divided randomly into 4 groups; A, B, C, D (n=5). DM-HBr was administered at the following dosages: group A: Normal saline (control); group B: 0.214 mg/ kg b.w; group C: 0.571 mg/ kg b.w; group D: 4.285 mg/ kg b.w. At sacrifice; Routine histology, semen analysis, serum and intra-testicular levels of male reproductive hormones and testicular oxidative ...
Losulazine was administered orally by gastric intubation to Sprague-Dawley rats at treatment levels of 0, 4 and 8 mg/kg/day in a neonatal development and reproductive performance study. Twenty-four females were treated at each level in three sections; Section A was treated from postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 4; Section B was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 10; and, Section C was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 21. There were significant decreases in maternal weight gain during treatment in a dose-related manner. Live pup weight means also decreased in a dose-related manner in all sections, persisting throughout maturation in F1 males and to about week nine in F1 females. Significant delays were recorded in the developmental milestone of eye opening. There was also a significant reduction in the copulation rate of F1 females in a dose-related trend ...
Importance: An overwhelming amount of data suggest that cardiovascular exercise has a positive effect on the mind and body, although the precise mechanism is not always clear. Objective: To assess the clinical and biochemical effects of voluntary cardiovascular exercise on pedicled flaps in a rodent model. Design, Setting, and Participants: Eighteen adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into a resting animal group (RAG) (n=9) and an exercise animal group (EAG) (n=9) for 14 days (July 23, 2013, through July 30, 2013). A pedicled transposition flap was performed on the ventral surface of the rat, and biopsy specimens were taken from the proximal, middle, and distal portions on postoperative days 0, 2, 5, and 9. Flap survival was analyzed planimetrically, and biopsy specimens were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin-stained microscopy and immunoblotting. The housing, exercise, surgery, and analysis of the rats were conducted at a single basic science research laboratory at the tertiary care center
Chronic treatment with leptin regulates body weight and energy balance and reduces food intake in obese and lean mice. In 18- to 20-h fasted lean mice (C57BL/6, +/+), we examined the acute effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.12 mg/kg) on food intake and gastric emptying. Leptin reduced food intake, with a peak inhibition at the 5th h postinjection (69 +/- 12%/h), although there was no change in food consumption at the 1st h. Leptin did not alter the 4-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal (free access to Purina chow for either 1-, 2-, or 4-h period). In normal Sprague-Dawley rats fasted for 18-20 h, a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.2 or 1.2 mg/kg) did not modify the 7-h cumulative or hourly food intake. These results show that a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin reduces food intake within 5 h while not influencing gastric emptying of ingested food in lean mice. Sprague-Dawley rats are
Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated i.th. with vehicle (inverted triangle) or PKA-selective siRNA (circle) for 3 days. After the pretreatments, the animals received continuous saline (open symbols, error bars within the symbol) or morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) (closed symbols, error bars within the symbol) infusion for 6 days, with continued i.th. siRNA or vehicle injections on alternate days. Sustained (6 days) systemic morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) infusion caused a rightward shift in the dose-response curve, with the previous A90 dose causing only 20±1% MPE (**p , 0.01 relative to control, one-way ANOVA, n=5). Intrathecal PKAselective siRNA pre-treatment greatly attenuated sustained morphine-mediated rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve. Thus, re-challenge with the naive A90 dose (10 μg/5μl) produced 93±2% antinociception in the PKA-selective siRNA pre-treated rat**p , 0.01 relative to vehicle pre-treated morphine-infused rats, one-way ANOVA, n=5). ...
Background: The renin angiotensin system has become the focus of recent interest in stroke research as accumulating evidence indicates that activation of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mas (ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas) axis exerts neuroprotective benefit in animal stroke models. Pre- and post-stroke activation of this axis by intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7) reduces infarct size and improves neurological function in rats. The recent development of an orally active formulation of Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropylβ-cyclodextrin [HPβCD/Ang-(1-7)] provides a non-invasive avenue for testing the efficacy of systemic post-stroke administration of Ang-(1-7). We tested the hypothesis that post-stroke oral gavage of HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) exerts neuroprotection in a rat model of ischemic stroke.. Methods: Male SD rats underwent ischemic stroke by endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion and were randomly divided into 2 groups of 12 each that received oral gavages of dH2O or ...
Methods The male SD rats whose body weights were about 250 grams were used. Rats underwent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure occurred 4 weeks later. The survival rats after operation were randomly divided into experimental group, control group and sham-operated group. Adeno-βARKct or empty virus delivery to the rats through the caudal vein. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), hemodynamic index, catecholamine and NT-ProBNP of blood plasma, and catecholamine and the expression of βARK1 of non-infarcted left ventricular tissue was measured.. ...
Introduction: HOE642, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitor, can delay the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and reduce mitochondrial-derived superoxide production. It was reported HOE642 improved neurological recovery after prolonged ischemia.. Hypothesis: We sought to find the effects of HOE642 with or without hypothermia on resuscitation in rats.. Methods: Thirty male SD rats (240-340g) were included. Cardiac arrest was induced by 8 min asphyxia. Rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) normothermia group (N group, n=9), rectal temperature (Trec) maintained at 37±0.5°C; (2) hypothermia group (H group, n=7), Trec maintained at 37±0.5°C during cardiac arrest and CPR periods, rats were cooled to 33°C in 3 min after ROSC, Trec maintained at 33±0.5°C for 1 h, rewarmed gradually to 37±0.5°C during the following 1 h; (3) HOE642 group (n=7), Trec maintained the same as the N group, HOE642 was given (1mg/kg, iv) when initiating CPR; (4) hypothermia and HOE642 group ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impacts of n-3 PUFA and lymph drainage (D) on intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of forty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 16): normal diet (N), enteral nutrition (EN) and EN plus n-3 PUFA. Each group was further divided into lymph drainage (I/R+D) and non-drainage (I/R) sub-groups (n 8). After 5 d with different nutrition regimens, the rats were subjected to 60 min ischaemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. At the same time, the rats in the I/R+D sub-groups were treated with intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. Organs were harvested and we detected the cytokine, endotoxin, and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and its endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We found that the serum levels of HMGB1, inflammatory cytokine and endotoxin in the three I/R+D sub-groups were significantly lower than those in the N ...
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether cross-sensitization/tolerance between wheel running and the drugs amphetamine and morphine is possible in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each experiment compared a non-wheel control group and a chronic wheel access group of rats. Following a 24 day period of wheel access all animals were presented with a drug and saline challenge test (counterbalanced) with either 1 mg/kg of amphetamine (Experiment 1) or 10mg/kg or morphine (Experiment 2). Prior to the challenge tests all animals were habituated to the novel testing environment in two 1 hr sessions (Experiment 1) or one 2 hr session (Experiment 2) to attenuate the acute motoric response to a novel environment. Behavioral sensitization/tolerance was measured by locomotion (cm) within long narrow activity boxes with the Ethnovision video tracking system. In the first experiment the wheel access rats were significantly more active during the 1 hr amphetamine challenge test than the non-wheel rats thus showing
We hypothesized that sepsis during hyperglycemia would activate left ventricular (LV) mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling mechanisms and modulate generation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) that can contribute to the progression of LV dysfunction. A single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg, via tail vein) was used to produce type 2 diabetes in male SD rats. Polymicrobial sepsis and sham-sepsis were induced using single i.p. injection of cecal inoculum and sterile 5% dextrose water, respectively, on the 13th and 27th day following STZ injection. Both 2-week (2-wk) and 4-wk diabetes groups were associated with hyperglycemia and weight loss. LV end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was significantly increased in 4-wk diabetes but not in 2-wk diabetes group. Plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was significantly increased in 4-wk diabetes+sepsis group as compared to sham, 2-wk diabetes+sepsis and sepsis groups. Elevated plasma and LV ET-1 and NO
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to localize and identify angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtypes in the microcirculation of striated muscle.. METHODS: Cremaster muscles from 7- to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were excised, placed in a dissection solution maintained at 4 degrees C, and 3 branch orders of arterioles and venules, as well as capillaries and a muscle specimen, were microdissected under a stereomicroscope. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were developed for purification and amplification of extremely small amounts of RNA (,5 ng/microL) from whole tissue samples. RNA was isolated from each sample, reverse transcribed, and the cDNA products were amplified by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) specifically primed with either AT(1a), AT(1b), or AT(2) receptor primers. The products were electrophoretically size-fractionated on an agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide to visualize DNA bands, and analyzed to determine the presence or absence ...
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis ...
where V is the uptake velocity of the substrate (picomoles per minute per milligram of protein), S is the substrate concentration in the medium (micromolar), Km is the Michaelis constant (micromolar concentration), Vmax is the maximum uptake velocity (picomoles per minute per milligram of protein), and Pdif is the nonsaturable uptake clearance (microliters per minute per milligram of protein). "High" and "low" in eq. 7 indicate parameters of the high- and low-affinity components, respectively. Fitting was performed with the nonlinear least-squares method (the Damping Gauss-Newton method algorithm) using the MULTI program (Yamaoka et al., 1981).. In Vivo Infusion Study in Rats. Male SD rats and EHBRs (Mrp2-deficient rats) weighing approximately 300 to 350 g were used for these experiments. Under pentobarbital anesthesia (40 mg/kg), the femoral vein was cannulated with a polyethylene catheter (PE-50) for the injection of rosuvastatin. The bile duct was cannulated with a polyethylene catheter ...
