Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A genus of ASTROVIRIDAE infecting avian species and often involving extra-intestinal manifestations. The type species is Turkey astrovirus.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Sexual intercourse between persons so closely related that they are forbidden by law to marry.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Personality evaluation based on the scoring of several variables as a result of the subject's responses in perceiving 47 inkblot plates.

PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (1/25382)

A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration.  (+info)

Leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor cause dendritic retraction in cultured rat sympathetic neurons. (2/25382)

Dendritic retraction occurs in many regions of the developing brain and also after neural injury. However, the molecules that regulate this important regressive process remain largely unknown. Our data indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) cause sympathetic neurons to retract their dendrites in vitro, ultimately leading to an approximately 80% reduction in the size of the arbor. The dendritic retraction induced by LIF exhibited substantial specificity because it was not accompanied by changes in cell number, in the rate of axonal growth, or in the expression of axonal cytoskeletal elements. An antibody to gp130 blocked the effects of LIF and CNTF, and both cytokines induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat3. Moreover, addition of soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor to the medium endowed IL-6 with the ability to cause dendritic regression. These data indicate that ligands activating the gp130 pathway have the ability to profoundly alter neuronal cell shape and polarity by selectively causing the retraction of dendrites.  (+info)

Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine. (3/25382)

Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations.  (+info)

The physiological strain index applied to heat-stressed rats. (4/25382)

A physiological strain index (PSI) based on heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Tre) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress in humans. The purpose of this study was to adjust PSI for rats and to evaluate this index at different levels of heat acclimation and training. The corrections of HR and Tre to modify the index for rats are as follows: PSI = 5 (Tre t - Tre 0). (41.5 - Tre 0)-1 + 5 (HRt - HR0). (550 - HR0)-1, where HRt and Tre t are simultaneous measurements taken at any time during the exposure and HR0 and Tre 0 are the initial measurements. The adjusted PSI was applied to five groups (n = 11-14 per group) of acclimated rats (control and 2, 5, 10, and 30 days) exposed for 70 min to a hot climate [40 degrees C, 20% relative humidity (RH)]. A separate database representing two groups of acclimated or trained rats was also used and involved 20 min of low-intensity exercise (O2 consumption approximately 50 ml. min-1. kg-1) at three different climates: normothermic (24 degrees C, 40% RH), hot-wet (35 degrees C, 70% RH), and hot-dry (40 degrees C, 20% RH). In normothermia, rats also performed moderate exercise (O2 consumption approximately 60 ml. min-1. kg-1). The adjusted PSI differentiated among acclimation levels and significantly discriminated among all exposures during low-intensity exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this index was able to assess the individual roles played by heat acclimation and exercise training.  (+info)

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 with a new locus for variant activity of liver aldehyde oxidase. (5/25382)

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 consisting of five loci including a new biochemical marker representing a genetic variation of the activity of the liver aldehyde oxidase, (Aox) was constructed. Linkage analysis of the five loci among 92 backcross progeny of (WKS/Iar x IS/Iar)F1 x WKS/Iar revealed significant linkages between these loci. Minimizing crossover frequency resulted in the best gene order: Aox-D9Mit4-Gls-Cryg-Tp53l1. The homologues of the Cryg, Gls, and Aox genes have been mapped on mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2q. The present findings provide further evidence for the conservation of synteny among these regions of rat, mouse, and human chromosomes.  (+info)

Altered renal hemodynamics and impaired myogenic responses in the fawn-hooded rat. (6/25382)

The present study examined whether an abnormality in the myogenic response of renal arterioles that impairs autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) contributes to the development of renal damage in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats. Autoregulation of whole kidney, cortical, and medullary blood flow and PGC were compared in young (12 wk old) FHH and fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL) rats in volume-replete and volume-expanded conditions. Baseline RBF, cortical and medullary blood flow, and PGC were significantly greater in FHH than in FHL rats. Autoregulation of renal and cortical blood flow was significantly impaired in FHH rats compared with results obtained in FHL rats. Myogenically mediated autoregulation of PGC was significantly greater in FHL than in FHH rats. PGC rose from 46 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 2 mmHg in response to an increase in renal perfusion pressure from 100 to 150 mmHg in FHH rats, whereas it only increased from 39 +/- 2 to 53 +/- 1 mmHg in FHL rats. Isolated perfused renal interlobular arteries from FHL rats constricted by 10% in response to elevations in transmural pressure from 70 to 120 mmHg. In contrast, the diameter of vessels from FHH rats increased by 15%. These results indicate that the myogenic response of small renal arteries is altered in FHH rats, and this contributes to an impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow and elevations in PGC in this strain.  (+info)

Evidence for involvement of B lymphocytes in the surveillance of lung metastasis in the rat. (7/25382)

These studies examined the composition of lymphocytes within the lung after the introduction of tumor cells that metastasize to the lung in rats. i.v. delivery of MADB106 tumor cells into syngeneic Fischer 344 rats caused dose- and time-dependent development of lung tumors, with surface metastases evident 7 days after injection and markedly increased 11 days after injection. The total number of lymphocytes recovered from the lung was increased 11 days after injection but not 7 days after injection. When lymphocytes from the lung, spleen, and blood were subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, the most conspicuous change was an increase in the percentage of CD45RA+ cells (i.e., B lymphocytes in the rat) in the lung, with no changes seen in the percentage of natural killer (NKR-P1+), CD4+, or CD8+ cells in the lung. Analysis of the time course showed that B lymphocytes increased in the lung soon after i.v. tumor injection, with an initial peak seen 6 h after injection. Rapid influx of B lymphocytes into lung after i.v. tumor cell injection was also observed in another syngeneic tumor model, i.e., after injection of CC531 cells into WAG rats. To determine whether the influx of B lymphocytes into the lung might participate in tumor surveillance, a high dose of antibody (100 microg) to rat B lymphocytes was given to immunoneutralize these cells; this produced an increase in lung tumors in both models. Finally, Fischer 344 rats were given a s.c. injection of MADB106 tumor cells that made them resistant to lung tumors when given a later i.v. injection of these tumor cells. These animals were found to have an elevated level of B lymphocytes residing in the lung associated with the resistance to lung tumor. These findings suggest that early responses of B lymphocytes are important in protection against tumor development in two rat models of cancer.  (+info)

Ethylnitrosourea-induced development of malignant schwannomas in the rat: two distinct loci on chromosome of 10 involved in tumor susceptibility and oncogenesis. (8/25382)

Inbred rodent strains with differing sensitivity to experimental tumor induction provide model systems for the detection of genes that either are responsible for cancer predisposition or modify the process of carcinogenesis. Rats of the inbred BD strains differ in their susceptibility to the induction of neural tumors by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). Newborn BDIX rats that are exposed to EtNU (80 microg/g body weight; injected s.c.) develop malignant schwannomas predominantly of the trigeminal nerves with an incidence >85%, whereas BDIV rats are entirely resistant. A T:A-->A:T transversion mutation at nucleotide 2012 of the neu (erbB-2) gene on chromosome 10, presumably the initial event in EtNU-induced schwannoma development, is later followed by loss of the wild-type neu allele. Genetic crosses between BDIX and BDIV rats served: (a) to investigate the inheritance of susceptibility; (b) to obtain animals informative for the mapping of losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumors with polymorphic simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs); and (c) to localize genes associated with schwannoma susceptibility by linkage analysis with SSLPs. Schwannoma development was strongly suppressed in F1 animals (20% incidence). All of the F1 schwannomas displayed LOH on chromosome 10, with a consensus region on the telomeric tip encompassing D10Rat3, D10Mgh16 and D10Rat2 but excluding neu. A strong bias toward losing the BDIV alleles suggests the involvement of a BDIV-specific tumor suppressor gene(s). Targeted linkage analysis with chromosome 10 SSLPs in F2 intercross and backcross animals localized schwannoma susceptibility to a region around D10Wox23, 30 cM centromeric to the tip. Ninety-four % of F1 tumors exhibited additional LOH at this region. Two distinct loci on chromosome 10 may thus be connected with susceptibility to the induction and development of schwannomas in rats exposed to EtNU.  (+info)

