Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
Color of hair or fur.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The selection of one food over another.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.

PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (1/25382)

A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration.  (+info)

Leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor cause dendritic retraction in cultured rat sympathetic neurons. (2/25382)

Dendritic retraction occurs in many regions of the developing brain and also after neural injury. However, the molecules that regulate this important regressive process remain largely unknown. Our data indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) cause sympathetic neurons to retract their dendrites in vitro, ultimately leading to an approximately 80% reduction in the size of the arbor. The dendritic retraction induced by LIF exhibited substantial specificity because it was not accompanied by changes in cell number, in the rate of axonal growth, or in the expression of axonal cytoskeletal elements. An antibody to gp130 blocked the effects of LIF and CNTF, and both cytokines induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat3. Moreover, addition of soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor to the medium endowed IL-6 with the ability to cause dendritic regression. These data indicate that ligands activating the gp130 pathway have the ability to profoundly alter neuronal cell shape and polarity by selectively causing the retraction of dendrites.  (+info)

Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine. (3/25382)

Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations.  (+info)

The physiological strain index applied to heat-stressed rats. (4/25382)

A physiological strain index (PSI) based on heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Tre) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress in humans. The purpose of this study was to adjust PSI for rats and to evaluate this index at different levels of heat acclimation and training. The corrections of HR and Tre to modify the index for rats are as follows: PSI = 5 (Tre t - Tre 0). (41.5 - Tre 0)-1 + 5 (HRt - HR0). (550 - HR0)-1, where HRt and Tre t are simultaneous measurements taken at any time during the exposure and HR0 and Tre 0 are the initial measurements. The adjusted PSI was applied to five groups (n = 11-14 per group) of acclimated rats (control and 2, 5, 10, and 30 days) exposed for 70 min to a hot climate [40 degrees C, 20% relative humidity (RH)]. A separate database representing two groups of acclimated or trained rats was also used and involved 20 min of low-intensity exercise (O2 consumption approximately 50 ml. min-1. kg-1) at three different climates: normothermic (24 degrees C, 40% RH), hot-wet (35 degrees C, 70% RH), and hot-dry (40 degrees C, 20% RH). In normothermia, rats also performed moderate exercise (O2 consumption approximately 60 ml. min-1. kg-1). The adjusted PSI differentiated among acclimation levels and significantly discriminated among all exposures during low-intensity exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this index was able to assess the individual roles played by heat acclimation and exercise training.  (+info)

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 with a new locus for variant activity of liver aldehyde oxidase. (5/25382)

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 consisting of five loci including a new biochemical marker representing a genetic variation of the activity of the liver aldehyde oxidase, (Aox) was constructed. Linkage analysis of the five loci among 92 backcross progeny of (WKS/Iar x IS/Iar)F1 x WKS/Iar revealed significant linkages between these loci. Minimizing crossover frequency resulted in the best gene order: Aox-D9Mit4-Gls-Cryg-Tp53l1. The homologues of the Cryg, Gls, and Aox genes have been mapped on mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2q. The present findings provide further evidence for the conservation of synteny among these regions of rat, mouse, and human chromosomes.  (+info)

Altered renal hemodynamics and impaired myogenic responses in the fawn-hooded rat. (6/25382)

The present study examined whether an abnormality in the myogenic response of renal arterioles that impairs autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) contributes to the development of renal damage in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats. Autoregulation of whole kidney, cortical, and medullary blood flow and PGC were compared in young (12 wk old) FHH and fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL) rats in volume-replete and volume-expanded conditions. Baseline RBF, cortical and medullary blood flow, and PGC were significantly greater in FHH than in FHL rats. Autoregulation of renal and cortical blood flow was significantly impaired in FHH rats compared with results obtained in FHL rats. Myogenically mediated autoregulation of PGC was significantly greater in FHL than in FHH rats. PGC rose from 46 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 2 mmHg in response to an increase in renal perfusion pressure from 100 to 150 mmHg in FHH rats, whereas it only increased from 39 +/- 2 to 53 +/- 1 mmHg in FHL rats. Isolated perfused renal interlobular arteries from FHL rats constricted by 10% in response to elevations in transmural pressure from 70 to 120 mmHg. In contrast, the diameter of vessels from FHH rats increased by 15%. These results indicate that the myogenic response of small renal arteries is altered in FHH rats, and this contributes to an impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow and elevations in PGC in this strain.  (+info)

Evidence for involvement of B lymphocytes in the surveillance of lung metastasis in the rat. (7/25382)