The aim of the present study was to examine skeletal muscle injury resulting from acute bouts of oscillatory contractions (strech-shortening contractions) in vivo. The injury is estimated by the changes in the mechanical and histological properties of the skeletal muscle before and after the exposures to oscillatory contractions. The dorsiflexor muscles of male Sprague Dawley rats (N=72) were sele
6221 8457627 / +6221 8458258 [email protected] ABSTRACT. Backgroud: Cognitive function impaired in the elderly is not a disease but it can be considered as a Preclinical Alzheimers Disease (AD) one of the most common dementia in the elderly. Results of research on tempe and tofu showed the effects on different cognitive functions. The aims of this study were to analized the effect of tempe and tofu flours cognitive function in ovariectomized female rats. Method: Seventy two (72) white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months used for this study. Before the intervention 52 rats had ovariectomy (OVx) surgical treatments and were grouped into 5 intervention groups: tempe flour, tofu flour, estradiol, casein; and non ovariectomy. Cognitive function was measured using a labyrin. Processing and data analysis, used One-Way ANOVA with Polynomial Contrass Post Hoc LSD. Results: Based on difference test between the tempe flour group (8 weeks) with baseline 2(after OVx) showed that increased ...
To test the hypothesis that gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29) combined with glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) reduce body weight (BW) more than each of the peptides given individually, we infused the two peptides (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta of free feeding, diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 25days and measured BW. We found that GRP-29 and GLP-1 reduce BW, GRP-29 reduced it more than GLP-1 and GRP-29+GLP-1 reduce BW more than each peptide given alone. This reduction was accompanied by decrease 24-hour food intake (normal rat chow), meal size (MS), duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase latency to the first meal, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio (IMI/MS, amount of food consumed per a unit of time ...
Male SD rats (200-240 g) were supplied by Laboratory Animal Center of Ningxia Medical University (Grade II, Certificate No. SCXY 2011-0001). Animals were acclimatized in environmentally controlled breeding cages for at least 3 days before being used and were provided with standard laboratory food and water and were fasted for 12 h prior to the study. Water was freely available for rats during experiments. The experimental protocol was approved by the University Ethics Committee. All procedures involving animals were in accordance with the Regulations of the Experimental Animal Administration, State Committee of Science and Technology, Peoples Republic of China. 20 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5). Group A was the control vehicle (ART alone) and group L, M, and H were the combination groups with CHR in three fixed ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:4). The suspension of CHR was continuously administered (each time per day) to rats in group L, M, and H by gavage at doses of 5, 10, 20 mg/kg ...
Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats received saline injections (0.1 ml) of pH 4.0 or pH 7.4 in the gastrocnemius muscle on alternate days (total 6). A third group received needle prick only, while a forth group was left naive (n = 10 per group). A stimulus response function to graded colorectal distension (CRD) (10-80 mmHg) was recorded at age 8-12 weeks. Extracellular single-unit recordings from spinal neurons (L1-L4) were performed in adult pH 4.0 injected rats and compared to naive controls. Neurons were sub-classified as short latency abrupt (SL-A, n = 24) or short latency sustained (SL-S, n = 23). The spontaneous activity and response to graded CRD was recorded for each neuron. Recordings were repeated following administration of amitriptyline (6 μmol/kg, i.v.).. ...
Propofol (100 mg/kg) was given to 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats; in some rats, hypoxic preconditioning was administered before intraperitoneal propofol injection by subjecting rats to five cycles of 10 min of hypoxia (8% O2) and 10 min of normoxia (21% O2). Then, the rats were allowed to breathe room air for 2 h. Neuronal mitochondrial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. ATP content was detected using an ATP assay kit. The expression levels of GLUT1, GLUT3, pDrp1, Drp1 and Mfn2 were detected by Western blot, and the expression levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were further examined by immunohistochemistry.. ...
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... : IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
In the high range, my own observation to date is that at or above the 98th percentile there are about twice more males than females, while at or above the 99.9th percentile there are about 15 times more males. Trying to make this fit in terms of standard deviation (variance is the square of the standard deviation by the way), I find that when the male and female mean are both IQ 100, the male standard deviation (SD) must be about 33% greater than the female SD. However, when a mean difference of 5 points in favor of males would exist, the male SD would only need to be about 11% greater. I dont know which is true (or if the truth lies in between) and will not be able to verify it myself as I only deal with high-range tests. I must say though that an SD difference of 33% seems unlikely.. Eysenck, H.J. 1981. Race, Intelligence and Education. Maurice Temple Smith Ltd. Hedges, Larry V. and Amy Nowell. 1995. "Sex differences in mental test scores, variability and numbers of high-scoring individuals." ...
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial damage induced by isoproterenol is believed to be secondary to increased oxygen demands on the heart. Our objective was to test an additional primary action of isoproterenol on tissue and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and to compare these effects with the effects of other adrenergic agents in the presence of adrenergic inhibitors. DESIGN: Prospective, dose-response study. SETTING: Research laboratory at a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley female rats (200 to 350 g), slightly anesthetized with ether and divided into several groups. INTERVENTIONS: In 26 rats, the heart was removed, cut into fine slices (0.5-mm thickness), and placed in an ice-cold buffer. In 22 animals, the hearts were perfused in the Langendorff manner and chopped and processed for mitochondrial studies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We determined the following: a) the direct "in vitro" effects of isoproterenol and related catecholamines on normal oxygen uptake using myocardial ...
Yes if you want to participate in the project, but have a specific sample you want to use in your composition, then post the sample in the field recordings section for everyone as well. To do so, Just start a new topic with the subject as the title for your field recording, add as an attachment in your post. Site only supports mp3, but I post mine in 256k which is pretty decent ...
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What is the power of each of the following studies, using a t test for dependent means (based on the .05 significance level)? Answer by using the examples below: Study Effect Size N Tails (a) Small 20 One (b).
خاک نقش مهمی را در چرخه بیوژئوشیمیایی به عنوان یک منبع مهم ذخیره عناصر ایفا می-کند. از عوامل مهمی که در کشاورزی حائز اهمیت است نوع ویژگی-های خاک، پراکنش و میزان تغییرات آن می-باشد. در این مطالعه 600 نمونه خاک با فواصل تقریبی 100 متر در 100 متر از عمق 30-0 سانتی-متری در 800 هکتار از اراضی شرکت کشت و صنعت شریف آباد قزوین جمع-آوری شد. آنالیز آمار توصیفی و زمین آماری داده-های جمع-آوری شده، انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد دامنه تغییرات نیتروژن کل خاک در محدوده 82/0- 02/0% با میانگین 26/0 درصد، فسفر قابل استخراج با اولسن در محدودهmg/kg 07/93-58/9 با میانگین 21/36 میلی-گرم بر کیلوگرم، پتاسیم قابل
Temporomandibular joint disorder is characterized by peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Although CGRP is implicated in the development of central sensitization by stimulating glial activation via its receptor, the mechanism by which CGRP promotes and maintains sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons is not well understood. The goal of my study was to investigate the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the initiation and maintenance of a nocifensive withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation following activation of primary trigeminal sensory neurons. For my studies, I used adult male Sprague Dawley rats that were injected with CGRP alone or co-injected with inhibitors and determined changes in nocifensive behavior and inflammatory proteins. Intrathecal injection of CGRP increased nocifensive responses to mechanical stimulation up to 48 hours and this stimulatory effect was blocked by the antagonist peptide CGRP8-37 and a protein kinase A
This study was conducted on pre-pubertal female Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 8 in each group). Group I was administered with vehicle 0.2 ml of corn oil (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) using oral gavage daily for six weeks; these animals served as negative control (CO group), Group II was administered with BPA suspended in corn oil at 10 mg/kg body weight and served as positive control (PC group), Group III was administered with 200 mg/kg body weight of Tualang honey 30 min before the administration of BPA at 10 mg/kg (TH group) while Group IV was administered with 200 mg/kg body weight of Tualang honey 30 min before the administration of corn oil (THC group). Body weight of all animals were monitored weekly ...
Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are closely associated with the development of severe psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet preclinical studies on pathological changes after combined TBI with PTSD are lacking. In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. Additional immunohistochemical ...
This study evaluated how different approaches to limiting energy availability (LEA) by 15% affected mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related signaling in mammary carcinomas. Female Sprague Dawley rats, injected with 50mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea per kilogram body weight, were randomized to a control or three LEA interventions: (i) sedentary and restricted rats fed to 85% of energy available to the control or motorized wheel running (37 m/min) for an average of (ii) 1621±55 (WRL) or (iii) 3094±126 (WRH) meters/day with food intake adjusted to provide the same net amount of available energy across LEA interventions. Under these conditions, LEA reduced overall cancer burden by 28% (P = 0.04) and down-regulated mTOR-related signaling (Hotelling multivariate, P = 0.002). Among the regulatory nodes assessed, reduced levels of activated protein kinase B (pAkt) and induction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) were the most influential factors in distinguishing between sham control and LEA carcinomas. P-Akt was ...