Although it is now well documented (6, 8) that pial as well as intracerebral vessels are amply supplied with sympathetic adrenergic nerves which, as shown for pial arteries, fulfill ultra-structural...
Hi Im new here and just wanted to know if my diet plan is going to work for 2 female mice. The reason I decided to make my own diet is that most
Differences in spontaneous allograft acceptance after liver transplantation among inbred rat strains might be explained by variation in the local production of TNF-α as a potent mediator of the inflammatory response. In this study, we hypothesize that nucleotide differences in the rat Tnf gene influence TNF-α protein expression. As such, polymorphisms in the Tnf gene may also provide a possible explanation for differences in survival of allogeneic liver grafts among inbred rat strains. We therefore investigated the capacity of mononuclear cells to produce TNF-α in response to a mitogenic stimulus and the Tnf locus was sequenced in six different inbred rat strains. Among the six strains (AUG, BN, DA, LEW, PVG and WF), 44 nucleotide differences including 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), five simple sequence length polymorphisms, two deletions and one insertion, were found in the Tnf gene. Although, the inbred rat strains differed significantly in mean levels of maximum TNF-α ...
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Alterations in protein synthesis in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells were examined after their exposure to the potent carcinogens, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Co-planar PCB congeners (3,4,5,3′,4′-PCB and 3,4,5,3′,4′,5′-PCB) (10 nM) induced a protein, the Mr of which was 25,000 (25 k protein) under denaturing conditions. However, non-co-planar PCB congeners and several xenobiotics, which induce microsomal proteins, did not induce the 25 k protein. By using immunoblotting, the 25 k protein was identified as glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P, 7-7, EC ...
The expression and induction of the cytochrome P450 2B1/2 isoenzyme is heterogeneous, exhibiting a regional pattern in the intact liver and a varied response to phenobarbital in isolated cultured hepatocytes. We report that P450 2B1/2 immunostaining of hepatocytes isolated from the perivenous liver region and cultured in the presence of phenobarbital is much stronger than that of cells identically treated but isolated from the periportal region. P450 2B1 mRNA, quantified by a sensitive and specific RNAase protection assay, is also preferentially induced in perivenous hepatocytes, demonstrating that the difference in induced expression is at the pretranslational level. Our results suggest that perivenous and periportal hepatocytes are differentially imprinted to retain regiospecific factors governing their inducibility after isolation.. ...
Visual pathways and acuity hooded rats.: Three experiments on the effects of lesions of the visual system on contrast-detection in hooded rats are described, in
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Top: Relative distribution plots of GA, GB, GC, GJ, and BB obtained from buckets, i.e., automatically integrated spectral segments of 0.02 ppm, of the H-12 sin
IRVINE, Calif., Nov. 9, 2015-- Sabra Health Care REIT, Inc. today announced results of operations for the third quarter of 2015.. For the third quarter of 2015, Normalized FFO, Normalized AFFO and net income attributable to common stockholders per diluted common share were $0.58, $0.53 and $0.24, respectively, compared to $0.51, $0.51 and $0.31, respectively, for the...
Статья "Contents and abstracts" в журнале "Философия и общество", Выпуск №4(68)/2012
Primary monolayer cultures were obtained in 60-mm petri dishes by incubating 3 X 10(6) isolated hepatocytes at 37 degrees C in Dulbeccos medium supplemented wi
We have studied the effect of glucagon on the expression of a triiodothyronine (T3) and carbohydrate-inducible mRNA sequence (mRNA-S14) in rat liver that undergoes a threefold diurnal variation (peak, 2200 h; nadir, 0800 h). Glucagon injection into euthyroid rats (25 micrograms/100 g body wt i.p., three doses at 15-min intervals) during the nocturnal plateau of mRNA-S14 caused a monoexponential disappearance of this sequence (t1/2, 90 min) accompanied by a 90% reduction in the transcriptional rate in a nuclear run-off assay, indicative of a near total reduction of synthesis. This effect was markedly attenuated in rats treated with T3 (200 micrograms/100 g body wt i.p.) 24 h before glucagon injection. When T3 was given 15 min after glucagon, the glucagon-initiated decline in mRNA-S14 was reversed within 90 min, suggesting a rapid interaction between the two hormones in the evening. Curiously, administration of T3 alone at this hour did not affect a significant increase in mRNA-S14. At 0800 h, ...
Reference: Klimenko A.I., Age-related characteristics of the concentration of RNA, DNA and proteins in the nuclei of rat liver cells following hydrocortisone induction, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(6), 615-619 ...
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Fakulteta za informacijske študije v Novem mestu je pred kratkim v Dolenjskih Toplicah organizirala zaključni dogodek projekta COSMOS. V interdisciplinarnem projektu s področja matematičnega modeliranja zapletenih sistemov je sodelovalo 15 študentov, ki so pod vodstvom 15 mentorjev pripravljali doktorat.
This study was conducted to compare the effects of n-6 linoleic acid and n-3 linolenic acid on lipid peroxidation and the activities of enzymes defending against oxidation, which are involved in the tumor promotion, and histolOgical changes of hepatocarcinogen treated rat liver. In this study, weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of three diets, containing 15% (w/w) of beef fat (BF), com oil (CO) or perilla oil (PO), for 11 weeks. During the 3rd week, experimental groups were injected with 2-AAF (50 mg/kg of BW) intraperitoneally 3 times. Findings show that the com oil diet group has greater liver MDA content than the beef fat and perilla oil diet groups. Also, it is observed that the perilla oil diet group has lower MDA content than beef fat and com oil diet groups, even though perilla oil is more desaturated than beef fat and com oil. In terms of activity, mixed-function oxidase activity is not Significantly affected by the different dietary fats and 2-AAF treatment. GSH-peroxidase, ...
The acute pulmonary responses after exposure to sulfur and nitrogen mustards are well documented whereas the late pulmonary effects are not. With a novel focus on the immune system this paper investigate whether late phase pulmonary effects developed in rats exposed to the nitrogen mustard melphalan are linked to the acute responses and whether the reactions are genetically regulated. The DA rat strain was used to establish a lung exposure model. Five other inbred rat strains (PVG, PVG.1AV1, LEW, WF and F344) were compared within the model at selected time points. All rat strains displayed a biphasic pattern of leukocyte infiltration in the lungs, dominated by neutrophils 2 days after exposure and a second peak dominated by macrophages 29 days after exposure. The number of macrophages was higher in the DA rat compared with the other strains. The infiltration of lymphocytes in the lungs varied in both time of appearance and magnitude between strains. The quantity of collagen deposition in the ...
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Evidence was presented to indicate that the binding of benzo(a)pyrene (50328) (BaP) to a protein in rat liver cytosol facilitates its oxidation by microsomal enzymes. Cytosols were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley-rats. Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography of rat liver cytosol saturated with carbon- 14 labeled BaP resulted in two peaks of protein bound radioactivity. Glutathione-S-transfe
Sedlis, A and Stone, D F., Experimental carcinogenesis in pregnant mice, a preliminary report. (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 820 ...
Chlorophyll (Ch) a, b and total content (µg g FW−1) measured in fully developed leaves of Citrus macrophylla seedlings grown for 25 days in B-normal (50 μM,
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Tissue preparation. Demonstration of basic histology techniques including fixation, embedding, sectioning, staining and observation of a glass microslide operation. Orig.
No objects (or none that you are authorized to view) are tagged with 3D coculture of human hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells ...
Takayuki Furuishi , Yukiko Kato , Toshiro Fukami , Toyofumi Suzuki , Tomohiro Endo , Hiromasa Nagase , Haruhisa Ueda , Kazuo Tomono ...
Το KC-53 είναι ένα νεοσυντιθέμενο biyouyanagin ανάλογο μόριο με γνωστή ισχυρή αντιφλεγμονώδη και αντιική δράση. Στην παρούσα εργασία, διερευνήσαμε την αντιπολλαπλασιαστική του δράση σε 13 αντιπροσωπευτικές ανθρώπινες ...
Periodical: Sokoloff, Louis, Martin Reivich, Charles Kennedy, M. H. Des Rosiers, C. S. Patlak, K. D. Pettigrew, O. Sakurada, and M. Shinohara. The [14C]Deoxyglucose Method for the Measurement of Local Cerebral Glucose Utilization: Theory, Procedure, and Normal Values in the Conscious and Anesthetized Albino Rat. Journal of Neurochemistry 28, 5 (1977): 897-916. Article. 20 Images ...
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The arthritis-susceptible DA rat is one of the most commonly used rat strains for genetic linkage analysis and is instrumental for the identification of many genetic loci. Even though DA rats were kept as inbred lines at different institutes and suppliers, it became obvious that the various breeding …
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Figure 3: IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
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ARFC appear in the spleen after transplantation of organs or tissues and immunization with nucleated cells between isohistogenic rat strains. The allorosette formation of rat spleen cells and T...
How is micrograms per liter abbreviated? µg/L stands for micrograms per liter. µg/L is defined as micrograms per liter very frequently.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement by neuropeptide γ of DNA synthesis stimulated with EGF or TGFα in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. AU - Hasegawa, K.. AU - Carr, B. I.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - DNA synthesis was stimulated by primary (complete) mitogens such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transforming growth factor α (TGFα) in adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Addition of neuropeptide γ (10-9 M) to the hepatocyte culture amplified the stimulatory effect of EGF or TGFα by 5- to 6-fold. Neuropeptide γ-amplified DNA synthesis was observed in a dose-dependent manner with maximal effect at 10-9 to 10-7 M, although it effect was significantly observed at as low as 10-10 M. Neuropeptide γ by itself did not stimulate DNA synthesis in the absence of EGF. Amplification of DNA synthesis by neuropeptide γ was observed when hepatocytes were cultured in Williams medium E, but not in Leibovitz L-15 medium, suggesting that culture medium enriched with nutrients is required for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor-mediated uptake of human α1-acid glycoprotein into liver parenchymal cells in mice. AU - Matsumoto, Kazuaki. AU - Nishi, Koji. AU - Kikuchi, Mari. AU - Watanabe, Hiroshi. AU - Nakajou, Keisuke. AU - Komori, Hisakazu. AU - Kadowaki, Daisuke. AU - Suenaga, Ayaka. AU - Maruyama, Toru. AU - Otagiri, Masaki. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgments: This research was supported Grants-in-aid in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (18590035 and 20390161).. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Human α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a serum glycoprotein, is thought to have anti-inflammatory effects by a mechanism that is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of AGP in mice using enzymatically modified AGP (AGP with the sialic acids removed, asialo-AGP, and with both sialic acids and galactose removed, agalacto-AGP). It was observed that AGP was eliminated from the circulation slowly, and ...
Definition of antagonistic action in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antagonistic action? Meaning of antagonistic action as a legal term. What does antagonistic action mean in law?
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DRH strain rats are a unique experimental model in which to study chemically induced liver carcinogenesis. They have been selected from a closed colony of Donryu rats fed 3′-Me-DAB by sister-brother mating for over 40 generations. Their resistance to hepatocarcinogens has been suggested to be genetically dominant (15) . In the present study, we focused on genetic control in the induction of preneoplastic lesions. Five phenotypic parameters were selected to quantitatively describe the preneoplastic lesions; i.e., the number of GST-P-positive foci, the percentage of liver area occupied by EAF, the size of the foci, and the amounts of GST-P as well as GGT mRNA. Their phenotypic values were mutually closely interrelated [for instance, percentage of liver area occupied by EAF and GST-P mRNA (r = 0.763)], but still they seemed under differential genetic control by combinations of host loci. No single phenotypic parameter was controlled by a single locus. The contributions of the loci to phenotype ...
Oral The test material was investigated in a key study designed to be compatible with OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No 420 Acute Oral Toxicity - Fixed Dose Method (2001) and Method B.1 bis Acute Toxicity (Oral) of Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008. Following a sighting test at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg, an additional four fasted female animals were given a single oral dose of the test item, as a solution in arachis oil BP, at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Clinical signs and body weight development were monitored during the study. All animals were subjected to gross necropsy. There were no deaths, no signs of systemic toxicity, all animals showed expected gains in body weight and no abnormalities were noted at necropsy. The acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the test item in the female Wistar strain rat was considered to be greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight. Inhalation According to REACH Annex VIII, Section 8.5, Column 2, information on acute toxicity shall be ...
