Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
A condition characterized by recurring episodes of fluid leaking from capillaries into extra-vascular compartments causing hematocrit to rise precipitously. If not treated, generalized vascular leak can lead to generalized EDEMA; SHOCK; cardiovascular collapse; and MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
Strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups. Although otherwise structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA. They are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents.
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Relaxin is a potent renal vasodilator in conscious rats. (1/4122)

The kidneys and other nonreproductive organs vasodilate during early gestation; however, the "pregnancy hormones" responsible for the profound vasodilation of the renal circulation during pregnancy are unknown. We hypothesized that the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) contributes. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of RLX elicits renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious adult, intact female rats. After several days of treatment with either purified porcine RLX or recombinant human RLX 2 (rhRLX), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20%-40%. Comparable renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration was also observed in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen and progesterone are unnecessary for the renal response to rhRLX. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abrogated the increase in ERPF and GFR elicited by chronic administration of purified porcine RLX. In contrast, the renal vasoconstrictory response to angiotensin II was attenuated by the RLX treatment. Short-term infusion of purified porcine RLX to conscious rats over several hours failed to increase ERPF and GFR. Plasma osmolality was consistently reduced by the chronic administration of both RLX preparations. In conclusion, the renal and osmoregulatory effects of chronic RLX administration to conscious rats resemble the physiological changes of pregnancy in several respects: (a) marked increases in ERPF and GFR with a mediatory role for nitric oxide; (b) attenuation of the renal circulatory response to angiotensin II; and (c) reduction in plasma osmolality.  (+info)

Modulation of long-term synaptic depression in visual cortex by acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (2/4122)

In a slice preparation of rat visual cortex, we discovered that paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) elicits a form of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) in the superficial layers when carbachol (CCh) or norepinephrine (NE) is applied concurrently. PPS by itself, or CCh and NE in the absence of synaptic stimulation, produced no lasting change. The LTD induced by PPS in the presence of NE or CCh is of comparable magnitude with that obtained with prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS) but requires far fewer stimulation pulses (40 vs 900). The cholinergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by atropine and pirenzepine, suggesting involvement of M1 receptors. The noradrenergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by urapidil and was mimicked by methoxamine, suggesting involvement of alpha1 receptors. beta receptor agonists and antagonists were without effect. Induction of LTD by PPS was inhibited by NMDA receptor blockers (completely in the case of NE; partially in the case of CCh), suggesting that one action of the modulators is to control the gain of NMDA receptor-dependent homosynaptic LTD in visual cortex. We propose that this is a mechanism by which cholinergic and noradrenergic inputs to the neocortex modulate naturally occurring receptive field plasticity.  (+info)

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (3/4122)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Complete compensation in skilled reaching success with associated impairments in limb synergies, after dorsal column lesion in the rat. (4/4122)

Each of the dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord conveys primary sensory information, by way of the medullary dorsal column nucleus, to the ventrobasal thalamus on the contralateral side; thus the dorsal columns are an important source of neural input to the sensorimotor cortex. Damage to the dorsal columns causes impairments in synergistic proximal or whole-body movements in cats and distal limb impairments in primates, particularly in multiarticulated finger movements and tactile foviation while handling objects, but the behavioral effects of afferent fiber lesions in the dorsal columns of rodents have not been described. Female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a forelimb for food pellets and subsequently received lesions of the dorsomedial spinal cord at the C2 level, ipsilateral to their preferred limb. Reaching success completely recovered within a few days of dorsal column lesion. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of high-speed video recordings revealed that rotatory limb movements (aiming, pronation, supination, etc.) were irreversibly impaired. Compensation was achieved with whole-body and alternate limb movements. These results indicate the following: (1) in the absence of the dorsal columns, other sensorimotor pathways support endpoint success in reaching; (2) sensory input conveyed by the dorsal columns is important for both proximal and distal limb movements used for skilled reaching; and (3) detailed behavioral analyses in addition to endpoint measures are necessary to completely describe the effects of dorsal column lesions.  (+info)

Response of hippocampal synapses to natural stimulation patterns. (5/4122)

We have studied the synaptic responses in hippocampal slices to stimulus patterns derived from in vivo recordings of place cell firing in a behaving rodent. We find that synaptic strength is strongly modulated during the presentation of these natural stimulus trains, varying 2-fold or more because of short-term plasticity. This modulation of synaptic strength is precise and deterministic, because the pattern of synaptic response amplitudes is nearly identical from one presentation of the train to the next. The mechanism of synaptic modulation is primarily a change in release probability rather than a change in the size of the elementary postsynaptic response. In addition, natural stimulus trains are effective in inducing long-term potentiation (LTP). We conclude that short-term synaptic plasticity--facilitation, augmentation, and depression--plays a prominent role in normal synaptic function.  (+info)

Embryonic and postnatal injections of bromodeoxyuridine produce age-dependent morphological and behavioral abnormalities. (6/4122)

The mitotic marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected twice daily (60 mg/kg) into pregnant hooded rats on one of embryonic days (E) 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, or 21, or into rat pups on postnatal day (P) 10. The principal findings were the following: (1) BrdU exposure on E11 produces profound effects on body morphology, and animals must be fed a special diet because of chronic tooth abnormalities; (2) BrdU exposure at E17 or earlier produces a change in coat spotting pattern, the precise pattern varying with age; (3) BrdU exposure on E15 or earlier produces a reduction in both brain and body weight; (4) BrdU exposure on E17 or earlier reduces cortical thickness; (5) BrdU exposure on E11-E13 and at P10 reduces cerebellar size relative to cerebral size; (6) spatial learning is significantly affected after injections of BrdU at E11-E17, but the largest effect is on E17; (7) the deficit in spatial learning may be related in part to a reduction in visual acuity; and (8) skilled forelimb ability is most disrupted after BrdU exposure at E15 but is also impaired after injections on E13 or earlier. BrdU thus has teratological effects on body, brain, and behavior that vary with the developmental age of the fetus or infant.  (+info)

Role of the CNS melanocortin system in the response to overfeeding. (7/4122)

The voluntary suppression of food intake that accompanies involuntary overfeeding is an effective regulatory response to positive energy balance. Because the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin system in the hypothalamus promotes anorexia and weight loss and is an important mediator of energy regulation, we hypothesized that it may contribute to the hypophagic response to overfeeding. Two groups of rats were overfed to 105 and 116% of control body weight via a gastric catheter. In the first group, in situ hybridization was used to measure POMC gene expression in the rostral arcuate (ARC). Overfeeding increased POMC mRNA in the ARC by 180% relative to levels in control rats. For rats in the second group, the overfeeding was stopped, and they were infused intracerebroventricularly with SHU9119 (SHU), a melanocortin (MC) antagonist at the MC3 and MC4 receptor, or vehicle. Although SHU (0.1 nmol) had no effect on food intake of control rats, intake of overfed rats increased by 265% relative to CSF-treated controls. This complete reversal of regulatory hypophagia not only maintained but actually increased the already elevated weight of overfed rats, whereas CSF-treated overfed rats lost weight. These results indicate that CNS MCs mediate hypophagic signaling in response to involuntary overfeeding and support the hypothesis that MCs are important in the central control of energy homeostasis.  (+info)

Pilocarpine toxicity in retinal ganglion cells. (8/4122)

PURPOSE: Muscarinic agents reduce intraocular pressure by enhancing aqueous outflow, probably by stimulating ciliary muscle contraction. However, pilocarpine is a well characterized neurotoxin and is widely used to generate animal seizure models. It was therefore investigated whether pilocarpine was also toxic to retinal ganglion cells. METHODS: Dissociated whole retinal preparations were prepared from postnatal day 16 to 19 rats. Retinal ganglion cells had been previously back-labeled with a fluorescent tracer. Retinal cells were incubated with pilocarpine, lithium, and inositol derivatives, and viability of the retrogradely labeled retinal ganglion cells was assayed after 24 hours. RESULTS: Pilocarpine was toxic to retinal ganglion cells in a dose-dependent fashion. This toxicity was potentiated by lithium and blocked by epi- and myo-inositol. CONCLUSIONS: Pilocarpine is toxic to retinal ganglion cells in a mixed culture assay. This toxicity appears to depend on the inositol pathway and is similar to its mode of action in other neurons. However, 0.4 mM pilocarpine (the lowest concentration that did not affect ganglion cell survival) is roughly 1000-fold higher than the vitreal concentration and 20-fold higher than the scleral concentration that can be obtained with topical administration of 2% pilocarpine in the rabbit eye.  (+info)

Define Conjunctive mood. Conjunctive mood synonyms, Conjunctive mood pronunciation, Conjunctive mood translation, English dictionary definition of Conjunctive mood. the mood which follows a conjunction or expresses contingency; the subjunctive mood. See also: Conjunctive
Definition of Conjunctive in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Conjunctive? Meaning of Conjunctive as a legal term. What does Conjunctive mean in law?
Animals and protocols. Sixty adult male Long-Evans rats (8 weeks of age; raised within our stock) were used in four experiments. First, the level of PSI after an intracortical injection of anisomycin (ANI) was assessed at three different time points in motor cortex and at one time point in parietal cortex and cerebellum (n = 3 in each group). Second, the spread of the injected volume of anisomycin in motor cortex, parietal cortex, and cerebellum was simulated by injections of India ink (five rats per site) (Berman and Dudai, 2001). Third, motor skill learning was evaluated after inducing PSI in contralateral motor cortex or in ipsilateral cerebellum (relative to the trained forelimb) by injection of ANI immediately after training sessions (days) 1 and 2. At identical time points, control groups received vehicle injections into motor cortex or ANI injections into contralateral parietal cortex (n = 6 per group). Skill training was continued until session 8. The investigator training the animals ...
Subjects. The subjects were 204 adult male Long-Evans rats (200-224 gm) obtained from a commercial supplier (Harlan Sprague Dawley, Indianapolis, IN). After arrival, the rats were housed individually in standard stainless-steel hanging cages on a 14/10 hr light/dark cycle (lights on at 7:00 A.M.) and were provided free access to food and tap water. After being housed, the rats were handled daily (10-20 sec per rat) for 5 d to acclimate them to the experimenter.. Behavioral apparatus. Eight identical observation chambers (30 × 24 × 21 cm; MED Associates, Burlington, VT) were used for both conditioning and contextual fear testing. The chambers were constructed from aluminum (side walls) and Plexiglas (rear wall, ceiling, and hinged front door) and were situated in sound-attenuating cabinets located in a brightly lit and isolated room. The floor of each chamber consisted of 19 stainless steel rods (4 mm diameter) spaced 1.5 cm apart (center-to-center). The rods were wired to a shock source and ...
Looking for Conjunctive Word? Find out information about Conjunctive Word. a word that links two clauses while remaining a part of one of them Explanation of Conjunctive Word
Objective: Endogenous neural stem cells and precursor cells are a promising therapeutical option for spinal cord injury. Factors that determine their proliferation and differentiation abilities in adult mammals under pathological conditions have to be investigated. In this study, expression of crucial chemokines and their receptors was investigated at different survival time points after spinal cord impact lesion.. Methods: Adult male Long Evans rats received laminectomy on T8, were mounted in the Infinite-Horizon-Impactor device, and 1N or 2N impact was applied. Controls received laminectomy without impact injury (n=10). Locomotor ability was assessed via BBB open field test. Rats were sacrificed 48h (n=5), 7d (n=5), 15d (n=5), and 42d (n=5) after SCI. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real time PCR (RT-PCR) was performed for CCL2/CCR2, CCL3/CCR1, SDF/CXCR4, and CX3CL1/CX3CR1. Double IHC with cell markers for astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (CD11b/OX-42), monocytes /macrophages (ED-1) and neurons ...
The mechanisms of alcohol-related peripheral neuropathy (ALPN) are poorly understood. We hypothesize that, like alcohol-related liver and brain degeneration, ALPN may be mediated by combined effects of insulin/IGF resistance and oxidative stress. Adult male Long Evans rats were chronically pair-fed with diets containing 0% or 37% ethanol (caloric), and subjected to nerve conduction studies. Chronic ethanol feeding slowed nerve conduction in the tibial (p = 0.0021) motor nerve, and not plantar sensory nerve, but it did not affect amplitude. Histological studies of the sciatic nerve revealed reduced nerve fiber diameters with increased regenerative sprouts, and denervation myopathy in ethanol-fed rats. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated reduced mRNA levels of insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 polypeptides, IGF-1 receptor, and IRS2, and ELISAs revealed reduced immunoreactivity for insulin and IGF-1 receptors, IRS-1, IRS-4, myelin-associated glycoprotein, and tau in sciatic nerves of ethanol-fed rats (all p | 0.05 or
Crizotinib is a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-Met. Crizotinib has been shown to be effective in patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. One common adverse event that has been observed is a grade 1 vision disorder (∼45% of patients) characterized as seeing shadows or streaks during changes in lighting conditions. Onset occurs during the first weeks of treatment, with most cases improving with continued treatment and not requiring treatment discontinuation. Such vision disorders were not predicted from preclinical toxicological evaluation of crizotinib. To further understand the possible mechanism of this vision disorder, a rat electroretinography (ERG) study was conducted to determine if retinal function is altered following repeat-dose administration of crizotinib. Male Long-Evans rats (8/group) were administered crizotinib by oral gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for up to 29 days, during which an evaluation of ...
Exposure of male long-evans rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin using loading-dose/maintenance-dose regimen does not alter the sex ratio of their offspring ...
latin, verb, first conjugation, active voice, conjunctive subjunctive mood, grammar, latin grammar, exercise. from The Beginners Latin Exercise Book, C.Sherwill Dawe.