Besides its vasoconstrictor role, Ang II acts as a growth-promoting agent. It induces growth (hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia) in many cultured cell types and in vivo.1,2,11-13⇓⇓⇓⇓ Like most of the known physiological effects of Ang II, evidence up to the present has suggested that these trophic effects are mediated by AT1 receptors. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that vascular Ang II receptors were exclusively of the AT1 subtype. However, the adult rat aorta expresses a small but significant amount of AT2 receptors as well.14 In aorta of fetal and young rats, the proportion of AT2 receptors is higher; this predominance of AT2 receptors is reversed during development.14,15⇓ In 2-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats, 81% of angiotensin receptors in the aorta are of the AT2 subtype; in 8-week-old rats, this is reduced to 28%, with a predominance of AT1 (71%).14 In 6-to 8-week-old SHR and WKY rats, renal resistance vessels display 20% of Ang II binding sites with affinity to PD123319.16 ...
Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and betanerve growth factor (beta-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6-8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and beta-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory,
Care of the rats used in this study met the guidelines set forth by the National Institutes of Health (National Academy Press 1996). The National Science Council (Taiwan, Republic of China), and Animal Review Committee of the National Defense Medical Center approved the study protocol. The isolated rat lungs were prepared using previously described methods.8,9 In brief, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 350 ± 20 g were anesthetized using intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg). After a cannula had been inserted into the rats trachea, the lungs were ventilated with humidified air containing 5% CO2. The ventilator settings included a tidal volume of 3 ml, an end-expiratory pressure of 1 cm H2O, and a frequency of 60 cycles per minute. After a median sternotomy, the right ventricle was injected with heparin (1 U/g of body weight [BW]), and 10 ml of intracardiac blood were withdrawn. The pulmonary artery was cannulated and perfused with a physiological salt solution consisting of 119 mM ...
Background. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) induces greater brain injury and neurological impairment than those without AAI. It is not clear whether chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) may cause similar outcomes in ICH rats. Methods. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into two groups: CAC group (n = 8) fed with 10% alcohol in drinking water for 4 weeks, and Control group (n = 8) fed with water only. ICH was induced by collagenase infusion into the striata. Coronal T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, T2*-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging were generated with a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to investigate the changes of hemorrhagic volume and edema throughout the injury and recovery stages of ICH. Results. The hematoma volume was larger in the CAC group than in the control group (P , 0.001). These findings, however, cannot explain the findings that at post-ICH, progressive edema formation and neurological ...
Background. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) induces greater brain injury and neurological impairment than those without AAI. It is not clear whether chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) may cause similar outcomes in ICH rats. Methods. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into two groups: CAC group (n = 8) fed with 10% alcohol in drinking water for 4 weeks, and Control group (n = 8) fed with water only. ICH was induced by collagenase infusion into the striata. Coronal T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, T2*-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging were generated with a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to investigate the changes of hemorrhagic volume and edema throughout the injury and recovery stages of ICH. Results. The hematoma volume was larger in the CAC group than in the control group (P , 0.001). These findings, however, cannot explain the findings that at post-ICH, progressive edema formation and neurological ...
About one third of patients with type 1 diabetes develops kidney disease. The mechanism is largely unknown, but intrarenal hypoxia has been proposed as a unifying mechanism for chronic kidney disease including diabetic nephropathy. The endothelin system has recently been demonstrated to regulate oxygen availability in the diabetic kidney via a pathway involving endothelin type A receptors (ETA-R). These receptors mainly mediate vasoconstriction and tubular sodium retention, and inhibition of ETA-R improves intrarenal oxygenation in the diabetic kidney. Endothelin type B receptors (ETB-R) can induce vasodilation of the renal vasculature and also regulate tubular sodium handling. However, the role of ETB-R in kidney oxygen homeostasis is unknown. The effects of acute intrarenal ETB-R activation (Sarafotoxin 6c for 30-40 min; 0.78 pmol h-1 directly into the renal artery) on kidney function and oxygen metabolism were investigated in normoglycemic controls and insulinopenic male Sprague Dawley rats ...
Catechin is an active ingredient of green tea. It is reported to inhibit corticosteroid‑induced anxiety and depression‑like symptoms. Considering the complex nature of depression, effects of catechin need to be studied in a clinically relevant depression model. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effect of catechin in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Animals were subjected to CUMS and treated with (+)‑catechin (50 mg/kg) or escitalopram (10 mg/kg) orally; a CUMS control and a vehicle control that was not exposed to CUMS were also established. Various stressors were applied daily in an unpredictable manner for 8 weeks achieve CUMS. Sucrose preference test were performed after 4 and 8 weeks and forced swim tests (FSTs) were conducted at weeks 4, 6 and 8. At the end of week 8, animals were sacrificed and the brain homogenate was studied for antioxidant parameters. Compared with the vehicle control, animals of the CUMS control ...
OBJECTIVE Novel treatment strategies are needed in the treatment of endometriosis due to limited success rates with the currently available options. As inflammatory and immunological mechanisms have been shown to be involved in the mechanism of the disease, new modalities are likely to emerge. We investigated the effects of infliximab (INF), etanercept (ETA) and letrozole on the regression of experimental endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN In this experimental randomized trial, endometriosis was induced surgically in 44 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Establishment of implants was confirmed in 41 animals by a second operation on the 21st day. The rats were then randomly divided into four groups. Group I (n = 10) served as controls. Group II (n = 11) received letrozole (0.18 mg/kg, i.p.), group III (n = 10, i.p.) ETA (2.016 mg/kg, i.p.), and group IV (n = 10) INF (15.12 mg/kg, i.p.) for a second 21-day period. Endometriotic implant size along with peritoneal fluid VEGF level and immunoreactivity were
Hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and insulin resistance and results from a net retention of lipids in the liver. A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Insulin controls nutrient partitioning via signaling through its cognate receptor in peripheral target organs such as liver, muscle and adipose tissue and via signaling in the CNS to orchestrate organ cross talk. While hepatic insulin signaling is known to suppress VLDL production from the liver, it is unknown whether brain insulin signaling independently regulates hepatic VLDL secretion. Here we show that in conscious, unrestrained male Sprague Dawley rats the infusion of insulin into the 3rd ventricle acutely increased hepatic TG secretion. Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by non-invasive 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and lipid profiling independent of changes in ...
Explant Preparation. Hippocampal slices were prepared from 6- to 9-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups of both sexes using previously described techniques (Thomas et al., 1998; Thomas and Morrisett, 2000) and in accordance with National Institutes of Health and University of Texas Institutional Animal Use and Care Committee guidelines. In brief, brains were rapidly removed, cooled to 0 to 4°C for at least 3 min, and then 500-μm transverse sections were prepared and transferred to a holding chamber containing equilibration ACSF bubbled with 95% O2/5% CO2 and maintained at 32°C for 60 min before explanting. Equilibration ACSF consisted of 120 mM NaCl, 25 mM NaHCO3, 3.3 mM KCl, 1.2 mM NaH2PO4, 1.8 mM CaCl2, 2.4 mM MgSO4, and 10 mM dextrose. After equilibration, slices were transferred under sterile conditions onto Millicell-CM organotypic membrane inserts (generally, one to three slices per insert; Millipore, Bedford, MA) with media consisting of 75% minimal essential medium and 25% heat-inactivated ...
Loram LC, Taylor FR, Strand KA, Maier SF, Speake JD, Jordan KG, James JW, Wene SP, Pritchard RC, Green H, Van Dyke K, Mazarov A, Letchworth SR, Watkins LR. Systemic administration of an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist reverses neuropathic pain in male Sprague Dawley rats. J Pain. 2012 Dec; 13(12):1162-71 ...
Objective: Intracerebroventricular administration of orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous agonist ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, decreases extracellular levels of dopamine and suppresses motor activity. The presence of the ORL-1 receptor on mesoaccumbal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons raises the possibility that an action along these
Antibodies and Chemicals. For immunoprecipitation, a cocktail of NR1 antibodies was used. The cocktail contained a polyclonal NMDAζ1 antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Santa Cruz, CA) and a monoclonal antibody anti-NR1 (Upstate Biotechnology, Lake Placid, NY). For the probing, anti-phosphotyrosine (anti-pTyr) 4G10 clone and anti-PSD-95 (Upstate Biotechnology); anti-NR1 (BD Biosciences PharMingen, San Diego, CA); and anti-NR2A, anti-NR2B, and anti-NR2A/B (recognizing both NR2A and NR2B subunits) antibodies (Chemicon International, Temecula, CA) were used. Phenylarsine oxide and sodium orthovanadate were purchased from Calbiochem-Novabiochem (San Diego, CA). Other chemicals used were from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO) or from Calbiochem-Novabiochem.. Cortical Slice Preparation and Drug Treatments. Experiments were performed on cortical slices obtained from 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. All procedures were conducted in strict adherence with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the ...
BACKGROUND: Diuron is widely used in agriculture but its deleterious effects on the reproductive system and mammary gland are still poorly understood. This study evaluated whether early-life-stage exposure to Diuron alters puberty onset or susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant rats received basal diet or diet containing Diuron at 500, 750, and 1,250 ppm, from gestational day 12 to the end of lactation (postnatal day 21 [PND21]). After weaning, female offspring continued receiving basal diet or diet containing Diuron until PND 51. At PND 51, female Sprague-Dawley offspring received a single dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) for initiation of mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were sacrificed on PND 51, 75, and 226 to 233 (week 25) for mammary gland morphology, reproductive organs and tumor analysis, respectively. There were no significant differences among groups on vaginal opening, estrous cycle, ...