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Changes in binding of dexamethasone (9α-fluoro-11β, 17α,21-trihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione) to its receptors in regenerating rat liver after 70% hepatectomy were examined. Specific receptors for dexamethasone in the liver remnants of adrenalectomized rats decreased significantly during the period of DNA synthesis after 70% hepatectomy; then, they increased to above the control values between Days 4 and 7 after partial hepatectomy and subsequently returned to the control values. During the period of DNA synthesis, decreased binding was observed in partially hepatectomized rats with or without adrenals, but later enhanced binding was not prominent in rats with adrenals.. ...
The Medical Perfusion System Market globally is a standout amongst the most emergent and astoundingly approved sectors. This worldwide market has been developing at a ...
Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) has been cited in 35 publications. References for Mouse, Rat, Rabbit in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IF, IHC-FrFl, IHC-P, WB
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Mann, Margaret C. (1922). Observations on an Inbred Strain of Drosophila Melanogaster. University of California. University of ... Mann, Margaret (1918). Division in the Unfertilized Egg of the Rat. University of California. ...
Inbred and outbred mouse and rat strains have very different susceptibility to Sendai virus infection. Visualization of SeV ... All Sendai virus strains belong to the same serotype. The origin of many strains of SeV was described in 1978. Some strains ... Another strain is Tianjin strain, isolated in China in 2008. One of these strains was used for creation of replication ... It is reported that the BB1 strain derived from the Moscow virus strain. The strain BB1 was given to the researchers of ...
... of the WAG/Rij inbred rat strain: a classical mendelian crossbreeding study". Behavior Genetics. 22 (3): 361-8. doi:10.1007/ ... van Luijtelaar ELJM; van der Staay FJ; Kerbusch JML (August 1989). "Spatial memory in rats: a cross validation study". The ... Peeters BWMM; Kerbusch JML; van Luijtelaar ELJM; Vossen JMH; Coenen AML (May 1990). "Genetics of absence epilepsy in rats". ...
Festing, M., "Inbred Strains of Mice and their Characteristics", The Jackson Laboratory . Retrieved 30 January 2008. Peichel CL ... Rats are also widely used for physiology, toxicology and cancer research, but genetic manipulation is much harder in rats than ... Laboratory mice, flies, fish, and worms are inbred through many generations to create strains with defined characteristics. ... By one estimate the number of mice and rats used in the United States alone in 2001 was 80 million. Mice, rats, fish, ...
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ... They found in albino rats that Fos has altered immunoreactive levels in a phase-dependent manner when exposed to light. This ... Sumová A, Trávnícková Z, Peters R, Schwartz WJ, Illnerová H. The rat suprachiasmatic nucleus is a clock for all seasons. Proc ... Light regulates expression of a Fos-related protein in rat suprachiasmatic nuclei. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990; 87: 5959-5962 ...
NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... The scientists of NCLAS Developed obese and diabetic mutant rat models: WNIN/GR-Ob, WNIN/Ob, WNIN/Ob-IGT, to serve as pre- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) K. S. Jayaraman (2005). "'Sumo' rats set researchers on hunt for obesity genes". Nature ... a novel rat model of premature aging". Neuroscience. 269: 256-264. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.03.040. PMID 24709042. S2CID ...
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice and rabbits), but populations of naturally ... Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits and ferrets. Albino axolotl (an ... rats, guinea pigs and cats. Examples of pet mammals artificially selected for albinism Intentionally bred albinistic strains of ... The Okinawa strain of this species is deficient in [His7]-corazonin and is albino. One of the typical features of Locusta ...
... of emotionality in rats and his discovery that a single dominant gene led to acoustical traumas in one inbred strain of mice". ... This work extended his mentor Tryon's earlier rat demonstration that they could be bred to do well or poorly in learning a maze ...
Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for particular traits, often of ethological or medical interest, e.g. body ... Cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) - formerly used in polio research. Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) - an important respiratory and ... Pseudomonas fluorescens, a soil bacterium that readily diversifies into different strains in the lab. Azotobacter vinelandii, ... Quantitative genetics, Molecular evolution, Genomics) Naked mole-rat, (Heterocephalus glaber), studied for their characteristic ...
Systematic inbreeding and maintenance of inbred strains of laboratory mice and rats is of great importance for biomedical ... 2006). "Selection and Inbreeding Depression: Effects of Inbreeding Rate and Inbreeding Environment". Evolution. 60 (5): 1014- ... In order to achieve a mouse strain that is considered inbred, a minimum of 20 sequential generations of sibling matings must ... "Inbred" redirects here. For the 2011 British film, see Inbred (film).. For reproduction by which offspring arise from a single ...
In 1999, they showed that different inbred strains of mice displayed very different pain sensitivity. Chief among these ... Quenqua, Douglas (2014-04-28). "For Lab Rats, a 'Male Scientist' Effect". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-07 ... Responses of 11 inbred mouse strains on 12 measures of nociception". Pain. 80 (1): 67-82. doi:10.1016/s0304-3959(98)00197-3. ... "Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains: possible sex-specific mediation by δ2 ...
Effects of Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata on exploratory behaviour of an inbred mouse strain. Laboratory Animal ... An example of this behaviour is the attraction of rats to cat urine after infection with Toxoplasma gondii. However, the " ... Berdoy, M.F., Webster, J. P & MacDonald, D. W. (2000) Fatal Attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of ...
... strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the ... Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different ... Congenic strains are discussed in detail in Lee Silver's online book Mouse Genetics: Concepts and Applications: "Mouse Genetics ... November 1997). "Theoretical and empirical issues for marker-assisted breeding of congenic mouse strains". Nat. Genet. 17 (3): ...
... rats, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.760.080 - rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 - rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050. ... rats, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520.760.080 - rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.199.520.760.090 - rats, inbred bb MeSH ... rats, inbred f344 MeSH B01.050.157.760.275 - rats, inbred lec MeSH B01.050.157.760.280 - rats, inbred lew MeSH B01.050.157.760. ... rats, inbred shr MeSH B01.050.157.760.360 - rats, inbred wf MeSH B01.050.157.760.390 - rats, inbred wky MeSH B01.050.199.040 - ...
... a dimensionless number in fluid dynamics and transport phenomena Lewis rat, an inbred strain of laboratory rat Lewis (TV series ...
Weber M, Swerdlow NR (January 2008). "Rat strain differences in startle gating-disruptive effects of apomorphine occur with ... Paylor R, Crawley JN (July 1997). "Inbred strain differences in prepulse inhibition of the mouse startle response". ... The baseline startle response does not affect overall PPI levels - this finding was first discovered in rat studies and later ... ISBN 978-0-444-50676-4. Wu MF, Krueger J, Ison JR, Gerrard RL (April 1984). "Startle reflex inhibition in the rat: its ...
Main article: Biobreeding rat. Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that ... Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory. *Rat Model Summary database, Knock Out Rat Consortium (archived copy ... Brattleboro rat[edit]. Main article: Brattleboro rat. The Brattleboro rat is a strain that was developed by Henry Schroeder and ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ...
... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... supported Mouse Repository Rat Resource & Research Center - National Institutes of Health, supported Rat Repository NIH Model ... In addition, inbred mouse strains are used in the overwhelming majority of studies, while the human population is heterogeneous ... The classic model vertebrate is currently the mouse (Mus musculus). Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for ...
These initial observations led to the development of two breeding colonies: (i) a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... Since then, the GAERS has been recognized as a very predictive model for absence epilepsy, along with the WAG/Rij rat model. ...
In 2004, Hornig published a controversial paper concluding that, in a highly inbred strain of mice which is unusually ... based on neonatal rat infection with Borna disease virus. ... Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain ... Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin WI (September 2004). "Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent". Mol. ... Davis were unable to reproduce Hornig's results despite using the same strain of mice and ten times the amount of mercury used ...
In mice, large differences in learning ability exist among different inbred strains. These differences appear to be correlated ... As a result, the rat always has eight possible options. Elaborate controls are used to ensure that the rats are not simply ... Working memory is assessed when the rats enter each arm a single time. Re-entry into the arms would result in a working memory ... The design ensures that, after checking for food at the end of each arm, the rat is always forced to return to the central ...
West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ... Rats have also been used in the diet-induced obesity model. Commonly used in medical research, rats were specifically chosen to ... Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. Some common mouse strains show large ... This has led to cases of studies that used the same strain of mice concluding that the strain is prone to becoming obese in one ...
However, certain strains have been known to be quite temperamental. Mice and rats have the same organs in the same places, with ... The average litter size is 10-12 during optimum production, but is highly strain-dependent. As a general rule, inbred mice tend ... These terms are also used to refer to the various growth stages of rats (see Fancy rat). List of fictional mice and rats ... Like pet rats, pet mice should not be left unsupervised outside as they have many natural predators, including (but not limited ...
Systematic inbreeding and maintenance of inbred strains of laboratory mice and rats is of great importance for biomedical ... 2006). "Selection and Inbreeding Depression: Effects of Inbreeding Rate and Inbreeding Environment". Evolution. 60 (5): 1014- ... The use of inbred strains is also important for genetic studies in animal models, for example to distinguish genetic from ... In order to achieve a mouse strain that is considered inbred, a minimum of 20 sequential generations of sibling matings must ...
Mouse strains can be inbred, mutated, or genetically modified, while rat strains are usually inbred. A given inbred rodent ... Coli Genetic Stock Center EcoliWiki E. coli strain index International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) Rat strain index. ... A laboratory mouse or rat strain is a group of animals that is genetically uniform. Strains are used in laboratory experiments ... In biology, a strain is a genetic variant, a subtype or a culture within a biological species. Strains are often seen as ...
The biobreeding rat (a.k.a. the biobreeding diabetes-prone rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops ... "Rat Genome", Nature Rat Genome Database, Medical College of Wisconsin Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ... The spontaneously hypertensive rat and the Lewis rat are other well-known stocks developed from Wistar rats. The Long-Evans rat ...
... and later to the common use of inbred rats by experimental psychologists." Wistar as a generic name for inbred strains such as ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2017-11-30. Dixon LK (1993). "Use of recombinant inbred strains to map ... "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2013-12-19. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "History of inbred strains". isogenic ...
... also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ... 12 and 14 have been shown to be linked to Type 1 Diabetes in the BB rat. BB rats are the most extensively studied rat model of ... Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... Subsequent BB rat colonies were established. One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another ...
Between 2005 and 2007, virtually all extant mouse and rat recombinant inbred strains were regenotyped at many thousands of SNP ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...
The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine ... N. brasiliensis is adapted to infecting rats, so can continue laying eggs for prolonged periods of time. The immune response of ... Biphasic anorexia is also prevalent in laboratory rats infected with this parasite. The first phase coincides with the ... Tetramisole loaded into zeolite is more effective at killing adults of N. brasiliensis in rats than tetramisole alone. ...
