A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes. Several species of Orthosiphon are also called Java tea.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The consumption of edible substances.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Excision of kidney.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Glucose in blood.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.

Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer. (1/68726)

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (2/68726)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in rat cardiac myocytes is inhibited by dexrazoxane. (3/68726)

-The clinical efficacy of anthracycline antineoplastic agents is limited by a high incidence of severe and usually irreversible cardiac toxicity, the cause of which remains controversial. In primary cultures of neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes, we found that daunorubicin, at concentrations /=10 micromol/L induced necrotic cell death within 24 hours, with no changes characteristic of apoptosis. To determine whether reactive oxygen species play a role in daunorubicin-mediated apoptosis, we monitored the generation of hydrogen peroxide with dichlorofluorescein (DCF). However, daunorubicin (1 micromol/L) did not increase DCF fluorescence, nor were the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or the combination of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid able to prevent apoptosis. In contrast, dexrazoxane (10 micromol/L), known clinically to limit anthracycline cardiac toxicity, prevented daunorubicin-induced myocyte apoptosis, but not necrosis induced by higher anthracycline concentrations (>/=10 micromol/L). The antiapoptotic action of dexrazoxane was mimicked by the superoxide-dismutase mimetic porphyrin manganese(II/III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-peridyl)porphyrin (50 micromol/L). The recognition that anthracycline-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis, perhaps mediated by superoxide anion generation, occurs at concentrations well below those that result in myocyte necrosis, may aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to limit the toxicity of these drugs.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (4/68726)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

An alternative transcript of the rat renin gene can result in a truncated prorenin that is transported into adrenal mitochondria. (5/68726)

Characterization of the local renin-angiotensin system in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa indicated a dual targeting of renin both to the secretory pathway and mitochondria. To investigate the transport of renin into mitochondria, we constructed a series of amino-terminal deletion variants of preprorenin. One of these variants, lacking the complete signal sequence for the endoplasmic reticulum and 10 amino acids of the profragment, was transported efficiently into isolated mitochondria. The transport was further shown to be dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis. Analysis of adrenal RNA revealed the existence of 2 renin transcripts. While one of the transcripts corresponds to the known full-length transcript, the other one lacks exon 1; instead, exon 2 is preceded by a domain of 80 nucleotides originating from intron 1. This domain, as well as the following region of intron 1 being excised, shows all essential sequence elements defining an additional, so-far-unknown exon. The second mRNA possibly derives from an additional transcription start in intron 1 and an alternative splicing process. Translation of this mRNA could result in a truncated prorenin representing a cytosolic form of renin, which is required for transport into mitochondria. This truncated prorenin corresponds exactly to the deletion variant being imported into mitochondria in vitro.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of K+ channel subunit kv2.2 in brain stem and hypothalamic neurons. (6/68726)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful modulatory actions on cardiovascular function that are mediated by specific receptors located on neurons within the hypothalamus and brain stem. Incubation of neuronal cocultures of rat hypothalamus and brain stem with Ang II elicits an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor-mediated inhibition of total outward K+ current that contributes to an increase in neuronal firing rate. However, the exact K+ conductance(s) that is inhibited by Ang II are not established. Pharmacological manipulation of total neuronal outward K+ current revealed a component of K+ current sensitive to quinine, tetraethylammonium, and 4-aminopyridine, with IC50 values of 21.7 micromol/L, 1.49 mmol/L, and 890 micromol/L, respectively, and insensitive to alpha-dendrotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), charybdotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), and mast cell degranulating peptide (1 micromol/L). Collectively, these data suggest the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Biophysical examination of the quinine-sensitive neuronal K+ current demonstrated a macroscopic conductance with similar biophysical properties to those of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Ang II (100 nmol/L), in the presence of the AT2 receptor blocker PD123,319, elicited an inhibition of neuronal K+ current that was abolished by quinine (50 micromol/L). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b mRNA in these neurons. However, Western blot analyses demonstrated that only Kv2.2 protein was present. Coexpression of Kv2.2 and the AT1 receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated an Ang II-induced inhibition of Kv2.2 current. Therefore, these data suggest that inhibition of Kv2.2 contributes to the AT1 receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal K+ current and subsequently to the modulation of cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (7/68726)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

Kidney aminopeptidase A and hypertension, part II: effects of angiotensin II. (8/68726)

Aminopeptidase A (APA) is the principal enzyme that metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin III. Previously, we showed that kidney APA was elevated in spontaneously hypertensive rats and was reduced after angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. In the present study, we sought to determine whether kidney APA expression was altered after chronically elevated Ang II, either exogenously delivered via osmotic minipumps or endogenously produced in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Ang II (200 ng. kg-1. min-1) was infused subcutaneously for 1 or 2 weeks by osmotic minipumps, and 2K1C rats were tested 4 weeks after unilateral renal artery clipping. Blood pressure was not significantly elevated in the Ang II-infused animals but was significantly increased at 3 and 4 weeks in the 2K1C animals. APA was significantly elevated approximately 2-fold in kidney cortical membranes from Ang II-infused animals but was decreased 45% in the clipped kidney and 18% in the nonclipped kidneys from 2K1C animals. Isolated glomeruli from Ang II-infused animals and the nonclipped kidneys from 2K1C animals had markedly higher APA activity and immunoreactivity. Likewise, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies indicated that APA levels were increased in glomeruli from angiotensin-infused animals and in both nonclipped and clipped kidneys from 2K1C animals. In contrast, tubular APA was decreased in tubular elements from 2K1C animals, most markedly in the clipped kidneys. Thus, despite the increase in glomerular APA expression in kidneys from 2K1C animals, the decrease in tubular APA expression is more extensive and accounts for the measured reduction in total APA in cortical homogenates. Because clipped kidneys are not exposed to high blood pressure, these results suggest that glomerular APA expression is positively regulated and tubular APA negatively regulated by Ang II. These results further suggest that changes in kidney APA expression could influence the progression of angiotensin-dependent hypertension.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 484643 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase of urinary volume in normal Sprague-Dawley rat at 10 mg/kg, po subsequently dosed orally with 50% aqueous glucose solution measured up to 24 hrs relative to control.
Stress Induces the Danger-Associated Molecular Pattern HMGB-1 in the Hippocampus of Male Sprague Dawley Rats: A Priming Stimulus of Microglia and the NLRP3 Inflammasome Journal Article ...
BioAssay record AID 628198 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of drug uptake in hypothalamus to cerebellum in Sprague-Dawley rat at 25 uCi, iv after 2 mins.
All experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines established by the Canadian Council on Animal Care and were approved by the University of Calgary Animal Care Committee. Attention was paid to use only the number of animals necessary to produce reliable results.. Slice preparation. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (150-250 gm) were decapitated under halothane anesthesia, the brain was removed, and coronal slices 300-400 μm thick containing the SON were generated at 0-2°C in a low-Ca2+, low-Na+-containing buffer solution of composition (in mm): 87 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 7 MgCl2, 0.5 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 25 glucose, and 20 sucrose. Slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) for at least 1 hr in artificial CSF (ACSF) of the following composition (in mm): 126 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 1.2 MgCl2, 2.4 CaCl2, 18 NaHCO3, and 11 glucose. Both solutions were bubbled continuously with a mixture of 95% O2, 5% CO2.. Electrophysiological recording. A hemisected slice was ...
Animals and in vivo procedures. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 275-325 g were housed three per cage for at least 1 week before experimentation, with a 14/10 h light/dark cycle and food and water available ad libitum. To determine the time course of the changes in CREM mRNA and CRH hnRNA, rats were subjected to restraint stress by placing them into plastic restrainers (2.5 × 6 inches). Groups of four rats were killed by decapitation at 0.5, 1, 2, or 3 h after initiation of restraint. Control rats were rapidly removed from the cages and decapitated. Brains were immediately removed, frozen in isopentane at -40°C, and stored at -80°C until being sectioned in a cryostat. Trunk blood was collected in plastic tubes, and serum was separated by centrifugation and stored at -80°C for corticosterone determination. To determine the effect of stress-induced elevations in plasma glucocorticoids on the termination of the CRH transcriptional response to stress, 5 d adrenalectomized rats were ...
Methodology: Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were randomly divided into seven groups of five rats each. GroupAwas the control group, animals in group B received 75mg/kg ofAlCl3,animals ingroup C received 75mg/kg ofAlCl3for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days, animals in group D received 150mg/kg of AlCl3, animals in group E received 150mg/kg of AlCl3 for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days, animals in group F received 300mg/kg of AlCl3 while animals in group G received 300mg/kg of AlCl3 for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days. The treated groups received varied doses ofAlCl3 for 40 days, while the administration of RibCys lasted for the following 3 weeks. BothAlCl3 and RibCys were administered orally ...
Acute oral toxicity: The test item was administered by oral route to a group of 6 female Sprague Dawley rats at the single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality occurred during the study. No clinical signs related to the administration of the test item were observed.The body weight evolution ofthe animals remained normal throughout the study. The macroscopical examination of the animals at the end of the study did not reveal treatment-related changes. In conclusion, the LD50of the test item is higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight by oral route in the rat. Acute dermal toxicity: The test item was applied onto the intact skin of 10 Sprague Dawley rats (5 males and 5 females) at the single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality occurred during the study. Neither cutaneous reactions nor systemic clinical signs related to the administration of the test item were observed. The body weight evolution of the animals remained normal throughout the study, similar between treated and control ...
Introduction: Our lab has identified a unique sub-strain of SD rats that is hyper-responsive (HR) to SU5416 (SU) alone and develops severe progressive PAH in response to single injection of SU, even in absence of chronic hypoxia (CH).. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the HR phenotype in response to SU is conferred by genetic determinants that potentiate the response to VEFR2 blockade.. Methods and Results: Male and female rats were injected with SU (20mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (control). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured at 7 weeks after SU injection. In absence of CH, 72% (13 of 18) male SD rats demonstrated HR-phenotype and developed severe PAH in response to SU with mean RVSP of 97±18 mmHg; whereas only 27% (7 of 26) of the female rats showed HR-phenotype. Furthermore, crossing non-responsive male and female rats from the HR colony markedly decreased the proportion of rats exhibiting HR phenotype in the F1-generation (HR 15% and 0%, male vs. female, respectively), ...
Surgical treatment Intact female Sprague Dawley rats at 6, 26 or 52 weeks of age, weighing 154 eleven g, 281 25 g, and 330 thirty g respectively, were anaes thetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine as described earlier. The left knee was shaved, scrubbed with Betadine Solution, and draped with sterile sheets. A medial incision was made with the knee, the patella was deflected laterally as well as a Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries one. 0 mm hole was drilled in to the inter condylar notch. An intramedullary rod was placed retrograde to the left femur. The incision was closed with wound clips. A closed simple transverse mid diaphyseal femoral fracture was induced using a Bonnarens and Einhorn gadget. Ran domly selected rats from amongst those scheduled for sur gery have been used for 0 time no fracture sham controls. Rats had been euthanized at 0, 0.. four, 1, 2, four, and 6 weeks right after frac ture for a complete of six time points at just about every of the 3 ages. ...
The objective of the test was to determine the potential for oral toxicity using the Acute Toxic Class Determination. This study was designed to comply with the standards set forth in the current OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Guideline 423. Guideline 423 is referred to in OPPTS 870.1000 as an acceptable method to assess lethality within a dose range. Initially, three healthy female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed orally with Benzylated Polyamine at 2000 mg/kg. Since the animals died, an additional three healthy females were dosed at 300 mg/kg. There was one death at this level, so an additional three males were dosed as a confirmatory group at 300 mg/kg. The rats were observed at 15 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours postdose and once daily for 14 days for toxicity and pharmacological effects, and twice daily for mortality. Body weights were recorded immediately pretest, weekly, at death and at termination in the survivors. All animals were examined for gross pathology. The test article ...
On 25 January 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Tobacco Scientific Advisory Committee unanimously voted (with one abstention) that Phillip Morris International (PMI) could not claim their heated tobacco product (HTP) IQOS (I-Quit-Ordinary-Smoking) would reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases. Regardless, IQOS is already available in over 30 countries, and thus merits scrutiny from the scientific and medical communities. The preclinical and clinical data PMI submitted to FDA indicate that IQOS exposure may be associated with unexpected liver toxicity. We reviewed preclinical studies conducted by PMI scientists1 and clinical studies of 5 and 90 days of exposure to IQOS and IQOS menthol2-5 included in PMIs Modified Risk Tobacco Product application submitted to the US FDA.. Wong and colleagues1 exposed 92 male and 92 female Sprague Dawley rats to up to 90 days of mainstream aerosol from IQOS, mainstream smoke from 3R4F research cigarettes, or room air (sham). After 90 days of ...
Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats at the age of eight weeks with a mean weight of 275±35 g were included in the study. Subjects were divided into four groups with eight rats in each group: group 1: controls (C), group 2: radiation-only (RT), group 3: radiation plus royal jelly 50 mg/kg (RT+RJ50) and group 4: royal jelly 50 mg/kg-only (RJ50). Radiotherapy was applied to the head and neck area by single fraction at a dose of 22 Gy. The royal jelly was given once daily for seven days. The subjects were sacrificed on the seventh day of the study. Trace elements in blood samples were measured using ICP/MS method ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the spatial relationship between the c-Fos immunoreactive cells elicited by an acute treatment with neuroleptics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI) and enkephalinergic (ENK), substance P (SP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) innervation fields in the rat septum. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of OLA (5 mg), ARI (10 mg), AMI (20 mg), QUE (15 mg/kg/b.w.). Ninety min after antipsychotics administration, the animals were transcardially perfused with a fixative and the brains cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black endproduct. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to ENK, SP, and TH antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent AlexaFluor 564 dye. The data ...