A method and system for finding a conjunctive cluster is disclosed. The method includes identifying a first group of points, identifying a second group of points, drawing a first sample from the first group of points of a first predetermined size and identifying subsets of the first sample. For each subset of the first sample of a second predetermined size the method includes identifying a subgroup of the second group of points that share an intersection with all of the points in the first sample of points, identifying a sub group of said first group of points that share an intersection with a specified number of the points in the subgroup of the second group of points and outputting a third group of points. It should be appreciated that the product of the magnitude of the subgroup of the second group and the magnitude of the subgroup of the first group is maximized.
AudioSlides presentations allow authors to explain in their own words what their paper is about. Full article on Science Direct By Sherri Lee....
The experiments described here were done on 300400 mm-thick slices obtained from Long-Evans rats pups aged 0-15 days. The plane of section was coronal, sagital, or horizontal and, since they were taken from whole brains, included as much cortex as could be obtained in each plane. Slices were incubated in artificial CSF (aCSF) containing fura-2 AM (5 mg ml) for 1-2 h at 30 C. The composition of the aCSF, modified according to MacGregor et al. (2001), to prevent neuronal swelling was (in mM) NaCl.... ...
Lizina asigura absorbtia adecvata a calciului si participa la formarea colagenului (componente esentiale ale oaselor, cartilajelor si tesutulurilor conjunctive), anticorpilor, hormonilor, precum si a enzimelor. Deficitul de lizina conduce la oboseala, incapacitate de concentrare, iritabilitate, retardarea cresterii la copii, caderea parului, anemie si probleme de reproducere. Natural Factors
Collagen Liquid, 1000 ml :importantă componenta a oaselor, cartilajelor, tendoanelor, ligamentelor şi a altor ţesuturi conjunctive ...
Land Art Collag-N Extra helps in the formation of conjunctive tissue, reduces morning stiffness, increases range of movement and improves gripping ability.
Anticorps-enligne.fr offre des lysats de cellules entières de lhumain, la souris, le rat et le poulet. Ces lysats peuvent être utilisés dans des applicati...
Author: Leitner, Frauke C et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2016-07-01; Keywords: Cortex; Neural circuits; Olfactory cortex|br/||br/|; Title: Spatially segregated feedforward and feedback neurons support differential odor processing in the lateral entorhinal cortex
Factors which influence development of the nervous system and its regenerative capacities can be studied with the technique of neural transplantation. The first three experiments examined the mechanisms of pathway guidance which operate in development by transplanting target structures in the visual system of the newborn Long-Evans rat. The final experiment addresses the issue of the repair of spinal cord injury in adult Long-Evans rats by utilizing neural transplantation of embryonic spinal cord segments. In all cases, embryonic day 13-15 neural structures were dissected from fetuses and transplanted to recipients. After one to two months the animal was anesthetized, the transplant visualized and injected with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Twenty-four hours later the animals were reanesthetized and perfused transcardially with buffered solutions of 0.5% glutaraldehyde followed by 0.2% glutaraldehyde. Then the brains were removed, cut on a freezing microtome, and processed with either of two ...
Certain brain regions falter early in neurodegenerative disorders, and scientists have pinpointed the entorhinal cortex (EC) as the site where some of the first abnormalities appear in Alzheimers disease. In the December 22 Nature Neuroscience, researchers led by Scott Small and Karen Duff at Columbia University, New York, narrow that focus to a specific subregion of the EC. Using a high-resolution variant of functional MRI, the researchers found that healthy older adults who went on to develop dementia exhibited weak metabolism in the lateral EC. The team found the same vulnerability in transgenic mouse models that express Aβ and tau, the major pathological proteins of AD. Using these mice, they found that Aβ likely accelerates the tau pathology that drives lateral EC dysfunction, which can spread to connected brain areas in a pattern similar to that observed in humans.. Scientists know that AD begins years or even decades before overt cognitive decline. Older evidence has established that ...
Naloxone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, has been found to decrease the activity and social behavior of rats tested in pairs but the effects on individual locomotor activity have been equivocal. In the present study, groups of male Long-Evans hooded rats recieved naloxone (1 or 4 mg/kg, IP) or veh...
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the adjacent parasubiculum are known for their elaborate spatial discharges (grid cells, border cells, etc.) and the precessing of spikes relative to the local field potential. We know little, however, about how spatio-temporal firing patterns map onto cell typ …
View Notes - Psych 9/25 from PSY 2012 at University of Central Florida. Conjunctive (same direction) • Vergence (opposite directions) o Two types Convergence (when they come together) Divergence
Understanding the neural systems underlying the controls of energy balance has been greatly advanced by identifying the deficits and underlying mechanisms in rodent obesity models. The current review focuses on the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat obesity model. Since its recognition in the 1990s significant progress has been made in identifying the causes and consequences of obesity in this model. Fundamental is a deficit in the cholecystokinin (CCK) 1 receptor gene resulting in the absence of CCK 1 receptors in both the gastrointestinal track and the brain. OLETF rats have a deficit in their ability to limit the size of meals and in contrast to CCK1 receptor knock-out mice, do not compensate for this increase in the size of their spontaneous meals, resulting in hyperphagia. Prior to becoming obese and in response to pair feeding, OLETF rats have increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the compact region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and this over-expression
Visual pathways and acuity hooded rats.: Three experiments on the effects of lesions of the visual system on contrast-detection in hooded rats are described, in
The entorhinal cortex is a relevant node in the network mediating learning and memory. However, the unique contribution of the entorhinal cortex to higher order cortical processing is as yet only partially understood. The entorhinal cortex, in conjunction with the hippocampal formation, appears to specifically deal with the translation of neocortical exteroceptive information into higher order complex representations that, when combined with motivational and interoceptive representations, will serve cognitive functions, in particular conscious memory (Eichenbaum et al., 2007). The overall differences in cortical connectivity between the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex are reflected in recent findings that the medial entorhinal cortex, but not the lateral, is a major hub in the brains circuitry for spatial navigation. A key component of this network is the grid cell (Hafting et al., 2005). When rats run around in two-dimensional environments, grid cells express a specific pattern of firing ...
Functional brain recordings from several mammalian species including rodents, bats and humans demonstrate that neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) represent space in a similar way. Single neurons in mEC, termed grid cells (GCs), fire at regular repeating spatial intervals as the animal moves throughout the environment. In rodents, models GCs have been inspired by research that suggests a relationship between theta rhythmic electrophysiology in mEC and GC firing behavior. The h current time constant and frequency of membrane potential resonance (MPR) changes systematically along the dorsal to ventral axis of mEC, which correlates with systematic gradations in the spacing of the GC firing fields along the same anatomical axis. Despite significant efforts, the mechanism generating this periodic spatial representation remains an open question and the work presented in this thesis is directed towards answering this question One major class of models that have been put forth to explain the ...
The existence of traveling waves in the medial entorhinal cortex, like those observed in the hippocampus, supports the hypothesis that traveling waves coordinate the activity of anatomically distributed circuits.
Long Evans rats are used in neurological, toxicological and ophthalmologic studies and are preferred for surgeries requiring extended of inhalant anesthetics.
This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following set of characters: thin, deciduous skin; color silvery pink to pale brownish; preopercular and oral lateral line canals sharing a common branch; short dorsal spine, subequal or slightly shorter than first dorsal fin; claspers of adult males long (17-19% BDL), trifurcate, divided for slightly less than half of their length; structure of the CO1 gene (Ref. 76965). ...
On 30 Nov 2010, at 16:31, Bijan Parsia wrote: , On 30 Nov 2010, at 14:51, Lee Feigenbaum wrote: , ,, On 11/30/2010 9:49 AM, Enrico Franconi wrote: ,,, I repeat myself: *any* OWL-QL or OWL-EL implementation by design incorporates BGPs with OWL Direct Semantics in the manner Im proposing. , , This is pretty obviously false, afaict. But maybe you were being hyperbolic? Well, I just said that the way any publication/manual defines the semantics of any tool supporting conjunctive queries with distinguished variables in the OWL-QL and OWL-EL families is exactly what Im proposing. This is obviously true. , Nothing prevents an engine with non-distinguished variables + existential variable interpretation of bNodes in data from leaving the query engine untouched and skolemizing the data on input. I dont think so for the following reason. In any DB related technology (such as OWL-QL, or in recent works on OWL-EL) you have necessarily built in the unique name assumption. If your language has counting or ...
Abstract: Continuous time probability logic $L^t_{\Cal AP}$ is a logic appropriate for the study of space with a family of continuous time probability measures. We prove the completeness theorem for the logic $L^t_{\Cal AP}$ for both continuous and uniformly continuous cases. Also, we prove the finite compactness theorem for universal conjunctive formulas of $L^t_{\Cal AP}$. Classification (MSC2000): 03C70. Full text of the article: ...
Im a very clean and friendly person, I have a female long hair chihuahua who is 4 years old. I love to cook and clean but I do keep to myself abit so I will be out of the way. ...
Absence of a consequence; Association; Change in behavior; Experience; Retention of responses Learning is perhaps the most significant way in which organisms having a nervous system adapt their...
This study investigated long-term behavioral, neurochemical, and neuropharmacological effects of ethanol-(+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) combinations. Over 4 consecutive days, male Long-Evans rats received 1.5 g/kg ethanol and/or 10 mg/kg MDMA, or saline. Rectal temperatures …
The relationship between structure, dynamics, and function of neural networks in nervous systems is still an open question in the neuroscience community. Nevertheless, for certain areas of the mammalian nervous system we do have sufficient data to impose constraints on the organisation of the network structure. One of these areas is the medial entorhinal cortex which contains cells with hexagonally repeating spatial receptive fields, called grid cells. Another intriguing property of entorhinal cortex and other cortical regions is a population oscillatory activity, with frequency in the theta (4-10 Hz) and gamma (30-100 Hz) range. This leads to a question, whether these oscillations are a common circuit mechanism that is functionally relevant and how the oscillatory activity interacts with the computation performed by grid cells. This thesis deals with applying the continuous attractor network theory to modelling of the microcircuit of layer II in the medial entorhinal cortex. Based on recent ...
Zeymer, U.; Jessel, A.; Neuhaus, K.L.dwig, 1993: Hirudin as conjunctive therapy in patients with thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction produced stable prolongation of ACT and APTT
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A population of proliferating and differentiating cells from normal bone marrow of the Long-Evans rat has been isolated and maintained in long-term suspension culture. This population of cells has been used to investigate the effects of cellular maturation on membrane function and the osmotic properties of cells. A hypothesis has been formulated which states that in normal proliferating and differentiating cells, the cell interior behaves as a mixture model where water and electrolytes exist both in the free and the bound state; this state is determined by the activity of functioning biological macromolecules. The population of cells has all the distinguishing morphological characteristics of the megakaryocyte. These cells are acetylcholinesterase positive, increase in volume with maturation, and range in ploidy from 2N to greater than 16N. Electron microscopy has revealed the presence of the following: 1. A specialized membrane system of tubules or channels similar if not identical to the ...
On Sun, Dec 5, 2010 at 1:17 PM, Enrico Franconi ,[email protected], wrote: , I am sorry, I didnt know that. I knew that Owlgress primary service is conjunctive query answering. No worries; I certainly didnt expect you to know or to remember it. :, Cheers, Kendall PS--FWIW, even if we agreed with you at this point about the utility of non-distinguished variables, you should recall that a vendor might want to keep something of utility *out* of the spec, for various strategic reasons. Thats not what drives us here, but it seems to me a perfectly legit move, even if it may be a mistake in some particular case ...
MECANISMES REGULATEURS DE LA TOLERANCE AUX ALLOGREFFES CHEZ LE RAT ETUDE DES MECANISMES REGULATEURS DINDUCTION ET DE MAINTIEN DE LA TOLERANCE AUX ALLOGREFFES CARDIAQUES CHEZ LE RAT. Biology Editions universitaires europeennes (2011-04-27) - ISBN-13: 978-613-1-57379-8 ...
To ensure a familiar environment, Accent was built to comply with Shopifys content and coding requirements for commercial themes. This includes full support for the Language editor across all template files. All copy on the site, can be easily edited. Its fully internationalized and translation ready ...
Marie-Noëlle Giraud is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Thérapie à base de cellules pour linsuffisance cardiaque chez le rat: Double thoracotomie pour infarctus du myocarde et épicardique implantation de cellules et Biomatrice, Quantification histologique chronique Infarctus du myocarde chez le rat, Le modèle du lapin dathérosclérose accélérée : un point de vue méthodologique de la blessure de ballon artère iliaque
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in the paraventricular nucleus buffers central endothelin-1-induced pressor response and vasopressin secretion. AU - Rossi, Noreen F.. AU - Black, Stephen M.. AU - Telemaque-Potts, Sabine. AU - Chen, Haiping. PY - 2004/11/1. Y1 - 2004/11/1. N2 - Endothelin 1 (ET-1) injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle increases sympathetic output, arterial pressure and plasma vasopressin (AVP). These responses are mediated by glutamatergic inputs and inhibited by γ-amino-butyric acidergic inputs in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been suggested that nitric oxide enhances these γ-amino-butyric acidergic inhibitory inputs. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that decreasing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity within the PVN will potentiate ET-1-induced increases in arterial pressure and alter plasma AVP secretion. Male Long Evans rats underwent adenoviral gene transfer of β-galactosidase, Ad.CMV.β-gal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exposure to DMSO during infancy alters neurochemistry, social interactions, and brain morphology in long-evans rats. AU - Rabow, Zachary. AU - Morningstar, Taryn. AU - Showalter, Megan. AU - Heil, Hailey. AU - Thongphanh, Krista. AU - Fan, Sili. AU - Chan, Joanne. AU - Martinez-Cerdeno, Veronica. AU - Berman, Robert. AU - Zagzag, David. AU - Nudler, Evgeny. AU - Fiehn, Oliver. AU - Lechpammer, Mirna. N1 - Funding Information: Rat brain morphology and behavioral studies were supported by research grants awarded to ML and EN by the . Metabolomics work was funded by NIH grant (5U19AG023122‐12) to OF. Zimin Foundation Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. PY - 2021. Y1 - 2021. N2 - Introduction: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent to dissolve hydrophobic substances for clinical uses and experimental in vivo purposes. While usually regarded safe, our prior studies suggest changes to behavior following DMSO ...