This study examined the role played by the catecholaminergic A2 neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of adult male Sprague- Dawley rats in the increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) noticed following exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rodent model to simulate arterial hypoxemic conditions occurring in humans suffering from sleep apnea. In one study, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) knockdown in NTS reduces the sustained elevation in MAP noticed in the rats exposed to CIH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters and adeno-associated viral constructs with a GFP reporter having either short hairpin RNA for TH (shRNA) or scrambled virus (scrambled) were injected into caudal NTS. shRNA through formation of RNA-induced silencing complex reduced the amount of TH levels in the NTS. Virus injected rats were exposed to 7 days CIH (alternating 6 min periods of 10% O2 and 4 min of 21% O2 from 8am to 4pm; from 4pm to 8am rats
Background: We hypothesized that preconditioning (PC) with a short exposure to isoflurane (ISO) would reduce neurodegeneration induced by prolonged exposure to ISO in neonatal rats, as previously shown in neuronal cell culture.. Methods: We randomly divided 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats into 3 groups: control, 1.5% ISO, and PC + 1.5% ISO. The control group was exposed to carrier gas (30% oxygen balanced in nitrogen) for 30 minutes and then to carrier gas again for 6 hours the following day. The 1.5% ISO group was exposed to carrier gas for 30 minutes and then to 1.5% ISO for 6 hours the following day. The PC + 1.5% ISO group was preconditioned with a 30-minute 1.5% ISO exposure and then exposed to 1.5% ISO for 6 hours the following day. Blood and brain samples were collected 2 hours after the exposures for determination of neurodegenerative biomarkers, including caspase-3, S100[beta], caspase-12, and an autophagy biomarker Beclin-1.. Results: Prolonged exposure to ISO significantly increased ...
Dexamethasone (Dex) pretreatment significantly increased cardiac contractile force ex vivo in Langendorff-perfused Sprague-Dawley rat hearts (2 mg/kg BW i.p. Dex 24 h prior to experiment). Moreover, Ca transient amplitude as well as fractional shortening were significantly enhanced in Fura-2-loaded isolated rat ventricular myocytes exposed to Dex (1 mg/mL Dex, 24 h). Interestingly, these Dex-dependent effects could be abolished in the presence of SOCE-inhibitors SKF-96356 (SKF, 2 μM) and BTP2 (5 μM). Ca transient kinetics (time to peak, decay time) were not affected by SOCE stimulation. Direct SOCE measurements revealed a negligible magnitude in untreated myocytes but a dramatic increase in SOCE upon Dex-pretreatment. Importantly, the Dex-dependent stimulation of SOCE could be blocked by inhibition of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) using EMD638683 (EMD, 50 μM). Dex preincubation also resulted in increased mRNA expression of proteins involved in SOCE (stromal interaction ...
Proliferation assessed by determination of expression levels of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, cyclin D3, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) with Western blot analysis, and determination of DNA synthesis with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay; activation of AMPK, Erk1/2, and S6K1 determined by Western blot analysis with the use of antibodies specific for the phosphorylated (activated) forms.. Result(s): ...
Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by constriction and remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Changes in serotonin synthesis, receptor activation and uptake via the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been reported in experimental and clinical PAH. Acute vascular constriction by chronic exposure to high levels of serotonin (5-HT) can be mediated by 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors and thickening of cardiac valves through 5-HT2B receptor. RP5063 is a novel multimodal modulator of dopamine and serotonin receptors with high affinity for 5-HT2B (Ki=0.19 nM),5-HT2A (Ki=2.5 nM),5-HT1A, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors. In this study, the possibility that RP5063 could bind to these serotonin receptors to alleviate the symptoms of experimental PAH in rats was quantified by hemodynamic monitoring and histological examination.Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single s.c. injection of 50 mg/kg monocrotaline on Day 0. The animals were monitored for 28 days while PAH ...
Occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) causes a Parkinson-type disorder called Manganism, a neurodegenerative disease currently without reliable biomarkers for body burden estimation and for pre-symptomatic toxicity assessment. Data in literature suggest that Mn deposited in bone accounts for 43% of total body Mn. The objective of this study was to determine if bone Mn levels were parallel to Mn
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) may be a potential strategy for traumatic brain injury treatment (TBI) due to their intrinsic advantages, such as cell replacement, secretion of neurotrophins and formation of functional synapses with host. However the underlying effects of transplanted NSCs on host micro-environment still need to be further elucidated. In this manuscript the effects of NSCs on release of neurotransmitter, survival of hippocampal neurons, reactivity of astrocytes and recovery of cognitive function after TBI were observed. The NSCs were isolated from cortex of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat and then transplanted into injured brain regions caused by free-weight drop. The proliferation of astrocytes around injured sites were examined by GFAP immunofluorescent staining on 3, 7, 14 days after injury. The survival of neurons at CA1 regions of hippocampus toward contused regions was observed by HE staining on 3 and 14 days post-injury. The content of glutamic acid (Glu) and GABA ...
Increasing evidence suggests that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a key mediator of the inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, we showed that intracerebroventricular administration of an IL-1 beta-neutralizing antibody was neuroprotective following TBI in mice. In the present study, an anti-IL-1 beta antibody or control antibody was administered intraperitoneally following controlled cortical injury (CCI) TBI or sham injury in 105 mice and we extended our histological, immunological and behavioral analysis. First, we demonstrated that the treatment antibody reached target brain regions of brain-injured animals in high concentrations (, 11 nm) remaining up to 8 days post-TBI. At 48 h post-injury, the anti-IL-1b treatment attenuated the TBI-induced hemispheric edema (P , 0.05) but not the memory deficits evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM). Neutralization of IL-1 beta did not influence the TBI-induced increases (P , 0.05) in the gene expression of the ...
City Ordinance 12-13-19 addresses Parking Consecutively Over Forty-Eight Hours. It is unlawful for anyone to park or leave standing on any public street or highway in the city any vehicle for a period longer than forty-eight hours consecutively.. 12-13-19. Parking Consecutively Over Forty-Eight Hours.. Any person violating this section is subject to a fine of Fifteen Dollars ($15.00) per each day of violation. A vehicle left parked or standing on any public street or highway for a consecutive period longer than forty-eight hours shall be considered abandoned for purposes of Section 12-13-23(k).. City Ordinance 12-13-19.1 addresses Parking of Campers and Trailers Limited. It is unlawful for anyone to park or leave standing on any public street or highway in the city any boat, snowmobile, bumper pull travel trailer, fifth wheel trailer,pull type camper, pickup camper, motor home, house car, bus, mini motor home, or trailer for a period longer than forty-eight hours consecutively. Any person ...
Intermittent hypoxia-induced changes in tumor-associated macrophages and tumor malignancy in a mouse model of sleep apnea.: Our findings support the notion that
(1999) Masagaki, Fujii. Zoological Science. The longitudinally striped pattern of the threeline pencilfish, Nannostomus trifasciatus, is observed only in the daytime, and changes into a different pattern with three dark spots at night. In th...
Liu, A.,Chen, Y.,Yang, Z.,et al. New Metabolites Of Fenofibrate In Sprague-dawley Rats By Uplc-esi-qtof-ms-based Metabolomics Coupled With Lc-ms/ms[J]. Xenobiotica,2009,39(4):345-354 ...
A screening test for reproductive/developmental toxicity (OECD 422) was performed on Fyrolflex Sol-DPto provide information on the potential systemic, reproductive, developmental and neuro-toxicity of the product.The test material was orally administeredby gavageto 4 groups of ten male and ten female rats at concentrations of 0, 50, 250, 1000mg/kg/day.The control and high dose groups each contained 5 additional rats/ sex for the same duration but were not mated. These rats were designated as recovery animals and were held for at least 14 days after treatment termination to evaluate the recovery potential from any adverse treatment related effects. The parental rats were administered with the test material for 14 days prior to mating. Then, one male was housed with one female from the same concentration group. Each couple was allowed to mate for up to 2 weeks while the administration of the test substance continued. During the mating period, daily vaginal smears were taken from each of the female ...
I just thought I would update everyone with how all my ratties are doing. They are all doing great and everyone seems to have recovered from the illness. No additional rats got sick so I think the problem has been contained. I have a vet appointment for next Monday (the 11th) to get some blood drawn from one of my rats. I will send the blood into Radil, which is a lab that tests for infectious diseases. Then I will know for sure what they had, and will adjust my quarantine procedures from there.. I spoke to one of the doctors there, and based on their symptoms, he suspects that the rats were affected by myco, which is something that most rats bred outside of sterile conditions in labs have. But it is likely that I brought home a different strain of myco which affected a few of the rats, but now everyone has adjusted and they should be fine. I will still keep Iriss litter an extra few weeks just to be sure they dont come down with anything. I dont expect that they will, but I dont want to ...
The detection of even subtle metabolic alterations in the ischemic myocardium by metabolic imaging was first shown in a canine model of partial coronary artery occlusion and rapid atrial pacing (47). In subsequent occlusion-reperfusion studies, prolonged metabolic alterations were observed after 30 min of occlusion. These metabolic changes persisted for several weeks thereafter (48-51). The studies served as the experimental basis of subsequent clinical studies in which persistent reductions in fatty acid metabolism could be detected long after the resolution of the perfusion abnormality and ischemia (52-58). Thus, the application of a metabolic radiotracer for imaging, as opposed to a perfusion tracer, potentially extends the scope for noninvasive imaging of an ischemic event beyond the resolution of symptoms and allows monitoring long-term effects. The concept applies to tracers or tracer analogs of both long-chain fatty acids and glucose. Their uptake by previously ischemic heart muscle is ...
The effect of the presence either of a familiar or non-familiar conspecific animal on serum corticosterone and some behavioral responses in the open field was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats....
9780205385850 Our cheapest price for Improving Schools Through Action Research : A Comprehensive Guide for is $0.01. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