Although cardiac hypertrophy is an important condition that usually precedes heart failure (Carreno et al., 2006), there are limited reports of altered expression of P450 genes during cardiac hypertrophy. The expression of P450 has been studied in SHRs as compared with SD rats (Thum and Borlak, 2002) and the expression of sEH has been studied in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats as compared with normal strains (Monti et al., 2008). Nevertheless, there are no data about the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of P450 and sEH genes and their associated P450-derived metabolites of AA. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of several P450 genes and P450-dependent AA metabolism in rats. In addition, the current study demonstrates the tissue-specific expression of many P450 genes and sEH in male SD rats.. Tissue-specific expression of P450 ...
Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups; control, D-gal, chrysin 10, chrysin 30, D-gal + chrysin 10 and D-gal + chrysin 30 groups. D-gal (50 mg/kg) was administrated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Chrysin (10 and 30 mg/kg) was administrated by oral gavage. Both of D-gal and chrysin were administrated for 8 weeks. After treatments, the body weight and locomotor activity were determined. The memories were evaluated using novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. ...
This study reports that cocaethylene undergoes an esterase-mediated ethyl ester exchange with ethanol, resulting in an increase in the apparent in vitro t½, compared with control conditions. Homogenized liver from male Sprague Dawley rats in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was centrifuged at 9000g, and the resulting supernatant (S9) fraction was collected. Tubes containing the rat S9 fraction and 50 μM cocaethylene plus aqueous buffer (control), 50 mM ethanol, or 51.3 mM2H6-ethanol were incubated at 37°C for 4 hr. Samples were collected from the incubation tubes at various times, extracted with a solid-phase extraction system, and assayed for cocaethylene and2H5-cocaethylene by GC/MS. Concentration-time profiles were constructed and kinetic parameters were determined. The experiment was repeated in the presence of specific and nonspecific esterase inhibitors. Enzyme kinetic parameters were also determined. Cocaethylene underwent ethyl ester exchange, being converted to2H5-cocaethylene in the presence ...
Dimyrcetol was administered in corn oil by gavage to groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at dosages of 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg bwt/day on gestational days 7 to 17. Viability, clinical signs, body weights and feed consumption were observed or measured for all animals. Animals were sacrificed on gestational day 21 and Caesarean sectioning performed. Fetuses were weighed and examined for sex, gross changes, and soft tissue or skeletal alterations. No clinical signs attributable to dimyrcetol administration were observed. At the 1000 mg/kg bwt/day dose level, mean maternal body weight gains were reduced 5% versus controls. Absolute and relative feed consumption were also reduced at this dose level. The minimal maternal effects noted were associated with minimal (approx. 3%) reductions in fetal body weights, reversible variations in ossification and increases in supernumerary thoracic ribs with associated increases or decreases in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Findings of delayed ...
In an in vivo animal model, the left carotid artery was ligated in 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups. The pups were divided into six groups: normoxia (N), hypoxia (8% Oâ‚‚, 92% Nâ‚‚) (H), H with shamoperation, H with operation (HO), HO treated with vehicle and HO treated with SYM 2081. In an in vitro model, the cultured embryonic cortical neuronal cells were divided into three groups: normoxia (95% air, 5% COâ‚‚), hypoxia (94% Nâ‚‚, 5% COâ‚‚) (Hc), and Hc treated with SYM 2081 before a hypoxic insult. Apoptosis was assessed using western blots and real-time polymerase chain reaction with Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 antibodies and mRNAs ...
Two reproductive/developmental screening studies were identified, one within category and the other a read-across study from isomerised olefins; alpha, internal, linear and branched - single carbon number. In key a reproductive/developmental screening study (Thorsud, 2003a), alkenes, C6 dissolved in corn oil were administered via oral gavage to F0 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for at least 4 weeks. There was no mortality or adverse signs of toxicity observed at any dose level and F0 mating, fertility indices, mean gestation lengths, mean number of pups delivered, F1 live birth index, F1 viability index, F1 pups per litter, and F1 pup sex ratios were comparable between control and treatment groups. Gross necroscopy of F0 females revealed no significant treatment-related findings. Organ weight determinations in F0 rats did not reveal any significant difference between treatment and control animals. Based on the lack of significant adverse ...
1Department of Community Nutrition FEMA IPB and Faculty of Health Sciences URINDO, 2Department of Community Nutrition FEMA, IPB, 3Center of Aging Studies, Universitas Indonesia, 4Department of Sports Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.. Abstract. Oestrogens have been found to reduce beta amyloid levels, a risk factor associated with dementia. We hypothesised that phytoestrogenic soybean products such as tempe and tofu might show similar effects. The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of tempe and tofu flour on beta amyloid1-40 serum levels in elderly rats. This research was conducted on white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months. Before the intervention rats underwent ovariectomy (OVx) and were grouped into 5 intervention groups which were given either: tempe flour (PTp), tofu flour (PTh), oestradiol (PE), or casein (KK) in pellets; and there was also a non OVx (KN) control group which was fed a normal diet. The intake of tempe and tofu flour ...
BACKGROUND: Vascular hyporeactivity contributes to hemodynamic alterations and circulatory failure in severe sepsis. Among the identified mechanisms, inflammation and oxidative stress are the most crucial ones in mediating the development of vascular hyporeactivity induced by sepsis. Platonin, a photosensitive dye and an antioxidant, possesses potent antiinflammation effects. We elucidated whether platonin could mitigate vascular hyporeactivity of thoracic aorta in septic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive sham operation (Sham), Sham plus platonin (100 g/kg), cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), or CLP plus platonin (10, 50, or 100 g/kg) and designated as the Sham, P, CLP, CLP + P(10), CLP + P(50), and CLP + P(100) group, respectively (n = 6 in each group). After maintaining for 12 hours, surviving rats were euthanized and thoracic aorta was isolated and vascular reactivity of aortic rings was determined. RESULTS: Vascular reactivity induced by ...
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The vasculature of the eye can provide amazing insight into systemic cardiovascular health. For those studying the vasculature of the eye as an indicator of pathophysiological states, normative ground truth datasets become critically important. Recently, George Azzopardi and Nicolai Petkov have made their annotated database of ground truth imagery of vascular bifurcations and crossovers in […]. ...
Warneke, Wiebke and Klaus, Susanne and Fink, Heidrun and Langley-Evans, Simon C. and Voigt, Jörg-Peter (2014) The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 116 . pp. 45-44. ISSN 1873-5177 ...
At Naturland, kids will have no end of fun on the amazing circuit specially designed for electric vehicles and with a layout simulating city streets.
The principal objective of this study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60g) were randomly divided into six groups namely ...
Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - HO-1 Overexpression Attenuates Endotoxin Effects on CAT-2 Isozymes Expression. AU - Huang, Te Yang. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Background: l-arginine transport mediated by type-2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) isozymes is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We sought to investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression on CAT-2 isozymes, e.g., CAT-2, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to receive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), normal saline, hemin (a HO-1 inducer), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, a HO-1 inhibitor), LPS plus hemin, or LPS plus hemin plus SnPP. After maintaining for 6 h, rats were sacrificed and the expression and activity of individual enzyme was evaluated. Results: LPS increased HO activity, HO-1 concentration, NO production, l-arginine transport, and concentrations of iNOS, ...
A tumor incidence of 57 per cent was observed in 150 female rats allowed to live out their life-span as normal, control animals on standard laboratory chow. One hundred similar rats on a special fatrich diet developed an 80 per cent tumor incidence.. Ninety-five per cent of the tumors observed involved mammary gland tissue. Twelve per cent of all tumors observed were of a malignant type. Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days.. Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. However, three of the four tumors that were examined histologically in the males were classified as malignant.. The mean life span of normal female Sprague-Dawley rats in this laboratory was 760 ± 21 days, with individuals ranging in life span from 193 to 1100 days.. ...
The pathogenesis of hypertension is distinct between men and women. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potential contributor to sex differences in the pathophysiology of hypertension. ET-1 participates in blood pressure regulation through activation of endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors including those in the vasculature. Previous studies demonstrated that sex and sex hormones evoke discrepancies in ET-1-mediated control of vascular tone in different vascular beds. However, little is known about sex- and sex hormone-related differences in ET-1-dependent renal microvascular reactivity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that loss of sex hormones impairs afferent arteriole reactivity to ET-1. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to gonadectomy or sham surgery (n = 6/group). After 3 weeks, kidneys from those rats were prepared for assessment of renal microvascular responses to ET-1 (ETA and ETB agonist, 10−12 to 10−8 M) and sarafotoxin 6c (S6c, ETB agonist, 10−12 to 10−8 M) using the
Ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a key source of myocardial damage in humans following acute myocardial infarction, post-cardiac arrest, and heart transplantation (1). The beneficial effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) in minimising IR-induced damage to cardiac muscle have been extensively studied, and involve activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels (2). No previous studies have investigated the effects of IR injury or IPC in cardiac fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are responsible for maintaining the extracellular matrix in healthy hearts, and differentiate into the wound-healing phenotype, myofibroblasts, following cardiac injury (3). Our goals were to determine if: (a) IR injury induces cardiac fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts; and if so, (b) does IPC ameliorate the IR-induced myofibroblast differentiation? Hearts were removed from isoflurane-anaesthetised (5% induction, 2% maintenance; 1 l/min oxygen) adult female Sprague Dawley rats, and fibroblasts ...
Sexual difference has been shown in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease induced by hypertension. Females are protected from hypertension and related end-organ damage. Augmentation of renal proximal tubular angiotensinogen (AGT) expression can promote intrarenal angiotensin formation and the development of associated hypertension and kidney injury. Female rodents exhibit lower intrarenal AGT levels than males under normal conditions, suggesting that the suppressed intrarenal AGT production by programmed mechanisms in females may provide protection from these diseases. This study was performed to examine whether epigenetic mechanisms serve as repressors of AGT. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were used to investigate sex differences of systemic, hepatic, and intrarenal AGT levels. All histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA levels in the kidneys were determined using a PCR array. HDAC9 protein expression in the kidneys and cultured renal proximal tubular cells (PTC) was analyzed by Western blot
Stem-cell therapy for ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats: a comparison of three treatment modalities Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Dakheel A Al-Dakheel,1 Sulaiman A AlMousa,1 Fawaz M AlAnii,1 Waleed Y Ebrahim,1 Hussain K AlOmar,1 Hasan N AlSayed,1 Sadananda Acharya,2 Hussain AlHawaj31Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; 2College of Public Health; 3Institute of Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Recent studies have shown that ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats can be reversed by infusion of osteoblasts cultured from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study compares the influence of MSCs, osteoblasts, and exosomes derived from osteoblasts for the treatment of osteoporosis.Methods: Osteoporosis was induced in 40 female Sprague Dawley rats by performing ovariectomy. After 12 weeks, bone marrow was harvested and MSCs separated from bone-marrow aspirate as described by Piao et al. After 15 days, autologous osteogenically differentiated
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The interaction between the fibrotic process and the pulmonary vasculature is incompletely understood. There is evidence in human and experimental pulmonary fibrosis that precursor cells may play a role in fibrogenesis, and that precursor cells may also be important for vascular remodeling in chronic models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). But the contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling and PH in pulmonary fibrosis has not been investigated yet.. This study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling in the AdTGF-β1 model of lung fibrosis and PH.. Female Sprague Dawley rats received AdTGF-β1 or AdDL70 and were sacrificed at different time points (7, 14 and 28 days). Immunofluorescence stainings were performed on 3 μm sections of the left lung after formalin fixation.. We detected cells expressing markers of ...
Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextro-rotatory isomer of levophanol and a major constituent of over 125 over the counter (OTC) cough syrups. In-vivo and ex-vivo studies have shown that DM has pain suppressive properties comparable to ketamine via its N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism. There is a wide spread abuse of Cough syrups in Nigeria particularly amongst adolescent males. NMDA receptor antagonists have been reported to have anti-fertility properties. Pure samples of DM constituted in normal saline was administered orally to twenty mature male adult Sprague-Dawley rats of weight 177.75 ± 7.68 g daily for 8 weeks. The animals were divided randomly into 4 groups; A, B, C, D (n=5). DM-HBr was administered at the following dosages: group A: Normal saline (control); group B: 0.214 mg/ kg b.w; group C: 0.571 mg/ kg b.w; group D: 4.285 mg/ kg b.w. At sacrifice; Routine histology, semen analysis, serum and intra-testicular levels of male reproductive hormones and testicular oxidative ...
This study was undertaken to characterize the toxicokinetics of p-tert-octylphenol (OP), a weak estrogenic compound, in male and female rats. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of OP either by oral gavage (50, 125 or 250 mg/kg), by intravenous (iv) injection (2, 4, or 8 mg/kg), or by subcutaneous (sc) injection (125 mg/kg). In a repeated dosing experiment, rats were given OP (oral) daily (25, 50, or 125 mg/kg) for 35 d (female) or 60 d (male). Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for OP content using gas chromatography with detection by mass spectrometry. Blood OP concentrations were generally higher in female than male rats following a single oral or sc administration but were similar following a single iv injection. Tissue OP concentrations were also higher in female than male rats following oral exposure, consistent with the faster metabolism of OP observed in male rat liver microsomes. After subchronic administration, blood OP concentrations were higher at
Bioassay of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF) for Neutropenia Treatment in Male Sprague Dawley Rats
Losulazine was administered orally by gastric intubation to Sprague-Dawley rats at treatment levels of 0, 4 and 8 mg/kg/day in a neonatal development and reproductive performance study. Twenty-four females were treated at each level in three sections; Section A was treated from postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 4; Section B was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 10; and, Section C was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 21. There were significant decreases in maternal weight gain during treatment in a dose-related manner. Live pup weight means also decreased in a dose-related manner in all sections, persisting throughout maturation in F1 males and to about week nine in F1 females. Significant delays were recorded in the developmental milestone of eye opening. There was also a significant reduction in the copulation rate of F1 females in a dose-related trend ...