These studies examined the composition of lymphocytes within the lung after the introduction of tumor cells that metastasize to the lung in rats. i.v. delivery of MADB106 tumor cells into syngeneic Fischer 344 rats caused dose- and time-dependent development of lung tumors, with surface metastases evident 7 days after injection and markedly increased 11 days after injection. The total number of lymphocytes recovered from the lung was increased 11 days after injection but not 7 days after injection. When lymphocytes from the lung, spleen, and blood were subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, the most conspicuous change was an increase in the percentage of CD45RA+ cells (i.e., B lymphocytes in the rat) in the lung, with no changes seen in the percentage of natural killer (NKR-P1+), CD4+, or CD8+ cells in the lung. Analysis of the time course showed that B lymphocytes increased in the lung soon after i.v. tumor injection, with an initial peak seen 6 h after injection. Rapid influx of B lymphocytes into lung after i.v. tumor cell injection was also observed in another syngeneic tumor model, i.e., after injection of CC531 cells into WAG rats. To determine whether the influx of B lymphocytes into the lung might participate in tumor surveillance, a high dose of antibody (100 microg) to rat B lymphocytes was given to immunoneutralize these cells; this produced an increase in lung tumors in both models. Finally, Fischer 344 rats were given a s.c. injection of MADB106 tumor cells that made them resistant to lung tumors when given a later i.v. injection of these tumor cells. These animals were found to have an elevated level of B lymphocytes residing in the lung associated with the resistance to lung tumor. These findings suggest that early responses of B lymphocytes are important in protection against tumor development in two rat models of cancer.  (+info)

Ethylnitrosourea-induced development of malignant schwannomas in the rat: two distinct loci on chromosome of 10 involved in tumor susceptibility and oncogenesis. (8/25382)

Inbred rodent strains with differing sensitivity to experimental tumor induction provide model systems for the detection of genes that either are responsible for cancer predisposition or modify the process of carcinogenesis. Rats of the inbred BD strains differ in their susceptibility to the induction of neural tumors by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). Newborn BDIX rats that are exposed to EtNU (80 microg/g body weight; injected s.c.) develop malignant schwannomas predominantly of the trigeminal nerves with an incidence >85%, whereas BDIV rats are entirely resistant. A T:A-->A:T transversion mutation at nucleotide 2012 of the neu (erbB-2) gene on chromosome 10, presumably the initial event in EtNU-induced schwannoma development, is later followed by loss of the wild-type neu allele. Genetic crosses between BDIX and BDIV rats served: (a) to investigate the inheritance of susceptibility; (b) to obtain animals informative for the mapping of losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumors with polymorphic simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs); and (c) to localize genes associated with schwannoma susceptibility by linkage analysis with SSLPs. Schwannoma development was strongly suppressed in F1 animals (20% incidence). All of the F1 schwannomas displayed LOH on chromosome 10, with a consensus region on the telomeric tip encompassing D10Rat3, D10Mgh16 and D10Rat2 but excluding neu. A strong bias toward losing the BDIV alleles suggests the involvement of a BDIV-specific tumor suppressor gene(s). Targeted linkage analysis with chromosome 10 SSLPs in F2 intercross and backcross animals localized schwannoma susceptibility to a region around D10Wox23, 30 cM centromeric to the tip. Ninety-four % of F1 tumors exhibited additional LOH at this region. Two distinct loci on chromosome 10 may thus be connected with susceptibility to the induction and development of schwannomas in rats exposed to EtNU.  (+info)