This is a strategic area of research for Michigan. One of our professors demonstrated a deep neural network trained to pick individual human pedestrians out from 10-20 fps video taken as a car navigates the MSU campus. If youve ever tried to drive across our campus in the middle of the day, with students trying to get to class or lab or dorm, youll understand what a difficult computational task this is ...
... : Mean pharmacokinetic parameters of 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) and four salt forms after a single 100 mmol/kg iv and po administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3). ...
Aim of the study is to ascertain whether a different strategy of fluids administration can be responsible of differences in terms of acid/base disorders (Stewart approach), pro-inflammatory and inflammatory mediators. Hence two groups of patients will be treated either with not-balanced solutions (Normal Saline) or balanced ...
After years of research and gene mutation, scientists started to establish and set the basic requirements of what a domesticated rat should look like. To date, the approved types of genetically mutated rats which can be kept as pets are the Albinos, the black-eyed white rats, the white-pawed black rats and the Agouti. These rats can be cross-bred by their owners if they want -- this actually produced rats that have very different appearances. One of the most popular ones are the Siamese rats which are also known as the pointed rats. These rats have white underside with pink paws and tail; their bodies are spotted and their heads are white. There are so many other rat breeds now, some have furry tails; some have developed hairy paws (which is very uncommon), while many of these rats actually do not have hair ...
An apparatus is provided for diagnosing the state of health of a vehicle and for providing the operator of the vehicle with a substantially real-time indication of the efficiency of the vehicle in performing an assigned task with respect to a predetermined goal. A processor on-board the vehicle monitors sensors that provide information regarding the state of health of the vehicle and the amount of work the vehicle has done. In response to anomalies in the data from the sensors, the processor records information that describes events leading up to the occurrence of the anomaly for later analysis that can be used to diagnose the cause of the anomaly. The sensors are also used to prompt the operator of the vehicle to operate the vehicle at optimum efficiency.
Novaf, integración de personas discapacitadas mediante vehículos para el fácil acceso a playa, nieve y montaña: sillas anfibias, vehículos todo terreno, transporte de minusválidos y accidentados.
Novaf, integración de personas discapacitadas mediante vehículos para el fácil acceso a playa, nieve y montaña: sillas anfibias, vehículos todo terreno, transporte de minusválidos y accidentados.
For the past ten years, patients in the practice have had to starve themselves for eight to twelve hours prior to coming in to the office for annual labs.
A study was conducted to determine the protective effects of two common dietary proteins, soy protein isolate (soy) and bovine whey, against chemically induced mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were fed AIN-93G diets having casein, soy, or whey as the sole protein source. Rats within the same dietary groups were mated to obtain the F1 and F2 generations. At age 50 days, F1 (experiment A) or F2 (experiment B) female offspring (≥19 rats/group) were p.o. gavaged with 80 mg/kg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, and mammary glands were evaluated when 100% of the casein-fed group developed at least one palpatable tumor. Rats grew well on all three diets, but casein-fed rats gained slightly more body weight than soy- or whey-fed rats (P , 0.05). Vaginal opening occurred 1 day earlier in soy-fed rats than in casein- or whey-fed rats, but no other differences in reproductive and developmental parameters were observed between groups. When 50% of the casein-fed rats had at least one mammary ...
2569 Soy isoflavones are being investigated as potential cancer preventive agents. Two independent studies were conducted to investigate tumor modulating abilities of a mixture of isoflavones, or an isoflavone genistein on colon cancer incidence. In the first study, the incidence of colon precancer and cancer were determined in the male offspring (F1 generation) from male and female Sprague Dawley rats exposed to soy-based diets containing variable levels of soy isoflavones during their lifetime, including during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, the F1 rats were acclimatized on their respective parental soy-based, semi-purified basal diets containing 0, 50, or 1250 mg/kg diet of soy isoflavones. At the age of 45 days, rats received one subcutaneous dose, once a week for two weeks, of saline or 15 mg/kg body weight azoxymethane (AOM), a colon-specific carcinogen. Rats were maintained on their respective experimental diets throughout the study, which terminated 26 weeks after the first dose of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fos expression in brain stem nuclei of pregnant rats after hydralazine- induced hypotension. AU - Curtis, Kathleen. AU - Cunningham, J. Thomas. AU - Heesch, Cheryl M.. PY - 1999/8/1. Y1 - 1999/8/1. N2 - Fos and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunoreactivity were evaluated in the brain stems of 21-day pregnant and virgin female rats injected with either hydralazine (HDZ; 10 mg/kg iv) or vehicle. HDZ produced significant hypotension in both groups, although baseline blood pressure was lower in pregnant rats (96 ± 2.5 mmHg) than in virgin female rats (121 ± 2.8 mmHg). There were no differences in Fos immunoreactivity in the brain stems of pregnant and virgin female rats after vehicle treatment. HDZ-induced hypotension significantly increased Fos expression in both groups; however, the magnitude of the increases differed in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL), the area postrema (AP), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL). Fos expression after HDZ in pregnant rats was augmented ...
BACKGROUND: Different conditions may alter tendon characteristics. Clinical evidence suggests that tendon injuries are more frequent in athletes that change type, intensity and duration of training. Aim of the study was the assessment of training and especially detraining on the patellar tendon (PT) and its enthesis. METHODS: 27 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: 20 rats were trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks. Of these, 10 rats were euthanized immediately after training (trained group), and 10 were caged without exercise for 4 weeks before being euthanized (de-trained group). The remaining 7 rats were used as controls (untrained rats). PT insertion, structure (collagen fiber organization and proteoglycan, PG, content), PT thickness, enthesis area, and subchondral bone volume at the enthesis were measured by histomorphometry and microtomography. RESULTS: Both PG content and collagen fiber organization were significantly lower in untrained and detrained animals than in ...
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is the immunosuppressant of first choice in allotransplantation. Its use is associated with side effects of nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, which are among the most prominent. This study was undertaken to explore whether expression and activity of heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is altered in a rat model of CsA-induced injury. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups and treated for 21 days. Group I (control) was injected with olive oil (vehicle), group II with CsA (15 mg/kg/day), group III with CsA and the HO inhibitor stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) (30 micromol/kg/day) and group IV with one dose of the HO inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) 5 mg/100 or heme (10 mg/kg body weight), three days after onset of CsA treatment. Renal tissue was processed for light microscopy, and for HO-1 enzyme activity, assay and for Western blot analysis. In CsA-treated rats there was histological evidence of tubulointerstitial scarring. HO-1 ...
Definition of Solitary tract nucleus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Solitary tract nucleus? Meaning of Solitary tract nucleus as a legal term. What does Solitary tract nucleus mean in law?
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of prostaglandin EP1 receptor within the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL PAG). The role of VL PAG EP1 receptor in controlling thermonociception and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) activity in healthy and neuropathic rats was also examined. EP1 receptor was indeed found to be expressed within the VL PAG and co-localized with vesicular GABA transporter. Intra-VL PAG microinjection of ONO-DI-004, a selective EP1 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reduced tail flick latency as well as respectively increasing and decreasing the spontaneous activity of ON and OFF cells. Furthermore, it increased the ON cell burst and OFF cell pause. Intra-VL PAG prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) behaved similarly to ONO-DI-004. The effects of ONO-DI-004 and PGE2 were antagonized by intra-VL PAG L335677, a selective EP1 receptor antagonist. L335677 dose-dependently increased the tail flick latency and ongoing activity of the OFF cells, while reducing the ongoing ON cell
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability all over the world. Ischemic stroke results from a temporary or permanent reduction of cerebral blood flow that leads to functional and structural damage in different brain regions. Despite decades of intense research, the beneficial treatment of stroke remains limited. In light of this, the search for effective means ameliorating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) is one of the major problems of experimental medicine and biology. Recently, the 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO, a key enzyme metabolizing arachidonic acid to produce leukotrienes) inhibitors have been showed to protect brain against ischemic damage in animal model of cerebral ischemia. Caffeic acid, an inhibitor of 5-LO, is a phenolic compound widely distributed in medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeic acid on global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study was carried out on 45 rats that were randomly divided into five groups:
How is Human Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (cardiology) abbreviated? h-SMC stands for Human Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (cardiology). h-SMC is defined as Human Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (cardiology) very rarely.
Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent environmental chemicals that are known thyroid hormone disrupters. Frequently the disruption of one endocrine axis and the timing of the disruption have an impact on other interdependent hormonal responses. Although the mechanisms for the interdependency of thyroid hormones and leptin have not been fully characterized, both are linked to development and regulation of metabolism. Furthermore, PCB accumulation in depot fat could potentially alter leptin production. In the present study 15-and 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed gestationally and lactationally to 1.25 ppm of Aroclor 1254®, a mixture of 52 PCB congeners, via maternal diet, to determine the effect on leptin and thyroid hormones. Additionally, young adult female rats were fed 1.25 PCB for 21 days and the same hormones were assessed. Serum leptin concentrations were determined by a sensitive murine leptin ELISA (DSL, Inc., Webster, TX). Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined ...