Chronic treatment with leptin regulates body weight and energy balance and reduces food intake in obese and lean mice. In 18- to 20-h fasted lean mice (C57BL/6, +/+), we examined the acute effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.12 mg/kg) on food intake and gastric emptying. Leptin reduced food intake, with a peak inhibition at the 5th h postinjection (69 +/- 12%/h), although there was no change in food consumption at the 1st h. Leptin did not alter the 4-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal (free access to Purina chow for either 1-, 2-, or 4-h period). In normal Sprague-Dawley rats fasted for 18-20 h, a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.2 or 1.2 mg/kg) did not modify the 7-h cumulative or hourly food intake. These results show that a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin reduces food intake within 5 h while not influencing gastric emptying of ingested food in lean mice. Sprague-Dawley rats are
Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated i.th. with vehicle (inverted triangle) or PKA-selective siRNA (circle) for 3 days. After the pretreatments, the animals received continuous saline (open symbols, error bars within the symbol) or morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) (closed symbols, error bars within the symbol) infusion for 6 days, with continued i.th. siRNA or vehicle injections on alternate days. Sustained (6 days) systemic morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) infusion caused a rightward shift in the dose-response curve, with the previous A90 dose causing only 20±1% MPE (**p , 0.01 relative to control, one-way ANOVA, n=5). Intrathecal PKAselective siRNA pre-treatment greatly attenuated sustained morphine-mediated rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve. Thus, re-challenge with the naive A90 dose (10 μg/5μl) produced 93±2% antinociception in the PKA-selective siRNA pre-treated rat**p , 0.01 relative to vehicle pre-treated morphine-infused rats, one-way ANOVA, n=5). ...
Background: The renin angiotensin system has become the focus of recent interest in stroke research as accumulating evidence indicates that activation of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mas (ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas) axis exerts neuroprotective benefit in animal stroke models. Pre- and post-stroke activation of this axis by intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7) reduces infarct size and improves neurological function in rats. The recent development of an orally active formulation of Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropylβ-cyclodextrin [HPβCD/Ang-(1-7)] provides a non-invasive avenue for testing the efficacy of systemic post-stroke administration of Ang-(1-7). We tested the hypothesis that post-stroke oral gavage of HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) exerts neuroprotection in a rat model of ischemic stroke.. Methods: Male SD rats underwent ischemic stroke by endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion and were randomly divided into 2 groups of 12 each that received oral gavages of dH2O or ...
Cardiac remodelling is a key risk factor for the development of heart failure in the chronic phase following myocardial infarction. Our previous studies have shown an anti-remodelling role of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) in vivo during hypertension and that these protective effects are mediated through increased circulating levels of Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)]. In the present study, we have demonstrated that cardiac myocytes have modest ACE2 activity, whereas cardiac fibroblasts do not exhibit any endogenous activity. As fibroblasts are the major cell type found in an infarct zone following a myocardial infarction, we examined the effects of ACE2 gene delivery to cultured cardiac fibroblasts after acute hypoxic exposure. Cardiac fibroblasts from 5-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were grown to confluence and transduced with a lentiviral vector containing murine ACE2 cDNA under transcriptional control by the EF1α (elongation factor 1α) promoter (lenti-ACE2). Transduction of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bezaitbrate attenuates the increase in blood pressure in fructose-fed rats. AU - Si, Xiaochen. AU - Richey, Joyce M.. AU - Webb, R Clinton. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - A high fructose diet induces hypertension (HTN). insulin resistance (InsR), and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). The sequence of these metabolic abnormalities associated with this dietary regimen remains to be elucidated. We hypothesize that HTG leads tds to the development of HTN and InsR in the fructose-fed animal model. Thus, we evaluated the effects of the lipid-lowering drug bezafibrate (BZFB) on FRU-induced HTN and InsR. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups and placed on the following diets for five weeks; 60% FRU (n=5). FRU+BZFB (30 mg/kg/days (n=5); regular chow (C) (n=6), and regular chow + BZFB (C+BZFB)) (n=6). The results are summarized below. Groups Blood Pressure (mmHg) Triglyceride (mg/dl) FRU (n=5) 144.4 ± 10 * 130.4 ± 18.* 2 FRU+BZFB (n=S) 126 ± 5 102 ± 37# CB (n=6) 125.5 ± 6 ...
Methods The male SD rats whose body weights were about 250 grams were used. Rats underwent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure occurred 4 weeks later. The survival rats after operation were randomly divided into experimental group, control group and sham-operated group. Adeno-βARKct or empty virus delivery to the rats through the caudal vein. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), hemodynamic index, catecholamine and NT-ProBNP of blood plasma, and catecholamine and the expression of βARK1 of non-infarcted left ventricular tissue was measured.. ...
Introduction: HOE642, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitor, can delay the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and reduce mitochondrial-derived superoxide production. It was reported HOE642 improved neurological recovery after prolonged ischemia.. Hypothesis: We sought to find the effects of HOE642 with or without hypothermia on resuscitation in rats.. Methods: Thirty male SD rats (240-340g) were included. Cardiac arrest was induced by 8 min asphyxia. Rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) normothermia group (N group, n=9), rectal temperature (Trec) maintained at 37±0.5°C; (2) hypothermia group (H group, n=7), Trec maintained at 37±0.5°C during cardiac arrest and CPR periods, rats were cooled to 33°C in 3 min after ROSC, Trec maintained at 33±0.5°C for 1 h, rewarmed gradually to 37±0.5°C during the following 1 h; (3) HOE642 group (n=7), Trec maintained the same as the N group, HOE642 was given (1mg/kg, iv) when initiating CPR; (4) hypothermia and HOE642 group ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impacts of n-3 PUFA and lymph drainage (D) on intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of forty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 16): normal diet (N), enteral nutrition (EN) and EN plus n-3 PUFA. Each group was further divided into lymph drainage (I/R+D) and non-drainage (I/R) sub-groups (n 8). After 5 d with different nutrition regimens, the rats were subjected to 60 min ischaemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. At the same time, the rats in the I/R+D sub-groups were treated with intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. Organs were harvested and we detected the cytokine, endotoxin, and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and its endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We found that the serum levels of HMGB1, inflammatory cytokine and endotoxin in the three I/R+D sub-groups were significantly lower than those in the N ...
This study investigated the effects of magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. There were three groups of 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study: control group (normal control group without diabetes); diabetes group (STZ-induced diabetes control); and magnetized water group (magnetized water supplemented after the induction of diabetes using STZ). Before initiating the study, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose (FBS > 200 dl), and the magnetized water group received magnetized water for 8 weeks instead of general water. After 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to measure the fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, glycated hemoglobin level, degree of DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles. From the fourth week of magnetized water supplementation, blood glucose was decreased in the magnetized water group compared to the diabetes group, and ...
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether cross-sensitization/tolerance between wheel running and the drugs amphetamine and morphine is possible in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each experiment compared a non-wheel control group and a chronic wheel access group of rats. Following a 24 day period of wheel access all animals were presented with a drug and saline challenge test (counterbalanced) with either 1 mg/kg of amphetamine (Experiment 1) or 10mg/kg or morphine (Experiment 2). Prior to the challenge tests all animals were habituated to the novel testing environment in two 1 hr sessions (Experiment 1) or one 2 hr session (Experiment 2) to attenuate the acute motoric response to a novel environment. Behavioral sensitization/tolerance was measured by locomotion (cm) within long narrow activity boxes with the Ethnovision video tracking system. In the first experiment the wheel access rats were significantly more active during the 1 hr amphetamine challenge test than the non-wheel rats thus showing
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to localize and identify angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtypes in the microcirculation of striated muscle.. METHODS: Cremaster muscles from 7- to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were excised, placed in a dissection solution maintained at 4 degrees C, and 3 branch orders of arterioles and venules, as well as capillaries and a muscle specimen, were microdissected under a stereomicroscope. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were developed for purification and amplification of extremely small amounts of RNA (,5 ng/microL) from whole tissue samples. RNA was isolated from each sample, reverse transcribed, and the cDNA products were amplified by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) specifically primed with either AT(1a), AT(1b), or AT(2) receptor primers. The products were electrophoretically size-fractionated on an agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide to visualize DNA bands, and analyzed to determine the presence or absence ...
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis ...
most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenes is and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health; nutritiondepartment.48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low [0.2% W/W], usual [0.5% W/W] and high [1.2% W/W] dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the ...
Oral gavage administration of delta-3-carene to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 300 or 450 mg/kg body weight/day during the organogenesis and fetal phase of gestation (Days 6-19) was generally well-tolerated maternally, with no unscheduled deaths or effect on clinical condition. Treatment at 600 mg/kg body weight/day, the highest dose tested, resulted in several post dosing signs that indicated marked toxicity in one animal (flattened swaying gait or prostrate posture, unresponsive behavior, shallow respiration and piloerection) following the second dose and the animal was humanely killed. Similar signs were evident in a second animal following the second and third doses; however the general condition of this animal remained good and the animal was retained on the study. Macroscopic examination of the decedent animal revealed no findings. Other post dosing signs were limited to isolated and sporadic incidences of salivation, with associated chin rubbing in some animals at 300, 450 ...
6221 8457627 / +6221 8458258 [email protected] ABSTRACT. Backgroud: Cognitive function impaired in the elderly is not a disease but it can be considered as a Preclinical Alzheimers Disease (AD) one of the most common dementia in the elderly. Results of research on tempe and tofu showed the effects on different cognitive functions. The aims of this study were to analized the effect of tempe and tofu flours cognitive function in ovariectomized female rats. Method: Seventy two (72) white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months used for this study. Before the intervention 52 rats had ovariectomy (OVx) surgical treatments and were grouped into 5 intervention groups: tempe flour, tofu flour, estradiol, casein; and non ovariectomy. Cognitive function was measured using a labyrin. Processing and data analysis, used One-Way ANOVA with Polynomial Contrass Post Hoc LSD. Results: Based on difference test between the tempe flour group (8 weeks) with baseline 2(after OVx) showed that increased ...
To test the hypothesis that gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29) combined with glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) reduce body weight (BW) more than each of the peptides given individually, we infused the two peptides (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta of free feeding, diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 25days and measured BW. We found that GRP-29 and GLP-1 reduce BW, GRP-29 reduced it more than GLP-1 and GRP-29+GLP-1 reduce BW more than each peptide given alone. This reduction was accompanied by decrease 24-hour food intake (normal rat chow), meal size (MS), duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase latency to the first meal, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio (IMI/MS, amount of food consumed per a unit of time ...
Male SD rats (200-240 g) were supplied by Laboratory Animal Center of Ningxia Medical University (Grade II, Certificate No. SCXY 2011-0001). Animals were acclimatized in environmentally controlled breeding cages for at least 3 days before being used and were provided with standard laboratory food and water and were fasted for 12 h prior to the study. Water was freely available for rats during experiments. The experimental protocol was approved by the University Ethics Committee. All procedures involving animals were in accordance with the Regulations of the Experimental Animal Administration, State Committee of Science and Technology, Peoples Republic of China. 20 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5). Group A was the control vehicle (ART alone) and group L, M, and H were the combination groups with CHR in three fixed ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:4). The suspension of CHR was continuously administered (each time per day) to rats in group L, M, and H by gavage at doses of 5, 10, 20 mg/kg ...
Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats received saline injections (0.1 ml) of pH 4.0 or pH 7.4 in the gastrocnemius muscle on alternate days (total 6). A third group received needle prick only, while a forth group was left naive (n = 10 per group). A stimulus response function to graded colorectal distension (CRD) (10-80 mmHg) was recorded at age 8-12 weeks. Extracellular single-unit recordings from spinal neurons (L1-L4) were performed in adult pH 4.0 injected rats and compared to naive controls. Neurons were sub-classified as short latency abrupt (SL-A, n = 24) or short latency sustained (SL-S, n = 23). The spontaneous activity and response to graded CRD was recorded for each neuron. Recordings were repeated following administration of amitriptyline (6 μmol/kg, i.v.).. ...
In order to test the safety of multiple-dose intramuscular Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture we used 40 healthy male and female 6-week old SD rats(male weight 171.79~196.37 g, female weight 127.93~146.43 g). Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture was administered intramuscularly to male and female SD rats at doses of 4.6 (low dose group, n=10), 9.2 (moderate dose group, n=10), and 18.5mg/kg(high dose group, n=10), respectively. General symptoms, body weight changes, blood tests, biochemical testing, necropsy, organ weight and histopathogical findings were examined over a 4-week period ...
Propofol (100 mg/kg) was given to 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats; in some rats, hypoxic preconditioning was administered before intraperitoneal propofol injection by subjecting rats to five cycles of 10 min of hypoxia (8% O2) and 10 min of normoxia (21% O2). Then, the rats were allowed to breathe room air for 2 h. Neuronal mitochondrial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. ATP content was detected using an ATP assay kit. The expression levels of GLUT1, GLUT3, pDrp1, Drp1 and Mfn2 were detected by Western blot, and the expression levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were further examined by immunohistochemistry.. ...
AnavexLifeSci Anavex Life Sciences Reports Potential Normalization of Hypertension with ANAVEX®2-73 Published in The Journal of C… twitter.com/i/web/status/9… ...