These experiments examined the effects of posttrial peripheral and intra-amygdala injections of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine on memory consolidation underlying extinction of amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained and tested for an amphetamine (2 mg/kg) CPP. Rats were subsequently given limited extinction training, followed by immediate posttrial peripheral or intrabasolateral amygdala injections of oxotremorine. A second CPP test was then administered, and the amount of time spent in the previously amphetamine-paired and saline-paired apparatus compartments was recorded. Peripheral (0.07 or 0.01 mg/kg) or intra-amygdala (10 etag/0.5 microL) postextinction trial injections of oxotremorine facilitated CPP extinction. Oxotremorine injections that were delayed 2 h posttrial training did not enhance CPP extinction, indicating a time-dependent effect of the drug on memory consolidation processes. The findings ...
Practical Groundwater and Conjunctive Water Optimization. The Simulation/Optimization MOdeling System (SOMOS) makes it easy to do groundwater optimization modeling for a variety of scales and situations. The SOMOA module uses analytical equations, convolution, response surface methods and classical operations research optimization methods to develop optimal water use strategies for fairly simple stream-aquifer systems. SOMOA considers groundwater pumping, stream stage changes and depletion, line and other recharge sources. TheSOMO1 module uses MODFLOW, convolution and response surface methods with classical optimization methods to optimize river-aquifer and stream-aquifer systems. The SOMO3 module uses MODFLOW, MT3DMS, response surface methods, artificial intelligence and heuristic optimization to compute optimal strategies for plume remediation, groundwater and conjunctive water management.
Five male Long-Evans rats, maintained at 80% of their free-feeding weight, were trained to bar-press for food reward on a one-minute fixed-interval (FI1) schedule of reinforcement. Once stable FI1 baseline response rates were established, dose-response functions were generated for Chlordiazepoxide HC1 (CDZ). Subsequent treatments with CDZ were followed by 30 min. pulsed microwave radiation (MWR) and FI1 behavioral assessment. Pulsed MWR exposures were in the far zone of an anechoic chamber at an averaged incident power density of 1 mW/sq cm (PRF = 300/sec, 3 usec pulse width). After 2 replications of the combined treatments another CDZ dose-response function was generated. This was followed by 3 more CDZ and MWR replications the first of which was carried out at an averaged incident power density of 1 mW/ sq cm2 Increased rates of response for the CDZ and 1 mW/sq cm MWR treatment were demonstrated relative to initial CDZ dose-response functions in 4 of 5 rats tested. However, the dose-response functions
In the present study, the effects of Euglena and paramylon on hyperglycemia were examined in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF; type 2 diabetes mellitus model) rats. OLETF rats were fed an AIN-93 M diet containing cellulose, Euglena, or paramylon for 10 weeks. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats w
Memory formation and recall depend on a complex circuit that includes the hippocampus and associated cortical regions. The goal of this thesis was to understand how two of the cortical connections, the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), influence spatial and nonspatial activity in the hippocampus. Cells in the MEC exhibit prominent spatially selective activity and have been hypothesized to drive place representation in the hippocampus. In Experiment 1 the MEC was transiently inactivated using the inhibitory opsin ArchaerhodopsinT (ArchT), and simultaneous recordings from CA1 were made as rats ran on an elliptical track. In response to MEC disruption some cells in the hippocampus shifted the preferred location of activity, some changed firing rate and others were unaffected. The new representation that developed following MEC disruption remained stable despite the fact that inhibition was transient. If the MEC is the source of spatial activity in the hippocampus ...
The social beat paradigm involves aggressive encounters between Long-Evans (LE) (resident) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) (intruder) rats. a book object was likened between your two groupings. We observed a SKF 86002 Dihydrochloride substantial upsurge in anxiety-like behavior in Mouse monoclonal to CD54.CT12 reacts withCD54, the 90 kDa intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). CD54 is expressed at high levels on activated endothelial cells and at moderate levels on activated T lymphocytes, activated B lymphocytes and monocytes. ATL, and some solid tumor cells, also express CD54 rather strongly. CD54 is inducible on epithelial, fibroblastic and endothelial cells and is enhanced by cytokines such as TNF, IL-1 and IFN-g. CD54 acts as a receptor for Rhinovirus or RBCs infected with malarial parasite. CD11a/CD18 or CD11b/CD18 bind to CD54, resulting in an immune reaction and subsequent inflammation. aggressor rats in comparison with the nonaggressive group. Furthermore period taken to beat the intruder ...
A delayed peripheral neuropathy of the dying back or peripheral axonopathy variety predominates. Between 10 and 40 days after exposure, abrupt onset of flaccid paralysis is noted. This may be followed by lower extremity spasticity with clonus, hyperreflexia, hypertonus, and a peculiar spastic gait. In severe cases the full extent of paralysis may not be reached until after 2 to 3 months. Recovery is variable. Mortality is usually low and approximately 5% of victims may remain paralyzed. TOCP produced toxic effects on both male and female REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS when Long-Evans rats were given doses of 0 to 400 mg/kg by gavage prior to, and during breeding. Spermatotoxic effects, includes reduced motility, concentration, velocity, and abnormal morphology. Damage to ovarian and uterine tissue also 1999 ...
Looking for online definition of sipper in the Medical Dictionary? sipper explanation free. What is sipper? Meaning of sipper medical term. What does sipper mean?
Creativity is the principle of novelty. Creativity introduces novelty into the content of the many, which are the universe disjunctively. The creative advance is the application of this ultimate principle of creativity to each novel situation which it originates. The ultimate metaphysical principle is the advance from disjunction to conjunction, creating a novel entity other than the entities given in disjunction. The novel entity is at once the togetherness of the many which it finds and also it is one among the disjunctive many which it leaves; it is a novel entity, disjunctively among the many entities which it synthesizes. The many become one, and are increased by one. In their natures, entities are disjunctively many in process of passage into conjunctive unity... Thus the production of novel togetherness is the ultimate notion embodied in the term concrescence. These ultimate notions of production of novelty and concrete togetherness are inexplicable either in terms of higher ...
Comes with male inlet x female outlet body with 8 round External-Upset tubing threads 2 3/8 .in thru 4 ½, or 8 round male short casing threads x female long casing threads 4 ½ .in thru 9 5/8. Features spring loaded metal to metal valve seat, provides low friction losses, prevent backflow, and minimize hydraulic shocks. Available in 12 different sizes ranging from 2 3/8 .in to 9 5/8 .in... Read More » ...
Gene Evans (it); Gene Evans (hu); Gene Evans (eu); Gene Evans (ast); Джин Эванс (ru); جین ایوانز (azb); Gene Evans (de); Gene Evans (pt); Gene Evans (ga); جین اونس (fa); Gene Evans (af); Gene Evans (da); Gene Evans (sl); ジーン・エヴァンス (ja); Gene Evans (fr); 金·埃凡斯 (zh); جين ايفانز (arz); Gene Evans (nn); Gene Evans (nb); Gene Evans (nl); Gene Evans (ca); Gene Evans (fi); Gene Evans (es); 진 에반스 (ko); Gene Evans (en); جين إيفانز (ar); Gene Evans (sv); Gene Evans (sq) attore statunitense (it); acteur américain (fr); актор (uk); amerikansk skådespelare (sv); amerikansk skodespelar (nn); amerikansk skuespiller (nb); Amerikaans acteur (1922-1998) (nl); שחקן אמריקאי (he); pemeran laki-laki asal Amerika Serikat (id); US-amerikanischer Schauspieler (de); actor (1922-1998) (en); aisteoir (ga); بازیگر آمریکایی (fa); അമേരിക്കന്‍ ചലചിത്ര നടന്‍ (ml); amerikansk ...
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Vsako leto modna industrija postreže s trendi, ki jim zvezdnice rade sledijo. Leto 2015 si bomo zapomnili po prosojnih oblekah in noriji za H&M-ovo posebno k...
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Dog Years. We all know the expression, most of us know the maths - 1 human year = 7 dog years (roughly). When you put it into a different context and say; for
كانبيرا ــ لعل أكثر الكلمات التي سمعتها حكمة عن حرب غزة الثانية جاءت على لسان مواطن إسرائيلي يعيش في كيبوتز (مزرعة جماعية يهودية) بالقرب من حدود غزة، ودونها ميشال فاسر في صحية هآرتس في الخامس عشر من نوفمبر/تشرين الثاني: إذا كنت تريد الدفاع عني... فلا ترسل قوات الدفاع الإسرائيلية إلينا لكي تسجل نصراً شخصيا. بل عليك أن تبدأ في التفكير في الأمد البعيد، وليس فقط في الانتخابات القادمة. عليك أن تستمر في التفاوض إلى أن يخرج الدخان الأبيض من المدخنة (إشارة قديمة إلى التوصل إلى اتفاق). وعليك أن تمد يدك إلى الرئيس الفلسطيني محمود عباس، وأن تكف عن ممارسة الاغتيالات ...
Long-term, high-dose studies in rats have demonstrated that ethyl methylphenylglycidate has no significant adverse health ... ISBN 0-8493-2372-X. Dunnington, D; Butterworth, MRS; Gaunt, IF; Mason, PL; Evans, JG; Gangolli, SD (1981). "Long-term toxicity ... study of ethyl methylphenylglycidate (strawberry aldehyde) in the rat". Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. 19 (6): 691-9. doi: ...
"A comparison of cell populations at various depth levels in cerebral cortex of young adult and aged Long-Evans rats". Journal ... Terasawa E, Timiras PS (August 1968). "Electrical activity during the estrous cycle of the rat: cyclic changes in limbic ... Woolley DE, Timiras PS (February 1962). "Estrous and circadian periodicity and electroshock convulsions in rats". The American ... A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Developing Rat Brain, by Paola S. Timiras, Nancy Sherwood, January 1970 Mary Rourke (Sep 23, 2008 ...
... and Inhibits Reproductive Tract Development in Male Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans Rats". Toxicological Sciences. 111 (1): 163- ... The acute toxicity of DEHP is low in animal models: 30 g/kg in rats (oral) and 24 g/kg in rabbits (dermal). Concerns instead ... Numerous studies of DEHP have shown changes in sexual function and development in mice and rats. DEHP exposure during pregnancy ... In another study, pubertal administration of higher-dose DEHP delayed puberty in rats, reduced testosterone production, and ...
"Taurine improves insulin sensitivity in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes". The ... Dominy J, Thinschmidt JS, Peris J, Dawson R, Papke RL (June 2004). "Taurine-induced long-lasting potentiation in the rat ... However, when rats were supplemented with taurine in their drinking water, only female rats showed an increase in blood ... Taurine-treated diabetic rats had a decrease in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and AGEs content. The ...
Evans, Anthony D; Watson, Dougal B; Evans, Sally A; Hastings, John; Singh, Jarnail; Thibeault, Claude (2009). "Safety ... He also led health studies on pilot fatigue on ultra long-haul flights. He was the chairman of the Civil Aviation Authority of ... Kaur, Charanjit; Singh, Jarnail (2005). "Fos Expression in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Rats Following High Altitude Exposure ... As a member of the CAAS task force on ultra-long-range flights, Singh had led health studies before launching the world's first ...
During feeding experiments with rats Herbert McLean Evans concluded in 1922 that besides vitamins B and C, an unknown vitamin ... Chew EY, Clemons TE, Agrón E, Sperduto RD, Sangiovanni JP, Kurinij N, Davis MD (August 2013). "Long-term effects of vitamins C ... there is evidence that rats can methylate this form to the preferred alpha-tocopherol, since several generations of rats ... Evans also found that the compound reacted like an alcohol and concluded that one of the oxygen atoms was part of an OH ( ...
Evans AR, Junger H, Southall MD, et al. (2000). "Isoprostanes, novel eicosanoids that produce nociception and sensitize rat ... "Nutrigenomic approach to understanding the mechanisms by which dietary long-chain fatty acids induce gene signals and control ... Bäck M, Dahlén SE, Drazen JM, Evans JF, Serhan CN, Shimizu T, Yokomizo T, Rovati GE (2011). "International Union of Basic and ... Bäck M, Powell WS, Dahlén SE, Drazen JM, Evans JF, Serhan CN, Shimizu T, Yokomizo T, Rovati GE (2014). "Update on leukotriene, ...
Evans AR, Junger H, Southall MD, et al. (2000). "Isoprostanes, novel eicosanoids that produce nociception and sensitize rat ... "Nutrigenomic approach to understanding the mechanisms by which dietary long-chain fatty acids induce gene signals and control ...
Both have been proposed as easily accessible models for studying g. The g factor loadings in Long-Evans rats has been shown to ... Mice and rats have been used as model organisms in research for hundreds of years and have been a staple of experimental ... Rats have been used in experimental manipulations of intelligence using chemicals administered prenatally. These effects are ... Examples of this include experimental drug testing and multi-generational studies that would take a very long time in humans. ...
... in this case learning and memory in rats. Her work on the role of hormones and reproductive behavior in both rats and macaques ... The goal of the expedition was to establish a long-term colony to observe behavior of apes. In 1927, Ball moved to the ... and endocrinologist Herbert McLean Evans. In 1929, she earned her Ph.D. from the University of California, as well as a ... In 1926, Ball published her first paper in "The female sex cycle as a factor in learning in the rat," one of the first papers ...