Assessment of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Biofield Energy Treated Novel Herbomineral Formulation After Oral Administration...Assessment of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Biofield Energy Treated Novel Herbomineral Formulation After Oral Administration...

... has the significant capability to alter the immunomodulatory activity of the herbomineral formulation in female Sprague Dawley ... rats. It is then anticipitated that the Biofield Energy Treated herbomineral formulation and Biofield Energy Treatment group ... Randomly breed healthy female Sprague Dawley rats body weight ranges between 132-183 grams, were used for the study. All the ... Table 1. The effect of the test formulation on primary and secondary humoral immune response in female Sprague Dawley rats. ...
more infohttps://www.trivedieffect.com/the-science/biotech/publication/healers-science/nutraceuticals/assessment-of-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-biofield-energy-treated-novel-herbomineral-formulation-after-oral-administration-in-female-sprague-dawley-rats/

Probiotic Amelioration of Azotemia in 5/6th Nephrectomized Sprague-Dawley RatsProbiotic Amelioration of Azotemia in 5/6th Nephrectomized Sprague-Dawley Rats

... Natarajan Ranganathan,1 Beena Patel,1 Pari ... and Their Effect on Liver Function and Gut Microflora of Experimental Rats," Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, 2018. View ... BJ0021 on liver and kidney oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by endosulfan in pregnant rats ," Renal Failure, vol. 37, no ... "In vivo assessment of bacteriotherapy on acetaminophen-induced uremic rats," Journal of Nephrology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 228-236 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2005/784542/citations/