Although it is now well documented (6, 8) that pial as well as intracerebral vessels are amply supplied with sympathetic adrenergic nerves which, as shown for pial arteries, fulfill ultra-structural...
Hi Im new here and just wanted to know if my diet plan is going to work for 2 female mice. The reason I decided to make my own diet is that most
Differences in spontaneous allograft acceptance after liver transplantation among inbred rat strains might be explained by variation in the local production of TNF-α as a potent mediator of the inflammatory response. In this study, we hypothesize that nucleotide differences in the rat Tnf gene influence TNF-α protein expression. As such, polymorphisms in the Tnf gene may also provide a possible explanation for differences in survival of allogeneic liver grafts among inbred rat strains. We therefore investigated the capacity of mononuclear cells to produce TNF-α in response to a mitogenic stimulus and the Tnf locus was sequenced in six different inbred rat strains. Among the six strains (AUG, BN, DA, LEW, PVG and WF), 44 nucleotide differences including 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), five simple sequence length polymorphisms, two deletions and one insertion, were found in the Tnf gene. Although, the inbred rat strains differed significantly in mean levels of maximum TNF-α ...
wistar hannover male individuals rat serum wistar hannover male individuals | order wistar hannover male individuals rat serum wistar hannover male individuals | How
Normal Rat Serum from Equitech-Bio,Collected from 8-12 week old sexually mature rats. Pricing: $100/unit for 1 - 10 units,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Equitech \ Sterile filtered rat serum, 0.2 micron, 10x10ml \ SRT-0010x10 for more molecular products just contact us
Alterations in protein synthesis in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells were examined after their exposure to the potent carcinogens, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Co-planar PCB congeners (3,4,5,3′,4′-PCB and 3,4,5,3′,4′,5′-PCB) (10 nM) induced a protein, the Mr of which was 25,000 (25 k protein) under denaturing conditions. However, non-co-planar PCB congeners and several xenobiotics, which induce microsomal proteins, did not induce the 25 k protein. By using immunoblotting, the 25 k protein was identified as glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P, 7-7, EC ...
The expression and induction of the cytochrome P450 2B1/2 isoenzyme is heterogeneous, exhibiting a regional pattern in the intact liver and a varied response to phenobarbital in isolated cultured hepatocytes. We report that P450 2B1/2 immunostaining of hepatocytes isolated from the perivenous liver region and cultured in the presence of phenobarbital is much stronger than that of cells identically treated but isolated from the periportal region. P450 2B1 mRNA, quantified by a sensitive and specific RNAase protection assay, is also preferentially induced in perivenous hepatocytes, demonstrating that the difference in induced expression is at the pretranslational level. Our results suggest that perivenous and periportal hepatocytes are differentially imprinted to retain regiospecific factors governing their inducibility after isolation.. ...
Visual pathways and acuity hooded rats.: Three experiments on the effects of lesions of the visual system on contrast-detection in hooded rats are described, in
wistar sodium heparin individuals rat wistar whole blood sodium heparin individuals | order wistar sodium heparin individuals rat wistar whole blood sodium heparin
Top: Relative distribution plots of GA, GB, GC, GJ, and BB obtained from buckets, i.e., automatically integrated spectral segments of 0.02 ppm, of the H-12 sin
IRVINE, Calif., Nov. 9, 2015-- Sabra Health Care REIT, Inc. today announced results of operations for the third quarter of 2015.. For the third quarter of 2015, Normalized FFO, Normalized AFFO and net income attributable to common stockholders per diluted common share were $0.58, $0.53 and $0.24, respectively, compared to $0.51, $0.51 and $0.31, respectively, for the...
Статья "Contents and abstracts" в журнале "Философия и общество", Выпуск №4(68)/2012
Primary monolayer cultures were obtained in 60-mm petri dishes by incubating 3 X 10(6) isolated hepatocytes at 37 degrees C in Dulbeccos medium supplemented wi
We have studied the effect of glucagon on the expression of a triiodothyronine (T3) and carbohydrate-inducible mRNA sequence (mRNA-S14) in rat liver that undergoes a threefold diurnal variation (peak, 2200 h; nadir, 0800 h). Glucagon injection into euthyroid rats (25 micrograms/100 g body wt i.p., three doses at 15-min intervals) during the nocturnal plateau of mRNA-S14 caused a monoexponential disappearance of this sequence (t1/2, 90 min) accompanied by a 90% reduction in the transcriptional rate in a nuclear run-off assay, indicative of a near total reduction of synthesis. This effect was markedly attenuated in rats treated with T3 (200 micrograms/100 g body wt i.p.) 24 h before glucagon injection. When T3 was given 15 min after glucagon, the glucagon-initiated decline in mRNA-S14 was reversed within 90 min, suggesting a rapid interaction between the two hormones in the evening. Curiously, administration of T3 alone at this hour did not affect a significant increase in mRNA-S14. At 0800 h, ...
Reference: Klimenko A.I., Age-related characteristics of the concentration of RNA, DNA and proteins in the nuclei of rat liver cells following hydrocortisone induction, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(6), 615-619 ...
Detailed analysis on Jomo Cosmos | Latest news with detailed form and trending analysis, complete with ratings, probabilities and comments.
Fakulteta za informacijske študije v Novem mestu je pred kratkim v Dolenjskih Toplicah organizirala zaključni dogodek projekta COSMOS. V interdisciplinarnem projektu s področja matematičnega modeliranja zapletenih sistemov je sodelovalo 15 študentov, ki so pod vodstvom 15 mentorjev pripravljali doktorat.