A sex-ratio theory for sex linkage and inbreeding has new implications in cytogenetics and entomology". Science. 156 (3774): ... and the Japanese spinous country rats Tokudaia osimensis and Tokudaia tokunoshimensis, have lost the Y chromosome and SRY ... List of Y-STR markers. *Muller's ratchet. *Single nucleotide polymorphism. *Y chromosome Short Tandem Repeat (STR) ... "X-chromosomal localization of mammalian Y-linked genes in two XO species of the Ryukyu spiny rat". Cytogenetic and Genome ...
Inbreeding depression[edit]. Factors influencing the litter size of puppies and the proportion of stillborn puppies per litter ... which place greater strain on the vertebrae. About 20-25% of dachshunds will develop IVDD.[41] ... enter tunnels with dead ends and obstacles attempting to locate an artificial bait or live but caged and protected rats.[65] ... Gresky C, Hamann H, Distl O (2005). "[Influence of inbreeding on litter size and the proportion of stillborn puppies in ...
Another source suggests 1,000 inbred domesticated strains are kept worldwide.[10] One useful development for the silk industry ... Many hundreds of strains are maintained, and over 400 Mendelian mutations have been described.[citation needed] ... These changes have made the domesticated strains entirely dependent upon humans for survival.[19] The eggs are kept in ... Hans Zinsser (Rats, Lice and History). *Lafcadio Hearn (Insect Literature). Related. *Biology in fiction ...
By identifying specific genetic markers for the genes of interest in a recombinant inbred strain, the amount of interaction ... researchers are able to use animal subjects such as mice and rats, but also fruit flies, worms, and zebrafish,[19][20] to try ... pose a greater challenge for QTL analysis because the genetic population cannot be as carefully controlled as that of an inbred ...
Thousands of natural inbred accessions of A. thaliana have been collected from throughout its natural and introduced range.[15] ... Having specialized as a spring ephemeral, it has been used to found several laboratory strains that take about six weeks from ... syringae pv tomato strain DC3000. Recognition of avrRpt2 by RPS2 occurs via the guardee protein RIN4, which is cleaved . ... "New Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines (Landsberg erecta x Nossen) reveal natural variation in phytochrome-mediated ...
A famous example of a vestigial structure, the eye of the blind mole-rat, is believed to retain function in photoperiod ... new strains of MRSA have recently emerged that are resistant even to these drugs.[88] This is an evolutionary arms race, in ... "The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution". Proceedings of the VI International Congress of ... "The Eye of the Blind Mole Rat, Spalax ehrenbergi. Rudiment with Hidden Function?". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ...
... the naked mole-rat and the Damaraland mole rat). Wilson suggests the equation for Hamilton's rule:[38] ... However, this can lead to inbreeding depression,[47] which typically lowers the overall fitness of a population. However, if ... Rauch, E. M.; Sayama, H.; Bar-Yam, Y. (2003). "Dynamics and genealogy of strains in spatially extended host-pathogen models". ... Wade, M. J.; Breden, Sept (1981). "Effect of Inbreeding on the Evolution of Altruistic Behavior by Kin Selection". Evolution. ...
Typically, the seed company maintains two inbred varieties and crosses them into a hybrid strain that is then sold. Related ... One of these was isolated from an Agrobacterium strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that was resistant to glyphosate.[123][124] The CP4 ... Many strains of corn have been developed in recent years to combat the spread of Maize dwarf mosaic virus, a costly virus that ... The strain lacks genes that encode proteins that repress defenses against the mildew. The researchers deleted all three copies ...
doi:10.1016/j.str.2008.11.008. PMID 19141283.. *^ Bowmaker JK (May 1998). "Evolution of colour vision in vertebrates". Eye. 12 ... the maintenance of outcrossing sexual reproduction as opposed to inbreeding[70] and the evolution of sex and genetic ... oxidative DNA damages arise at least 10,000 times per cell per day in humans and 50,000 times or more per cell per day in rats. ... inbred populations. These include: *Chromosomal translocations: interchange of genetic parts from nonhomologous chromosomes. ...
Fernando Sucre (played by Amaury Nolasco) is imprisoned at Fox River State Penitentiary for aggravated robbery and was ratted ... After the crisis is over, Tancredi seems to have a more strained relationship with her. When Sara asks him to review Lincoln's ... Though Bagwell initially believed himself to be incapable of fathering a child due to being conceived as a result of inbreeding ... Their relationship is temporarily strained when Michael refuses to name the guard that apparently assaulted him, but the ...
Temporal-Lobe: Hippocampal - Parahippocampal Neuroanatomy of the Rat. Database TAIR. Database, Data repository, Data analysis ... the Integrated Animal view combines data about experimental animal catalogs available to researchers from transgenic or inbred ... International Mouse Strain Resource. Organism supplier, Data repository Indeed. Job resource Immune Epitope Database and ... worms, zebrafish, mice and rats. We add more of these as data are registered, so check back to this page to see the current ...
"Wild-derived inbred mouse strains have short telomeres". Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (22): 4474-78. doi:10.1093/nar/28.22.4474. ... DNA oxidation and caloric restriction: Caloric restriction reduces 8-OH-dG DNA damage in organs of ageing rats and mice.[119][ ... The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... In 1934, it was discovered that calorie restriction can extend lifespan by 50% in rats and this has motivated research into ...
The agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), bush rat (Rattus fuscipes), feathertail glider (Acrobates pygmaeus),[47] and sugar ... The wood was also used to make needles and the dried flowers were used to strain the water for drinking.[68] ... "Selfed seed set and inbreeding depression in obligate seeding populations of Banksia marginata". Proceedings of the Linnean ...
"Monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity as a measure of immune responsiveness in Lewis and brown Norway inbred rats. ... and wild strains of the aforementioned viruses) results in ileal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, chronic colitis and pervasive ...
... human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to ... 17 in rat/mice), club-cell-specific 10 kD protein (CC10), human protein 1, urine protein 1 (UP-1), polychlorinated biphenyl- ... The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to ...
... may be bred selectively among inbred strains to create a recombinant congenic strain. This might be done to isolate an ... For example, when using an electrolytic probe to create a purposeful lesion in a distinct region of the rat brain, surrounding ... QTL mapping - The influence of a gene in some behavior can be statistically inferred by studying inbred strains of some species ... von Heimendahl, Moritz; Itskov, Pavel M.; Arabzadeh, Ehsan; Diamond, Mathew E. (2007). "Neuronal Activity in Rat Barrel Cortex ...
Lathrop began developing inbred strains around 1910. Loeb and Lathrop performed experiments at her farm and the pair authored ... After her poultry business failed, she started breeding rats and mice for hobbyists and pet owners. She also raised ferrets, ... Abbie E. C. Lathrop (1868 - 1918) was a rodent fancier who bred fancy mice and inbred strains for animal models, particularly ... his own DBA strain was probably derived from her partially inbred silver fawn mice. Karin Knorr Cetina wrote in 2009 that at ...
King participated in breeding the Wistar rat, a strain of genetically homogeneous albino rats for use in biological and medical ... Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey (1 September 2007). "Inbreeding, eugenics, and Helen Dean King (1869-1955)". Journal of the History of ... Clause, Bonnie Tocher (Summer 1993). "The Wistar Rat as a Right Choice: Establishing Mammalian Standards and the Ideal of a ... Clause, B. T. (February 1998). "The Wistar Institute Archives: Rats (Not Mice) and History". Mendel Newsletter (7): 2-7. PMID ...
He is also involved in the research related to the 1st inbred rat model of obesity and aging, also known as WNIN/Ob obese rats ... Working with a special strain of mice, he set out to identify the hormone that normal animals use to control their appetite - a ... a novel rat model of premature aging". Neuroscience. 269: 256-64. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.03.040. PMID 24709042. S2CID ... "Obese Locus in WNIN/Obese Rat Maps on Chromosome 5 Upstream of Leptin Receptor". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): 10. Bibcode:2013PLoSO... ...
4. Strains Made from Multiple Inbred Strains. 4.1 Recombinant Inbred Strains. 4.2 Collaborative Cross Strains. 4.3 Mixed Inbred ... 4.3 Mixed Inbred Strains. Incipient inbred stocks or inbred strains that are derived from up to three parental strains (one of ... 1.2 Rats. 2. Laboratory codes. 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 Indication ... 5.2 Congenic Strains. 5.3 Chromosome Substitution or Consomic Strains. 5.3.1 Consomic Strains 5.4 Segregating Inbred Strains. ...
Rats, Inbred BN · Rats, Inbred Strains Vitamin A Rats of two strains (BN/BiRij and WAG/Rij) were fed the ethanol-containing ... rat strain · Aging · Animal · Biometry · Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation · Male · Muscles · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains ... Rat · Animal · Hemangiosarcoma · Liver Neoplasms · Male · Microscopy, Electron · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains · Sarcoma, ... X ray · Animal · Cell Survival · Comparative Study · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains · Rhabdomyosarcoma · Sarcoma, Experimental · ...
... background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a ... The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively ... and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain ... resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a ...
Gene polymorphisms, Inbred rat strains, Liver transplantation, TNF-α Persistent URL, hdl. ... Although, the inbred rat strains differed significantly in mean levels of maximum TNF-α production (P = 0.001), no associations ... In conclusion, our results indicate that differential in vitro TNF-α responses among inbred rat strains are not associated with ... No association between tumor necrosis factor-α production and gene polymorphisms among inbred rat strains. Publication. ...
Transcriptome Profiling in Rat Inbred Strains and Experimental Cross Reveals Discrepant Genetic Architecture of Genome-Wide ... Transcriptome Profiling in Rat Inbred Strains and Experimental Cross Reveals Discrepant Genetic Architecture of Genome-Wide ... Transcriptome Profiling in Rat Inbred Strains and Experimental Cross Reveals Discrepant Genetic Architecture of Genome-Wide ... Transcriptome Profiling in Rat Inbred Strains and Experimental Cross Reveals Discrepant Genetic Architecture of Genome-Wide ...
Two inbred rat strains have been selected: the BN/hsdCpb which is characterised by a relatively low fertility and the GK/mol, a ... The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains ... The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains. Speech ... In addition, a macroscopical pathological evaluation of all rats at autopsy will be performed, after the reproductional phase ...
Effects of acromelic acid A on the binding of [3H]-kainic acid and [3H]-AMPA to rat brain synaptic plasma membranes.. ... The striatum and the globus pallidus send convergent synaptic inputs onto single cells in the entopeduncular nucleus of the rat ... Convergence of synaptic inputs from the striatum and the globus pallidus onto identified nigrocollicular cells in the rat: a ... The anterograde and retrograde transport of neurobiotin in the central nervous system of the rat: comparison with biocytin.. ...
Neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata receive a dense GABA-containing input from the globus pallidus in the rat.. ... Colocalization of glycine-like and GABA-like immunoreactivities in Golgi cell terminals in the rat cerebellum: a postembedding ... Simultaneous recording of local electrical activity, partial oxygen tension and temperature in the rat hippocampus with a ... Cholinergic synaptic input to different parts of spiny striatonigral neurons in the rat.. ...
Effect of a thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor on the dyslipoproteinemia of an inbred rat strain with spontaneous age-related ... Effect of a thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor on the dyslipoproteinemia of an inbred rat strain with spontaneous age-related ... reduced the progression of glomerular lesions and proteinuria in MNS rats, an inbred strain which develops an age-related ... in T-MNS-rats. A significant increase of apo A-I/apo E ratio was found in C-MNS rats from 28 (2.28+/-0.36) to 48 weeks of age ( ...
Inbred Strains of Rats: OXYS. OXYS Inbr.F>75. Colour: Albino. Genet. c. Origin: Developed in 1972 at the Institute of Cytology ... INBRED STRAINS OF RATS. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Inherited enhancement of hydroxyl radical generation and lipid peroxidation in the S strain rats results in DNA rearrangments, ... since this S symbol has previously been used to designate the Dahl Salt Sensitive strain the symbol assigned to the strain is ...
An insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain. WNIN/GR-Ob - An insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred ... Obese rats of the designated WNIN/GR-Ob strain showed obesity with IGT, as adjudged by physical, physiological and biochemical ... WNIN/GR-Ob is a mutant obese rat strain with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) developed at the National Institute of Nutrition ... Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptakes by diaphragm were significantly decreased in obese rats as compared with lean rats ...