Dystonia Musculorum Deformans, Sprague-Dawley Rat with the Dystonic (dt) Mutation | SpringerLinkDystonia Musculorum Deformans, Sprague-Dawley Rat with the Dystonic (dt) Mutation | SpringerLink

Baker H.J. (1991) Dystonia Musculorum Deformans, Sprague-Dawley Rat with the Dystonic (dt) Mutation. In: Jones T.C., Mohr U., ... 1984) described Sprague-Dawley rats with clinical and biochemical characteristics similar to human inherited torsion dystonias ... Kato M, Onodera T (1984) Spontaneous osteochon-drosis in rats. Lab Anim 18: 179-187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Kato M, Onodera T (1986) Observation on the development of osteochondrosis in young rats. Lab Anim 20: 249-256PubMedCrossRef ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-76533-9_23

Rat Hepatocytes (Sprague-Dawley) | Thermo Fisher ScientificRat Hepatocytes (Sprague-Dawley) | Thermo Fisher Scientific

Characterized for phase I and phase II enzyme activitiesOur Rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and ... Our rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and cryopreservation techniques as our human lots. ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/industrial/pharma-biopharma/drug-discovery-development/adme-tox/gibco-hepatocytes/rat-hepatocytes.html

Tumor Incidence in Normal Sprague-Dawley Female Rats | Cancer ResearchTumor Incidence in Normal Sprague-Dawley Female Rats | Cancer Research

Tumor Incidence in Normal Sprague-Dawley Female Rats. R. K. Davis, G. T. Stevenson and K. A. Busch ... Tumor Incidence in Normal Sprague-Dawley Female Rats Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer ... The mean life span of normal female Sprague-Dawley rats in this laboratory was 760 ± 21 days, with individuals ranging in life ... Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/16/3/194.short

Effects of nicotine self-administration on incentive salience in male Sprague Dawley rats | SpringerLinkEffects of nicotine self-administration on incentive salience in male Sprague Dawley rats | SpringerLink

Effects of nicotine self-administration on incentive salience in male Sprague Dawley rats. ... Twenty-three male rats were trained daily, for 24 days, on a nicotine self-administration (SA) paradigm in the morning, and on ... Nicotine Incentive salience Self-administration Sign-tracking Goal-tracking Pavlovian conditioned approach Rats ... Raiff BR, Dallery J (2008) The generality of nicotine as a reinforcer enhancer in rats: effects on responding maintained by ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-018-4829-4

Rat, Sprague-Dawley | definition of rat, Sprague-Dawley by Medical dictionaryRat, Sprague-Dawley | definition of rat, Sprague-Dawley by Medical dictionary

... rat, Sprague-Dawley explanation free. What is rat, Sprague-Dawley? Meaning of rat, Sprague-Dawley medical term. What does rat, ... Looking for online definition of rat, Sprague-Dawley in the Medical Dictionary? ... rat, Sprague-Dawley. rat, Sprague-Dawley,. n.pr an inbred strain of albino rat commonly used in laboratory research. There are ... Rat, Sprague-Dawley , definition of rat, Sprague-Dawley by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/rat%2C+Sprague-Dawley

Primary Rat Cortex Neurons, Sprague Dawley - Thermo Fisher ScientificPrimary Rat Cortex Neurons, Sprague Dawley - Thermo Fisher Scientific

Sprague Dawley, are isolated and cryopreserved from Sprague Dawley embryonic day-18 rats. A flexible, ready-to-use, and quality ... Gibco Primary Rat Cortex Neurons, Sprague Dawley, are isolated and cryopreserved from Sprague Dawley embryonic day-18 rats. A ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/order/catalog/product/A36511

Uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus)Uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus)

We report a case of uterine torsion in an adult breeding Sprague Dawley rat. The rat died a month after her last recorded ... We report a case of uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus). ... During routine cage changing, a Sprague Dawley adult breeding female was found dead in her cage by the animal attendant. The ... The rats distended abdomen was in line with breeding and delivery dates for advanced pregnancy. The rat was provided with ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso

Uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus)Uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus)

We report a case of uterine torsion in an adult breeding Sprague Dawley rat. The rat died a month after her last recorded ... We report a case of uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus). ... During routine cage changing, a Sprague Dawley adult breeding female was found dead in her cage by the animal attendant. The ... The rats distended abdomen was in line with breeding and delivery dates for advanced pregnancy. The rat was provided with ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282011000300010&lang=en

IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Toxicity Evaluation of Graphene Oxide in Kidneys of Sprague-Dawley RatsIJERPH | Free Full-Text | Toxicity Evaluation of Graphene Oxide in Kidneys of Sprague-Dawley Rats

The present study investigated the response of kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg ... There was a significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydro peroxide in GOs-treated rats compared to ... Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with GO compared with the ... In the present work, however, we only provided preliminary information on toxicity of GO in rats; further experimental ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/4/380

Subacute Oral Toxicity of Yukmijiwhang-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague-Dawley Rats and Its CytotoxicitySubacute Oral Toxicity of Yukmijiwhang-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague-Dawley Rats and Its Cytotoxicity

... Soo-Jin Jeong,1 Chang-Seob Seo,1 ... CD Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (. /gender) were obtained from Orient Bio Co. (Seoul, Korea) and used after 2 weeks of quarantine ... In male rats, YMJ treatment decreased the absolute weights of the epididymides and serum Na levels. In female rats, YMJ ... Figure 3: Food intake in male (a) and female (b) rats treated with YMJ. Healthy male and female rats were assigned to four ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/362573/

Disposition of [14C]hydroquinone in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice | RTIDisposition of [14C]hydroquinone in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice | RTI

2. [14 C]HQ administered (0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg) by gavage or IV routes to male and female Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and ... These studies were undertaken to investigate the disposition of HQ in rats and mice following gavage, intravenous (IV) and ... 2. [14 C]HQ administered (0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg) by gavage or IV routes to male and female Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and ... Disposition of [14C]hydroquinone in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice. Species and route comparison ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/disposition-14chydroquinone-harlan-sprague-dawley-rats-and-b6c3f1n-mice

Fructose feeding increases insulin resistance but not blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats.Fructose feeding increases insulin resistance but not blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Fructose feeding has been widely reported to cause hypertension in rats, as assessed indirectly by tail cuff plethysmography. ... Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Systole. Tail / blood supply. Time Factors. Triglycerides / blood. ... whether blood pressure changes could be detected by long-term monitoring with telemetry in age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats ... 16157789 - Fructose feeding increases insulin resistance but not blood pressure in sprague-dawley .... 7949229 - The effect of ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Fructose-feeding-increases-insulin-resistance/16157789.html

IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Graphene Oxide in the Sprague-Dawley RatIJERPH | Free Full-Text | Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Graphene Oxide in the Sprague-Dawley Rat

Rat tail veins were injected with 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg GO for seven days and behavioral patterns, pathology, and tissue ... The safety of GO is uncertain, so we evaluated its toxicity in male rats. ... Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Graphene Oxide in the Sprague-Dawley Rat by Yingbo Li 1,†, Yan Wang 1,†, Liu Tu 1, Di Chen 1, Zhi ... "Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Graphene Oxide in the Sprague-Dawley Rat." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, no. 11: 1149. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/11/1149

Developmental toxic potential of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in Sprague-Dawley rats. | Sigma-AldrichDevelopmental toxic potential of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in Sprague-Dawley rats. | Sigma-Aldrich

6 through 19 in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test chemical was administered to pregnant rats by gavage at dose levels of 0, 10, 30 ... Developmental toxic potential of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in Sprague-Dawley rats.. [J C Lee, I S Shin, T H Ahn, K H Kim, C Moon ... in rats. Because the developmental toxicity of 1,3-DCP was observed only in the presence of maternal toxicity, it is concluded ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/19047007

Young Sprague Dawley rats infected by Plasmodium berghei: A relevant experimental model to study cerebral malariaYoung Sprague Dawley rats infected by Plasmodium berghei: A relevant experimental model to study cerebral malaria