Figure 3: IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
Dive into the research topics of Subregional differences in GABA,sub,A,/sub, receptor subunit expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of sedentary versus physically active rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In the high range, my own observation to date is that at or above the 98th percentile there are about twice more males than females, while at or above the 99.9th percentile there are about 15 times more males. Trying to make this fit in terms of standard deviation (variance is the square of the standard deviation by the way), I find that when the male and female mean are both IQ 100, the male standard deviation (SD) must be about 33% greater than the female SD. However, when a mean difference of 5 points in favor of males would exist, the male SD would only need to be about 11% greater. I dont know which is true (or if the truth lies in between) and will not be able to verify it myself as I only deal with high-range tests. I must say though that an SD difference of 33% seems unlikely.. Eysenck, H.J. 1981. Race, Intelligence and Education. Maurice Temple Smith Ltd. Hedges, Larry V. and Amy Nowell. 1995. Sex differences in mental test scores, variability and numbers of high-scoring individuals. ...
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial damage induced by isoproterenol is believed to be secondary to increased oxygen demands on the heart. Our objective was to test an additional primary action of isoproterenol on tissue and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and to compare these effects with the effects of other adrenergic agents in the presence of adrenergic inhibitors. DESIGN: Prospective, dose-response study. SETTING: Research laboratory at a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley female rats (200 to 350 g), slightly anesthetized with ether and divided into several groups. INTERVENTIONS: In 26 rats, the heart was removed, cut into fine slices (0.5-mm thickness), and placed in an ice-cold buffer. In 22 animals, the hearts were perfused in the Langendorff manner and chopped and processed for mitochondrial studies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We determined the following: a) the direct in vitro effects of isoproterenol and related catecholamines on normal oxygen uptake using myocardial ...
... in Sprague Dawley rats". Pharmacognosy Research. 5 (2): 113-7. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.110541. PMC 3685759. PMID 23798886. Ali, ...
In addition, if the survival of the rats is less than 50% at 104 weeks (which is likely for Sprague-Dawley rats) the ... The study used 100 male and 100 female Sprague Dawley rats, divided into twenty groups with 10 rats each. Ten diets were tested ... Sprague-Dawley rats have a lifespan of about two years and have a high risk of cancer over their lifespan (one study concluded ... Suzuki, H; Mohr, U; Kimmerle, G (1979). "Spontaneous endocrine tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of Cancer Research and ...
Suzuki H, Mohr U, Kimmerle G (October 1979). "Spontaneous endocrine tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of Cancer Research ... Criticisms included insufficient statistical power and that Séralini's Sprague-Dawley rats were inappropriate for a lifetime ... "Sprague Dawley" (PDF). Harlan. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2012. Butler D ( ... "Mortality and In-Life Patterns in Sprague-Dawley" (PDF). Huntingdon Life Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on October ...
Sprague-Dawley rats (lab rats) were tested on. The oral median lethal dose in male lab rats was determined to be 23.58 mL/kg ... The median lethal dose in the female lab rats was found to be 19.52 mL/kg BW (15.64 mL/kg BW lower, 24.35 mL/kg BW upper). The ... Charlie ration or "C-Rats" was the name for the field meal then given to troops.) This cookbook came wrapped around a two-ounce ...
King C, Kendrick F (1962). "Teratogenic effects of thalidomide in the Sprague Dawley rat". The Lancet. 280 (7265): 409-17. doi: ... Similar results were also published showing these effects in rats and other species. Melbourne woman Lynette Rowe, who was born ... McColl JD, Globus M, Robinson S (1965). "Effect of some therapeutic agents on the developing rat fetus". Toxicology and Applied ...
"Developmental toxicity evaluation of butylparaben in Sprague-Dawley rats". Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and ...
Wan J, Ernstgård L, Song B, Shoaf S (2006). "Chlorzoxazone metabolism is increased in fasted Sprague-Dawley rats". J Pharm ... Dong DL, Luan Y, Feng TM, Fan CL, Yue P, Sun ZJ, Gu RM, Yang BF (2006). "Chlorzoxazone inhibit contraction of rat thoracic ...
Hall, Iris; Wong, Oi; Reynolds, David; Chang, J. J. (2006). "Hypolipidemic Effects of 2-Furoic Acid in Sprague-Dawley Rats". ... Research on the effects of 2-furoic acid in rats showed an increase in bile salts and acute toxicity suggesting potential toxic ...
Liu, T.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Chen, C.L.; Chi, C.W. (1999). "Safrole-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Sprague-Dawley Rats". ... "Safrole-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver of Sprague-Dawley Rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 37 (7): 697-702. doi: ... hydroxysafrole in rats. Further metabolites of safrole that have been found in urine of both rats and humans include 1,2- ... In rats, safrole and related compounds produced both benign and malignant tumors after intake through the mouth. Changes in the ...
"Acute oral toxicity studies of Swietenia macrophylla seeds in Sprague Dawley rats". Pharmacognosy Research. 7 (1): 38-44. doi: ...
"Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and xylazine in young and old Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of the American Association for ... In young rats, the half life is an hour. Xylazine has a large volume of distribution (Vd). The Vd is 1.9-2.5 for horse, cattle ... In scientific research, xylazine is a component of the most common anesthetic, ketamine-xylazine, which is used in rats, mice, ... in rat and human urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn, and LC-HR-MSn". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 405 (30): 9779-89. doi: ...
"Developmental toxicity of mangafodipir trisodium and manganese chloride in Sprague-Dawley rats". Teratology. 52 (2): 109-115. ... "Alteration of iron homeostasis following chronic exposure to manganese in rats". Brain Research. 833 (1): 125-132. doi:10.1016/ ...
For example, in one experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a low fat or a high fat diet, with the high fat diet ... "Selective breeding for diet-induced obesity and resistance in Sprague-Dawley rats". American Journal of Physiology. 273. " ... Rats have also been used in the diet-induced obesity model. Commonly used in medical research, rats were specifically chosen to ... The results of the study illustrate that the high fat diet rats had a higher adiposity index than the low fat diet rats. Dogs ...
"Developmental toxicity of mangafodipir trisodium and manganese chloride in Sprague-Dawley rats". Teratology. 52 (2): 109-115. ... Furthermore, young rats who were choline-deficient performed as poorly on memory tasks as older rats while older rats that were ... VAD rats had more trouble learning a Radial arm maze than rats who had normal levels of the vitamin. The healthy rats were able ... while rats who had choline-enriched diets showed a diminished memory loss compared to both the choline-low diet and control rat ...
"In vivo mammary tumourigenesis in the Sprague-Dawley rat and microdosimetric correlates". Physics in Medicine and Biology. 49 ( ... Relative biological effectiveness factors comparing gamma rays to HZE ions were measured in mice or rats for tumors of the skin ... "The Low Carcinogenicity of Electron Radiation Relative to Argon Ions in Rat Skin". Radiation Research. 135 (2): 178-188. ...
Laham, S; Potvin M (1987). "Biological conversion of benzaldehyde to benzylmercapturic acid in the Sprague-Dawley rat". Drug ... Studies in rats have shown that p-cresol is primarily conjugated with glucuronide to produce p-cresylglucuronide, though this ...
"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicol. Sci. 111 (1): 64-71. doi ... Using rat studies, withdrawal after repeated exposure to nicotine results in less responsive nucleus accumbens cells, which ... "Imaging localised dynamic changes in the nucleus accumbens following nicotine withdrawal in rats". NeuroImage. 22 (2): 847-854 ...
"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicol. Sci. 111 (1): 64-71. doi ...
"Urinary tract effects of phensuximide in the Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344 rat". J Appl Toxicol. 6 (5): 349-56. doi:10.1002/ ...
... in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 64 (8): 645-60. doi:10.1080/ ...
"Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats". Toxicological Sciences. 111 (1): ...
In Sprague Dawley rats, atomoxetine reduces NR2B protein content without altering transcript levels. Aberrant glutamate and ... In rats, atomoxetine increased prefrontal cortex catecholamine concentrations without altering dopamine levels in the striatum ... However, both mouse and rat microdialysis studies have failed to find an increase in extracellular serotonin in the prefrontal ... Atomoxetine's ability to increase prefrontal cortex firing rate in anesthetized rats could not be blocked by D1 or α2- ...
... is a species of oral Streptococcus bacteria first isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, hence its name. ... "A new species of oral Streptococcus isolated from Sprague--Dawley rats, Streptococcus orisratti sp. nov". International Journal ...
"Subchronic toxicity study of eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptychanthum) berries in Sprague-Dawley rats." Journal of Food ... A. Davis, K. Renner, C. Sprague, L. Dyer, D. Mutch (2005). Integrated Weed Management. MSU.. ...
"Trans-Nonachlor and cis-Nonachlor Toxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats: Comparison with Technical Chlordane". Toxicological Sciences ...
It features competitive antagonist activity at 5-HT serotonin receptor in Sprague-Dawley rat stomachs. It exhibits binding ... It has binding affinity towards 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors in rats. ... affinity against rat 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors using [3H]mesulergine as a radioligand. As of October 31, 2016; 2C-H is a ...
Water extract of G. bruguieri roots has reversed induced juvenile osteopenia in Sprague Dawley rats. However, human clinical ... Induced Juvenile Osteopenia in Rats; the Potential Therapeutic Effect of Egyptian Moghat Roots Water Extract (Glossostemon ...
... antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Alnus nitida bark in carbon tetrachloride challenged Sprague Dawley rats". BMC ...
... mechanisms underlying gastroprotective activities of the fractions obtained from Polygonum minus in Sprague Dawley rats". ...
2000). "An Oral (Gavage) Two-generation Reproduction Toxicity Study in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate." ... This is supported by the positive results of the NTP bioassays with Ni sub-sulfide and Ni oxide in rats and mice. The human and ... In rat studies, oral ingestion of water-soluble nickel salts can trigger perinatal mortality effects in pregnant animals. ... 12035-72-2) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies)". National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. 453: 1-365 ...
... anthracene-induced breast cancer in female Sprague Dawley rats. In: Life Sci. 8. Mai 2006, Bd. 78, Nr. 24, S. 2820-5, Epub 2005 ... anthracene-induced breast cancer in female Sprague Dawley rats. In: Life Sciences. Band 78, Nr. 24, 8. Mai 2006, S. 2820-2825. ... Gokhan Eraslan, Murat Kanbur, Sibel Silici: Evaluation of propolis effects on some biochemical parameters in rats treated with ... Gokhan Eraslan, Murat Kanbur und Sibel Silici: Evaluation of propolis effects on some biochemical parameters in rats treated ...
... seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats". Niger Postgrad Medical Journal. 9 (2): 95-8. PMID 12163882.. ... in carbon tetrachloride induced renal injured Wistar rats: a dose- and time-dependent study" (PDF). Retrieved 19 November 2009. ...
Colonic mucosal explants from Sprague-Dawley rats and human colon cancer HT29 cells add glutathione to 13-oxo-ODE in a Michael ... the protein for which has been partially purified from rat colon.[25][26][27] The formation of 13-oxo-ODE may represent the ... Characterization of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid dehydrogenase activity from rat colonic tissue". Biochimica et Biophysica ... Distribution of activity for the enzymatic oxidation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid to 13-oxooctadecadienoic acid in rat ...
"Spontaneous Tumors in Sprague-Dawley Rats and Swiss Mice". 1973. Cancer Research. ... Ka roti tüvi Sprague Dawley, tekitas oma eluea jooksul kõrgema tõenäosiusega kasvajad.[132][136][137][138][139][140][141][142] ... "Rat study sparks GM furore". 2012. Nature. *↑ J. D. Prejean; J. C. Peckham; A. E. Casey; D. P. Griswold; E. K. Weisburger & J. ... "Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine". 1999. ...
The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ... Biobreeding rat[edit]. Main article: Biobreeding rat. Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an ... Sprague Dawley, the trademark used by Envigo) is not. The average litter size of the Sprague Dawley rat is 11.0.[26] ... This breed of rat was first produced by the Sprague-Dawley farms (later to become the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company) in Madison ...
A study was conducted to observe the differences in three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: ones that had part of the RHT pathway ... Rats in the AE and NE groups similarly reduced the amount of fluid intake during the study during the hours they were exposed ... Studies done on rats show that even with severely degenerated photoreceptors (blind, no visible light perception), they have ...
2000). "An Oral (Gavage) Two-generation Reproduction Toxicity Study in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate." ... 12035-72-2) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies)". National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. 453: 1-365 ... 1313-99-1) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies)". National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. 451: 1-381 ... 10101-97-0) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies)". National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. 454: 1-380 ...
Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats" ... "Life-span exposure to low doses of aspartame beginning during prenatal life increases cancer effects in rats" ...
... consumption affects the composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta". J Nutr Biochem. 17 (2): ... "Feeding rats diets enriched in lowbush blueberries for six weeks decreases ischemia-induced brain damage". Nutr Neurosci. 5 (6 ...
... demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague-Dawley rats". ... citing unanswered questions about cancer in laboratory rats.[8]:94-96[68] ... "Life-span exposure to low doses of aspartame beginning during prenatal life increases cancer effects in rats". Environmental ...
"A Mixture of Five Phthalate Esters Inhibits Fetal Testicular Testosterone Production in the Sprague-Dawley Rat in a Cumulative ... However, diethyl phthalate doesn't alter sexual differentiation in male rats.[11][22][23][24] Dose response experiments in ... In rats, for instance, repeated administration of DEP results in loss of germ cell populations in the testis. ... 1980). "Study of the testicular effects and changes in zinc excretion produced by some n-alkyl phthalates in the rat". ...
"Biotransformation of a GABAA receptor partial agonist in sprague-dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys: identification of two ...
... in Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley Rats (Gavage Studies)", CASRN 1746-01-6, April 2006. ...