Impaired neocortical long-term potentiation: Mild protein deficiency (in which 7.2% of the diet consists of protein) in rats ... Bellinger L, Sculley DV, Langley-Evans SC (May 2006). "Exposure to undernutrition in fetal life determines fat distribution, ... "Effect of prenatal protein malnutrition on long-term potentiation and BDNF protein expression in the rat entorhinal cortex ... Decreased sperm quality: A low-protein diet during gestation in rats has been shown to affect the sperm quality of the male ...
... using Long-Evans rats. The rats are bred to age well, and Gallagher studies them over their entire lifetime. During that time, ... Measures of the rats' memory and cognition abilities have been developed for use in water mazes. With Rebecca Burwell and ... Giving these rats levetiracetam reduced these impairments. Gallagher started the company AgeneBio, which studies treatments for ... Rapp, P R; Gallagher, M (1996). "Preserved neuron number in the hippocampus of aged rats with spatial learning deficits". ...
... expression of hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases 2 and 4 in young and middle-aged Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats: ...
Evans, H. McLean and Becks, Hermann (1953) Atlas of the Skeletal Development of the Rat (Long-Evans strain): normal and ... Evans, H. McLean and Long, Joseph A. (1922) The oestrous cycle in the rat and its associated phenomena. Univ. of California ... Evans is also credited with developing Evans blue, a method which determines blood volume in humans and animals. Evans took a ... Mohammad, A.; Emerson, O. H.; Emerson, G. A.; Evans, H. M. (1939). "Multiple Nature of the Rat "filtrate Factor"--A Component ...
PTPkappa and the THEMIS gene are both deleted in the rat Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) strain, and are both required for the CD4+ T ... In the adult rat brain, PTPkappa mRNA is highly expressed in regions of the brain with cellular plasticity and growth, such as ... The human PTPRK gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 6, a putative tumor suppressor region of the genome. The same ... in the LEC rat". Biomed Res. 31 (1): 83-7. doi:10.2220/biomedres.31.83. PMID 20203423. Asano A, Tsubomatsu K, Jung CG, Sasaki N ...
Whishaw, I. Q.; Gorny, B., Foroud, A., Kleim, J. A. Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats have similar skilled reaching success ... Analysis of limb use by control rats and unilateral DA-depleted rats in the Montoya staircase test: Movements, impairments and ... Whishaw, I. Q.; Dringenberg, H. C., Pellis, S. M. Forelimb use in free feeding by rats: Motor cortex aids limb and digit ... Whishaw, I. Q.; Pellis, S. M., Gorny, B., Kolb, B., Tetzlaff, W. Proximal and distal impairments in rat forelimb use in ...
First discovered in 2005, Serpin A12 was highly expressed in white adipose tissue of Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats at ... In 2005, Serpin A12 was discovered to be found in rats, mice, and humans. One study confirmed that those with insulin ... the same time that the rats' obesity and insulin plasma levels reached a peak, at around 30 weeks old. Eventually, it was found ...
8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in male Long Evans Hooded rat offspring". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146 (1): 11-20. doi:10.1006/ ... The most sensitive is liver cancer in female rats, and this has long been a basis for risk assessment. Dose-response of TCDD in ... Long-term effects seem to include a slight excess of multiple myeloma and myeloid leukaemia, as well as some developmental ... Several other long-term effects have been suspected, but the evidence is not very strong. In Times Beach, Missouri, several ...
James, Rat, and Lauren, along with young children from the Ark, manage to escape through a sewage system, just in time, as the ... CHERUB was called in to infiltrate and become close to brothers Fire and World Dunn as well as Brian 'Bungle' Evans, all of ... This leads the agents to work better and stronger and after not long, James and Lauren are sent to "The Ark" a monstrosity ... Here, they meet Rathbone "Rat" Regan, Joel Regan's youngest son. It is discovered that Susie Regan, Joel's latest wife, is ...
"Wharf Rat." All songs by Bruce Hornsby, except where noted. Disc 1 "Piano Intro"/"Great Divide" - 7:47 "Long Tall Cool One" - 7 ... The album covers pieces by many of Hornsby's musical influences, George Gershwin, Samuel Barber, Bill Evans, Bud Powell and Bob ... ", "Long Tall Cool One", "Sneaking Up on Boo Radley") Debbie Henry - vocals ("Great Divide") Steve Kimock - guitar ("The End of ... "/"King of the Hill" (Evans/Hornsby) - 11:44 Disc 2 "Spider Fingers"/"Tempus Fugit" (Powell) - 10:25 "Sneaking Up on Boo Radley ...
The elimination half-life of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, as well as other long half-life benzodiazepines, is twice as long ... Boisse, NR; Periana, RM; Guarino, JJ; Kruger, HS (1986). "Acute chlordiazepoxide dependence in the rat: Comparisons to chronic ... ISBN 978-0-19-530659-0. Evans, Katie; Sullivan, Michael J. (2001). "Withdrawal and Medical Issues". Dual Diagnosis: Counseling ... Long-term benzodiazepine use, defined as daily use for at least three months, is not desirable because of the associated ...
Hollyoaks is a long-running Channel 4 soap opera in the United Kingdom. 1995 was the first year for the soap and saw the ... Evans, Matthew (2002). Phil Redmond's Hollyoaks: the official companion. Channel 4. p. 10. ISBN 0-7522-2000-4. "We love to turn ... Others have criticised his "pimp-like dress sense" and accused him of being a "rat". Dawson has been nominated for several ... Mandy is the longest featured female character in the series. Dunn left the series in 2006, making brief returns in 2007 and ...
Evans, Simon (8 November 2017). "Sydney Zoo backers eye ASX listing as western Sydney booms". The Australian Financial Review. ... Boon, Maxim (25 November 2019). "New Sydney Zoo announces long-awaited opening date". TimeOut. Sydney, Australia. Retrieved 24 ... quoll Bilby Brushtail possum Ringtail possum Pygmy possum Sugar glider Feathertail glider Spinifex hopping mouse Stick nest rat ... bass Golden perch Gulf saratoga Murray cod Lungfish Archerfish Common yabby Little penguin Saltwater crocodile Eastern long- ...
"It's a Long Way to the Top (If You Wanna Rock 'n' Roll)". acdc.com. Retrieved 2013-05-05. Mark Evans interviewed about the ... being followed by members of the Rats of Tobruk Pipe band. Known members of the Rats of Tobruk Pipe Band at the time of the ... Long Way To The Top Live In Concert (2002) Eagles of Death Metal - High Voltage/ It's a A Long Way To The Top (If You Wanna ... "It's a Long Way to the Top (If You Wanna Rock 'n' Roll)" is a song by Australian hard rock band AC/DC. It is the first track of ...
The Long-Evans rat is an outbred rat developed by Drs. Long and Evans in 1915 by crossing several Wistar females with a wild ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ... for rat-baiting. Rat-baiting was a popular sport, which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a ... Long-Evans rats are white with a black hood, or occasionally white with a brown hood. They are utilized as a multipurpose model ...
Citing Mein Kampf, Evans argued that Hitler was an anti-Semite long before 1914 and that it was the SPD (the moderate left), ... Pol Pot, the rat torture, and the fate of the Armenians are all extraneous to any serious discussion of Nazism; Mussolini's ... 23-24 Evans, p. 33 Evans, pp. 152-153 Nolte in Knowlton, (1993) p. 272 Nolte in Koch (1985) p. 21 Evans, pp. 32-33 Lipstadt, p ... 240 Evans, p. 83 Maier (1988) p. 190 Evans, Richard In Hitler's Shadow, New York: Pantheon, 1989 pp. 80-81. Evans, Richard In ...
The hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a rodent species long thought to occur in parts of South America, Central America ... Evans, Timothy L.; Waldrop, Thomas A.; Guynn, David C., Jr. 1991. Fell-and-burn regeneration in the North Georgia piedmont: ... Hispid cotton rats released in areas with no cover homed better than hispid cotton rats released in typical hispid cotton rat ... 9 to 29 rats per hectare in old fields, 6 to 54 rats per hectare in abandoned fields, and 0.7 to 5 rats per hectare in grass- ...
An experiment using Long-Evans rats, showed that odour played a major role in distinguishing the difference between a novel ... paired each male rat with a female rat and allowed them to mate. Male rats were then tested for preference through the use of ... Research examining female rats has lent its support, wherein female rats showed a higher incentive motivation for unknown males ... In an earlier experiment, also conducted by Carr et al., they found that unlike male rats, female rats preferred the odour of a ...
Evans syndrome,[21] vasculitis (e.g., granulomatosis with polyangiitis), bullous skin disorders (for example pemphigus, ... Because wholesalers discounts and rebates no longer apply, hospitals would pay more.[47] ... Rat/mouse hybrid. ("-tumaxo-"). *Catumaxomab. *Ertumaxomab§. Chimeric + humanized. ("-tuxizu-"). *Depatuxizumab mafodotin†. * ... "Long-term responses seen with rituximab in patients with ITP" (PDF). Community Oncology. 4 (2): 107. doi:10.1016/s1548-5315(11 ...
... and rat studies suggest that NK1RAs may be useful in treating or limiting long term sequelae from such infections.[66][67] ... Douglas SD, Ho WZ, Gettes DR, Cnaan A, Zhao H, Leserman J, Petitto JM, Golden RN, Evans DL (Oct 2001). "Elevated substance P ... "Exaggerated neurogenic inflammation and substance P receptor upregulation in RSV-infected weanling rats". American Journal of ...
Ruth Walker, the long-time language columnist for the Christian Science Monitor,[16] while stating that Democratic is the ... It fairly screams 'rat'.[11] Pollster Frank Luntz tested the phrase with a focus group in 2001, and concluded that the only ... Bergen Evans,[14] and William and Mary Morris. Morris and Morris argue, "it is the idiotic creation of some of the least ... According to Nelson (2016), "'Democrat Party' [is the] Republicans' long-standing epithet for the Democratic Party and source ...
London: Bradbury & Evans. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-85326-082-7. . Michaelmas term lately over, and the Lord Chancellor sitting in ... Varanus priscus was a giant carnivorous goanna lizard, perhaps as long as 7 metres and weighing up to 1940 kilograms[59] ... One study found that wood turtles were better than white rats at learning to navigate mazes.[112] ... Evans, Susan E.; Klembara, Jozef (2005). "A choristoderan reptile (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Lower Miocene of northwest ...
Evans, Jonah Wy (11 February 2012). Field Guide to Animal Tracks and Scat of California. University of California Press. ISBN ... There was[when?] a popular belief in the UK, that it was legal for a man to urinate in public so long as it occurred on the ... In dogs and other animals, urination can mark territory or express submissiveness.[66] In small rodents such as rats and mice, ... Lawrence Mark Elbroch; Michael Raymond Kresky; Jonah Wy Evans. Field Guide to Animal Tracks and Scat of California. Books. ...
Testing on the rats proved effective. Two groups of injured rats were tested, with one group given the dye as a treatment for ... Altschul, A. M.; Evans, W. J. (1967). "Zone electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gel". Methods in Enzymology. Methods in ... Using this procedure it was no longer necessary to destain the gel.[13] Modern formulations typically use a colloid of the "G" ... The results of the test proved that in comparison to the rats that had not received the dye, the rats that were treated with ...
Introduced rats (Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus) have become serious pests on farms, destroying stored grains.[94] ... The Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) was first introduced into the U.S. in 1996, and was expected to infect ... Mack, R.; D. Simberloff; W.M. Lonsdale; H. Evans; M. Clout; F.A. Bazzazf (2000). "Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, ... Baskin, Yvonne (2003). A Plague of Rats and Rubbervines: The Growing Threat Of Species Invasions. Island Press. p. 377. ISBN ...
Paul Evans (freelance writer) (28 March 2008). "Enamoured of Carla Bruni?". New Statesman. Retrieved 11 April 2011. As Mrs ... Alright,' I said, 'I'll do it as long as I get more laughs than Rowan.'"[5] ... Rat Catching and Safe Sewage Residents Party. Possibly a parody of Bill Boaks, a regular by-election candidate on a Public ... Cain & Abel (Bert Parnaby & Roy Evans) - A pair of peasants with a great admiration for a faceful of manure. ("The Archbishop ...
Burns JJ, Evans C (December 1956). "The synthesis of L-ascorbic acid in the rat from D-glucuronolactone and L-gulonolactone". ... Scurvy had long been a principal killer of sailors during the long sea voyages.[164] According to Jonathan Lamb, "In 1499, ... By luck, this species did not make its own vitamin C, whereas mice and rats do.[174] In 1912, the Polish biochemist Casimir ... Humans are better than guinea pigs at converting DHA back to ascorbate, and thus take much longer to become vitamin C deficient ...
Piper, Peter W. (2006). "Long-lived yeast as a model for ageing research". Yeast. 23 (3): 215-26. doi:10.1002/yea.1354. PMID ... The life extension varies for each species, but on average there was a 30-40% increase in life span in both mice and rats.[28] ... McKiernan, SH; Colman, RJ; Aiken, E; Evans, TD; Beasley, TM; Aiken, JM; Weindruch, R; Anderson, RM (Mar 2012). "Cellular ... Long-term caloric restriction at a level sufficient for slowing the aging process is generally not recommended in children, ...
Studies on laboratory animals have shown that 1,1,1-trichloroethane is not retained in the body for long periods of time. ... 9600 mg/kg (oral, rat). 6000 mg/kg (oral, mouse). 5660 mg/kg (oral, rabbit)[3] ...
Long-term survival past the boundary was assured as a result of filling ecological niches left empty by extinction of non-avian ... Matsumoto, Ryoko; Evans, Susan E (November 2015). "Morphology and function of the palatal dentition in Choristodera" (Submitted ... K-Pg boundary mammalian species were generally small, comparable in size to rats; this small size would have helped them find ... Evans, Susan E.; Klembara, Jozef (2005). "A choristoderan reptile (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Lower Miocene of northwest ...