This study was conducted to compare the effects of n-6 linoleic acid and n-3 linolenic acid on lipid peroxidation and the activities of enzymes defending against oxidation, which are involved in the tumor promotion, and histolOgical changes of hepatocarcinogen treated rat liver. In this study, weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of three diets, containing 15% (w/w) of beef fat (BF), com oil (CO) or perilla oil (PO), for 11 weeks. During the 3rd week, experimental groups were injected with 2-AAF (50 mg/kg of BW) intraperitoneally 3 times. Findings show that the com oil diet group has greater liver MDA content than the beef fat and perilla oil diet groups. Also, it is observed that the perilla oil diet group has lower MDA content than beef fat and com oil diet groups, even though perilla oil is more desaturated than beef fat and com oil. In terms of activity, mixed-function oxidase activity is not Significantly affected by the different dietary fats and 2-AAF treatment. GSH-peroxidase, ...
The acute pulmonary responses after exposure to sulfur and nitrogen mustards are well documented whereas the late pulmonary effects are not. With a novel focus on the immune system this paper investigate whether late phase pulmonary effects developed in rats exposed to the nitrogen mustard melphalan are linked to the acute responses and whether the reactions are genetically regulated. The DA rat strain was used to establish a lung exposure model. Five other inbred rat strains (PVG, PVG.1AV1, LEW, WF and F344) were compared within the model at selected time points. All rat strains displayed a biphasic pattern of leukocyte infiltration in the lungs, dominated by neutrophils 2 days after exposure and a second peak dominated by macrophages 29 days after exposure. The number of macrophages was higher in the DA rat compared with the other strains. The infiltration of lymphocytes in the lungs varied in both time of appearance and magnitude between strains. The quantity of collagen deposition in the ...
Sabra Dipping Company, LLC (Sabra), maker of Americas favorite hummus, broke ground this morning on an expansion of the worlds largest hummus-making facility, based in Chesterfield County, VA. The 40,000 square foot expansion will enable Sabra to further expedite product delivery to retail, which means getting freshly-made hummus into consumer hands and homes sooner. The new addition more than doubles Sabras finished goods storage capacity, lays the groundwork for future packaging customization capabilities and will result in an improved carbon footprint. Sabra expects to add . . .
Evidence was presented to indicate that the binding of benzo(a)pyrene (50328) (BaP) to a protein in rat liver cytosol facilitates its oxidation by microsomal enzymes. Cytosols were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley-rats. Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography of rat liver cytosol saturated with carbon- 14 labeled BaP resulted in two peaks of protein bound radioactivity. Glutathione-S-transfe
Sedlis, A and Stone, D F., Experimental carcinogenesis in pregnant mice, a preliminary report. (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 820 ...
Chlorophyll (Ch) a, b and total content (µg g FW−1) measured in fully developed leaves of Citrus macrophylla seedlings grown for 25 days in B-normal (50 μM,
Low Capacity Portable Generator Market Insights 2019, is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global. ...
Tissue preparation. Demonstration of basic histology techniques including fixation, embedding, sectioning, staining and observation of a glass microslide operation. Orig.
No objects (or none that you are authorized to view) are tagged with 3D coculture of human hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells ...
Takayuki Furuishi , Yukiko Kato , Toshiro Fukami , Toyofumi Suzuki , Tomohiro Endo , Hiromasa Nagase , Haruhisa Ueda , Kazuo Tomono ...
Το KC-53 είναι ένα νεοσυντιθέμενο biyouyanagin ανάλογο μόριο με γνωστή ισχυρή αντιφλεγμονώδη και αντιική δράση. Στην παρούσα εργασία, διερευνήσαμε την αντιπολλαπλασιαστική του δράση σε 13 αντιπροσωπευτικές ανθρώπινες ...
Periodical: Sokoloff, Louis, Martin Reivich, Charles Kennedy, M. H. Des Rosiers, C. S. Patlak, K. D. Pettigrew, O. Sakurada, and M. Shinohara. The [14C]Deoxyglucose Method for the Measurement of Local Cerebral Glucose Utilization: Theory, Procedure, and Normal Values in the Conscious and Anesthetized Albino Rat. Journal of Neurochemistry 28, 5 (1977): 897-916. Article. 20 Images ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
low capacity battery manufacturer/supplier, China low capacity battery manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese low capacity battery manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on
The arthritis-susceptible DA rat is one of the most commonly used rat strains for genetic linkage analysis and is instrumental for the identification of many genetic loci. Even though DA rats were kept as inbred lines at different institutes and suppliers, it became obvious that the various breeding …
China Low Capacity Battery manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Low Capacity Battery products in best price from certified Chinese Lithium Battery manufacturers, Low Cabinet suppliers, wholesalers and factory on
Decapitation - Indonesian Meaning and Translation of Decapitation , Synonyms, Antonyms, Image/Illustration, English Definition and more
Decapitation - Ukrainian Meaning and Translation of Decapitation , Synonyms, Antonyms, Image/Illustration, English Definition and more
Figure 3: IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Alpha Dia \ Anti_Rat IgG2c, unlabeled aff pure \ 50124-UL for more molecular products just contact us
9 Septembre 2012 Nom du Père : ETR Loki * Description : bareback/hooded raté fléché noir dumbo lisse * Provenance : éleveur reptiles - Pays-Bas * Généalogie: à voir plus bas * Numéro dinscription au LORD: ETR30889M * Date de naissance : Février 2011 * Poids à la saillie : 598gr * Autres informati...