1746-01-6) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (Gavage Studies)". National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series (521): 4 ... In rodents, including rats,[41] mice,[42] hamsters and guinea pigs,[43] birds,[44] and fish.[45]. *Cancer (including neoplasms ... rat and guinea pig". Toxicology. 229 (3): 214-25. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2006.10.019. PMID 17126467.. CS1 maint: multiple names: ... and even among rat strains there may be thousandfold differences.[39] ...
Researchers at Harvard University have created a brain-to-brain interface (BBI) between a human and a Sprague-Dawley rat. ... Rats[edit]. Several studies have examined the remote control of rats using micro-electodes implanted into their brains and rely ... If the rat then makes the correct response, the operator rewards the rat by stimulating the third electrode.[4] ... The three stimuli work in groups for the rat navigation.[14] Other researchers have dispensed with human remote control of rats ...
... lymphocyte 8-OHdG levels correlate with age-associated increase of tissue oxidative DNA damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. ... DNA oxidation and caloric restriction: Caloric restriction reduces 8-OH-dG DNA damage in organs of ageing rats and mice.[119][ ... In 1934, it was discovered that calorie restriction can extend lifespan by 50% in rats and this has motivated research into ... a novel rat model of premature aging". Neuroscience. 269: 256-64. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.03.040. PMID 24709042.. ...
Lewis rats show more compulsive lever pressing behavior than Sprague Dawley or Wistar rats and are less responsive to the anti- ... Lever pressing in rats Certain laboratory rat strains that have been created by controlled breeding for many generations show a ... Rats are unable to vomit when they ingest a substance that is harmful thus pica in rats is analogous to vomiting in other ... Also, if rats are restricted both in food intake and wheel access, they will adjust accordingly. In fact, if rats are first ...
Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley (CD) Rats on Gestational Days 6 to 20 Research Triangle Park, NC: National ... A study where pregnant rats were fed about 47 times the usual human dose of 26 mg/kg concluded, "Maternal liver weights were ... A recent study (2011) found rats fed with Goldenseal constantly for two years had a greater tendency towards tumor formation. ...
Also leptin administration to normotensive Sprague Dawley rats during pregnancy significantly increases urinary protein ... Leptin increases blood pressure and markers of endothelial activation during pregnancy in rats". BioMed Research International ...
"Dose-dependent Induction of Mammary Carcinomas in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats with 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] ... Rats were fed PhIP ad libitum at concentrations of 12.5 and 50ppm. Rats developed mammary tumors at each concentration of PhIP ... Rats were fed PhIP at concentrations of 25, 100, and 200 ppm. The rats gained weight throughout the experiment, but feeding ... PhIP has also formed DNA adducts in vivo in both rats and monkeys.[18] PhIP has been tested for carcinogenicity in both mice ...
... valvular alterations are associated with 5HT2B receptor and 5HT transporter transcript changes in Sprague-Dawley rats". ... Kennett GA, Trail B, Bright F (Dec 1998). "Anxiolytic-like actions of BW 723C86 in the rat Vogel conflict test are 5-HT2B ... and rat pharmacokinetic properties". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 19 (8): 2206-10. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.02.126 ...
Lewis rats show more compulsive lever pressing behavior than Sprague Dawley or Wistar rats and are less responsive to the anti- ... Rats are unable to vomit when they ingest a substance that is harmful thus pica in rats is analogous to vomiting in other ... Also, if rats are restricted both in food intake and wheel access, they will adjust accordingly. In fact, if rats are first ... Rats became significantly more tolerant to morphine when they had been exposed to a paired administration than those rats that ...
The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ... Sprague Dawley, the trademark used by Envigo) is not. The average litter size of the Sprague Dawley rat is 11.0. These rats ... This breed of rat was first produced by the Sprague-Dawley farms (later to become the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company) in Madison ... Shorn rats were bred from Sprague Dawley rats in Connecticut in 1998. They also suffer from severe kidney problems. The Lewis ...
... is somewhat different from the more selective Type I myofiber atrophy observed in unloaded Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rat muscle ... The center of gravity in rats is much lower than normal. They no longer support their body weight and initiate movement off the ... To our knowledge the only other species besides the rat that has been involved in spaceflight studies on skeletal muscle is the ... McDonald, KS; Delp, MD; Fitts, RH (June 1992). "Effect of hindlimb unweighting on tissue blood flow in the rat". Journal of ...
... lymphocyte 8-OHdG levels correlate with age-associated increase of tissue oxidative DNA damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. ... Young 4-day-old rats have about 3,000 single-strand breaks and 156 double-strand breaks per neuron, whereas in rats older than ... also showed that the oxidative DNA damage 8-OHdG accumulates in rat brain with age. Similarly, it was shown that as humans age ... Swain, U; Subba Rao, K (Aug 2011). "Study of DNA damage via the comet assay and base excision repair activities in rat brain ...
In tests against a control, Sprague-Dawley rats given free access to less-preferred rat chow and trained to operate a lever ... Experiments performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in a European patent for using Phenylpiracetam to treat sleep disorders showed an ... as much non-preferred rat chow than control rats; rats given 10 mg/kg Methylphenidate performed 170% as much work and consumed ... In rats, scopolamine is used to model memory impairment. It impairs performance in the conditioned passive avoidance reflex ...
... in Sprague-Dawley rats". European Journal of Pharmacology. 555 (2-3): 156-63. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.10.038. PMID 17116299. ... In laboratory studies with rats, CBD has been shown to reduce sleep latency due to anxiety in REM sleep, with no negative ... March 2013). "Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats". Journal of ... on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats". ...
... activity of estrogen receptor-alpha agonist propylpyrazole-triol in the mammary gland of ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats". ... Kuiper GG, Enmark E, Pelto-Huikko M, Nilsson S, Gustafsson JA (June 1996). "Cloning of a novel receptor expressed in rat ... Administration of the selective ERβ agonist ERB-041 to immature ovariectomized female rats produced no observable effects in ... Similarly, overexpression of ERβ via lentiviral infection in mature virgin female rats decreases mammary proliferation. ERα ...
... has the significant capability to alter the immunomodulatory activity of the herbomineral formulation in female Sprague Dawley ... rats. It is then anticipitated that the Biofield Energy Treated herbomineral formulation and Biofield Energy Treatment group ... Randomly breed healthy female Sprague Dawley rats body weight ranges between 132-183 grams, were used for the study. All the ... Table 1. The effect of the test formulation on primary and secondary humoral immune response in female Sprague Dawley rats. ...
... Natarajan Ranganathan,1 Beena Patel,1 Pari ... and Their Effect on Liver Function and Gut Microflora of Experimental Rats," Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, 2018. View ... BJ0021 on liver and kidney oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by endosulfan in pregnant rats ," Renal Failure, vol. 37, no ... "In vivo assessment of bacteriotherapy on acetaminophen-induced uremic rats," Journal of Nephrology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 228-236 ...
... including the Sprague Dawley® rat, for use in basic research and nonclinical drug discovery and development. ... SAS Sprague Dawley Rat Details. To SASCO from ARS/Sprague Dawley in 1979. To Charles River in 1996. ... Try out the SAS Sprague Dawley rat with our animal model evaluation program→ ...
Effects of nicotine self-administration on incentive salience in male Sprague Dawley rats. ... Twenty-three male rats were trained daily, for 24 days, on a nicotine self-administration (SA) paradigm in the morning, and on ... Nicotine Incentive salience Self-administration Sign-tracking Goal-tracking Pavlovian conditioned approach Rats ... Raiff BR, Dallery J (2008) The generality of nicotine as a reinforcer enhancer in rats: effects on responding maintained by ...
Baker H.J. (1991) Dystonia Musculorum Deformans, Sprague-Dawley Rat with the Dystonic (dt) Mutation. In: Jones T.C., Mohr U., ... 1984) described Sprague-Dawley rats with clinical and biochemical characteristics similar to human inherited torsion dystonias ... Kato M, Onodera T (1984) Spontaneous osteochon-drosis in rats. Lab Anim 18: 179-187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Kato M, Onodera T (1986) Observation on the development of osteochondrosis in young rats. Lab Anim 20: 249-256PubMedCrossRef ...
Tumor Incidence in Normal Sprague-Dawley Female Rats. R. K. Davis, G. T. Stevenson and K. A. Busch ... Tumor Incidence in Normal Sprague-Dawley Female Rats Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer ... The mean life span of normal female Sprague-Dawley rats in this laboratory was 760 ± 21 days, with individuals ranging in life ... Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first ...
The present study investigated the response of kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg ... There was a significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydro peroxide in GOs-treated rats compared to ... Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with GO compared with the ... In the present work, however, we only provided preliminary information on toxicity of GO in rats; further experimental ...
Single oral high dose toxicity study was conducted on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g) by the limit test method. One ... UNCP appears to be relatively safe when taken as a single oral high dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w.t. in rats. Caution should however ... The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group for 7 days before the start of ... Taconic Technical Library, Hematological Clinical Chemistry values Sprague-Dawley Rats, 2003. *C. A. Pieme, V. N. Penlap, B. ...
... rat, Sprague-Dawley explanation free. What is rat, Sprague-Dawley? Meaning of rat, Sprague-Dawley medical term. What does rat, ... Looking for online definition of rat, Sprague-Dawley in the Medical Dictionary? ... rat, Sprague-Dawley. rat, Sprague-Dawley,. n.pr an inbred strain of albino rat commonly used in laboratory research. There are ... Rat, Sprague-Dawley , definition of rat, Sprague-Dawley by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Rat tail veins were injected with 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg GO for seven days and behavioral patterns, pathology, and tissue ... The safety of GO is uncertain, so we evaluated its toxicity in male rats. ... Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Graphene Oxide in the Sprague-Dawley Rat by Yingbo Li 1,†, Yan Wang 1,†, Liu Tu 1, Di Chen 1, Zhi ... "Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Graphene Oxide in the Sprague-Dawley Rat." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, no. 11: 1149. ...
... infection in Sprague Dawley rats. As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats ... ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats ... Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of ... Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a ...
2. [14 C]HQ administered (0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg) by gavage or IV routes to male and female Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and ... These studies were undertaken to investigate the disposition of HQ in rats and mice following gavage, intravenous (IV) and ... 2. [14 C]HQ administered (0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg) by gavage or IV routes to male and female Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and ... Disposition of [14C]hydroquinone in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice. Species and route comparison ...
Characterized for phase I and phase II enzyme activitiesOur Rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and ... Our rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and cryopreservation techniques as our human lots. ...
6 through 19 in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test chemical was administered to pregnant rats by gavage at dose levels of 0, 10, 30 ... Developmental toxic potential of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in Sprague-Dawley rats.. [J C Lee, I S Shin, T H Ahn, K H Kim, C Moon ... in rats. Because the developmental toxicity of 1,3-DCP was observed only in the presence of maternal toxicity, it is concluded ...
Fructose feeding has been widely reported to cause hypertension in rats, as assessed indirectly by tail cuff plethysmography. ... Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Systole. Tail / blood supply. Time Factors. Triglycerides / blood. ... whether blood pressure changes could be detected by long-term monitoring with telemetry in age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats ... 16157789 - Fructose feeding increases insulin resistance but not blood pressure in sprague-dawley .... 7949229 - The effect of ...
Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing from 164 to 181 g for the c-Fos study, and from 187 to 209 g for the CRF study) ... The c-fos gene expression in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) of Sprague-Dawley rats for an animal model for ... c-fos gene expression is increased in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats With visceral pain ... of Sprague-Dawley rats receiving the same acetic acid treatment were not significantly different from those of the control rats ...
The Adult Sprague-Dawley Sugen-Hypoxia Rat Is Still "the One:" A Model of Group 1 Pulmonary Hypertension: Reply to Le Cras and ...
Developmental toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate administered in the diet to sprague dawley rats. ... was given in the diet to Sprague Dawley rats in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 414. Dose levels of 0, 3, 10, 20 and 40mg ... Developmental toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate administered in the diet to sprague dawley rats. Reproductive ...
We report a case of uterine torsion in an adult breeding Sprague Dawley rat. The rat died a month after her last recorded ... We report a case of uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus). ... During routine cage changing, a Sprague Dawley adult breeding female was found dead in her cage by the animal attendant. The ... The rats distended abdomen was in line with breeding and delivery dates for advanced pregnancy. The rat was provided with ...
We report a case of uterine torsion in an adult breeding Sprague Dawley rat. The rat died a month after her last recorded ... ERLWANGER, K H; COSTELLO, M A and MEYER, L C R. Uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus). J. S. Afr. Vet. ... which could have caused the death of the rat. Although uterine torsion is a rare condition in rats, it should be considered as ... Post mortem examination of the rat revealed 270º torsion of the right uterine horn. The uterus contained a single foetus. The ...
Sprague Dawley, are isolated and cryopreserved from Sprague Dawley embryonic day-18 rats. A flexible, ready-to-use, and quality ... Gibco Primary Rat Cortex Neurons, Sprague Dawley, are isolated and cryopreserved from Sprague Dawley embryonic day-18 rats. A ...
A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of ... transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats ... In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed ... 2012) A 90-Day Dietary Toxicity Study of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 Expressing Cry1C Protein in Sprague Dawley Rats. PLoS ...
CP-55940 from CB1 receptor in Sprague-Dawley rat cerebella membrane. ...
... Birth Defects Res ... Two groups of 65 virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were administered two or four intramuscular injections of the vaccine (full human ... The quadrivalent vaccine induced a specific antibody response to the four HPV types in the F0 female rats following one or ... Additional groups of rats were administered phosphate-buffered saline or Merck Aluminum Adjuvant (MAA) at the same four times. ...
Efficacy Study of Livartho against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Sprague Dawley Rats Vivek kumar Dwivedi*, ... Efficacy Study of Livartho against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Sprague Dawley Rats. J Drug Metab Toxicol 5:175 ... of this study was to evaluate therapeutic effect of Livartho drug in paracetamol induced hepatic damage Sprague dawley rats. ... has potent hepatoprotective action and free radical scavenger against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in Sprague dawley rats ...
Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or OVX for 3 weeks, followed by s.c. implantation of a Silastic ... deprivation results in a reversible learning impairment and compromised cholinergic function in female Sprague-Dawley rats ... Female Sprague-Dawley rats were e … ...
Tmax in Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley (rat) at 30 mg/kg, administered intramuscularly. ...
Caltag Medsystems , Products , Cell Fractions & Lysates , Rat Cell Fractions. Male Sprague Dawley Rat Hepatic Microsomes. ...
A spontaneous cystic keratinizing epithelioma in the lung of a 704-days-old female Hsd:Sprague-Dawley rat is described. The rat ... Spontaneous cystic keratinizing epithelioma in the lung of a Sprague-Dawley rat. ... dealing with the morphological and immunohistochemical features of a spontaneous cystic keratinizing epithelioma in a rat. ...
To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of cyadox, an antimicrobial agent, four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (50 rats/sex ... A two-year dietary carcinogenicity study of cyadox in Sprague-Dawley rats. ... The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of cyadox fed to rats was 2000 mg/kg diet (132.18-156.28 mg/kg b.w./day ... In conclusion, cyadox was not carcinogenic to rats with the liver and kidney as the target organs, and the side chain may be ...
  • 2. [14 C]HQ administered (0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg) by gavage or IV routes to male and female Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and B6C3F1/N mice was well absorbed and rapidly excreted primarily in urine. (rti.org)
  • Male SD rats, Dahl S (SS/Jr) and R (SR/Jr) rats (130-150 g, 4-5 weeks old, twelve rats per type) were obtained from Harlan Sprague Dawley, Indianapolis, IN. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD (SD) vs. Harlan Sprague-Dawley … FIGURE 2.40 Mineralization of mucus within the lumen of the nasal turbinates of the rat. (ariyezegel.com)
  • Methods 2BP was tested through the use of repeated dose experiments among male Sprague Dawley rats. (sjweh.fi)
  • Methods: Blood was sampled, 2 d apart, from Sprague-Dawley rats (30 males and 30 females) in both fed and non-fed states at 20 wk of age (weight: 470.2 ± 23.2 g) for measurement of ionized calcium (iCa), total intact (INT) and bioactive 1-84 (BIO) PTH. (scirp.org)
  • METHODS: Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups: Group I (control)--normal rat chow, Group II--fresh soy oil, Group III--soy oil heated once, Group IV--soy oil heated twice, Group V--soy oil heated five times, Group VI--soy oil heated ten times. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Methods Single atrial myocyte of SD rats was obtained by enzymatic dissociation method. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS: Isolated rat colonocytes were incubated in the presence of a concentration range of 1-14C labelled C2-C8 fatty acids. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 30, 61, 114, or 202 ppm PIFE for a single 3-h period via nose-only inhalation. (asahq.org)
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovx and fed soy-free chow only (control group, n = 8), or with the addition of oestradiol-3 benzoate (E2B) (10mg/kg, n = 10) or equol (400 mg/kg, n = 10). (galileo-training.com)
  • Our Sprague Dawley Ray Albumun in prepared from Sprague Dawley rat plasma by proprietary fractionation methods and lyophilized. (innov-research.com)
  • Prepared from US origin rat plasma by proprietary fractionation methods and lyophilized. (innov-research.com)
  • Methods: Seventy male healthy Sprague Dawley rats are randomly divided into two groups with thirty five rats in each group. (scopemed.org)
  • Methods: An automated haematology analyzer was used to determine haematological indices of whole blood from individual in 20 each of male and female inbred Sprague Dawley rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • METHODS: Male SD rats of various ages were randomly assigned to various experimental protocols. (bu.edu)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty male SD rats were randomly assigned to a control (AIN-93) (C) or a WB diet for 4 or 7 weeks. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Methods: Twelve timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized between the capsaicin group and the vehicle group. (umn.edu)
  • Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with GO compared with the control group. (mdpi.com)
  • There was no significant effect on the serum lipid levels, but the serum IgG level of the rats fed on guar gum was significantly lower than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • Higher serum and brain concentrations of venlafaxine were observed in Dark Agouti rats as compared to Sprague-Dawley rats (p=0.0002). (diva-portal.org)
  • A general decrease in serum enzyme levels in male rats was observed, perhaps indicative of a protective effect. (oregonstate.edu)
  • After 12 weeks, rats fed the HFD was given a 9 weeks treatment with a rutin rich extract of Morindacitrifolia leaf (MLE) and assessed for their serum metabolic profile. (omicsonline.org)
  • Compared with the pharmacokinetics in intact rats, total serum clearance was higher (1.7-fold) and volume of distribution was lower (1.6-fold) in BDC rats, resulting in a correspondingly shorter (2.5-fold) half-life, with 56% of administered 1 undergoing recirculation, an amount consistent with that (68% of dose) of M6 observed in bile from rats dosed orally with [ 14 C] 1 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rat Sprague Dawley IgG Fractionated Purified from Innovative Research has been purified from rat serum by fractionation. (innov-research.com)
  • Results: Lead intoxication of rats for 6 weeks reveals that serum MDA levels are increased to 7.8 0.48 mol/l (control = 3.2 0.27 mol/l), ALT levels to 76.26 5.88 IU/l (control = 44.7 2.96) and AST levels to 258.06 13.30 IU/l (control = 156.8 5.04). (scopemed.org)
  • As a qualitative serum with an optimized protein content to study the normal protein composition of rat serum. (exalpha.com)
  • For a standard rat serum with assigned values for IgA, IgM and the subclasses of IgG see NOR-03. (exalpha.com)
  • Pooled normal Rat Serum, strain Sprague Dawley. (exalpha.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate cocaine sensitization in female rats of genetically distinct inbred (Fischer 344 and Lewis) and outbred (Sprague-Dawley) strains. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Female Lewis rats were extremely sensitive to repeated-cocaine effects, whereas the Fischer 344 female rats showed only marginal effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dawson Jr R, Wallace DR (1992a) Taurine content in tissues from aged Fischer 344 rats. (springer.com)
  • The experiments were conducted under the same conditions as in a previous study of Fischer 344 rats ( publication 2242 ). (emf-portal.org)
  • The heart rate increase in the anesthetized state contrasts with a lack of change in a previous study of Fischer rats ( publication 2242 ). (emf-portal.org)
  • This difference between anesthetized Sprague-Dawley and Fischer rats should be considered when comparing cardiovascular results obtained from these two strains of rats . (emf-portal.org)
  • Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, [8] Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sprague-Dawley®, Fischer 344).Here, we share the results of the study. (bnwax.com)
  • The Wistar rat is an equally popular inbred strain of albino rat used in laboratory research. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most are derived from the albino Wistar rat, which is still widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. (comosystems.com)
  • a role, as Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar rats on a restricted diet havea lowerincidenceof PCM(Kemi et al.2000).SD rats have been widely used for toxicology studies (Keenan et al. (comosystems.com)
  • 200. In this study, we compared metabolic profiles of Wistar and SD rat hepatocytes from middle (6 months) and old (23 months) age groups. (bnwax.com)
  • Our researchers recently completed a two-year study of 130 male and 130 female Envigo RccHan®:WIST (Wistar Han®) rats and compared them to other outbred rats (e.g. (bnwax.com)
  • Adult male P rats (59 th-60 th generation, n=10, Indiana U., IN) weighed 200 g, and Wistar (n=8) and Sprague Dawley (SD, n=14) rats (both from Harlan, IN) weighed 325-350 g upon arrival. (ariyezegel.com)
  • Lobund-Wistar rat. (ariyezegel.com)
  • Mineralized hair, food particles or debris are often present in the ventral pouch of the rat larynx, particularly in older rats and squamous metaplasia may be recorded in the respiratory epithelium overlaying the ventral gland as a spontaneous lesion in male Wistar rats on inhalation studies (Renne et al 2003). (ariyezegel.com)
  • Nonlinear dynamic analysis was used to examine the chaotic behavior of renal sympathetic nerve activity in normotensive Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats before and after complete baroreceptor denervation (sinoaortic and cardiac baroreceptor denervation). (ahajournals.org)
  • This suggests that the central neural mechanisms that regulate renal sympathetic nerve activity in response to alterations in cardiovascular reflex inputs are different in spontaneously hypertensive rats from those in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Kyoto rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • These studies were undertaken to investigate the disposition of HQ in rats and mice following gavage, intravenous (IV) and dermal exposure. (rti.org)
  • The test chemical was administered to pregnant rats by gavage at dose levels of 0, 10, 30, and 90mg/kg per day (n=10 for each group). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an oral gavage dose of either C6/C8PFPiA, C8/C8PFPiA, or C8PFPA. (diva-portal.org)
  • Rats received a daily 5-10 g/kg dose of their respective ketone supplement via intragastric gavage during treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1-Nitropyrene (100 mg/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage in trioctanoin and the rats were sacrificed 24 h later. (elsevier.com)
  • Groups of Sprague Dawley rats received 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg per day by gavage and diet. (comosystems.com)
  • A dose-response study was designed to assess toxicity effects of standardized O. stamineus aqueous extract (OSAE) in adult male Sprague Dawley rats via oral gavage for 60 days. (plantsjournal.com)
  • We report a case of uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat ( Rattus norvegicus ). (scielo.org.za)
  • COSTELLO, M A and MEYER, L C R . Uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) . (scielo.org.za)
  • A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus domestica which is bred and kept for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose feeding increases insulin resistance but not blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There was also a significant increase in body weight, plasma triglycerides, insulin and leptin levels in rats fed the HFD. (omicsonline.org)
  • Characterization of the insulin signalling pathways in skeletal muscle and skin of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats : the effects of oleanolic acid. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of OA on the PI3K/Akt insulin signalling cascade in skeletal muscle and skin of streptozotocin induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were treated with insulin (4IU/ kg bw), OA (80 mg/kg bw) and a combination of OA + insulin in an acute and sub-chronic study. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The study showed that OA does not reduce blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetic rats but enhances insulin stimulated hypoglycaemic effects. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • In the sub-chronic study OA and OA + insulin increased expression of GS in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • OA + insulin treatment increased GS and decreased GP activities in skeletal muscle and increased activity of both enzymes in skin of diabetic rats. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Mate Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either AIN-93 diet or AIN-93G diet + Show more Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, Which impair insulin and glucose metabolism. (islandscholar.ca)
  • In this study, changes in renal function, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured during chronic insulin infusion in eight rats (~350 g). (elsevier.com)
  • In five rats, glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow decreased to 73 ± 4 and 66 ± 5% of control, respectively, during insulin. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that insulin hypertension in rats is initiated by an increase in TPR rather than by increased CO. Also, the fact that sodium balance was maintained at elevated arterial pressure suggests that the ability of the kidneys to excrete sodium was impaired chronically during insulin infusion. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine the effect of oral administration of methanolic seed extract of Mucuna pruriens ( M. pruriens ) on oestrous cycle, ovulation, reproductive hormones and oxidative stress in the ovary of cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats. (sciencedomain.org)
  • The results concluded that CPF, LCT, and dimethoate insecticides induced oxidative stress and DNA damage associated with histological changes in the brain and liver of exposed rats. (deepdyve.com)
  • Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. (aacrjournals.org)
  • n.pr an inbred strain of albino rat commonly used in laboratory research. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our lab has identified a unique sub-strain of SD rats that is hyper-responsive (HR) to SU5416 (SU) alone and develops severe progressive PAH in response to single injection of SU, even in absence of chronic hypoxia (CH). (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine gender-related differences in the acute and chronic effects of cocaine, data obtained from female rats were compared with those from strain- and weight-matched male rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There were significant strain effects on the degree of gonadal hormonal-induced modulation of cocaine sensitization in female rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The present study strongly supports the hypothesis that female rats are more sensitive to both acute and chronic behavioral effects of cocaine than are male rats and that the effects are strain dependent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study was performed to test whether a strongly photoresponsive rat strain (F344) and strongly nonphotoresponsive rat strain (HSD) have similar circadian urinary excretion profiles of the major metabolite of melatonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), in long-day (L:D 16:8) and short-day (L:D 8:16) photoperiods. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Urinary 24-hour aMT6s profiles were measured under L:D 8:16 and L:D 16:8 in young male laboratory rats of a strain known to be reproductively responsive to the short-day photoperiod (F344) and another known to be nonresponsive (HSD). (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • strain in vivo, Sprague Dawley rats were fed with heavy metal salts (cadmium, chrome and lead) with or without cultured whole cells for 7 days. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Our research goal was to calculate a dose of DMBA at each age in which 50% of the rats developed carcinoma in situ (CIS) within three months (IC50) in this strain of Sprague Dawley female rats. (comosystems.com)
  • Sprague-Dawley rat strain was derived from this strain. (bnwax.com)
  • Fructose feeding has been widely reported to cause hypertension in rats, as assessed indirectly by tail cuff plethysmography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We propose that previous reports of fructose-induced hypertension reflect a heightened stress response by fructose-fed rats associated with restraint and tail cuff inflation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Adult Sprague-Dawley Sugen-Hypoxia Rat Is Still "the One:" A Model of Group 1 Pulmonary Hypertension: Reply to Le Cras and Abman. (nih.gov)
  • The Dahl salt-sensitive rat, but not the Dahl salt-resistant rat, develops hypertension and hypovitaminosis D when fed a high salt diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide mechanistic insight regarding the integrated roles of the renal and nervous systems in age-dependent hypertension in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. (bu.edu)
  • A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. (plos.org)
  • After treatment with Livartho drug (206.6 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 16 days to paracetamol treated rats shows significantly lowered the afore mentioned biochemical parameter whereas protein and albumin levels were increased along with significant increased above mentioned antioxidant enzymatic parameters. (omicsonline.org)
  • We also observed significantly higher HIF1α and BNIP3 (a downstream target of HIF1α) expression in the lungs of HR SD rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thirty-day-old PCB treated rats displayed significantly elevated leptin levels and depressed triiodothyronine concentrations. (osu.edu)
  • Young adult rats exposed to PCB for 21 days displayed significantly depressed leptin concentrations, however PCB had no effect on thyroid hormones in this group. (osu.edu)