In adult men, a typical prostate is about 3 centimeters long and weighs about 20 grams.[56] It is located in the pelvis, under ... The upregulation of BCL-2 after androgen ablation in prostate carcinoma cell lines and in a castrated-male rat model further ... Mouraviev V, Evans B, Polascik TJ (2006). "Salvage prostate cryoablation after primary interstitial brachytherapy failure: a ... Many of the risk factors for prostate cancer are more common including longer life expectancy and diets high in red meat. Also ...
Evans MJ, Scarpulla RC (Dec 1988). "The human somatic cytochrome c gene: two classes of processed pseudogenes demarcate a ... Tunafish cytochrome c crystals (~5 mm long) grown by liquid-liquid diffusion under microgravity conditions in outer space.[12] ... "Localization of mitochondrial DNA encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II in rat pancreatic zymogen granules and ... detailed immunoelectron microscopic studies with rat tissues sections employing cytochrome c-specific antibodies provide ...
Long-term supplementation with folic acid reduced the risk of stroke by 10%, which may be due to the role folate plays in ... This action is unusually slow in humans, being less than 2% of that in rats (and with an almost-5-fold variation in enzymatic ... Crandall BF, Corson VL, Evans MI, Goldberg JD, Knight G, Salafsky IS (1998). "American College of Medical Genetics statement on ... Long-term supplementation is also associated with small reductions in the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.[11] ...
One log was dated at 1278, so it was likely built not long before the Mesa Verde people migrated out of the area.[145][146] It ... Analysis of pack rat midden indicates that, with the exception of invasive species such as tumbleweed and clover, the flora and ... National Park Service (c), Mesa Verde: Long House, United States Department of the Interior, retrieved June 1, 2015. ... Balcony House, Long House and Cliff Palace require tour tickets for ranger-guided tours. Many other dwellings are visible from ...
A report issued by the scientific council of the American Medical Association (AMA) says that no long-term health effects have ... Evans, Brent and Lupescu, Mihai (15 July 2012) Canada - Agricultural Biotechnology Annual - 2012 GAIN (Global Agricultural ... long-term data on health of livestock fed GE foods, and human epidemiological data, the committee found no differences that ... conducting the safety assessment of a GM food on a case-by-case basis through comparison to an existing food with a long ...
Sterling Evans (2007). Bound in twine: the history and ecology of the henequen-wheat complex for Mexico and the American and ... Rowe, Thomas C (2006). Federal narcotics laws and the war on drugs: money down a rat hole. Psychology Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0- ... Tengwen Long; et al. (March 2017). "Cannabis in Eurasia: origin of human use and Bronze Age trans-continental connections". ... Evans, Sterling, ed. (2006). The borderlands of the American and Canadian Wests: essays on regional history of the forty-ninth ...
Where † indicates products that are no longer marketed. Etymology[edit]. The word analgesic derives from Greek an- (ἀν-, " ... Evans MS, Lysakowski C, Tramèr MR (November 2008). "Nefopam for the prevention of postoperative pain: quantitative systematic ... efflux and uptake in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 79 (3): 352-6. doi:10.1093/bja/79.3.352. ... Lidocaine, an anesthetic, and steroids may be injected into joints for longer-term pain relief. Lidocaine is also used for ...
Tian J, Clare-Salzler M, Herschenfeld A, Middleton B, Newman D, Mueller R, Arita S, Evans C, Atkinson MA, Mullen Y, Sarvetnick ... "Diamyd announces completion of type 1 diabetes vaccine trial with long term efficacy demonstrated at 30 months". Press Release ... December 1993). "Differential expression of GAD65 and GAD67 in human, rat, and mouse pancreatic islets". Diabetes. 42 (12): ... "Spatial and temporal pattern of changes in the number of GAD65-immunoreactive inhibitory terminals in the rat superficial ...
The idea that both synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors can affect long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression ( ... Liu DD, Yang Q, Li ST (April 2013). "Activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors induces LTD in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons". ... The discovery was thereby development of uncompetitive antagonist with longer dwell time than Mg2+ in the channel but shorter ... greater ratios of the GluN2B subunit leads to NMDA receptors which remain open longer compared to those with more GluN2A.[42] ...
As excitations of long-term memory. Eugen Tarnow suggests that dreams are ever-present excitations of long-term memory, even ... Evans, C.; Newman, E. (1964). "Dreaming: An analogy from computers". New Scientist. 419: 577-579.. ... Studies have observed signs of dreaming in all mammals studied, including monkeys, dogs, cats, rats, elephants, and shrews. ... While daydreaming has long been derided as a lazy, non-productive pastime, it is now commonly acknowledged that daydreaming can ...
Vitamins A, C, and E can be destroyed by long-term storage or prolonged cooking.[186] The effects of cooking and food ... Williams RJ, Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C (April 2004). "Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules?". Free Radical Biology ... 4-5 (rat)[79] Uric acid Water 200-400[80] 1,600 (human)[76] ... Prashar A, Locke IC, Evans CS (August 2006). "Cytotoxicity of ... and is therefore no longer able to act as an electron acceptor. Many polyphenols may have non-antioxidant roles in minute ...
8636 ppm (rat, 15 min). 5207 ppm (rat, 30 min). 1784 ppm (rat, 4 hr). 2414 ppm (mouse, 4 hr). 5647 ppm (guinea pig, 4 hr)[1]. ... Due to its long lifetime in the mid-troposphere, carbon monoxide is also used as tracer of transport for pollutant plumes.[56] ... Evans, W. J.; Lipp, M. J.; Yoo, C.-S.; Cynn, H.; Herberg, J. L.; Maxwell, R. S.; Nicol, M. F. (2006). "Pressure-Induced ... This stable red color can persist much longer than in normally packaged meat.[84] Typical levels of carbon monoxide used in the ...
... is used as an anti-inflammatory agent for both acute and long-term inflammation,[37] as well as for treatment of ... Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Senger CA, O'Connor EA, Whitlock EP (June 2016). "Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of ... Large doses of salicylate, a metabolite of aspirin, cause temporary tinnitus (ringing in the ears) based on experiments in rats ... For a long time, only one crystal structure for aspirin was known. That aspirin might have a second crystalline form was ...
... controlled studies as long as two years and survey studies as long as two decades.[10][16][17][18] ... December 1996). "Immunohistochemical Localization of Facilitated-Diffusion Glucose Transporters in Rat Pancreatic Islets". ... Evans. ISBN 978-1-59077-002-3.. *^ The Lancet, Volume 364, Issue 9437, Pages 897-899, 4 September 2004 ... perhaps because of longer duration of digestion (fats and proteins take longer to digest than carbohydrates). The 2002 book New ...
Long C-tails prevent GluR1/4 receptors from being inserted directly into the postsynaptic density zone (PSDZ) in the absence of ... Honore T, Lauridsen J, Krogsgaard-Larsen P (1982). "The binding of [3H]AMPA, a structural analogue of glutamic acid, to rat ... The Ca2+ that enters the cell triggers the upregulation of AMPARs to the membrane, which results in a long-lasting increase in ... Long-term depression enacts mechanisms to decrease AMPA receptor density in selected dendritic spines, dependent on clathrin ...
The US has long been the leader in the supercomputer field, first through Cray's almost uninterrupted dominance of the field, ... Similar designs using custom hardware were made by many companies, including the Evans & Sutherland ES-1, MasPar, nCUBE, Intel ... group also succeeded in using a supercomputer to simulate a number of artificial neurons equivalent to the entirety of a rat's ...
Evidence supporting this third factor comes from studies of naked mole-rats and Damaraland mole-rats, which have communities ... Evans, Howard E. (1973). "Burrow sharing and nest transfer in the digger wasp Philanthus gibbosus (Fabricius)". Animal ... When the large males of the chorus were removed, smaller males adopted a calling behavior, no longer competing against the loud ... Furthermore, certain spiteful behaviors may provide harmful short term consequences to the actor but also give long term ...
Long-term hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases, including heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Long-term ... Rats, mice, dogs and rabbits have been used extensively to study the causes of high blood pressure.[78] ... Clark, C. E.; Campbell, J. L.; Evans, P. H.; Millward, A. (December 2006). "Prevalence and clinical implications of the inter- ... In the longer term a process termed remodeling also contributes to changing the caliber of small blood vessels and influencing ...
The current review focuses on the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat obesity model. Since its recognition in the ... Study of the OLETF rats has revealed important differences in the organization of the DMH in rats and mice and elucidated ... Study of the OLETF rats has revealed important differences in the organization of the DMH in rats and mice and elucidated ... OLETF rats have a deficit in their ability to limit the size of meals and in contrast to CCK1 receptor knock-out mice, do not ...
Effect of long-term treatment with royal jelly on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats].. [ ... To investigate the effects of RJ on insulin resistance, 10-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a type 2 ... In isolated and perfused mesenteric vascular beds of OLETF rats, RJ treatment resulted in significant reduction of the ... compared with that in untreated OLETF rats. However, RJ treatment did not significantly affect norepinephrine-induced ...
... following TBI in the Long-Evans rat. Following a closed-head impact delivered via a weight-drop apparatus, peptide was ... Peptide R18D Reduces Neuroinflammation and Functional Deficits Following Traumatic Brain Injury in the Long-Evans Rat. ... Marmarou A, Foda MA, van den Brink W et al (1994) A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I: Pathophysiology and ... Taupin V, Toulmond S, Serrano A et al (1993) Increase in IL-6, IL-1 and TNF levels in rat brain following traumatic lesion: ...
In this study, we examined Long-Evans hooded male rats maintained on a standard diet (20.5 ppm F-) or a low F- diet (3.24 ppm F ... An Evaluation of Neurotoxicity Following Fluoride Exposure from Gestational Through Adult Ages in Long-Evans Hooded Rats.. ... Influence of chronic fluorosis on expression of phospho-Elk-1 in rat brains.. Objective: To investigate the expression and ... in rat brains with chronic fluorosis, and reveal the mechanism of the impaired learning and memory ability caused by chronic ...
Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic model of spontaneous development of NIDDM, exhibits hyperglycemic ... Poor Capacity for Proliferation of Pancreatic β-Cells in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty Rat: A Model of Spontaneous NIDDM. ... Poor Capacity for Proliferation of Pancreatic β-Cells in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty Rat: A Model of Spontaneous NIDDM ... Poor Capacity for Proliferation of Pancreatic β-Cells in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty Rat: A Model of Spontaneous NIDDM ...
The inhibitory effects of corncob bedding on sexual behavior in the ovariectomized Long-Evans rat treated with estradiol ... The inhibitory effects of corncob bedding on sexual behavior in the ovariectomized Long-Evans rat treated with estradiol ... The inhibitory effects of corncob bedding on sexual behavior in the ovariectomized Long-Evans rat treated with estradiol ...
Retinal Gene Expression and Visually Evoked Behavior in Diabetic Long Evans Rats Stefanie J Kirwin 1 , Suzanne T Kanaly, ... Retinal Gene Expression and Visually Evoked Behavior in Diabetic Long Evans Rats Stefanie J Kirwin et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis ... Methods: Retinal gene expression in diabetic Long Evans rats was measured by whole genome microarray 7 days, 4 weeks, and 3 ... Integrated bioinformatic changes and analysis of retina with time in diabetic rats. Cui Z, Zeng Q, Guo Y, Liu S, Chen J. Cui Z ...
... and mild obesity was discovered in 1984 in an outbred colony of Long-Evans rats, which had been purchased from Charles River ... A strain of rats developed from this rat by selective breeding has since … ... OLETF (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty) rat: a new NIDDM rat strain. Kawano K, Hirashima T, Mori S, Natori T. Kawano K, et al ... Spontaneous Long-Term Hyperglycemic Rat With Diabetic Complications. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) Strain K Kawano ...
Its safety and efficacy were evaluated in the animal model of WD, the Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat. Twelve LEC rats received ... La transplantation dhépatocytes chez le rat Long Evans Cinnamon, modèle animal de la maladie de Wilson. Thesis or Dissertation ... le rat Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC), avec pour buts den déterminer la sécurité et lefficacité tant sur le plan clinique ( ... Douze rats LEC ont reçu une injection intrasplénique de 2,6 x 105 - 3,6 x 107 hépatocytes prélevés chez des rats donneurs de ...
Temporal Thresholds for Infarction and Hypothermic Protection in Long-Evans Rats. Factors Affecting Apparent Reperfusion Injury ... Temporal Thresholds for Infarction and Hypothermic Protection in Long-Evans Rats. Factors Affecting Apparent Reperfusion Injury ... Temporal Thresholds for Infarction and Hypothermic Protection in Long-Evans Rats. Factors Affecting Apparent Reperfusion Injury ... Temporal Thresholds for Infarction and Hypothermic Protection in Long-Evans Rats. Factors Affecting Apparent Reperfusion Injury ...
A high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in long surviving Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats was reported. In order to ... Protective effects of Lycopene on hepatocarcinogenesis in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats. Research Project ... All rats were sacrificed in 76 week life for autopsy and histopathological examination was performed. Fifty five percent (1 1/ ... Percentage of HCC bearing rats did not differ among the three groups. Number of preneoplastic lesions stained with GST-P per ...
... on the OLETF rat were compared to the normal diet fed OLETF rat and the non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rat. ... on the OLETF rat were compared to the normal diet fed OLETF rat and the non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rat. ... These studies were conducted using the genetically manipulated diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The ... These studies were conducted using the genetically manipulated diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The ...