, Rat Serum - 50mL, GTX73216, Applications: Blocking, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, WB; Blocking, ELISA, Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence (ICC/IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity:
The gardening experts at share tips for growing cosmos, colorful annual flowers perfect for planting in the garden as part of your landscaping or for container gardening
ARFC appear in the spleen after transplantation of organs or tissues and immunization with nucleated cells between isohistogenic rat strains. The allorosette formation of rat spleen cells and T...
TDL Connect Member Profile: DreamCatcher2017 - Whats your story?. I was born to be true, not to be perfect. I am here to be myself not to be what someone...
How is micrograms per liter abbreviated? µg/L stands for micrograms per liter. µg/L is defined as micrograms per liter very frequently.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement by neuropeptide γ of DNA synthesis stimulated with EGF or TGFα in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. AU - Hasegawa, K.. AU - Carr, B. I.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - DNA synthesis was stimulated by primary (complete) mitogens such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transforming growth factor α (TGFα) in adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Addition of neuropeptide γ (10-9 M) to the hepatocyte culture amplified the stimulatory effect of EGF or TGFα by 5- to 6-fold. Neuropeptide γ-amplified DNA synthesis was observed in a dose-dependent manner with maximal effect at 10-9 to 10-7 M, although it effect was significantly observed at as low as 10-10 M. Neuropeptide γ by itself did not stimulate DNA synthesis in the absence of EGF. Amplification of DNA synthesis by neuropeptide γ was observed when hepatocytes were cultured in Williams medium E, but not in Leibovitz L-15 medium, suggesting that culture medium enriched with nutrients is required for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor-mediated uptake of human α1-acid glycoprotein into liver parenchymal cells in mice. AU - Matsumoto, Kazuaki. AU - Nishi, Koji. AU - Kikuchi, Mari. AU - Watanabe, Hiroshi. AU - Nakajou, Keisuke. AU - Komori, Hisakazu. AU - Kadowaki, Daisuke. AU - Suenaga, Ayaka. AU - Maruyama, Toru. AU - Otagiri, Masaki. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgments: This research was supported Grants-in-aid in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (18590035 and 20390161).. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Human α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a serum glycoprotein, is thought to have anti-inflammatory effects by a mechanism that is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of AGP in mice using enzymatically modified AGP (AGP with the sialic acids removed, asialo-AGP, and with both sialic acids and galactose removed, agalacto-AGP). It was observed that AGP was eliminated from the circulation slowly, and ...
Definition of antagonistic action in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antagonistic action? Meaning of antagonistic action as a legal term. What does antagonistic action mean in law?
Buy anti-NAGase antibody, Rabbit anti-Rat N-Acetyl Beta-D-Glucosaminidase (NAGase) Polyclonal Antibody-NP_571979.1 (MBS2001439) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Immunohistochemistry (IHC) - Formalin/Paraffin, ELISA (EIA), Western Blot (WB)
DRH strain rats are a unique experimental model in which to study chemically induced liver carcinogenesis. They have been selected from a closed colony of Donryu rats fed 3′-Me-DAB by sister-brother mating for over 40 generations. Their resistance to hepatocarcinogens has been suggested to be genetically dominant (15) . In the present study, we focused on genetic control in the induction of preneoplastic lesions. Five phenotypic parameters were selected to quantitatively describe the preneoplastic lesions; i.e., the number of GST-P-positive foci, the percentage of liver area occupied by EAF, the size of the foci, and the amounts of GST-P as well as GGT mRNA. Their phenotypic values were mutually closely interrelated [for instance, percentage of liver area occupied by EAF and GST-P mRNA (r = 0.763)], but still they seemed under differential genetic control by combinations of host loci. No single phenotypic parameter was controlled by a single locus. The contributions of the loci to phenotype ...
Oral The test material was investigated in a key study designed to be compatible with OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No 420 Acute Oral Toxicity - Fixed Dose Method (2001) and Method B.1 bis Acute Toxicity (Oral) of Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008. Following a sighting test at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg, an additional four fasted female animals were given a single oral dose of the test item, as a solution in arachis oil BP, at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Clinical signs and body weight development were monitored during the study. All animals were subjected to gross necropsy. There were no deaths, no signs of systemic toxicity, all animals showed expected gains in body weight and no abnormalities were noted at necropsy. The acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the test item in the female Wistar strain rat was considered to be greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight. Inhalation According to REACH Annex VIII, Section 8.5, Column 2, information on acute toxicity shall be ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Changes in binding of dexamethasone (9α-fluoro-11β, 17α,21-trihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione) to its receptors in regenerating rat liver after 70% hepatectomy were examined. Specific receptors for dexamethasone in the liver remnants of adrenalectomized rats decreased significantly during the period of DNA synthesis after 70% hepatectomy; then, they increased to above the control values between Days 4 and 7 after partial hepatectomy and subsequently returned to the control values. During the period of DNA synthesis, decreased binding was observed in partially hepatectomized rats with or without adrenals, but later enhanced binding was not prominent in rats with adrenals.. ...