Rats * Rats, Inbred Strains * Structure-Activity Relationship * Urea / blood Substances * Antineoplastic Agents ...
No histopathological (rat-125 mW cm-2 for 28 days) or hematological (monkey-25 mW cm-2 for 24 days) changes could be attributed ... continuous-wave radiation have been studied in the rat and monkey. ... Rats, Inbred Strains * Thyroid Function Tests * Thyroid Gland / radiation effects Substances * Electrolytes ... Effects of high-frequency (28 MHz) continuous-wave radiation have been studied in the rat and monkey. No histopathological (rat ...
Main article: Biobreeding rat. Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that ... Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory. *Rat Model Summary database, Knock Out Rat Consortium (archived copy ... Brattleboro rat[edit]. Main article: Brattleboro rat. The Brattleboro rat is a strain that was developed by Henry Schroeder and ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ...
The inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), when compared with each other, display high and ... Two inbred rat strains contrasting for anxiety-related behaviors show similar levels of defensive responses to cat odor. ... Ramos A, Berton O, Mormede P, Chaouloff F: A multiple-test study of anxiety-related behaviors in six inbred rat strains. Behav ... The objective of the present study was thus to compare the LEW (Lewis) and SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) inbred rat ...
These studies have used the GK rat (7), the OLETF rat (7), the NSY mouse (8), the NZO mouse (9), the TSOD mouse (10), the KK-Ay ... Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are derived by inbreeding different sets of F2 progeny from a cross between two inbred strains ... Festing MF: Origins and characteristics of inbred strains of mice. In Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Belknap JK: Effect of within-strain sample size on QTL detection and mapping using recombinant inbred mouse strains. Behav ...
... is among the most versatile inbred mouse strains and the preferred genetic background for several applications. ... Mice and rats can lose weight in transit. Orders for specific weight spans will be assessed a nominal fee. More detail on ... Popular strain for syngeneic tumor experiments; with a suite of related strains on the same background for mechanistic studies ... Strain Profile: Acy1f, Aladb, Car2a, Cas1g, Cd5b, Cd72b, Cd8ab, Cd8b1b, Ce2a, Es1a, Es3a, Esda, Ggc1b, Gpi1b, Gus-sb, H6pd1b, ...
Studies with Hxb/Bxh Recombinant Inbred Rat Strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jul; 38(7):2148-57. doi: 10.1111/acer.12471. ... Studies with Hxb/Bxh Recombinant Inbred Rat Strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jul; 38(7):2148-57. doi: 10.1111/acer.12471. ... Standard models of drug testing have routinely used only one strain of mouse or rat, but this approach does not take into ... They have used a wide selection of inbred mouse strains, and more recently the Collaborative Cross mice, to screen for variable ...
Genetic Monitoring of Inbred Strains of Rats. New York: Gustav, Fischer Verlag. 539 pp. ... Standardized nomenclature for inbred strains of rats. Fourth listing. Transplantation 16(3):221-245. ... Rules for the nomenclature of inbred strains. Pp.368-372 in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, M. C. Green. ... inbred rats (Festing and Staats 1973; Gill 1984; NRC 1992a), inbred mice (International Committee on Standardized Genetic ...
Rats, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.400]. *Rats, Inbred F344 [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.400.200 ... Inbred F344" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred F344" was a major or minor topic of ... "Rats, Inbred F344" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Rats, Inbred F344" by people in Profiles. ...
Rats, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.400]. *Rats, Inbred LEC [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.400.275] ... Isolation of 48 genetic markers appropriate for high throughput genotyping of inbred rat strains by B1 repetitive sequence- ... Inbred LEC" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred LEC" was a major or minor topic of these ... A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an ...
The effect of halothane on mesenteric intralymphatic pressure was examined in 20 rats. Following administration of 1.5% ... Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. Time Factors. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 151-67-7/Halothane ... The effect of halothane on mesenteric intralymphatic pressure was examined in 20 rats. Following administration of 1.5% ...
... during exercise was investigated in chronically catheterized rats. Supranormal hepatic glycogen levels were obtained by a 24-h ... Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. Running*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Catecholamines; 0/Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0/Lactates ... and liver glucogen breakdown was larger in fasted-refed compared with control rats, although the stimuli for Ra were higher in ... in control compared with fasted-refed rats. Also, plasma concentrations of glucagon and both catecholamines tended to be higher ...
Parasitological survey on four barrier-sustained mouse and rat colonies. Exp Anim 28: 409-413. [ Links ]. ... Worm burdens recovered from inbred mice strains, namely C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10, CBA, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He, conventionally ... Helminth Parasites of Conventionally Maintained Laboratory Mice - II- Inbred Strains with an Adaptation of the Anal Swab ... Based on our results, we can conclude that among the studied inbred strains, the CBA was that in which the mice were negative ...
Autoimmune nephritis triggered by metallic ions was assessed in a Long-Evans rat model. The parameters evaluated included ... We used inbred Long-Evans strains to maintain homozygosis; therefore, we observed in this particular strain high sensitivity to ... In the present study, we induced autoimmune nephritis in inbred Long-Evans rats by intoxication with heavy metals; this model ... Male Long-Evans rats that were 8 weeks of age with an average weight between 198 and 258 g were used for the present ...
Erythrocyte B1 Antigen in Inbred Rat Strains B. Frenzl, R. Brdička, V. Křen, O. Štark ... Blood Groups in Chickens, Ducks, Rabbits, Rats and Mink. * Front Matter Pages 171-171 ... Red Cell Antigenic Polymorphism in a Strain of the Wyandotte Hen (M 11) ...
Inbred BALB C, Rats, Rats; Inbred Strains, Species Specificity, Toxicity Tests/methods National Category Medical and Health ... In paper III the use of peripheral blood lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse to detect species differences in cellular ... The effect of 17 different cytotoxic drugs on lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse was evaluated. A higher sensitivity of ...
Heart size in inbred strains of rats. Part 1. Genetic determination of the development of cardiovascular enlargement in rats ... The hypertrophic heart rat : a new normotensive model of genetic cardiac and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy HARRAP SB ... Assessment of Rat-Mouse Sequence Homology in the NIA 15K Clone Library : Implications for Gene Expression Studies in Species ... Activation of NF-kappa B is required for hypertrophic growth of primary rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes PURCELL NH. ...
Strong genetic influences on measures of behavioral-regulation among inbred rat strains. Genes, Brain and Behavior. Volume 12, ... Mediation of oxidative stress in hypothalamic ghrelin-associated appetite control in rats treated with phenylpropanolamine. ...
1985) Alcohol preference and brain monoamines in five inbred strains. IRCS Med Sci 13:1192-1193. ... Male Wistar rats (Charles River) weighing between 400-600 gm at the time of testing were used. The rats were housed in groups ... 1987) Re-examination of the relationship between alcohol preference and brain monoamines in inbred strains of mice including ... To keep caloric intake and body weights in rats maintained on control diet equal to that of ethanol-exposed rats, a pair- ...
  • It should be borne in mind that genetic drift means that there may still be unknown genetic differences between individuals within strains. (
  • Figure S3 - Correlation analysis of the effects of GK alleles on the genetic control of gene expression in F2 hybrids and congenic strains. (
  • Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are a powerful tool for analyzing not only single genetic traits but also multifactorial genetic traits. (
  • For minimizing the variation of glucose tolerance in each strain, all mice were fed the high-carbohydrate diet and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. (
  • Inbred strains are genetically homogeneous, and the genetic and environmental components can be strictly controlled in the experimental setting. (
  • The genetic analysis of a multifactorial disease in experimental animals such as mice and rats is much more revealing than that of a similar disease in human subjects. (
  • One of the most used inbred mouse models, the C57BL/6 is used in nearly every research application, and it's commonly used as the genetic background for transgenic mouse models. (
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (
  • The objective of the present study was thus to compare the LEW (Lewis) and SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) inbred rat strains, which display genetic differences in other classical models of anxiety, in the cat odor test. (
  • Therefore, this pair of rat strains provides a useful genetic model for the experimental study of anxiety. (
  • Isolation of 48 genetic markers appropriate for high throughput genotyping of inbred rat strains by B1 repetitive sequence-representational difference analysis. (
  • Of all of these models, rats and mice are the most commonly used because they have reasonable lifespans (two to four years), they are mammals and therefore share a great many genes with humans, and because a very great deal is known about their physiology, behavior, and genetic makeup. (
  • In research programs throughout the twentieth century, rats have been most used for physiological research because of their large size, and mice in genetic research because of their small size. (
  • Use of mice and rats continues to follow this general pattern although micro-methods have made mice more available for physiological research and the collection of more genetic information about rats has made them more available to geneticists. (
  • so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. (
  • We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly "outbred" colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. (
  • so inbred models with no genetic variation may preclude a complete understanding of the underlying genetic architecture. (
  • Genetic crosses involving multiple inbred lines are hugely powerful for genetic experiments, but true inbred strains of mammals are rare outside of "model" rodents such as mice and rats. (
  • Cohen, H. , Geva, A.B. , Matar, M.A. , Zohar, J. & Kaplan, Z. ( 2008 ) Post-traumatic stress behavioural responses in inbred mouse strains: can genetic predisposition explain phenotypic vulnerability? (
  • Genetic manipulations in the rat: progress and prospects. (
  • Other studies are designed to determine the genetic and physiological basis of protection from salt-induced hypertension resulting from the introgression of chromosome 13 from a normal Brown Norway rat into a Dahl salt-sensitive rat. (
  • In biology, a strain is a genetic variant, a subtype or a culture within a biological species. (
  • Strains are often seen as inherently artificial concepts, characterized by a specific intent for genetic isolation. (
  • A strain is a genetic variant or subtype of a microorganism (e.g., a virus, bacterium or fungus). (
  • New viral strains can be created due to mutation or swapping of genetic components when two or more viruses infect the same cell in nature. (
  • Microbial strains can also be differentiated by their genetic makeup using metagenomic methods to maximize resolution within species. (
  • Strains of yeasts are the most common subjects of eukaryotic genetic modification, especially with respect to industrial fermentation. (
  • A strain is a designated group of offspring that are either descended from a modified plant (produced by conventional breeding or by biotechnological means), or which result from genetic mutation. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of congenital hydronephrosis (HN), a poorly defined pathological entity, with a rat model. (
  • This is the first study in rats to identify genetic loci for HN. (
  • Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for. (
  • To characterize the genetic architecture of this new set of RI strains, we genotyped 330 MIT microsatellite markers distributed on all autosomes and the X Chromosome and assembled error-checked meiotic recombination maps that have an average F2-adjusted marker spacing of ∼4 cM. (
  • The LXS panel has a genetic structure consistent with random segregation and subsequent fixation of alleles, the expected 3-4 × map expansion, a low level of nonsyntenic association among loci, and complete independence among all 77 strains. (
  • Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities, and antiabsence drugs. (
  • However, these results also suggest that SWDs and associated immobility may be nonepileptic in healthy outbred rats and reflect instead voluntary rodent behavior unrelated to genetic manipulation or to brain trauma. (
  • The transient and paroxysmal appearance of SWDs with associated immobility and rhythmic facial movements has led to the belief that SWDs represent a hallmark of seizures in both inbred genetic (i.e., absence) and acquired (post-traumatic) models of epilepsy. (
  • Recently, various inbred mouse strains and genetically modified mouse lines have been examined to investigate the potential genetic basis of sensorimotor gating. (