Long-term colony housing in Long Evans rats: immunological, hormonal, and behavioral consequences.: The distribution pattern ... Long-term colony housing in Long Evans rats: immunological, hormonal, and behavioral consequences.. Authors * Stefanski, V ... pattern and the function of blood immune cells were investigated for 10 weeks in three mixed-sex colonies of Long Evans rats. ... The persistency of changes in subdominant males offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of long-term immuno- ...
... rats. Animals were separated into non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats and diabetes-prone OLETF rats with or ... signalling was lower in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, and that ALA treatment increased the signalling in OLETF rats. ... were expressed at higher levels in OLETF rat hearts than in LETO rat hearts, and the levels of these factors were decreased by ... and fibrosis in the hearts of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) ...
As Long-Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that ... We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long-Evans rats. ... display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long-Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited ... R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished ...
Exposure to DMSO during infancy alters neurochemistry, social interactions, and brain morphology in long-evans rats. Brain and ... Exposure to DMSO during infancy alters neurochemistry, social interactions, and brain morphology in long-evans rats. In: Brain ... Exposure to DMSO during infancy alters neurochemistry, social interactions, and brain morphology in long-evans rats. / Rabow, ... title = "Exposure to DMSO during infancy alters neurochemistry, social interactions, and brain morphology in long-evans rats", ...
The Long-Evans rat is an outbred rat developed by Drs. Long and Evans in 1915 by crossing several Wistar females with a wild ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ... for rat-baiting. Rat-baiting was a popular sport, which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a ... Long-Evans rats are white with a black hood, or occasionally white with a brown hood. They are utilized as a multipurpose model ...
We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a ... Phylogenetic analyses revealed that one rat-derived GBS strain was more closely related to human-derived strains than other rat ... The rat strains have virulence factors known to contribute to pathogenicity, and shared serotypes with human invasive isolates ... To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of genotypic and phenotypic features of rat-derived GBS strains and their ...
Effect of long-term exposure to combinations of growth promoters in Long Evans rats: Part 2: Ovarian morphology. Analytica ... Effect of long-term exposure to combinations of growth promoters in Long Evans rats : Part 2: Ovarian morphology. / Illera, J. ... title = "Effect of long-term exposure to combinations of growth promoters in Long Evans rats: Part 2: Ovarian morphology", ... Effect of long-term exposure to combinations of growth promoters in Long Evans rats: Part 2: Ovarian morphology. ...
The hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a rodent species long thought to occur in parts of South America, Central America ... Evans, Timothy L.; Waldrop, Thomas A.; Guynn, David C., Jr. 1991. Fell-and-burn regeneration in the North Georgia piedmont: ... Hispid cotton rats released in areas with no cover homed better than hispid cotton rats released in typical hispid cotton rat ... 9 to 29 rats per hectare in old fields, 6 to 54 rats per hectare in abandoned fields, and 0.7 to 5 rats per hectare in grass- ...
Gestational alcoholism and fetal zinc accretion in long-evans rats. Sharon Greeley, W. Thomas Johnson, Denice Schafer, Phyllis ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Gestational alcoholism and fetal zinc accretion in long-evans rats. Together ...
Rat. Male. Long-Evans. None. -. -. -. -. -. Yes. No. n/a. n/a. n/a. Successfully learned; generalised. ... Touchscreen-enhanced visual learning in rats.. Original. Rat. Not stated. Long-Evans. None. -. -. -. -. -. No. NO. n/a. WT only ... The touchscreen cognitive testing method for rodents: How to get the best out of your rat.. Review. Rat. n/a. n/a. ... Inhibitory Control Deficits in Rats with Ventral Hippocampal Lesions. Original. Rat. Male. Long-Evans. Excitotoxic NMDA lesion ...
Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, an inbred strain of a mutant rat isolated from Long-Evans rats, develop hereditary hepatitis. ... Copper concentration in the liver of LEC rats was over 40 times that of normal Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rats, while the serum ... Spontaneous hepatic copper accumulation in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats with hereditary hepatitis. A model of Wilsons disease.. ... Spontaneous hepatic copper accumulation in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats with hereditary hepatitis. A model of Wilsons disease.. ...
Male Long-Evans rats (Harlan Laboratories; rats were bred in our facilities) weighing 300-330 g at the start of behavioral ... Using wild-type male Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of CNO at commonly used doses (1-5 mg/kg) on acoustic startle ... The results from these studies show that CNO, in male Long-Evans rats, is not an inert ligand. Regardless of whether the ... Our experiments were conducted in adult male Long-Evans rats, which, in addition to being a common outbred strain used in many ...
Yezdimer EM, Umemoto T, Yamada H, Makino S, Tooyama I. Visualizing hepatic copper release in Long-Evans cinnamon rats using ... Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats were used for the Wilsons disease animal model. Our evaluation methodology consisted of ... Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats were used for the Wilsons disease animal model. Our evaluation methodology consisted of ... Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats were used for the Wilsons disease animal model. Our evaluation methodology consisted of ...
1997) Stability of spatial working memory across the estrous cycle of Long-Evans rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 67:167-171. ... 1995) Spatial learning in male and female Long-Evans rats. Behav Neurosci 109:180-183. ... 1997) Estrogen facilitates induction of long term potentiation in the hippocampus of awake rats. Brain Res 778:430-438. ... Female rats exhibited ∼45% more BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus compared with male rats 2 d after the last BrdU ...
Long. Evans rats. Cytotoxicity. Biochemical/hematology and histopathology evaluation. [47]. Table 1 ... Plants have a long history of use in the treatment of cancer. More than 3000 plant species have been reported to be involved in ... M. A. Mosaddik and M. E. Haque, "Toxicological evaluation of goniothalamin i isolated from bryonopsis laciniosa linn, in rats ... and may take as long as 20-30 years to develop [5]. Due to its complex nature, treatment such as surgery, chemotherapy, ...
Evans SM, *Howard CV, *Gundersen HJ. (1990) The total number of neurons in the human neocortex unbiasedly estimated using ... Spectrum of Short- and Long-Term Brain Pathology and Long-Term Behavioral Deficits in Male Repeated Hypoxic Rats Closely ... Spectrum of Short- and Long-Term Brain Pathology and Long-Term Behavioral Deficits in Male Repeated Hypoxic Rats Closely ... Spectrum of Short- and Long-Term Brain Pathology and Long-Term Behavioral Deficits in Male Repeated Hypoxic Rats Closely ...
The effect of biological dyes and contrast media on the vas deferens in Long Evans rats. ...
Dietary administration of rice in improving the antioxidant status in Long-Evans Rat. Habibul Bari Shozib1*, Saima Jahan3, ... Twenty-three adult male Long-Evans rats from the stock colony of our Grain Quality and Nutrition (GQN) laboratory, BRRI, ... Sazzadur Rahman, Muhammad Ali Siddiquee .Dietary administration of rice in improving the antioxidant status in Long-Evans Rat. ... utilizing clinical analyzer and providing mating Long Evan rats for rat breeding purposes respectively. ...
  • We have previously demonstrated that the poly-arginine peptide R18 can improve histological and functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the Sprague-Dawley rat. (springer.com)
  • Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in Sprague Dawley rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to repeated hypoxia or repeated normoxia from P1 to P3. (jneurosci.org)
  • Fifteen adult dams and four adult sires of the Long-Evans hooded strain were purchased from Harlan-Sprague Dawley (Indianapolis, IN) and maintained under a 12L:12D light schedule with controlled temperature and humidity. (epa.gov)
  • Sprague-Dawley- rats and Long-Evans-rats were used in these studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Exogenous CCK increased the number of c-Fos protein-positive cells in the NTS of Sprague-Dawley and CCK-A receptor-intact Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats but had no effect in CCK-A receptor-deficient OLETF rats. (physiology.org)
  • Food intake-induced c-Fos protein expression in NTS neurons was significantly reduced in CCK-A receptor-deficient OLETF rats compared with Sprague-Dawley or LETO rats. (physiology.org)
  • Exogenous CCK decreased cumulative food intake in Sprague-Dawley and LETO rats but not in OLETF rats. (physiology.org)
  • Nonfasted male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and colonic epithelial cells were isolated from the colonic mucosa. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1988). Female Sprague Dawley rats were given a single gavage dose of 14 C-ring labelled albendazole. (inchem.org)
  • The current review focuses on the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat obesity model. (frontiersin.org)
  • OLETF rats have a deficit in their ability to limit the size of meals and in contrast to CCK-1 receptor knockout mice, do not compensate for this increase in the size of their spontaneous meals, resulting in hyperphagia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prior to becoming obese and in response to pair feeding, OLETF rats have increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the compact region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), and this overexpression contributes to their overall hyperphagia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Study of the OLETF rats has revealed important differences in the organization of the DMH in rats and mice and elucidated previously unappreciated roles for DMH NPY in energy balance and glucose homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Another example of a genetic model that has increased our understanding of the neural systems involved in energy balance is the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. (frontiersin.org)
  • OLETF and a control Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) lines were then developed by selective breeding. (frontiersin.org)
  • OLETF rats were initially studied primarily as a model of late onset type 2 diabetes, as older OLETF rats were not only obese but also hyperglycemic and insulin resistant ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Characterization of overall pancreatic function in OLETF rats demonstrated the absence of a pancreatic amylase response to administration of the brain gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the OLETF rat is a CCK-1 receptor knockout model. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effect of long-term treatment with royal jelly on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats]. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the effects of RJ on insulin resistance, 10-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a type 2 diabetic model, were treated for 4 weeks with RJ (10, 30, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. (nih.gov)
  • In isolated and perfused mesenteric vascular beds of OLETF rats, RJ treatment resulted in significant reduction of the sympathetic nerve-mediated vasoconstrictor response to periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) and potentiation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) nerve-mediated vasodilator response to PNS, compared with that in untreated OLETF rats. (nih.gov)
  • Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic model of spontaneous development of NIDDM, exhibits hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance similar to that in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is still unclear whether a defect in the β-cell proliferation per se is the primary pathogenetic event in OLETF rat. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To determine whether it is, we used partially pancreatectomized rats as a model, with administration of phlorizin to control blood glucose level, to examine whether the capacity for proliferation of P-cells during hyperglycemia or normoglycemia differs between OLETF and their diabetes-resistant counterparts, Long-Evans-Tokushima-Otsuka (LETO) rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A sustained hyperglycemia was evident in the Px OLETF rats after surgery, which was associated with insufficient proliferation of β-cells, characterized by decrease in β-cell labeling index in proportion to decrease in β-cell mass and reduction in insulin content in the remnant pancreas. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that OLETF rats have poor capacity for proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and that this change may be the critical pathogenetic event before the onset of overt diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A strain of rats developed from this rat by selective breeding has since been maintained at the Tokushima Research Institute (Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Tokushima, Japan) and named OLETF. (nih.gov)
  • These clinical and pathological features of disease in OLETF rats resemble those of human NIDDM. (nih.gov)
  • These studies were conducted using the genetically manipulated diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. (fao.org)
  • The effects of 8-week long diets that included either fermented (FCM) or non-fermented (CM) chaga mushroom powder (5% in the diet) on the OLETF rat were compared to the normal diet fed OLETF rat and the non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rat. (fao.org)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on cardiac energy metabolism, antioxidant effect, and fibrosis in the hearts of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Animals were separated into non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats and diabetes-prone OLETF rats with or without ALA (200 mg/kg/day) administration for 16 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of ALA on AMPK signalling, antioxidant enzymes, and fibrosis-related genes in the heart of OLETF rats were performed by Western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western blot analysis showed that cardiac adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) signalling was lower in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, and that ALA treatment increased the signalling in OLETF rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the low antioxidant activity in OLETF rats was increased by ALA treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to increased Sirius red staining of collagen deposits, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were expressed at higher levels in OLETF rat hearts than in LETO rat hearts, and the levels of these factors were decreased by ALA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract Using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a new model of human non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we examined the role of local angiotensin II in cardiovascular and renal complications of NIDDM. (ahajournals.org)
  • OLETF rats were orally given cilazapril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, 1 or 10 mg/kg), E4177 (an angiotensin AT 1 receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg), or vehicle for 26 or 40 weeks (from the age of 20 to 46 or 60 weeks). (ahajournals.org)
  • Cilazapril or E4177 did not significantly affect body weight or plasma glucose and insulin levels of OLETF rats, indicating the minor effects on diabetes itself. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, both drugs significantly and similarly prevented coronary microvascular remodeling (the increase in wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis in coronary arterioles and small coronary arteries) in OLETF rats, and they were associated with the suppression of cardiac transforming growth factor-β1 expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both drugs suppressed not only the increase in left ventricular weight but also the downregulation of cardiac α-myosin heavy chain expression in OLETF rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Glomerulosclerosis and glomerular hypertrophy in OLETF rats were improved by cilazapril and E4177 to a comparable extent. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results, taken together with the fact that OLETF rats show normal plasma renin levels, support that the AT 1 receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac and renal complications in NIDDM. (ahajournals.org)
  • OLETF rats are a newly developed model of human NIDDM. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 Very recently, we have characterized cardiac and renal lesions in OLETF rats and have found that OLETF rats develop not only glomerulosclerosis but also cardiac complications, thereby indicating that OLETF rats are a useful model to study the pathogenesis of cardiac and renal complication in NIDDM. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the long-term effects of ACE inhibitor on cardiac and renal complications of OLETF rats and compared them with those of the angiotensin AT 1 receptor antagonist. (ahajournals.org)