One of the first trikes I flew was a Cosmos, way back in 1984. It was a trendsetter then and was one stoutly built trike capable of real functions. The reason I flew and owned a Cosmos in those early ultralight days was due to its capability as a tug for hang gliders. Ive been involved with hang gliding for many more years than powered ultralights so when the two dovetailed in the Cosmos Tug, I was pleased to the point of purchase. Maybe youll also be so moved. Todays Cosmos Phase III trike is vastly better than that 84 model. But it retains the brand familiarity (albeit with different ownership) and functionality while increasing the state of the art to a highly refined point. In the 18 years since that first Cosmos experience, Ive flown all Cosmos entries except the Echo. This new Phase III appeared in many ways to be the French companys finest work. Of course, I was impressed with optional features such as the highly effective hydraulically actuated 3-wheel brakes and the impressive ...
The Medical Perfusion System Market globally is a standout amongst the most emergent and astoundingly approved sectors. This worldwide market has been developing at a ...
Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) has been cited in 35 publications. References for Mouse, Rat, Rabbit in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IF, IHC-FrFl, IHC-P, WB
Manual for the development of Shooting Skills for Hunters - Abundantly illustrated with colour photos, total content of 58 pages, avalable&n...
Patient information for ENSTILAR 50 MICROGRAMS/G + 0.5 MG/G CUTANEOUS FOAM Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Mann, Margaret C. (1922). Observations on an Inbred Strain of Drosophila Melanogaster. University of California. University of ... Mann, Margaret (1918). Division in the Unfertilized Egg of the Rat. University of California. ...
... and later to the common use of inbred rats by experimental psychologists." Wistar as a generic name for inbred strains such as ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2017-11-30. Dixon LK (1993). "Use of recombinant inbred strains to map ... "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2013-12-19. "History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2017-11-30. Kirchmaier ...
Systematic inbreeding and maintenance of inbred strains of laboratory mice and rats is of great importance for biomedical ... 2006). "Selection and Inbreeding Depression: Effects of Inbreeding Rate and Inbreeding Environment". Evolution. 60 (5): 1014- ... The use of inbred strains is also important for genetic studies in animal models, for example to distinguish genetic from ... In order to achieve a mouse strain that is considered inbred, a minimum of 20 sequential generations of sibling matings must ...
Mouse strains can be inbred, mutated, or genetically modified, while rat strains are usually inbred. A given inbred rodent ... Coli Genetic Stock Center EcoliWiki E. coli strain index International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) Rat strain index (Articles ... A laboratory mouse or rat strain is a group of animals that is genetically uniform. Strains are used in laboratory experiments ... In biology, a strain is a genetic variant, a subtype or a culture within a biological species. Strains are often seen as ...
Inbred and outbred mouse and rat strains have very different susceptibility to Sendai virus infection. Visualization of SeV ... All Sendai virus strains belong to the same serotype. The origin of many strains of SeV was described in 1978. Some strains ... Another strain is Tianjin strain, isolated in China in 2008. One of these strains was used for creation of replication ... It is reported that the BB1 strain derived from the Moscow virus strain. The strain BB1 was given to the researchers of ...
Festing, M., "Inbred Strains of Mice and their Characteristics", The Jackson Laboratory . Retrieved 30 January 2008. Peichel CL ... Rats are also widely used for physiology, toxicology and cancer research, but genetic manipulation is much harder in rats than ... Laboratory mice, flies, fish, and worms are inbred through many generations to create strains with defined characteristics. ... and rats are all widely used. Studies of brain function, such as memory and social behavior, often use rats and birds. For some ...
... of the WAG/Rij inbred rat strain: a classical mendelian crossbreeding study". Behavior Genetics. 22 (3): 361-8. doi:10.1007/ ... van Luijtelaar ELJM; van der Staay FJ; Kerbusch JML (August 1989). "Spatial memory in rats: a cross validation study". The ... Peeters BWMM; Kerbusch JML; van Luijtelaar ELJM; Vossen JMH; Coenen AML (May 1990). "Genetics of absence epilepsy in rats". ...
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ... They found in albino rats that Fos has altered immunoreactive levels in a phase-dependent manner when exposed to light. This ... Sumová A, Trávnícková Z, Peters R, Schwartz WJ, Illnerová H. The rat suprachiasmatic nucleus is a clock for all seasons. Proc ... Light regulates expression of a Fos-related protein in rat suprachiasmatic nuclei. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990; 87: 5959-5962 ...
NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... The scientists of NCLAS Developed obese and diabetic mutant rat models: WNIN/GR-Ob, WNIN/Ob, WNIN/Ob-IGT, to serve as pre- ... K. S. Jayaraman (2005). "'Sumo' rats set researchers on hunt for obesity genes". Nature Medicine. 11 (2): 108. doi:10.1038/ ... a novel rat model of premature aging". Neuroscience. 269: 256-264. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.03.040. PMID 24709042. S2CID ...
Other factors that make the species a desirable test subject are the existence of inbred strains, ease of handling, and ... The tawny-bellied cotton rat occurs in the same area as the closely related hispid cotton rat, with the former occupying the ... Cotton rats combine the best traits of human-like lung granuloma formation (trait of rabbits) and inexpensive care (trait of ... The tawny-bellied cotton rat is used as a model organism to develop and test human pathogen treatments. It is affected by many ...