  • In addition, the epidydimal adipose tissue weight of the rats fed on PHGG was significantly higher than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • The IgA and IgG productivity in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes was significantly higher in the rats fed on guar gum, glucomannan and pectin than in those fed on cellulose, while the effect on Ig productivity in spleen lymphocytes was not as marked. (go.jp)
  • The uptake was significantly higher in immature rats compared to the adult animals. (utu.fi)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains , livers , kidneys , adrenal glands , and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of red blood cells, haematocrit, haemoglobin and platelet were significantly higher in rats received 2000mg/kg body weight of extract. (plantsjournal.com)
  • Since CYP2D6 seems to play a major role in the metabolism of venlafaxine, the aim of this work was to study possible differences in the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of venlafaxine and its metabolites in these two different rat strains. (diva-portal.org)
  • Based on multivariate data analysis, metabolic profiles of rats on the different diet was distinct, with 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetate/acetone, taurine, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate being the main discriminative metabolites. (omicsonline.org)
  • Three of the substances could be identified as VP metabolites in an exposure study with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. (separationsnow.com)
  • Two of three substances identified as metabolites of VP could serve as a nonspecific human biomarker for VP exposure as shown with an excerpt of an exposure study performed in SD rats. (separationsnow.com)
  • and Their Effect on Liver Function and Gut Microflora of Experimental Rats," Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins , 2018. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, cyadox was not carcinogenic to rats with the liver and kidney as the target organs, and the side chain may be involved in toxicity and carcinogenicity mediated by QdNOs. (ovid.com)
  • Since VP has caused adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and liver cell carcinoma in long-term experiments with rats, a human biomarker would be appreciated for risk assessment. (separationsnow.com)
  • Ali, Marwa 2018-03-23 00:00:00 The current work was undertaken to test the genotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos (CPF), dimethoate, and lambda cyhalothrin (LCT) insecticides in rat brain and liver using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). (deepdyve.com)
  • Histopathological changes were observed in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and liver of exposed rats. (deepdyve.com)
  • Uptake of chromium in human res blood cells and isolated rat liver cells: The role of the anion carrier. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Acute exposure to cadmium causes severe liver injury in rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The 32 P-postlabeling technique was used to qualitatively establish the pattern of DNA adduct formation in mammary tissue and liver following administration of 1-nitropyrene to female Sprague-Dawley rats. (elsevier.com)
  • The rat pups in groups 2 to 6 were given a subcutaneous injection with sodium selenite (18 μmol/kg bodyweight) on postnatal (P) day 10. (molvis.org)
  • This study aims to observe the microscopic changes in lung tissue, both in interstitial tissue and alveolar epithelial cell (pneumocyte II) in postnatal and aging Sprague-Dawley rats. (thescipub.com)
  • The [ 18 F]NS12137 brain uptake and distribution were studied with in vivo PET/CT and ex vivo autoradiography using both adult and immature Sprague-Dawley rats because postnatal NET expression peaks at 10-20 days post birth. (utu.fi)
  • In all strains of rats studied, progesterone alone did not alter the ovariectomy-induced attenuation of cocaine behavior, but estrogen alone restored cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Eppler B, Dawson Jr R (1998) The effects of aging on taurine content and biosynthesis in different strains of rats. (springer.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation on female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. (trivedieffect.com)
  • The present study investigated the response of kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg GO for five days. (mdpi.com)
  • Single oral high dose toxicity study was conducted on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g) by the limit test method. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we study an alternative cerebral malaria model with an experimental Plasmodium berghei Keyberg 173 (K173) infection in Sprague Dawley rats. (plos.org)
  • This study investigated the potential adverse effects of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) on pregnant dams and the embryo-fetal development after maternal exposure on gestational days (GD) 6 through 19 in Sprague-Dawley rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the current study the developmental toxicity of sodium molybdate dihydrate as a representative of a broad class of soluble molybdenum(VI) compounds, was given in the diet to Sprague Dawley rats in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 414. (rti.org)
  • In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. (plos.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate therapeutic effect of Livartho drug in paracetamol induced hepatic damage Sprague dawley rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • The results of this study strongly indicate that Livartho drug is most effective medicine which has potent hepatoprotective action and free radical scavenger against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in Sprague dawley rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • The present study thus explored the effects of renalase on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats subjected to MIRI. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of the study was to test whether the DA rat and the SD rat pretreated with the CYP2D1 inhibitor quinine showed attenuation in analgesia to codeine and oxycodone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This product contains primary hepatocytes isolated from female Sprague-Dawley rats, pooled, and cryopreserved.Cryopreserved animal hepatocytes allow researchers to study toxicological and pharmacokinetic properties of new chemical entities (NCEs) and o understand species differences in drug metabolism.Corning Gentest rat hepatocytes are characterized for palatability, viability and key metabolizing enzymes. (selectscience.net)
  • In the present study 15-and 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed gestationally and lactationally to 1.25 ppm of Aroclor 1254®, a mixture of 52 PCB congeners, via maternal diet, to determine the effect on leptin and thyroid hormones. (osu.edu)
  • The present study investigated the anti‑inflammatory effect of hinoki cypress leaf extracted essential oil on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated WI38 fibroblast cells by inhibiting the nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) pathway, which exhibited lung tissue protection through the olfactory administration of essential oil in Sprague‑Dawley rats. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This study was designed to determine the impact of PIFE on rat renal histology correlated with functional changes. (asahq.org)
  • Conclusions: The renal histopathologic findings in this study are consistent with those reported in previous acute studies in rats after PIFE administration. (asahq.org)
  • The present study is to determine the toxicity effect of E. longifolia (TA164, MEOH preparations) on Sprague Dawley Rats, through the acute and subacute toxicity study. (globinmed.com)
  • The Acute toxicity study (single dose at 5 g/kg BW) showed that generally, there was no acute effect of TA164 to the rats. (globinmed.com)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the herbomineral formulation in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. (vixra.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify changes in gene transcription that occur in the soleus muscle of untrained, 10 week old rats following a single aerobic exercise bout of 2 hours. (uncg.edu)
  • The present pilot study examines whether exposure to GBHs at doses of glyphosate considered to be "safe" (the US Acceptable Daily Intake - ADI - of 1.75 mg/kg bw/day), starting from in utero, may modify the composition of gut microbiome in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study was conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats aged 2 days (n = 6), 4 days (n = 6), 10 days (n = 6), 16 days (n = 6), 3-4 months (n = 6) and more than 12 months (n = 6). (thescipub.com)
  • This study investigated the effects of cricket ethanol extract when orally administrated in Sprague-Dawley rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Ahn MY, Han JW, Kim SJ, Hwang JS, Yun EY (2011) Thirteen-week oral dose toxicity study of G. bimaculatus in Sprague-Dawley rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • To study the thermal and cardiovascular responses of conscious ( restraint ) versus ketamine anesthetized rats exposed to 2.8 GHz radiofrequency irradiation . (emf-portal.org)
  • The present study investigated the potential role for activation of PPARα and CAR/PXR by potassium PFOS (K⁺ PFOS) with respect to the etiology of hepatic hypertrophy and hepatocellular adenoma in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The study of distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in rat organs. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Pleurotus tuber-regium on the kidneys of rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) for 13 weeks. (begellhouse.com)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Biofield Energy Treated herbomineral formulation in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats for immune biomarkers modulation. (trivedieffect.com)
  • In the acute study OA was shown to activate Akt and dephosphorylate GS in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The results of this study suggest that other metabolic pathways, such as ring oxidation, or ring oxidation followed by nitroreduction, may be responsible for the putative 1-nitropyrene-DNA adducts observed in mammary fat pads and livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats. (elsevier.com)
  • [2] Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0000002036 00000 n Relative to the, The aim of the present study was to investigate potential alterations in the articular cartilage in a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)‑induced osteoarthritis (OA) with or without treatment with moderate treadmill exercise. (comosystems.com)
  • This study was undertaken to assess the pharmacokinetics and developmental toxicity of the anticonvulsant, valproic acid (VPA), a human teratogen, in Sprague-Dawley rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Introduction: In this study, we examined the effect of neonatal administration of capsaicin on the magnitude of orthodontic tooth movement in rats. (umn.edu)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in Sprague Dawley rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dawson Jr R, Wallace DR (1989) Central and peripheral actions of α 2 -adrenergic agonists on renal function in Long-Evans and Brattleboro rats. (springer.com)
  • 3-month-old male SD rats were randomly assigned to receive Renal-Capsaicin surgery (Renal-CAP) to ablate the afferent renal nerve (ARN) or sham surgery, followed by an acute 5% body weight i.v.-isotonic volume expansion protocol (5%-VE) in which natriuretic response and cardiovascular functions (HR/MAP) were continuously monitored and analyzed for the duration of the experimental period. (bu.edu)
  • 3/8/16-month-old male SD rats without Renal-CAP surgery were similarly exposed to the 5%-VE protocol. (bu.edu)
  • RESULTS: In response to the 5%-VE protocol, the natriuretic response was attenuated in Renal-Cap rats. (bu.edu)
  • Renal-CAP rats also experienced a significant increase in MAP in response to 5%-VE, while sham Renal-CAP rats did not. (bu.edu)
  • Both Renal-CAP and sham Renal-CAP rats experienced a significant increase in the mean number of PVN Fos-positive cells (Fos+) post-expansion, although the increase in Fos+ cells in Renal-CAP rats was smaller in magnitude in comparison to their sham Renal-CAP counterpart. (bu.edu)
  • An increase in renal/plasma NE content was observed in rats of increasing age on NS-intake, and increases in salt intake in the same age group led to a significant increase in NE content. (bu.edu)
  • NE/Renal-CAP 3-month-old rats in response to HS-intake, and in rats of increasing age on NS-intake. (bu.edu)
  • These results indicate that removal of sinoaortic and cardiac baroreceptor regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity is associated with a greater decrease in the chaotic behavior of renal sympathetic nerve activity in normotensive compared with hypertensive rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Evaluation of chronic dietary exposure to indole-3-carbinol and absorption-enhanced 3,3'-diindolylmethane in sprague-dawley rats. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Long-term exposure to DIM produced no observable toxicity, and comparison to I3C indicates that DIM is a markedly less efficacious inducer of CYP in the rat at doses relevant to human supplementation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Results: Labored breathing was observed in 3 of the 20 and 2 of the 20 rats in the 114 ppm and 202 ppm groups, respectively, during the 3-h exposure period. (asahq.org)
  • If there is a parallel between the disposition of these chemicals in humans and rats, then humans with detectable amounts of PFPiAs in their blood may be undergoing continuous exposure. (diva-portal.org)
  • A rat was restrained in a vented Plexiglas cage and placed within the exposure chamber on a stand made of 2-inch thick high density Styrofoam. (emf-portal.org)
  • The rat was positioned along the boresight and exposed in H-orientation (left lateral exposure , long axis of the body parallel to the magnetic field ). (emf-portal.org)
  • Hepatocellular hypertrophy and cell proliferation in Sprague-Dawley rats from dietary exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate results from increased expression of xenosensor nuclear receptors PPARα and CAR/PXR. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effect of repeated exposure to Pb acetate on hematopoietic function, testis and kidney in male rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Lung cells were then isolated from five rats in each group on day 0 and 1 month after the 5-day exposure, respectively. (oup.com)
  • Compound A). Previous studies have shown that the kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity in the rat. (asahq.org)
  • As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats exhibiting Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) symptoms while the majority (55%) of the remaining rats developed severe anemia and hyperparasitemia (NoECM). (plos.org)
  • Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All female rats were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: 1) estradiol benzoate group, 2) progesterone group, 3) estradiol benzoate-plus-progesterone group, and 4) ovariectomized group. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rats were either run (experimental) for 2 hours or were rested (controls) and were killed 1 hour post-exercise with controls killed at a matched time. (uncg.edu)
  • Experimental group (rats fed with lactic acid bacteria) showed less accumulation of heavy metal than control group (rats fed with saline solution). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by Herbert McLean Evans and Joseph A. Long. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The oral bioavailability of HQ at 5 mg/kg was low in both rats (1.6%) and mice (3.9%) demonstrating significant first pass metabolism. (rti.org)
  • Eight-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on diets containing dietary fiber at the 5% level for 3 weeks to examine the effect on the lipid metabolism and immune function. (go.jp)
  • The metabolism and disposition of (1 S ,5 R )-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1 H -3-benzazepine ( 1 ), an α 4 β 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, was determined in Sprague-Dawley rats after oral administration of [ 14 C] 1 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • PFPiAs were metabolized in Sprague-Dawley rats to form persistent PFPAs as well as 1H-PFAs, which contain a labile hydrogen that may undergo further metabolism. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results in rats produced preliminary findings of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of PFPiAs, which should be further investigated in humans. (diva-portal.org)
  • Comparative metabolism and disposition of gemfibrozil in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian golden hamsters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rat Suspension Qualified Hepatocytes, are specifically pre tested for metabolic activity of general Phase I and Phase II metabolism in suspension. (lonza.com)