... infection in Sprague Dawley rats. As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats ... ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats ... Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of ... Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0181300

Developmental toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate administered in the diet to sprague dawley rats | RTIDevelopmental toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate administered in the diet to sprague dawley rats | RTI

Developmental toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate administered in the diet to sprague dawley rats. ... was given in the diet to Sprague Dawley rats in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 414. Dose levels of 0, 3, 10, 20 and 40mg ... Developmental toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate administered in the diet to sprague dawley rats. Reproductive ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/developmental-toxicity-study-sodium-molybdate-dihydrate-administered-diet-sprague-dawley

A two-year dietary carcinogenicity study of cyadox in Sprague-Dawley ratsA two-year dietary carcinogenicity study of cyadox in Sprague-Dawley rats

To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of cyadox, an antimicrobial agent, four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (50 rats/sex ... A two-year dietary carcinogenicity study of cyadox in Sprague-Dawley rats. ... The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of cyadox fed to rats was 2000 mg/kg diet (132.18-156.28 mg/kg b.w./day ... In conclusion, cyadox was not carcinogenic to rats with the liver and kidney as the target organs, and the side chain may be ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?PMID=28454720

Efficacy Study of Livartho against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Sprague Dawley Rats | OMICS InternationalEfficacy Study of Livartho against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Sprague Dawley Rats | OMICS International

Efficacy Study of Livartho against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Sprague Dawley Rats Vivek kumar Dwivedi*, ... Efficacy Study of Livartho against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Sprague Dawley Rats. J Drug Metab Toxicol 5:175 ... of this study was to evaluate therapeutic effect of Livartho drug in paracetamol induced hepatic damage Sprague dawley rats. ... has potent hepatoprotective action and free radical scavenger against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in Sprague dawley rats ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/efficacy-study-of-livartho-against-paracetamol-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-adult-sprague-dawley-rats-2157-7609.1000175.php?aid=39087

Sprague Dawley Rat Albumin - Innovative ResearchSprague Dawley Rat Albumin - Innovative Research

Innovative Researchs Sprague Dawley Rat Albumin is a water-soluble protein with considerable structural stability which makes ... Sprague Dawley Rat Albumin. Innovative Researchs Sprague Dawley Rat Albumin is a water-soluble protein with considerable ... Our Sprague Dawley Ray Albumun in prepared from Sprague Dawley rat plasma by proprietary fractionation methods and lyophilized ... Louis, MO, rat albumin, mouse albumin, and rabbit albumin were acquired from Innovative Research, Inc Novi, MI. For lifetime ...
more infohttps://www.innov-research.com/product/sprague-dawley-rat-albumin/

c-fos gene expression is increased in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats With visceral pain...c-fos gene expression is increased in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats With visceral pain...

Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing from 164 to 181 g for the c-Fos study, and from 187 to 209 g for the CRF study) ... The c-fos gene expression in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) of Sprague-Dawley rats for an animal model for ... c-fos gene expression is increased in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats With visceral pain ... of Sprague-Dawley rats receiving the same acetic acid treatment were not significantly different from those of the control rats ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ar.20495/full

A 90-Day Dietary Toxicity Study of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 Expressing Cry1C Protein in Sprague Dawley RatsA 90-Day Dietary Toxicity Study of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 Expressing Cry1C Protein in Sprague Dawley Rats

A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of ... transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats ... In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed ... 2012) A 90-Day Dietary Toxicity Study of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 Expressing Cry1C Protein in Sprague Dawley Rats. PLoS ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0052507
  • 4. The oral bioavailability of HQ at 5 mg/kg was low in both rats (1.6%) and mice (3.9%) demonstrating significant first pass metabolism. (rti.org)
  • Eight-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on diets containing dietary fiber at the 5% level for 3 weeks to examine the effect on the lipid metabolism and immune function. (go.jp)
  • After treatment with Livartho drug (206.6 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 16 days to paracetamol treated rats shows significantly lowered the afore mentioned biochemical parameter whereas protein and albumin levels were increased along with significant increased above mentioned antioxidant enzymatic parameters. (omicsonline.org)
  • Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with GO compared with the control group. (mdpi.com)
  • In female rats, YMJ significantly reduced the prothrombin time (PT) and serum creatine level. (hindawi.com)
  • A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. (plos.org)
  • In addition, the epidydimal adipose tissue weight of the rats fed on PHGG was significantly higher than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • There was no significant effect on the serum lipid levels, but the serum IgG level of the rats fed on guar gum was significantly lower than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • The IgA and IgG productivity in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes was significantly higher in the rats fed on guar gum, glucomannan and pectin than in those fed on cellulose, while the effect on Ig productivity in spleen lymphocytes was not as marked. (go.jp)
  • Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Only three tumors developed in DMBA-treated rats receiving methylprednisolone acetate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fructose feeding has been widely reported to cause hypertension in rats, as assessed indirectly by tail cuff plethysmography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We propose that previous reports of fructose-induced hypertension reflect a heightened stress response by fructose-fed rats associated with restraint and tail cuff inflation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Rat tail veins were injected with 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg GO for seven days and behavioral patterns, pathology, and tissue morphology were assessed. (mdpi.com)
  • 3. With dermal application of 2, 10 or 20% [14 C]HQ, mice absorbed higher percentages of the dose than rats (37, 12, 12% versus 18.6, 4.43 and 1.79%, respectively). (rti.org)
  • The HQ mass absorbed by mice increased with dose, while in rats it was more constant over the dose range. (rti.org)
  • These results revealed that a 14-day repeated oral dose of 1,3-DCP was minimally embryotoxic but not teratogenic at a maternal toxic dose (90mg/kg/day), and was not embryotoxic at a minimally maternal toxic dose (30mg/kg/day) in rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of cyadox, an antimicrobial agent, four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (50 rats/sex/group) were fed diets containing cyadox (0, 200, 600 or 2000 mg/kg) for up to two years. (ovid.com)
  • Innovative Research's Sprague Dawley Rat Albumin is a water-soluble protein with considerable structural stability which makes up 60% of the total protein of plasma. (innov-research.com)
  • Histopathological evaluation showed significant morphological alterations of kidneys in GO-treated rats compared to controls. (mdpi.com)
  • Assessment of the blood-brain barrier revealed loss of integrity, and interestingly histopathological analysis highlighted cyto-adherence and sequestration of infected RBCs in brain vessels from ECM rats only. (plos.org)
  • To determine whether nicotinic enhancement of incentive salience attributed to non-nicotinic stimuli occurs when rats self-administer nicotine, and whether it is facilitated by a prior history of nicotine self-administration. (springer.com)
  • Here, adrenal necrosis and regeneration were studied in 158 rats for up to 21 days post-DMBA by radioautography of the adrenals of animals given 50 µCi [ 3 H]thymidine 30 min before sacrifice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The rat had been on a 12hour light:dark cycle (lights on at 07:00) and had access ad libitum to drinking water and a diet of commercially available cubes for mice (Epol, South Africa). (scielo.org.za)
  • The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of cyadox fed to rats was 2000 mg/kg diet (132.18-156.28 mg/kg b.w./day). (ovid.com)
  • There was a significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydro peroxide in GOs-treated rats compared to control animals. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the changes were not severe and were considered to be in the normal physiological range for rats. (hindawi.com)
  • ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO 2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats or rats with no ECM. (plos.org)
  • ADX after DMBA treatment increased the tumorigenic response and eliminated resistance to tumorigenesis in older rats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although uterine torsion is a rare condition in rats, it should be considered as a potential complication of gestation in animal breeding units. (scielo.org.za)
  • The animal attendant indicated that he had not noticed any untoward behaviour or sickness in the rat during the previous cage change 48 hours earlier However, about 12 hours before death the rat was less active than usual. (scielo.org.za)
  • Our rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and cryopreservation techniques as our human lots. (thermofisher.com)
  • Kato M, Onodera T (1986) Observation on the development of osteochondrosis in young rats. (springer.com)