Between 2005 and 2007, virtually all extant mouse and rat recombinant inbred strains were regenotyped at many thousands of SNP ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...
... also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ... 12 and 14 have been shown to be linked to Type 1 Diabetes in the BB rat. BB rats are the most extensively studied rat model of ... Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... Subsequent BB rat colonies were established. One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another ...
The biobreeding rat (a.k.a. the biobreeding diabetes-prone rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops ... "Rat Genome", Nature Rat Genome Database, Medical College of Wisconsin Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ... The spontaneously hypertensive rat and the Lewis rat are other well-known stocks developed from Wistar rats. The Long-Evans rat ...
Weber M, Swerdlow NR (January 2008). "Rat strain differences in startle gating-disruptive effects of apomorphine occur with ... Paylor R, Crawley JN (July 1997). "Inbred strain differences in prepulse inhibition of the mouse startle response". ... The baseline startle response does not affect overall PPI levels - this finding was first discovered in rat studies and later ... ISBN 978-0-444-50676-4. Wu MF, Krueger J, Ison JR, Gerrard RL (April 1984). "Startle reflex inhibition in the rat: its ...
In 1999, they showed that different inbred strains of mice displayed very different pain sensitivity. Chief among these ... Quenqua, Douglas (2014-04-28). "For Lab Rats, a 'Male Scientist' Effect". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-07 ... Responses of 11 inbred mouse strains on 12 measures of nociception". Pain. 80 (1): 67-82. doi:10.1016/s0304-3959(98)00197-3. ... "Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains: possible sex-specific mediation by δ2 ...
Effects of Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata on exploratory behaviour of an inbred mouse strain. Laboratory Animal ... An example of this behaviour is the attraction of rats to cat urine after infection with Toxoplasma gondii. However, the " ... Berdoy, M.F., Webster, J. P & MacDonald, D. W. (2000) Fatal Attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of ...
... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... "Rules and guidelines for nomenclature of mouse and rat strains". "Outbred stocks". Crow JF (August 2002). "C. C. Little, cancer ... There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ... Many (but not all) laboratory strains are inbred. The different strains are identified with specific letter-digit combinations ...
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice and rabbits), but populations of naturally ... Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits and ferrets. Albino axolotl (an ... rats, guinea pigs and cats. Examples of pet mammals artificially selected for albinism Intentionally bred albinistic strains of ... The Okinawa strain of this species is deficient in [His7]-corazonin and is albino. One of the typical features of Locusta ...
... of emotionality in rats and his discovery that a single dominant gene led to acoustical traumas in one inbred strain of mice". ... This work extended his mentor Tryon's earlier rat demonstration that they could be bred to do well or poorly in learning a maze ...
Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for particular traits, often of ethological or medical interest, e.g. body ... Sigmodon hispidus (Cotton rat), formerly used in polio research. Mesocricetus auratus (Golden hamster), first used to study ... Main lab strain is 'K-12'. Bacillus subtilis, endospore forming Gram-positive bacterium. Main lab strain is '168'. Caulobacter ... Pseudomonas fluorescens, soil bacterium that readily diversifies into different strains in the lab. Azotobacter vinelandii, ...
... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... supported Mouse Repository Rat Resource & Research Center - National Institutes of Health, supported Rat Repository NIH Model ... In addition, inbred mouse strains are used in the overwhelming majority of studies, while the human population is heterogeneous ... The classic model vertebrate is currently the mouse (Mus musculus). Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for ...
In mice, large differences in learning ability exist among different inbred strains. These differences appear to be correlated ... As a result, the rat always has eight possible options. Elaborate controls are used to ensure that the rats are not simply ... Working memory is assessed when the rats enter each arm a single time. Re-entry into the arms would result in a working memory ... The design ensures that, after checking for food at the end of each arm, the rat is always forced to return to the central ...
... strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the ... Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different ... Congenic strains are discussed in detail in Lee Silver's online book Mouse Genetics: Concepts and Applications: "Mouse Genetics ... November 1997). "Theoretical and empirical issues for marker-assisted breeding of congenic mouse strains". Nat. Genet. 17 (3): ...
... rats, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.760.080 - rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 - rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050. ... rats, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520.760.080 - rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.199.520.760.090 - rats, inbred bb MeSH ... rats, inbred f344 MeSH B01.050.157.760.275 - rats, inbred lec MeSH B01.050.157.760.280 - rats, inbred lew MeSH B01.050.157.760. ... rats, inbred shr MeSH B01.050.157.760.360 - rats, inbred wf MeSH B01.050.157.760.390 - rats, inbred wky MeSH B01.050.199.040 - ...