  • Male OLETF rats and LETO rats were kindly supplied by the Tokushima Research Institute (Otsuka Pharmaceutical). (ahajournals.org)
  • LETO rats are the genetic control of OLETF rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Twenty-week-old OLETF rats were divided into four groups: (1) a vehicle (saline)−treated group (control), (2) a cilazapril (1 mg/kg per day)−treated group, (3) a cilazapril (10 mg/kg per day)−treated group, and (4) an E4177 (10 mg/kg per day)−treated group. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated CCK-induced and postprandial activation of NTS neurons, together with food intake studies, in CCK-A receptor-deficient Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. (physiology.org)
  • Vaspin cDNA was isolated by from visceral white adipose tissues (WATs) of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat, an animal model of abdominal obesity with type 2 diabetes. (pnas.org)
  • Vaspin was barely detectable in rats at 6 wk and was highly expressed in adipocytes of visceral WATs at 30 wk, the age when obesity, body weight, and insulin levels peak in OLETF rats. (pnas.org)
  • The expression and serum levels were normalized with the treatment of insulin or insulin-sensitizing agent, pioglitazone, in OLETF rats. (pnas.org)
  • Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, have been used by many investigators. (pnas.org)
  • The OLETF rat is an animal model of type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Previously, we isolated a ≈135-bp cDNA fragment during differential screening of the genes up-regulated in visceral adipose tissues of obese OLETF rats and down-regulated in nonobese and diabetes-resistant Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • OLETF rats were fed an AIN-93 M diet containing cellulose, Euglena, or paramylon for 10 weeks. (rsc.org)
  • OLETF control rats were obese because of bulimia and showed abdominal fat accumulation and hyperglycemia. (rsc.org)
  • Triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver were lower in Euglena-supplemented rats than in OLETF control rats. (rsc.org)
  • Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as nondiabetic controls. (rsc.org)
  • Transplantation of normal islets into the portal vein of Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats prevents diabetic progression. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of the male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat, a new model of NIDDM. (nih.gov)
  • MCD mRNA levels in WY14643-treated rat hepatoma cells as well as in the liver of fenofibrate-fed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats were also found to be increased, suggesting that PPARα can activate the rat hepatic MCD transcription by binding to the PPREs in the promoter. (biochemj.org)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of developments that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • MC4R-deficient rats have phenotypes similar to those seen in MC4R-deficient mice and in humans with MC4R haploinsufficiency, including increased food intake, meal size, body weight, and white adipose tissue mass ( 5 , 11 , 15 , 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • Buehr joined Austin Smith's Edinburgh lab in 1994 tasked with smoking out stem cells from the impervious rat, whose larger size and behavioral sophistication make them more effective animal models than mice for studying many human diseases. (the-scientist.com)
  • It opens the door to additional model systems that are more feasible in rats than in mice, which is a big deal," says Paul Grayson, Fate's president and CEO. (the-scientist.com)
  • Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. (dovepress.com)
  • Includes rats, mice, rabbits and guinea pigs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. BIOLOGICAL DATA 2.1 Biochemical aspects The degradation of albendazole was shown to follow similar pathways in rats, mice, humans, cattle and sheep. (inchem.org)
  • Fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality in diabetic women. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Most are derived from the albino Wistar rat, which is still widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional relevance of Urd-sensitive neurons was investigated in spontaneously epileptic freely moving Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. (mtak.hu)
  • An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Long-Evans ( Turku/AB ) rats are orders of magnitude more susceptible to TCDD lethality than Han/Wistar ( Kuopio ) rats, and this difference constitutes a very useful model for identifying mechanisms of dioxin toxicity. (mcponline.org)
  • We adopted a proteomic approach to identify the differential effects of TCDD exposure on liver protein expression in Han/Wistar rats as compared with Long-Evans rats. (mcponline.org)
  • also reported that human HEV (presumably G1) was transmissible to Wistar laboratory rats ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. (dovepress.com)
  • A laboratory rat or lab rat is a brown rat of the subspecies Rattus norvegicus domestica which is bred and kept for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular identification of the Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi clade in black rats (Rattus rattus) from Australia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • from black rats (Rattus rattus) in northern Sydney, Australia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is descended from wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus , which despite their name likely originated in Asia. (elifesciences.org)
  • Four HEV genotypes, RG, Reetz J, Schielke A. Detection of a tion of hepatitis E virus variants in wild novel hepatitis E-like virus in faeces of rats ( Rattus rattus ) in Indonesia. (cdc.gov)
  • Charac- in wild Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). (cdc.gov)
  • For example, anti-HEV IgG has been detected in various rat species, including Norway ( Rattus norvegicus ), black ( Rattus rattus ), and cotton ( Sigmodon hispidus ) rats, by using ELISA with antigens derived from G1 HEV. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012 showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rat strains have virulence factors known to contribute to pathogenicity, and shared serotypes with human invasive isolates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses revealed that one rat-derived GBS strain was more closely related to human-derived strains than other rat-derived strains, strengthening the notion that interspecies transmission is possible. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of genotypic and phenotypic features of rat-derived GBS strains and their comparison to human- and other animal-derived GBS strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • apos;The GenBank accession numbers for the S. agalactiae strains referenced are as follows: '195-16-B-RAT' : MJHP00000000, '196-16-B-RAT' : MJHQ00000000, '197-16-B-RAT' : MJHR00000000, '198-16-B-RAT' : MJHS00000000, '199-16-B-RAT' : MJHT00000000, '200-16-B-RAT' : MJHU00000000, '201-16-B-RAT' : MJHV00000000. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 500mg/kg Urd decreased epileptic activity (210-270min after injection) in both rat strains. (mtak.hu)
  • The effect of Urd was long-lasting in both rat strains as the higher dose significantly decreased the number of SWDs even 24h after Urd injection. (mtak.hu)
  • Some of these differential responses may play a role in establishing the major differences in TCDD response between these two strains of rats. (mcponline.org)
  • Resuming studies of wild rats would give the opportunity to not only 'refresh' genetic lines and create new highly specialized strains, but also document the many changes that have taken place in wild populations since most laboratory lines were first obtained. (elifesciences.org)
  • Isolation of 48 genetic markers appropriate for high throughput genotyping of inbred rat strains by B1 repetitive sequence-representational difference analysis. (harvard.edu)
  • The goals of this study are to evaluate early changes (up to 3 months) in retinal gene expression, selected visual cycle proteins, and optokinetic tracking (OKT) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. (nih.gov)
  • Retinal gene expression in diabetic Long Evans rats was measured by whole genome microarray 7 days, 4 weeks, and 3 months after the onset of hyperglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed a decrease in RPE65 in the RPE layer of diabetic rats after 3 months of hyperglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • Administration of pigment epithelium-derived factor delivered by adeno-associated virus inhibits blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic rats. (nih.gov)
  • Spontaneous Long-Term Hyperglycemic Rat With Diabetic Complications. (nih.gov)
  • A spontaneously diabetic rat with polyuria, polydipsia, and mild obesity was discovered in 1984 in an outbred colony of Long-Evans rats, which had been purchased from Charles River Canada (St. Constant, Quebec, Canada) in 1982. (nih.gov)
  • Diabetic complications in obese type 2 diabetic rat models. (nih.gov)
  • 10 Previous studies on diabetic patients 3 11 and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 12 13 show that ACE inhibitor can significantly retard the progression of diabetic renal disease, thereby supporting the possible involvement of the renin-angiotensin system in diabetic nephropathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Identification of novel differentially expressed genes in retinas of STZ-induced long-term diabetic rats through RNA sequencing. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In diabetic rats, orally administered JNJ-26076713 markedly inhibits retinal vascular permeability, a key early event in diabetic macular edema and AMD. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An Evaluation of Neurotoxicity Following Fluoride Exposure from Gestational Through Adult Ages in Long-Evans Hooded Rats. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In this study, we examined Long-Evans hooded male rats maintained on a standard diet (20.5 ppm F - ) or a low F - diet (3.24 ppm F - ) with drinking water exposure to 0, 10, or 20 ppm F - from gestational day 6 through adulthood. (fluoridealert.org)
  • We therefore evaluated the effects of a five-day, short-term exposure to DMSO on postnatal infant rats (P6-10). (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure (45 days) to growth promoters: clenbuterol (CB, 1mgkg -1 bw) and/or dexamethasone (DEX, 0.1mgkg -1 bw), in ovarian morphology, and the possibility of recovery after the withdrawal of drug treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that exposure of rats to repeated hypoxia from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P3 models the characteristic white matter neuropathological injury, gray matter volume loss, and memory deficits seen in children born extremely prematurely. (jneurosci.org)
  • The rats assigned to exposure groups (II and III) were exposed to appropriate concentrations of NE for seven hours daily, five days each week, for two years. (europa.eu)
  • Reduced food intake during the first week of lead exposure was the primary determinant of reduced body and skeletal growth in the lead exposed weanling female rats. (cdc.gov)
  • When maternal lead exposure was continued during lactation a greater degree of lead related growth retardation in rat offspring occurred than when maternal lead exposure was terminated at parturition. (cdc.gov)
  • We identify long-term ocular sequelae subsequent to experimental blast exposure. (arvojournals.org)
  • Counterconditioning versus forced exposure in extinction of avoidance responding and conditioned fear in rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1997. Alterations in the developing immune system of the F344 rat after perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin .I. Effects on the fetus and the neonate. (criticalwindows.com)
  • To investigate the importance of social experience during the juvenile and early adolescent stage for the development of cognitive control capacities, rats were socially isolated from postnatal day 21 to 42 followed by re-socialization until they reached adulthood. (nature.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we assessed the long-term cognitive effects of social isolation during postnatal day (PND) 21-42. (nature.com)
  • An experimental system of lead (7439921) related prenatal and postnatal growth retardation in rats was developed. (cdc.gov)
  • Experimental rats { Mc4r +/+ (WT), Mc4r +/− (HET), or Mc4r −/− [homozygous (HOM)]}were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21, group-housed (2-3/cage) until PND 42, and subsequently housed individually. (physiology.org)
  • One hundred ninety-seven high-fat diet-induced obese male Long-Evans rats were monitored for BW loss during exendin-4 (Ex4) administration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory rats not sacrificed may be euthanized or, in some cases, become pets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • First domesticated from wild Norway rats over 170 years ago ( Richter, 1959 ), today laboratory rats owe their popularity as a model organism largely due to their widespread availability, low breeding costs, short reproductive cycle and ability to thrive in captive environments. (elifesciences.org)
  • Laboratory rats differ from Norway rats in the wild, just like many other model organisms ( Alfred and Baldwin, 2015 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • While these views are probably unjustified, researchers working with laboratory rats should remain aware of its advanced domestication. (elifesciences.org)
  • recently reported that G1, G2, and G3 do not infect laboratory rats ( 7 ), and we found in a previous study that laboratory rats are not susceptible to G1, G3, or G4 HEV ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In 1981, Martin Evans and Matthew Kaufman, working at the University of Cambridge, UK, and Gail Martin, working at the University of California, San Francisco, independently and simultaneously discovered methods to isolate mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and grow them in culture. (the-scientist.com)
  • Generating transgenic rats with targeted mutations is now "our top priority," says Ying. (the-scientist.com)
  • Philip Iannaccone, a developmental biologist at Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago, suspects that it's now only a matter of time before the first transgenic rats are born. (the-scientist.com)
  • Male rats, 6 weeks of age, were allocated at random'to two groups: 70% pancreatectomy (Px) and sham-pancreatectomy (sham). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Male hispid cotton rats exhibit a lower degree of habitat selectivity than females. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a follow-up, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CNO in male Long-Evans rats. (eneuro.org)
  • However, at 2 months, male KO rats made fewer small stereotypic movements, such as scratching and grooming, than wild-type controls. (alzforum.org)
  • The test material was fed for 26 weeks in three concentrations (0.04, 0.2 and 1%) each to male Long-Evans rats. (europa.eu)
  • Similar to OECD Guideline Number 453 Combined Chronic Tox/Carcinogenicity Study Male and female Long-Evans rats were exposed by inhalation to vapors of nitroethane (NE) at either 100 ppm or 200 ppm, seven hours per day, five days per week for two years. (europa.eu)
  • One hundred twenty one (121) male and one hundred nineteen (119) female rats were randomly assigned to the following groups:Group - Male Female NE conc. (europa.eu)
  • The effects of carbon disulfide on the reproductive system of the male rat. (cdc.gov)
  • Male Long-Evans-hooded-rats were used in two experimental protocols. (cdc.gov)
  • Male Long-Evans rats were lever pressed under increasing fixed-ratio requirements for either food pellets or methamphetamine (20 μg/50 μl infusion). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Age-matched experimental male rats (littermates) were obtained by partnering rats heterozygous (HET) for a nonfunctional mutation in Mc4r [ Mc4r K314X ( 18 )] that had been outcrossed for at least seven generations. (physiology.org)
  • Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to 230 kPa side-on primary blast overpressure using a compressed air driven shock tube. (arvojournals.org)
  • Conscious male Long-Evans rats were hemorrhaged to 60% total blood volume over 40 min. (curehunter.com)
  • Selective impact of lateral orbitofrontal cortex inactivation on reinstatement of alcohol seeking in male Long-Evans rats. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Male homozygous Brattleboro rats, weighing 250-280 g, in which endogenous AVP was absent due to an inherited defect in the AVP gene ( 25 , 28 ) were used in the present experiments to examine the expression of AQP-2 mRNA in the kidneys in the presence or absence of exogenous dDAVP. (physiology.org)
  • Effects of human pancreatic polypeptide on exocrine pancreatic function in conscious rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Extensive cytotoxic lesions involving both the rhinal cortices and area TE impair recognition but spare spatial alternation in the rat. (google.com)
  • Long-Evans Agouti rats] showed significantly higher levels of all four DNA lesions in Long-Evans Cinnamon than Long-Evans Agouti rats. (mcponline.org)
  • Differences between wild Norway rats and their laboratory counterparts were first noted in the early 20th century and led some researchers to later question its value as a model organism. (elifesciences.org)
  • Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats were used for the Wilson's disease animal model. (elsevier.com)
  • As Long-Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long-Evans rats. (nature.com)