  • Sprague-Dawley rats, (30 males and 30 females), were fed AIN-93G diets [8] from 3 to 20 wk of age with the exception of slightly higher fat content (84 g/kg) in all groups with the control group containing only soybean oil and the other dietary groups receiving 0.5% to 1% CLA. (scirp.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In spite of its mild uterotropic potential, dietary equol shows limited bone sparing effects in ovx rats. (galileo-training.com)
  • Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Is Not Attenuated by Dietary Choline Supplementation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An increase in MAP was also observed in rats of the same age with an increase in dietary salt intake from a NS to HS-intake. (bu.edu)
  • Furthermore, a decrease in NCC/pNCC/WNK1/pOxSR1 expression was observed in rats treated with terazosin in response to HS-intake, whereas protein levels in rats treated with propranolol varied independently of dietary salt intake. (bu.edu)
  • Thus, our objective was to investigate the temporal effect of WB consumption on vascular function and reactivity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat aorta after 4 and 7 weeks of dietary treatment. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Three groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed orally to one third LD50of CPF, dimethoate, or LCT for 24 and 48 h while the control group received corn oil. (deepdyve.com)
  • Renalase protects the cardiomyocytes of Sprague-Dawley rats against ischemia and reperfusion injury by reducing myocardial cell necrosis and apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1984) described Sprague-Dawley rats with clinical and biochemical characteristics similar to human inherited torsion dystonias, and named the mutation Dystonie (dt) . (springer.com)
  • Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in livers of cadmium treated rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The influence of pharmacogenetics on opioid analgesia: studies with codeine and oxycodone in the Sprague-Dawley/Dark Agouti rat model. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat, the O-demethylation of codeine to morphine is catalyzed by cytochrome P4502D1 (CYP2D1), which is absent in the female Dark Agouti (DA) rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The female Dark Agouti and Sprague-Dawley rats are considered the animal counterparts of the human CYP2D6 poor and extensive metaboliser phenotypes, respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • The albino laboratory rat with its red eyes and white fur is an iconic model organism for scientific research in a variety of fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in color, notably the albino and hooded varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnant rats were treated either throughout gestation (GD 1-20) with 30 mg/kg per day (chronic cocaine) or with one 15-mg/kg dose immediately following parturition (acute cocaine). (ovid.com)
  • We present the behavior profile of adult female offspring produced using a maternal immune activation (MIA) model where pregnant rats receive an immune stimulant and the offspring typically show various abnormalities consistent with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism. (eneuro.org)
  • Torsion of the uterus can be accompanied by haemostatic and metabolic complications, which could have caused the death of the rat. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1 H NMR based metabolomics was applied to compare the metabolic profile of rats fed a high saturated fat diet (HFD), rats fed with a normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks. (omicsonline.org)
  • Treatment with MLE (250mg/kg) resulted in an improvement of the metabolic profiles which were closer to the metabolic profiles of rats fed the ND. (omicsonline.org)
  • The immunomodulatory effect of the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated test formulations was studied in SD rats to determine any alteration in humoral immune response (IgG and IgM), cellular immune response, hematological parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes, and the sex hormone (testosterone). (vixra.org)
  • Tomato Juice Consumption Modifies the Urinary Peptide Profile in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Induced Hepatic Steatosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Rats with steatosis after tomato juice intake showed a profile intermediate between that of healthy rats and that of rats with induced hepatic steatosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a promising model to achieve further understanding the CM pathophysiology in Humans and to evaluate the activity of specific antimalarial drugs in avoiding/limiting cerebral damages from malaria. (plos.org)
  • The salt-sensitive rat, thus, appears to be a more appropriate model than the Sprague Dawley rat for assessing possible effects of salt-sensitivity on vitamin D status of humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADX after DMBA treatment increased the tumorigenic response and eliminated resistance to tumorigenesis in older rats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These thrombi may be emboli originating from atrial thromboses in older rats. (bnwax.com)
  • whereas only 27% (7 of 26) of the female rats showed HR-phenotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • Estradiol benzoate-plus-progesterone female rats showed greater locomotor effect in response to an acute dose of cocaine and had more robust sensitization in response to repeated cocaine than did male rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • UNCP appears to be relatively safe when taken as a single oral high dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w.t. in rats. (hindawi.com)
  • These results revealed that a 14-day repeated oral dose of 1,3-DCP was minimally embryotoxic but not teratogenic at a maternal toxic dose (90mg/kg/day), and was not embryotoxic at a minimally maternal toxic dose (30mg/kg/day) in rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we performed a 4 wk repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 407 under Good Laboratory Practice regulation. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Cystic degeneration (Fig. FIGURE 2.42 Dental dysplasia visible in the rat oral cavity. (bnwax.com)
  • Sebaceous gland ectopia in the oral cavity is observed at the base of the molar teeth (male rats) and between the upper incisors (Bertram et al 1996). (ariyezegel.com)
  • FIGURE 2.43 Food accummulation around the molar in the rat oral cavity. (ariyezegel.com)
  • Rats particularly the inbred strains are now more widely used laboratory model especially in toxicology and for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Because there are potentially significant drawbacks associated with plethysmography, we determined whether blood pressure changes could be detected by long-term monitoring with telemetry in age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a normal or high-fructose diet for 8 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The syndrome was induced by high fructose and fat diet in Sprague Dawley rat. (ajol.info)
  • 2.33) is observed commonly in the lungs of young and old rats. (bnwax.com)
  • Researchers have noticed inflammatory lesions in the lungs of rats used in research in recent years. (bnwax.com)
  • A tumor incidence of 57 per cent was observed in 150 female rats allowed to live out their life-span as normal, control animals on standard laboratory chow. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One hundred similar rats on a special fatrich diet developed an 80 per cent tumor incidence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Different strains of rat differ in their sensitivity to various compounds and in their incidence of spontaneous tumors. (ariyezegel.com)
  • Rat pups treated with sodium selenite are typically used as an in vivo model to mimic age-related nuclear cataract. (molvis.org)
  • Microscopic resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired from an 80 day old male Sprague-Dawley rat, including T2* anatomical images with 39 μm isotropic voxels, and diffusion tensor images (DTI) with 78 μm isotropic voxels. (neuroinformatics2012.org)
  • Furthermore, crossing non-responsive male and female rats from the HR colony markedly decreased the proportion of rats exhibiting HR phenotype in the F1-generation (HR 15% and 0%, male vs. female, respectively), consistent with the presence of modifier genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • [4] The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum , [5] and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition . (wikipedia.org)
  • Established in 1925 by Robert Dawley, the original Sprague Dawley rat colony was obtained by Harlan in 1980 through the acquisition of Sprague-Dawley, Inc. Harlan became Envigo in 2015. (ariyezegel.com)
  • Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of neurological signs within 24-48 hours. (plos.org)
  • Although aging rats produce many interesting lesions, there are also a number of lesions that occur spontaneously in young animals. (ariyezegel.com)
  • Spontaneously hypertensive rats had a similar correlation dimension, which was unaffected by complete baroreceptor denervation (2.42±0.02 versus 2.42±0.03), and a lower value for the greatest Lyapunov exponent, which decreased to a lesser extent after complete baroreceptor denervation (0.183±0.006 versus 0.158±0.006). (ahajournals.org)
  • At the end of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and thoracic aortas were taken for measurement of vascular reactivity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats received TAU supplementation (1.5% in drinking water) or TAU deficient diets for 4 weeks to test for a possible neuroprotective role of TAU in KA-induced (10 mg/kg s.c.) seizures. (springer.com)
  • Design : Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
  • The mean life span of normal female Sprague-Dawley rats in this laboratory was 760 ± 21 days, with individuals ranging in life span from 193 to 1100 days. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Over the next 30 years rats were used for several more experiments and eventually the laboratory rat became the first animal domesticated for purely scientific reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory rats not sacrificed may be euthanized or, in some cases, become pets . (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat strains refer to laboratory rats that have been bred in isolation for generations. (ariyezegel.com)
  • These results demonstrate that this quadrivalent HPV vaccine had no detectable adverse effects in either the treated F0 female rats or the F1 generation. (nih.gov)
  • Differences between groups were tested using a GLIMMIX model with sex and feeding state as fixed effects and individual rats as a random effect. (scirp.org)
  • Objective To explore possible electrophysiological mechanisms of single atrial myocyte by evaluating the effects of angiotensinII (AngII) and telmisartan on transient outward potassium currents (I to ) and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L ) in Sprague-Dawley rats. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion AngII and telmisartan had directly electrophysiological effects on SD rat atrial myocytes as well as telmisartan had antagonist effects on AngII at the level of angiotensin receptor. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a daidzein metabolite equol on bone mass density (BMD) and markers of bone remodelling in an ovariectomized (ovx) rat model of postmenopausal bone loss and compare them with the effects of 17beta-estradiol. (galileo-training.com)
  • Effects of 2.8-GHz microwaves on restrained and ketamine-anesthetized rats. (emf-portal.org)
  • as well as in evaluating alterations in blood parameters in relation to the pharmacological interventions and/or toxicological effects in inbred Sprague Dawley rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We tested the effects of 28-day administration of five ketone supplements on blood glucose, ketones, and lipids in male Sprague-Dawley rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The OSAE did not cause toxicity effects, rather, it stimulate erythropoiesis in rats and need further investigation. (plantsjournal.com)
  • Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (marker of vitamin D status) of Sprague Dawley, salt-sensitive, and salt-resistant rats were similar at week 3 of low salt intake. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of Sprague Dawley and salt-resistant rats were unaffected by high salt intake, whereas the mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of salt-sensitive rats at week 3 of high salt intake was only 20% of that at week 3 of low salt intake. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasma 25-OHD concentrations are similar in young S and R rats when the rats are fed a low salt diet (0.3% sodium chloride). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although elimination half-lives were not determined for 1H-PFAs, concentrations were higher than the corresponding PFPAs 48 h after rats were dosed with PFPiAs, suggestive of slower elimination. (diva-portal.org)
  • Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of tomato juice consumption on the urinary peptide profile in rats with NAFLD induced by an atherogenic diet and to identify potential peptide biomarkers for diagnosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Oxidation of short and medium chain C2-C8 fatty acids in Sprague-Dawley rat colonocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Histopathological evaluation showed significant morphological alterations of kidneys in GO-treated rats compared to controls. (mdpi.com)
  • Assessment of the blood-brain barrier revealed loss of integrity, and interestingly histopathological analysis highlighted cyto-adherence and sequestration of infected RBCs in brain vessels from ECM rats only. (plos.org)
  • Histopathological observation revealed that the alveolar capacity was enhanced in the essential oil olfactory administered rat group, compared with that in the normal rat group. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Pulsed magnetic field induces angiogenesis and improves cardiac function of surgically induced infarcted myocardium in Sprague-Dawley rats. (emf-portal.org)
  • To characterize the molecular basis of physiological cardiac aging, the proteomic profiles of Sprague Dawley rat hearts of 6, 22 and 30 months were analysed by DIGE and immunoblotting. (comosystems.com)
  • In normal animals subjected to sinoaortic and cardiac baroreceptor denervation, the regulation of arterial pressure 4 5 6 (dogs) and RSNA 7 (rats) became more simple, with significant reduction in 2 indices of chaotic behavior, the correlation dimension and greatest Lyapunov exponent. (ahajournals.org)
  • The effect of the test formulation was monitored by an estimation of humoral immune response, delay type hypersensitivity, hematology, biochemistry, body weight, feed intake, relative organ weight, and histopathology in male Sprague Dawley rats. (vixra.org)
  • An increase in MAP and decrease in urinary volume/sodium excretion was observed in male SD rats of increasing age in response to 5%-VE. (bu.edu)
  • In bile duct-cannulated (BDC) rats, mass balance was also achieved within 48 h with 73.7, 23.4, and 5.5% of the dose detected in bile, urine, and feces, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rats were randomly allocated 4 groups: vehicle control, 250, 500, 1,000 mg/kg test groups and administrated based on body weight for 28 d. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of cyadox, an antimicrobial agent, four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (50 rats/sex/group) were fed diets containing cyadox (0, 200, 600 or 2000 mg/kg) for up to two years. (ovid.com)
  • The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of cyadox fed to rats was 2000 mg/kg diet (132.18-156.28 mg/kg b.w./day). (ovid.com)
  • Effect of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg) on bleeding time (BT) and clotting time (CT) in Sprague-Dawley rats were also assessed. (nih.gov)
  • Medial degeneration is common in the coronary arteries of rats and the affected vessels display enlarged, irregularly arranged and sparse nuclei present in a PAS-positive matrix (Ruben 2000). (ariyezegel.com)
  • Additional groups of rats were administered phosphate-buffered saline or Merck Aluminum Adjuvant (MAA) at the same four times. (nih.gov)
  • Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=10). (molvis.org)
  • The rat pups in groups 4 to 6 were given gastric intubation with P. densiflora bark extract 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, and 120 mg/kg, respectively, on P9, P10, and P11. (molvis.org)
  • An increase in the mean number of Fos+ cells was observed post-expansion in all age groups, while 3-month-old rats experienced a larger increase in Fos+ cell count relative to 8-month-old rats. (bu.edu)
  • Eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (10 rats in each group), the fresh-air control (0mg/m 3 ), low-concentration group (0.16mg/m 3 ), middle-concentration group (0.34mg/m 3 ), and. (oup.com)
  • Eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (10 rats in each group), the fresh-air control (0mg/m 3 ), low-concentration group (0.16mg/m 3 ), middle-concentration group (0.34mg/m 3 ), and high-concentration group (0.94mg/m 3 ), and the whole body was exposed to MWCNTs for 5 days (6h/day). (oup.com)
  • Sixty rats were divided into 6 groups, with 10 animals in each group. (begellhouse.com)
  • Results The rats showed significant decreases in body weight depending on the 2BP dose. (sjweh.fi)