  • Studies describing the PPI responses of various inbred strains of mice, mice with genetic mutations, and mice treated with various drugs prior to July 2001 are reviewed. (
  • In this article we characterize the incidence of URA in female and male F1, F2, and backcross (BC) progeny from reciprocal genetic crosses between the ACI strain and the unaffected Brown Norway (BN) strain. (
  • Through interval mapping analyses of 353 phenotypically defined female F2 progeny, we mapped to rat Chromosome 14 (RNO14) a genetic locus, designated Renag1 (Renal agenesis 1), that serves as the major determinant of URA in these crosses. (
  • However, renin hypersecretion may be important in the early pre-hypertensive stage of genetic hypertension in rats. (
  • With environmental factors held constant, differences between the strains are due to genetic factors, while differences within a single strain may be attributable to environmental factors. (
  • The SS-16 BN /Mcwi consomic rat was produced by the introgression of chromosome 16 from the Brown Norway (BN/NHsdMcwi) rat onto the genetic background of the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/Mcwi) rat by marker-assisted breeding. (
  • We have used a consomic rat model to study the genes regulating LVH in a controlled genetic environment ( 1 ). (
  • However, it is quite possible to weed out genetic faults in even the most inbred lines. (
  • If that animal is further inbred, it starts to lose other individual gene segments to a genetic phenomenon called "crossover. (
  • Resuming studies of wild rats would give the opportunity to not only 'refresh' genetic lines and create new highly specialized strains, but also document the many changes that have taken place in wild populations since most laboratory lines were first obtained. (
  • Publications] Nishikawa, T Nishimura, M: 'Genetic relationships of the 14 inbred strains of rats according to the composition of biochemical marker genes. (
  • Inbred rat strains can be used to study the impact of genetic factors on pain sensitivity. (
  • A better genetic characterization of inbred rat strains and a revision in nomenclature is needed to improve animal experimentation in the future. (
  • We have used ENU mutagenesis to increase genetic variation in laboratory rats and identified a recessive mutant, named tornado, showing aberrant circling behavior, hyperactivity, and stereotypic head shaking. (
  • Currently, the availability of genetic markers to scan the rat genome for linkage to traits of interest is limited. (
  • Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, [8] Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. (
  • It was also shown that Fischer 344, a less heat-tolerant strain ( 5 ), was more resistant to cold than Sprague-Dawley ( 10 ), a moderately heat-tolerant strain ( 5 ). (
  • Moreover, the thermogenic response of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to ventromedial hypothalamus stimulation was less in Sprague-Dawley rats than in Long-Evans rats ( 20 ), one of the least heat-tolerant strains ( 5 ). (
  • Survival time at 42.5°C is two times as long in FOK as in the Sprague-Dawley rat, which has one of the longest survival times among the other rat strains previously investigated ( 5 , 7 ). (
  • Methods : Adult male sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane, and were examined using a 2.0-T CSI Omega system. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we used operant conditioning in male rats to determine whether outbred strains, Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans, and/or the inbred WAG/Rij strain (a rat model of heritable human absence epilepsy) could exercise voluntary control over these epileptiform events. (
  • OIR) were compared in albino Sprague-Dawley (SD) and pigmented Long-Evans (LE) rats to verify this finding. (
  • Basal and carrageenan-induced pain behavior in Sprague-Dawley, Lewis and Fischer rats. (
  • While rats and mice are not as similar to humans as are nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimps), they have the advantages of small size and relatively easy husbandry, and they share many genes with all mammals including humans. (
  • These minimal strains provide a near guarantee that experiments on genes outside the minimal framework will not be effected by non-essential pathways. (
  • Previous studies have identified Nat1 and Nat2 genes in the rat. (
  • In this study, we identified and characterized a third rat N -acetyltransferase gene ( Nat3 ) consisting of a single open reading frame of 870 base pairs encoding a 290-amino acid protein, analogous to the previously identified human and rat N -acetyltransferase genes. (
  • A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). (
  • Origin: Developed in 1972 at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk) by Salganik and Solovyova from Wistar stock by selection for susceptibility to cataractogenic effect of galactose-rich diet and brother-sister mating of highly susceptible rats ( Solovyova et al 1975 ). (
  • WNIN/GR-Ob is a mutant obese rat strain with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) developed at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, India , from the existing 80 year old Wistar rat (WNIN) stock colony. (
  • Most are derived from the albino Wistar rat, which is still widely used. (
  • also lower doses of mercuric chloride administrated to outbreed Wistar rats resulted in renal toxicity [ 7 ]. (
  • The responses of inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats to cold were compared with those of Wistar King A/H (WKAH) and Std:Wistar (WSTR) strains. (
  • Indeed, heat-acclimated Std:Wistar (WSTR) rats have been shown to be less tolerant to cold compared with warm-acclimated ones ( 13 ). (
  • It was selected for heat tolerance from an outbred colony of several rat strains such as Wistar/MK, Jcl:Wistar, Wistar/MS, HOS:Wistar, and WSTR, and was sib-mated for over 30 generations ( 7 ). (
  • see Ref. 19 ), one of the least heat-tolerant Wistar strains ( 8 ). (
  • The most striking observation (Supplementary Table) is that Wistar rats and CD-1 mice are kept in the same housing room at Charles River GmbH (Personal communication, Charles River distributor, Scanbur employee), a particular concern to users of CD-1 mice from that supplier. (
  • The Wistar rat is an equally popular inbred strain of albino rat used in laboratory research. (
  • The Imamichi strain, obtained from a Wistar colony by selective breeding ( 39 ), presents a high incidence of severe unilateral HN, rapidly evolving toward renal damage ( 35 , 46 ). (
  • 1979) Patterns of behavioral development in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto normotensive controls. (
  • 17. Moser M-B, Moser EI, Wultz B, Sagvolden T. (1988) Component analyses differentiate between exploratory behaviour of spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats in a two- compartment free-exploration open field. (
  • It is shown here that Lewis rats (LEW/mol) are susceptible to infection with RVFV, whereas Wistar-Furth (WF/mol) rats are resistant to RVFV infection. (
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (
  • Thousands of mice and rats are specially bred each year throughout the world for biological, biomedical, and behavioral research. (
  • This essay presents some practical advice and suggestions for those who wish to use mice and rats in experiments on the biology of aging. (
  • This article is intended to convey some rules-of-thumb for investigators just starting to think about the design of experiments on aging using mice and rats. (
  • In addition the word "mice" will be used throughout to mean "mice and rats," except in those cases where mice are different from rats. (
  • This resistance was not attributable to differences in lipid composition (specifically, docosahexaenoic acid) between A. ansorgei and susceptible strains of mice and rats. (
  • The inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), when compared with each other, display high and low basal indices of anxiety-related behaviors, respectively, when tested in classical anxiety models. (
  • These rats were thought tohave been the same strain as DRY used by Dr Tanase in early breedingexperiments in relation to blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR). (
  • Increased levels of bradykinin and its metabolites in tissues ofyoung spontaneously hypertensive rats. (
  • Angiotensin peptides in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensiveDonryu rats. (
  • Converting enzyme inhibitor treatment and its withdrawal inspontaneously hypertensive rats. (
  • 1. Strains of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats were selected by repeated inbreeding. (
  • 3. Plasma renin activity was significantly higher in young spontaneously hypertensive than in normotensive rats of the same age (5-7 weeks). (
  • After the ninth week plasma renin activity decreased and, at week 45, became significantly lower in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. (
  • 4. When hypertension was established a significant inverse relationship was found between plasma renin activity and systolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive and in normotensive rats. (
  • 14. Knardahl S, Sagvolden T. (1979) Open-field behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (
  • 16. Mook DM, Jeffrey J, Neuringer A. (1993) Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) readily learn to vary but not repeat instrumental responses. (
  • 18. Myers MM, Musty RE, Hendley ED. (1982) Attenuation of hyperactivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat by amphetamine. (
  • 19. Sagvolden T, Hendley ED, Knardahl S. (1992) Behavior of hypertensive and hyperactive rat strains: Hyperactivity is not unitarily determined. (
  • 20. Sagvolden T, Metzger MA, Schi rbeck HK, Rugland AL, Spinnangr I, Sagvolden G. (1992) The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model of childhood hyperactivity (ADHD): changed reactivity to reinforcers and to psychomotor stimulants. (
  • 1993) Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a putative animal model of childhood hyperkinesis: SHR behavior compared to four other rat strains. (
  • 22. Wultz B, Sagvolden T. (1992) The hyperactive spontaneously hypertensive rat learns to sit still, but not to stop bursts of responses with short interresponse times. (
  • Differences in spontaneous allograft acceptance after liver transplantation among inbred rat strains might be explained by variation in the local production of TNF-α as a potent mediator of the inflammatory response. (
  • As such, polymorphisms in the Tnf gene may also provide a possible explanation for differences in survival of allogeneic liver grafts among inbred rat strains. (
  • In conclusion, our results indicate that differential in vitro TNF-α responses among inbred rat strains are not associated with nucleotide differences within non-coding regulatory regions of the rat TNF-α gene. (
  • In other studies, however, benzodiazepines did not change the defensive behavior of rats [ 6 , 10 ] or mice [ 1 , 10 ] exposed to cat odor. (
  • Scientists have modified strains of viruses in order to study their behavior, as in the case of the H5N1 influenza virus. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our evidence that inbred and outbred rats learn to control the duration of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) suggests a voluntary behavior with maintenance of consciousness. (
  • Alternatively, the presence and voluntary control of SWDs in healthy outbred rats could indicate that these phenomena do not always model heritable absence epilepsy or post-traumatic epilepsy in humans, and may instead reflect typical rodent behavior. (
  • A peripheral cannabinoid mechanism suppresses spinal fos protein expression and pain behavior in a rat model of inflammation. (
  • A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. (
  • Expression of G1 phase-related cell cycle molecules in naturally developing hepatocellular carcinoma of Long-Evans Cinnamon rats. (
  • Autoimmune nephritis triggered by metallic ions was assessed in a Long-Evans rat model. (
  • The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of resistance to Rift Valley fever virus governed by the dominant Mendelian gene. (
  • Pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in inbred rats. (
  • High virulence of attenuated Rift Valley fever virus strains in mice lacking a functional type I interferon system [Abstract]. (
  • Johnson, Thomas 2004-01-01 00:00:00 The set of LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains is a new and exceptionally large mapping panel that is suitable for the analysis of complex traits with comparatively high power. (
  • 5. It seems unlikely that the renin-angiotensin system plays a major role in the maintenance of the established spontaneous hypertension in this strain. (
  • Regional differences in brain norepinephrine and dopamine uptake kinetics in inbred rat strains with hypertension and/or hyperactivity. (
  • First, establishment of comprehensive and efficient high-throughput screening setups will be challenging, although the rat has already been used for decades as the primary model organism in, for example, behavioral neurobiology, hypertension, and diabetes research. (
  • Rats, Inbred F344" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Rats, Inbred F344" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred F344" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Rats, Inbred F344" by people in Profiles. (
  • Accompanying documentation attributed specific geneticbiochemical profiles of the DRY strain to these animals and differentiatedthem from the F344, BUF (Buffalo), and LEW (Lewis) strains. (
  • Recently, Dr Tanaseindicated that the animals supplied to Melbourne and Tokyo that had beenlabeled as DRY were instead likely to be F344 rats. (
  • Therefore, based on the availableevidence that the purported DRY showed only minor differences from F344 andsignificant differences from authentic DRY, we conclude that the animalsdescribed as DRY in the listedpublications 1-21 were in fact inbred F344. (
  • Infact, it is fortuitous that the control strain for crossbreeding studies ofcardiac size should transpire to be the F344, which has one of the smallesthearts among normotensiverats. (