  • We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. (nature.com)
  • A comparison of economic demand and conditioned-cued reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking or food-seeking in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • [4] MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg or 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats just prior to reactivation of the cocaine-associated memory in the CPP context attenuates subsequent cocaine-primed reinstatement, while no disruption occurres in rats that do not receive reactivation in the CPP context. (selleckchem.com)
  • Rats were housed individually in biosafety level 2 facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of G1 phase-related cell cycle molecules in naturally developing hepatocellular carcinoma of Long-Evans Cinnamon rats. (harvard.edu)
  • The hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a rodent species long thought to occur in parts of South America, Central America, and southern North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • The currently accepted scientific name for the hispid cotton rat is Sigmodon hispidus. (wikipedia.org)
  • All rats on Hepatitis, and Research on Food Safety cotton ( Sigmodon hispidus ) rats, by were negative for G3 HEV RNA and from the Ministry of Health, Labour and using ELISA with antigens derived anti-HEV antibodies, as determined Welfare, Japan. (cdc.gov)
  • This rat obesity model was derived from a spontaneous obesity in an outbred colony of Long Evans rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • Long-term colony housing in Long Evans rats: immunological, ho. (mysciencework.com)
  • Long-term colony housing in Long Evans rats: immunological, hormonal, and behavioral consequences. (mysciencework.com)
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum and then, nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1. The mechanism by which pretreatment of rats with intracisternal 6-hydroxydopamine prevents the onset of deoxycorticosterone hypertension has been studied. (portlandpress.com)
  • 3. Intact rats restricted to the equivalent consumption of saline of rats pretreated with 6-hydroxydopamine develop hypertension despite this restriction. (portlandpress.com)
  • Evidence of successful engraftment of the transplanted cells was found in every transplanted rat using the technique of immunohistochemistry. (umontreal.ca)
  • To determine whether a sex difference exists in the production of hippocampal cells during adulthood, we examined proliferating cells and their progeny in adult rats using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) combined with immunohistochemistry for markers of neurons and glia. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to determine whether there is an AVP-independent regulation of AQP-2 gene expression in homozygous Brattleboro rats in which endogenous AVP is absent. (physiology.org)
  • Exogenous administration of 1-deamino-8- d -AVP produced an antidiuresis and expressed AQP-2 mRNA and AQP-2 protein in the renal medulla of the homozygous Brattleboro rats. (physiology.org)
  • Twelve hours of water deprivation produced severe dehydration in the homozygous Brattleboro rats, such that urinary osmolality increased from 200 to 649 mosmol/kgH 2 O. However, no increase in AQP-2 mRNA expression was observed after this dehydration, and the medullary tissue content and urinary excretion of AQP-2 also remained unchanged. (physiology.org)
  • Increases in AQP-2 mRNA expression and AQP-2 protein were evident in Long-Evans rats after 64 h of water deprivation, with a severity of dehydration almost equal to the 12-h dehydrated, homozygous Brattleboro rats. (physiology.org)
  • Homozygous Brattleboro rats are suitable for such a study, because endogenous AVP is absent ( 28 ). (physiology.org)
  • There are a few reports in homozygous Brattleboro rats showing that there is no change in AQP-2 protein in response to water deprivation and that 1-deamino-8- d -arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) treatment increased its expression ( 4 , 20 , 26 ). (physiology.org)
  • In the present study, we further examined whether there is an AVP-independent regulation of AQP-2 mRNA expression by using the homozygous Brattleboro rats. (physiology.org)
  • In IgG immune complex-induced lung injury in rats, inflammatory injury is neutrophil dependent and requires ICAM-1, CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1), CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), and E- and L-selectin. (jimmunol.org)
  • The role of the CC chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, in acute lung inflammatory injury induced by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes injury in rats was determined. (jimmunol.org)
  • A high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in long surviving Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats was reported. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, it has previously been shown that the administration of CNO in humans and rats leads to detectable levels of the bioactive compounds clozapine and N -desmethylclozapine ( N -Des). (eneuro.org)
  • To rule out task differences as the cause of our divergent finding in rats, the present study tested humans and rats using the same task and analyzed their data identically. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2. Rats pretreated with central 6-hydroxydopamine increase their consumption of 0.17 mol/l sodium chloride-0.03 mol/l potassium chloride ('saline') less than normal rats when implanted with deoxycorticosterone. (portlandpress.com)
  • In order to investigate whether Lycopene and Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9) have anti-hepatocarcinogenesis, Lycopene and TJ-9 were administered orally for one and a half years in LEC rats and studied the effect to natural hepatocarcinogenesis of these rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the present study we compared monolayer-cultured (aMSC) and spheroid (sMSC) MSC following transplantation into the substantia nigra (SN) of 6-OHDA lesioned rats regarding effects on the local microenvironment, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG as well as motor and memory function in the 6-OHDA-rat model for PD. (springer.com)
  • 2010). Destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain by 6-hydroxydopamine decreases hippocampal cell proliferation in rats: reversal by fluoxetine. (springer.com)
  • 1 ) provided early clues when they found that elevating corticosterone stress hormone levels into the high physiological range for an extended period reduced the number of hippocampal neurons in rats. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this research was to investigate the retinal transcriptome changes in long-term streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats' retinas using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), to explore the molecular mechanism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus model) rats. (rsc.org)
  • The effects of 3 α 2 -adrenergic receptor agonists on renal function in vasopressin (AVP)-deficient Brattleboro (DI) rats were evaluated. (okstate.edu)
  • Fifty five percent (1 1/20) of control rats had HCC, 55% (11/20) of Lycopene group had HCC, and, 75% (12/16) of TJ-9 group had HCC in 76 week life. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Previously, we demonstrated that i.v. infusion of magnesium sulphate (MgSO 4 ) alone, or in the presence of vasoconstrictors, caused increases in flow and conductance in the common carotid, internal carotid and hindquarters vascular beds, in conscious rats. (wiley.com)
  • Our evaluation methodology consisted of administering the indium-labeled agent to both LEC and genetically healthy Long-Evans (LE) cohorts via a tail vein injection and following the pharmacokinetics with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) over the course of an hour. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we report an approach to genetically modify the Long Evans rat germline in donor spermatogonial stem cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Long Evans rat spermatogonial lines were genetically modified by transposon transduction to express a germline, tdTomato reporter gene. (elsevier.com)
  • Overall, Long Evans rat spermatogonial lines provided effective donor germline vectors for genetically modifying Long Evans rats. (elsevier.com)
  • At long last, she and Ying reported last December that they had successfully derived true rat ES cells that could be genetically manipulated ( Cell , 135: 1287-98 & 1299-1310, 2008). (the-scientist.com)
  • Although no one has yet successfully made a rat genetically engineered from ES cells, Ying believes this could happen as soon as this summer, "if all goes well. (the-scientist.com)
  • Stem Cell Sciences, a Cambridge-based company that Smith co-founded, is already "in discussions with a number of animal houses and pharmaceutical companies that are interested in the development of genetically engineered rats," says the company's CEO Alastair Riddell. (the-scientist.com)
  • ES cells might not be the only route to genetically engineered rats, however. (the-scientist.com)
  • Cette étude porte sur la faisabilité de la transplantation d'hépatocytes chez le modèle animal de la maladie de Wilson, le rat Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC), avec pour buts d'en déterminer la sécurité et l'efficacité tant sur le plan clinique (amélioration de la survie, prévention de l'hépatite) que pathologique. (umontreal.ca)
  • Cependant, une amélioration de l'activité oxydase de la céruloplasmine post-transplantation a été démontrée chez le groupe de rats transplantés (49,6 ± 31,5 versus 8,9 ± 11,7). (umontreal.ca)
  • Les résultats obtenus sont considérés favorables à ce traitement alternatif, et indiquent que la transplantation d'hépatocytes est une technique sécuritaire qui peut contribuer à renverser le processus pathologique en cours dans la maladie de Wilson. (umontreal.ca)
  • However selected patients may also require orthotopic liver transplantation (OTL), an invasive and complex procedure with life-long implications. (umontreal.ca)
  • These encouraging results are in accordance with previous studies on hepatocyte transplantation in the LEC rat. (umontreal.ca)
  • Donor rat spermatogonial lines robustly regenerated spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes of busulfan-treated, allogenic, Long Evans rats. (elsevier.com)
  • In a separate group of animals, long-lasting cellular and synaptic changes in adult medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons were determined following social isolation. (nature.com)
  • In the present study, simultaneous extracellular single unit recording and microiontophoretic injection of the pyrimidine nucleoside Urd was used to provide evidence for the presence of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex of Long Evans rats. (mtak.hu)
  • CCK-A receptors and neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are involved in the regulation of food intake, and in rats, there is evidence for involvement of an intestinal vagal afferent pathway. (physiology.org)
  • BDNF promotes the survival of cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons, and upon BDNF withdrawal these neurons die by apoptosis ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology was used to generate a deletion of 10 base pairs in exon 30 of the rat Lrrk2 gene. (alzforum.org)
  • The rat Park2 gene was disrupted using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. (alzforum.org)
  • The rat Pink1 gene was disrupted using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. (alzforum.org)
  • Lymphopenia in the BB rat model of type 1 diabetes is due to a mutation in a novel immune-associated nucleotide (Ian)-related gene. (harvard.edu)
  • To investigate whether PPARα is truly responsible for transcriptional regulation of the rat MCD gene, transient reporter assay was performed in CV-1 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • The susceptibility of rats to human HEV genotypes is controversial. (cdc.gov)
  • To further investigate the potential susceptibility of rats to infection with human HEV, we experimentally injected nude rats with G3 HEV and monitored virus growth. (cdc.gov)
  • Hispid cotton rats occupy a wide variety of habitats within their range, but are not randomly distributed among microhabitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Habitat use and preference by hispid cotton rats usually appear to depend on the density of monocots. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, hispid cotton rats may respond favorably to a high percentage of dicots in a stand if cover remains optimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Kansas, hispid cotton rats increased on root-plowed prairie that experienced an increase in the diversity and biomass of early successional forbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Kansas, remnant prairie the preferred habitat of hispid cotton rats has dense undergrowth and an upper layer of protective vegetation such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)/kochia (Kochia scoparia)/annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hispid cotton rats prefer grassy clearings, croplands, overgrown fields, and overgrown roadsides and right-of-ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Kansas prairies hispid cotton rats occur at relatively high abundance in ungrazed uplands and sandy mixed-grass native prairie, but also prefer disturbed areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of disturbed areas was probably important in the recent invasion of hispid cotton rats into north-central Kansas from the northern presettlement limit of their range in Oklahoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • On Texas rangelands, hispid cotton rats appeared to respond to increased biomass of standing crop and increases in the proportion of the standing crop in potential food plants such as bristlegrasses (Setaria spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hispid cotton rats occur in grassy areas or early-successional habitats within open woods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Southeast hispid cotton rat population density increases with the density of broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) and other low growing plants, but declines with succession to brush and trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Texas pine-hardwood forests, hispid cotton rats were captured most often in narrow streamside management zones which have more light and thus more ground cover, and slightly less often in wider zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polar α 2 -adrenergic agonist, ST-91, increased sodium excretion in both LE and DI rats, however, at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg urine output was significantly decreased in DI rats. (okstate.edu)
  • Postprandial c-Fos protein expression in the NTS was also significantly decreased after pretreatment with the CCK-A receptor antagonist MK329 after both short- and long-term fasting periods. (physiology.org)
  • Treatment of rats with anti-MIP-1β Ab significantly decreased vascular permeability by 37% ( p = 0.012), reduced neutrophil recruitment into lung by 65% ( p = 0.047), and suppressed levels of TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by 61% ( p = 0.008). (jimmunol.org)
  • Ovaries of CB treatment showed typical features of long-term administration of β-agonists at W0 with antral and atretic follicles, and the absence of corpora lutea, indicating disrupted cyclicity of rats. (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of genistein (GEN), relative to the reference estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), were examined using the developmental markers anogenital distance (AGD), age at onset of puberty and initial estrous cyclicity in Long-Evans hooded rats. (epa.gov)
  • The developmental effect of genistein (GEN), and its interaction with the reference estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), was initially examined using the sexual development markers anogenital distance (AGD), age of puberty, and initial cyclicity in Long-Evans hooded rats. (epa.gov)
  • We conclude that the neuroprotective potential of adipose-derived MSC in the rat model of PD crucially depends on the applied cellular phenotype. (springer.com)
  • Twelve LEC rats received an intrasplenic injection of 2,6 x 105 - 3,6 x 107 hepatocytes obtained from LE donor rats. (umontreal.ca)
  • Previous studies in cultured rat hepatocytes revealed that initial uptake of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) was markedly reduced upon removal of Cl- from the medium. (jci.org)
  • In the present study, unidirectional Cl- gradients were established in short-term cultured rat hepatocytes and their effect on BSP uptake was determined. (jci.org)
  • R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. (nature.com)
  • This new small-animal model of extreme prematurity generates a spectrum of short- and long-term pathology and behavior that closely resembles that observed in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • There was evidence of histological improvement and atp7b mRNA was found in 58% of transplanted rats with an expression of 11,9% ± 13,6 when compared to a normal LE rat. (umontreal.ca)
  • Intracellular pH regulation in isolated rat bile duct epithelial cells. (jci.org)
  • Percentage of HCC bearing rats did not differ among the three groups. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • This compound inhibits α V β 3 and α V β 5 binding to vitronectin in the low nanomolar range, it has excellent selectivity over integrins α IIb β 3 and α 5 β 1 , and it prevents adhesion to human, rat, and mouse endothelial cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • LEC rats injected with the indium-labeled agent had roughly double the amount of hepatic radioactivity as compared to the healthy control animals. (elsevier.com)