  • For example, the inbred rat strain LEW has been shown to self-administer stimulant drugs more readily than the F344 strain. (
  • This study examined gene-by-environment interactions in susceptibility to drug use by raising LEW and F344 rats in varied environmental conditions. (
  • The enriched rats of both strains showed less amphetamine self-administration, while the isolated rats of both strains were more prone to self-administration of amphetamine, with the IC condition causing even greater self-administration in the F344 strain than the LEW strain. (
  • The SC rats differed according to genotype, with SC LEW rats taking more amphetamine than SC F344 rats. (
  • [6] The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (
  • 8. Diaz-Granados JL, Greene PL, Amsel A. (1994) Selective activity enhancement and persistence in weanling rats after hippocampal X-irradiation in infancy: possible relevance for ADHD. (
  • Inceoglu S, Siemionow M, Chick L et al (1994) The effect of combined immunosuppression with systemic low-dose cyclosporin and topical fluocinolone acetonide on the survival of rat hind-limb allografts. (
  • Two inbred rat strains have been selected: the BN/hsdCpb which is characterised by a relatively low fertility and the GK/mol, a model susceptible for the development of non-insulin dependant diabetes (diabetes type II). (
  • Such gene-by-environment interactions can be explored by studying rats that have been specifically bred to be genetically susceptible or resistant to drug use. (
  • Cross-breeding of resistant WF/mol rats with susceptible LEW/mol rats demonstrated that resistance is segregated as a single dominant gene. (
  • Interestingly, previous reports have shown that LEW rats from a different breeding stock (LEW/mai) are resistant to RVFV infections, whereas WF/mai rats are susceptible. (
  • Chronic administration of ethanol with high vitamin A supplementation in a liquid diet to rats does not cause liver fibrosis. (
  • Without an established relationship between polymorphisms and expression of the TNF-α gene, it is preliminary to address a possible association of Tnf gene polymorphisms with rat liver allograft survival. (
  • Effect of liver glycogen content on glucose production in running rats. (
  • During treadmill running for 35 min at a speed of 21 m/min, Ra and plasma glucose increased more (P less than 0.05) and liver glucogen breakdown was larger in fasted-refed compared with control rats, although the stimuli for Ra were higher in control rats, the plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose being lower (P less than 0.05) in control compared with fasted-refed rats. (
  • However, the higher exercise-induced increase in Ra, plasma glucose, and liver glycogen breakdown in fasted-refed compared with control rats indicates that metabolic feedback mechanisms are not able to accurately match Ra to the metabolic needs of working muscles. (
  • Amir, S. Brain and liver aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and voluntary ethanol consumption by rats: Relations to strain, sex and age. (
  • Sakamuri VP, Ananthathmakula P, Veettil GN, Ayyalasomayajula V (2011) Vitamin A decreases pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids in obesity-study on the effect of Vitamin A on 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. (
  • Publications] Morikawa S, Inubushi T, et al: 'Relationship between gluconeogenesis and phosphoenergeitcs in rat liver assessed by in vivo 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy' NMR in Biomed. (
  • The tissue-to-plasma partition coefficients ( K P ) of DEX and MPL were measured in liver, muscle, and lung in vivo after steady-state infusion and bolus injection in rats. (
  • Retake the center stage--new development of rat genetics. (
  • A new era in rat genetics]. (
  • Doi K (1979) Homotransplantation of limbs in rats. (
  • In this study, we hypothesize that nucleotide differences in the rat Tnf gene influence TNF-α protein expression. (
  • Among the six strains (AUG, BN, DA, LEW, PVG and WF), 44 nucleotide differences including 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), five simple sequence length polymorphisms, two deletions and one insertion, were found in the Tnf gene. (
  • Although, the inbred rat strains differed significantly in mean levels of maximum TNF-α production (P = 0.001), no associations were found with nucleotide differences within the Tnf gene. (
  • This study hopes to provide answers to this, by showing if different ways of growing plants will result in differences in selected aspects of rat health. (
  • The parental strains, SM/J and A/J, were nondiabetic, and the differences of the mean values of diabetes-related traits were small. (
  • In contrast, an impaired glucose tolerance was observed in (SM × A)F1 mice, and marked differences in diabetes-related traits were observed in 19 SMXA RI strains. (
  • However, no clear differences were found between the two strains tested. (
  • In paper III the use of peripheral blood lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse to detect species differences in cellular drug sensitivity was described. (
  • The biological significance, the origin and the genetical causation of differences in behaviour between inbred strains of mice have been studied. (
  • A comparison of the behaviour of these strains showed the presence of differences in all aspects of the behaviour studied. (
  • Despite the striking phenotypic differences between the SS-16 BN /Mcwi and their parental strains, the results of our previous study were not able to determine if BN/NHsdMcwi chromosome 16 substitution in the SS/Mcwi genome provided cardioprotection directly through altered gene-gene interaction or was secondary due to the lower blood pressure in the SS-16 BN /Mcwi. (
  • Differences between wild Norway rats and their laboratory counterparts were first noted in the early 20th century and led some researchers to later question its value as a model organism. (
  • [4] The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum , [5] and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition . (
  • This is most easily observed in microbiology where strains are derived from a single cell colony and are typically quarantined by the physical constraints of a Petri dish. (
  • Hematuria also occurs in the BN colony used here, where it is due to papilloma-like lesions involving pelvic epithelial proliferation, but not in the LOU rat. (
  • DRH strain rats were established by inbreeding a closed colony of Donryu rats continuously fed the chemical hepatocarcinogen 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene for over 10 years. (
  • This colony is the result of the strain specific brother-sister mating of 13 SHRSP (6 males and 7 females of each) that were obtained from Dr D.F. Bohr (Department of Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) where they had been maintained as inbred colonies for more than 15 years. (
  • Laboratory rat strains derive from the Rattus norvegicus species. (
  • Another species, Rattus rattus , also is used as an experimental model, but has not contributed to the common laboratory rat strains. (
  • A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus domestica which is bred and kept for scientific research. (
  • It is descended from wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus , which despite their name likely originated in Asia. (
  • Publications] Nishikawa,T.: 'A Rapid and Easy Electrophoretic Method for Detecting Biochemical loci of Rat(Rattus norvegicus)' Exp. (
  • In the early part of the twentieth century biologists began to breed mice, and to a lesser extent rats, for susceptibility to diseases, especially cancer. (
  • Strain susceptibility and resistance to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced enteric tumors in germfree rats (40146). (
  • The findings suggest an increased susceptibility of newborn LE rats to postnatal hyperoxia in comparison with SD rats. (
  • Thus, inbred rat strains seem to differ in virus susceptibility depending on their breeding histories. (
  • Zangrossi and File [ 11 ] reported that chlordiazepoxide reduced anxiety evaluated in the social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests after exposure to cat odor, but it had only a limited effect on the direct responses of rats exposed to cat odor. (
  • The continuous nature of the distribution of PPI responses among inbred strains of mice indicates that PPI is a polygenic trait. (
  • Table S3 - Oligonucleotides used for eQTL validation by quantitative RT PCR in congenic strains and GK and BN parental strains. (
  • Madhira SL, NappanVeettil G, Kodavalla V, Venkatesan V (2011) Comparison of adipocyte-specific gene expression from WNIN/Ob mutant obese rats, lean control and parental control. (
  • In a standard F2 intercross between two inbred parental lines there are two alleles at every polymorphic locus that are often referred to as the little "a" allele and big "A" allele. (
  • Although the parental inbred strains-Inbred Long-Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS)-were derived originally by selection from an 8-way heterogeneous stock selected for differential sensitivity to sedative effects of ethanol, the LXS panel is also segregating for many other traits. (
  • We tested the physiological relevance of these pathways by experimentally determining the responsiveness of neonatal cardiomyocytes to factors from identified pathways and found that cells isolated from SS-16 BN /Mcwi rats had a greater growth response to epidermal growth factor and endothelin-1 than those from parental SS/Mcwi. (
  • When combined with our previous findings, these data suggest that that SS-16 BN /Mcwi may have an increased angiogenic potential and better protection from oxidative stress than the parental SS/Mcwi strain. (
  • Our previous characterization of this model indicated that despite early transient idiopathic LVH, aging SS-16 BN /Mcwi rats did not experience the impaired left ventricle function or pathological tissue remodeling characteristic of the SS/Mcwi parental strain. (
  • Between 1992 and 2000, 21papers 1-21 were published that used rats from inbred colonies in Melbourne and Tokyo thatwere believed to be of the Donryu (DRY) strain. (
  • Amit, Z., Brown, Z.W., Levitan, D.E., and Ogren, S.O. Noradrenergic mediation of the positive reinforcing properties of ethanol: I. Suppression of ethanol consumption in laboratory rats following dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. (
  • 1976) Selective brain dopamine depletion in developing rats: an experimental model of minimal brain dysfunction. (
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at . (
  • Rat strain names should be registered through the Rat Genome Database (RGD) at . (
  • Rat Genome Sequencing and Mapping Consortium, Flint J. Genomes and Phenomes of a Population of Outbred Rats and Its Progenitors. (
  • Beyond knockout rats: new insights into finer genome manipulation in rats. (
  • Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome. (
  • Generation of site-specific mutations in the rat genome via CRISPR/Cas9. (
  • Each SV40 strain was derived from an independent isolate of the virus, and DNA sequence polymorphisms in genetically stable regions of the viral genome outside of the viral regulatory region were used to distinguish strains (7,8). (
  • These strains, such as BL21, are genetically modified to minimize protease activity, hence enabling potential for high efficiency industrial scale protein production. (
  • Mouse strains can be inbred, mutated, or genetically modified, while rat strains are usually inbred. (
  • [2] Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (
  • Blood-brain barrier disruption and delivery of irinotecan in a rat model using a clinical transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound system. (
  • Bonnycastle, D.D., Bonnycastle, M.D., and Anderson, E.G. The effect of a number of central depressant drugs upon brain 5-hydroxytrypamine levels in the rat. (
  • 2019. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived striatal interneurons: differentiation and maturation in vitro and in the rat brain . (
  • Purpose : To observe metabolic maps of lactate and NAA by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in vivo in the rat brain during the acute stage of hemispheric seizures. (
  • SVD rats had a mutation in an ATPase, which was also found in SVD human brain tissue. (
  • Substrains should be identified by Laboratory codes, as should congenic and other strains where several different forms exist that are not otherwise distinguishable. (
  • The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. (
  • Table S1 - Genomic details of the BN.GK and GK.BN congenic strains. (
  • Figure S2 - Effects of introgressed haplotypes in congenic strains on trans-regulated fat gene transcription. (
  • Figure S4 - Phenotype analyses in BN.GK congenic strains. (
  • 0.05) in adipose tissue between GK and BN strains and between BN.GK and GK.BN congenic strains and relevant BN or GK controls, respectively, and eQTL data in the GKxBN F2 cross. (
  • Table S10 - Details of the adipose tissue eQTL hotspot detected on chromosome 1 (49.4-59.4cM) in the GKxBN F2 cross and expression pattern of the linked gene in the congenic strain BN.GK1p. (
  • This guideline is reviewed annually by the international nomenclature committees for mouse and rat and updated as required. (
  • Reference to former rules for rat strain nomenclature can be found in Committee on Rat Nomenclature (1992). (
  • Production of inbred strains means that these backgrounds can be defined and thus require nomenclature conventions. (
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (
  • Table S2 - Identification and chromosomal location of Illumina oligonucleotides carrying polymorphisms between the GK strain and the BN reference sequence. (
  • It should be emphasized that strain designations based on DNA polymorphisms do not necessarily suggest serological variations. (
  • Studies utilize in vitro measurements of mRNA, protein, enzymatic activity, enzyme kinetics, and cell signaling as well as in vivo measurements of hormone levels, blood flow, blood pressure, and other indices of renal/cardiovascular function in anesthetized and conscious rats and mice. (
  • A backcross was established between these two strains [BN × (BN × LOU)] and a genomewide scan was performed with 193 microsatellite markers on 121 males and 118 females of this population, which had been phenotyped and scored for HN severity (defined as degree of renal pelvic dilation), followed by linkage analysis with Mapmaker/QTL software. (
  • We investigated whether erythropoietin (Ep) can be extracted from renal glomeruli of hypoxic rats. (
  • Inbreeding can significantly influence gene expression which can prevent inbreeding depression. (
  • Moreover, when cultured hepatocytes were stimulated with interferon (IFN) type I there was no indication of a regulatory role of IFN in the RVFV-resistance gene expression in WF/mol rats. (
  • While less commonly used for research than mice , rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science . (
  • Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but also by selling them for food, or more commonly, for rat-baiting . (
  • Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. (
  • Thus, the present findings ratify those reported for these strains, as well as complement the evaluation of worm burden in the other commonly referred inbred mice. (
  • Two of these species, rats and mice, are the most commonly used animal models for aging research. (
  • Strains are also commonly referred to within virology, botany, and with rodents used in experimental studies. (
  • an inbred strain of albino rat commonly used in laboratory research. (
  • Synchronous 7-12 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs) are commonly detected in electrocortical recordings of rats during awake immobility. (
  • Over the next 30 years rats were used for several more experiments and eventually the laboratory rat became the first animal domesticated for purely scientific reasons. (
  • Strains are used in laboratory experiments. (
  • Their equal occurrence in outbred rats also implies a major potential confound for behavioral neuroscience experiments, at least in adult rats where SWDs are prevalent. (
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (
  • In addition, some recently developed laboratory mouse strains are derived wholly from other Mus species or other subspecies, such as M. spretus ). (
  • In the study regarding the prevalence of species, the strains C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10 and C3H/He showed high percentages (88-96%) for A. tetraptera , whereas BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He presented higher prevalence (80-100%) for S . obvelata , while the prevalence of V. nana was higher (92%) in the C3H/He strain. (
  • Escherichia coli is most common species for prokaryotic strain engineering. (
  • WNINGR-Ob mutants had high growth , hyperphagia , polydipsia , polyurea, glycosuria , and significantly lower lean body mass, higher fat mass as compared with carrier and lean rats . (
  • Basal and insulin -stimulated glucose uptakes by diaphragm were significantly decreased in obese rats as compared with lean rats . (
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains , livers , kidneys , adrenal glands , and hearts are smaller. (
  • Bilateral HN score was significantly linked to a locus on chromosome 6 ( Z scores 4.4 and 4.8 for all rats and for females, respectively). (
  • Irrespective of the parameter considered, structural and functional deficits resulting from postnatal hyperoxia were significantly more pronounced in LE rats. (
  • Thirty animals (15 males and 15 females ) from each phenotype (+/+, +/-, -/-) and 24 lean and obese (6 males and 6 females ) rats were taken for growth and food intake studies respectively. (
  • 12 rats of both genders from each phenotype at different ages were taken for clinical chemistry parameters . (
  • Primary hepatocytes but not glial cells from WF/mol rats showed the resistant phenotype in cell culture, indicating that resistance was cell type-specific. (
  • Previously, besides the considered Swiss Webster mice, only two inbred strains (C57Bl/6, DBA/2) were investigated for the presence of helminths in Brazil (Pinto et al. (
  • The group B was represented by the strains C57Bl/6, CBA, BALB/c and C3H/He, with 25 mice each. (
  • Neonatal rats, C57BL/6J, C3HeB/FeJ (TLR4 wild type), and C3H/HeJ (TLR4 mutant) mice were delivered by Cesarean section and were subjected to formula feeding and cold asphyxia stress or were delivered naturally and were mother-fed. (
  • In addition, we demonstrate proof of principle for the generation and cloning of human disease models in rat using ENU mutagenesis, providing good perspectives for systematic phenotypic screens in the rat. (
  • The purported DRY were never intended torepresent genetically appropriate controls for any strain, in particular SHR.Instead, they were intended simply as inbred normotensive controls, unrelatedto SHR and used to maximize the informativeness of the linkage analyses. (
  • However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. (
  • However, islets isolated from WNIN adult (≥12 months) control rats gave a good islet recovery, under standard isolation procedures using collagenase digestion. (
  • Furthermore, i.v. platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes severe bowel injury in a well-established acute model of NEC in adult rats, but PAF failed to elicit injury in the same model in germfree rats ( 8 ) and NEC does not occur in a sterile environment in utero. (
  • 1976) Paradoxical response to amphetamine in developing rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine. (
  • [3] As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (
  • The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by Herbert McLean Evans and Joseph A. Long. (
  • making experimental design and the choice of inbred strain paramount ( Little and Colegrave 2016 ). (
  • Experimental models include various strains of inbred and genetically manipulated rats and mice. (
  • 2017. Systematic and detailed analysis of behavioural tests in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke: tests for long-term assessment . (
  • 5. Holene E, Nafstad I, Skaare JU, Sagvolden T. (1998) Behavioural hyperactivity in rats following postnatal exposure to sub-toxic doses of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners 153 and 126. (
  • The Brown Norway (BN) strain spontaneously presents a high incidence of apparently asymptomatic HN, whereas the LOU strain does not. (
  • Based on that, a behavioral test in which rats are exposed to cat odor has been developed and proposed to model some forms of anxiety. (
  • These results indicate that SWD and associated immobility in rats may not reflect the obvious cognitive/behavioral interruption classically associated with absence seizures or CPSs in humans. (
  • 6. Holene E, Nafstad I, Skaare JU, Bernhoft A, Engen P, Sagvolden T. (1995) Behavioral effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in rats. (
  • Exposure of male rats to the SSRI citalopram at the later end of this critical window (P8-P21) decreases dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) immunoreactivity and elicits behavioral changes consistent with depression [ 15 ]. (
  • The laboratory rat thrives in captivity, and its domestication has produced many inbred and outbred lines that are used for different purposes, including medical trials and behavioral studies. (
  • e.g. , mouse strain 129P1/J). (
  • Care should be taken that mouse and rat strains do not overlap in strain designations. (
  • Note: a few historical examples exist of similar mouse and rat strain designations and these are allowed to stand, with their substrain designations identifying them as unique). (
  • These studies have used the GK rat ( 7 ), the OLETF rat ( 7 ), the NSY mouse ( 8 ), the NZO mouse ( 9 ), the TSOD mouse ( 10 ), the KK-A y mouse ( 11 , 12 ), and the TH mouse ( 13 ). (
  • Many of the mouse strains currently used for research are descendants of mice bred by European zoologists in the nineteenth century. (
  • Treatment with captopril (100 mg/kg of feed) or the AT 1 -antagonist Bay 10-6734 (100 mg/kg of feed) was performed in transgenic rats harboring the mouse renin 2 d gene [TG(m REN 2)27]. (
  • In the present study, transgenic rats [TG(m REN 2)27] harboring the mouse ren 2 d gene of renin were used. (
  • A laboratory mouse or rat strain is a group of animals that is genetically uniform. (
  • Our aim is to identify pathways associated with NIHL using specific inbred strains of the laboratory mouse. (
  • The following results were obtained, The mouse Chr.13 is comparable to the rat Chr.17 so, we collected 8 of microsatellite marker (MSM). (
  • Voznesenskaya, A. (2014) Macronutrient selection by seven inbred mouse strains and three taste-related knockout strains. (
  • However, the vast majority of studies have been conducted in nocturnal, albino rod-dominant rat and mouse strains, and the pertinence of such findings to human pathology and cone loss is debatable. (
  • The effects of lowering plasma fibrinogen levels by Arvin injections have been investigated in a rat model of arteriosclerosis. (
  • An insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain. (
  • WNIN/GR-Ob - An insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain. (
  • This mutant obese rat model is easy to propagate, and can easily be transformed to frank diabetes model by dietary manipulation and thus can be used for screening anti-diabetic drugs . (
  • The albino laboratory rat with its red eyes and white fur is an iconic model organism for scientific research in a variety of fields. (
  • This strain is a model for Wilson's Disease (see HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION). (
  • Lymphopenia in the BB rat model of type 1 diabetes is due to a mutation in a novel immune-associated nucleotide (Ian)-related gene. (
  • 14 15 16 Although TG(m REN 2)27 rats are not in heart failure and might not represent all pathobiochemical alterations observed in this condition, it can be taken as valuable model to study drug effects on β-adrenergic signal transduction. (
  • We have a special interest in the cold tolerance of FOK, a model animal of genotypic heat adaptation, and have used this strain to gather evidence for a further understanding of the thermal regulatory mechanisms of animals. (
  • WNIN/Ob, a mutant rat strain, developed at the National Center for Laboratory Animal Sciences (NCLAS) facility of National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), is a new animal model to study the metabolic syndrome. (
  • Giridharan NV, Harishankar N, Satyavani M (1996) A new rat model for the study of obesity. (
  • Our aims were to determine whether bacteria and intestinal epithelial TLR4 play roles in a well-established neonatal rat model and a novel neonatal murine model of NEC. (
  • Shapiro RI, Cerra FB (1978) A model for reimplantation and transplantation of a complex organ: the rat hind limb. (
  • Benhaim P, Anthony JP, Ferreira L et al (1996) Use of combination of low-dose cyclosporine and RS-61443 in a rat hindlimb model of composite tissue allotransplantation. (
  • In spite of their bad reputation in the wild, the laboratory rat is perhaps the archetypal model organism. (
  • First domesticated from wild Norway rats over 170 years ago ( Richter, 1959 ), today laboratory rats owe their popularity as a model organism largely due to their widespread availability, low breeding costs, short reproductive cycle and ability to thrive in captive environments. (
  • Laboratory rats differ from Norway rats in the wild, just like many other model organisms ( Alfred and Baldwin, 2015 ). (
  • To understand the link between vascular changes and white matter pathology, Rajani and colleagues studied a rat model of SVD. (
  • Drugs that stabilized endothelial cells could reverse the white matter abnormalities in early-stage SVD in the rat model, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach. (
  • Laboratory rats have frequently been used as an animal model for studying the pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever. (
  • Viral and host determinants of resistance to Rift Valley fever in a rat model. (
  • The rat is the most extensively studied model organism and is broadly used in biomedical research. (
  • Here, we present the first characterized rat model for this disease. (
  • We have previously shown that the administration of a thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthase inhibitor (FCE 22178) reduced the progression of glomerular lesions and proteinuria in MNS rats, an inbred strain which develops an age-related nephrotic syndrome. (
  • The diets have been supplemented with minerals and vitamins according to the recommendations of the National Research Council for rats (1995), in order to avoid deficiencies. (
  • Some were housed in the standard, social condition (SC) of multiple rats in one cage, others were housed in enriched conditions (EC), which involved group housing and exposure to novel objects, and others were housed in isolated conditions (IC), which removed all social and object stimuli. (
  • The rats developed tonic-clonic seizures with the transient opening of the BBB following an injection of bicuculline methiodide. (
  • Many rodent strains have been developed for a variety of disease models, and they are also often used to test drug toxicity. (
  • Two hundred and fifty Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) inbred mice from two animal houses in the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, were divided in two groups (A, B) according to their source. (
  • In the rat (220 mW cm-2 for 13 days) there was reduced uptake of iodine by the thyroid, lower levels of plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone, and reduced ratio of protein bound to nonprotein bound iodine. (
  • Previous studies in cultured rat hepatocytes revealed that initial uptake of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) was markedly reduced upon removal of Cl- from the medium. (
  • In the present study, unidirectional Cl- gradients were established in short-term cultured rat hepatocytes and their effect on BSP uptake was determined. (