These initial observations led to the development of two breeding colonies: (i) a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... Since then, the GAERS has been recognized as a very predictive model for absence epilepsy, along with the WAG/Rij rat model. ...
In 2004, Hornig published a controversial paper concluding that, in a highly inbred strain of mice which is unusually ... based on neonatal rat infection with Borna disease virus. ... Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain ... Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin WI (September 2004). "Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent". Mol. ... Davis were unable to reproduce Hornig's results despite using the same strain of mice and ten times the amount of mercury used ...
... a dimensionless number in fluid dynamics and transport phenomena Lewis rat, an inbred strain of laboratory rat Lewis (TV series ...
West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ... Rats have also been used in the diet-induced obesity model. Commonly used in medical research, rats were specifically chosen to ... Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. Some common mouse strains show large ... This has led to cases of studies that used the same strain of mice concluding that the strain is prone to becoming obese in one ...
The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine ... N. brasiliensis is adapted to infecting rats, so can continue laying eggs for prolonged periods of time. The immune response of ... Biphasic anorexia is also prevalent in laboratory rats infected with this parasite. The first phase coincides with the ... Tetramisole loaded into zeolite is more effective at killing adults of N. brasiliensis in rats than tetramisole alone. ...
Differences in Glo1 expression in mice appear to be caused by a copy number variant that is common among inbred strains of mice ... Experiments on three types of glyoxalase I (yeast, rat and mouse forms) supported the proton-transfer mechanism in every case. ... "Evaluating genetic markers and neurobiochemical analytes for fluoxetine response using a panel of mouse inbred strains". ...
"Monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity as a measure of immune responsiveness in Lewis and brown Norway inbred rats. ... and wild strains of the aforementioned viruses) results in ileal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, chronic colitis and pervasive ...
... human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to ... 17 in rat/mice), club-cell-specific 10 kD protein (CC10), human protein 1, urine protein 1 (UP-1), polychlorinated biphenyl- ... The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to ...
... may be bred selectively among inbred strains to create a recombinant congenic strain. This might be done to isolate an ... For example, when using an electrolytic probe to create a purposeful lesion in a distinct region of the rat brain, surrounding ... QTL mapping - The influence of a gene in some behavior can be statistically inferred by studying inbred strains of some species ... von Heimendahl, Moritz; Itskov, Pavel M.; Arabzadeh, Ehsan; Diamond, Mathew E. (2007). "Neuronal Activity in Rat Barrel Cortex ...
Lathrop began developing inbred strains around 1910. Loeb and Lathrop performed experiments at her farm and the pair authored ... After her poultry business failed, she started breeding rats and mice for hobbyists and pet owners. She also raised ferrets, ... Abbie E. C. Lathrop (1868 - 1918) was a rodent fancier who bred fancy mice and inbred strains for animal models, particularly ... his own DBA strain was probably derived from her partially inbred silver fawn mice. Karin Knorr Cetina wrote in 2009 that at ...
"Studies on inbreeding. I. The effects in inbreeding on the growth and variability in the body weight of the albino rat." ... She was involved in breeding the Wistar lab rat, a strain of rats genetically homogeneous albinos intended for use in ... King participated in breeding the Wistar rat, a strain of genetically homogeneous albino rats for use in biological and medical ... Through inbreeding, her rats were almost homozygous to each other, which facilitated research. In later years, she moved her ...
He is also involved in the research related to the 1st inbred rat model of obesity and aging, also known as WNIN/Ob obese rats ... Working with a special strain of mice, he set out to identify the hormone that normal animals use to control their appetite - a ... a novel rat model of premature aging". Neuroscience. 269: 256-64. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.03.040. PMID 24709042. S2CID ... "Obese Locus in WNIN/Obese Rat Maps on Chromosome 5 Upstream of Leptin Receptor". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): 10. Bibcode:2013PLoSO... ...
By identifying specific genetic markers for the genes of interest in a recombinant inbred strain, the amount of interaction ... researchers are able to use animal subjects such as mice and rats, but also fruit flies, worms, and zebrafish, to try to ... pose a greater challenge for QTL analysis because the genetic population cannot be as carefully controlled as that of an inbred ...
A famous example of a vestigial structure, the eye of the blind mole-rat, is believed to retain function in photoperiod ... This is an evolutionary arms race, in which bacteria develop strains less susceptible to antibiotics, while medical researchers ... Wright, Sewall (1932). "The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution". Proceedings of the VI ... Response strategies typically include the use of different, stronger antibiotics; however, new strains of MRSA have recently ...
doi:10.1016/j.str.2008.11.008. PMID 19141283. Bowmaker JK (May 1998). "Evolution of colour vision in vertebrates". Eye. 12 (Pt ... inbred populations. These include: Chromosomal translocations: interchange of genetic parts from nonhomologous chromosomes. ... oxidative DNA damage is estimated to occur 10,000 times per cell per day in humans and 100,000 times per cell per day in rats. ... the maintenance of outcrossing sexual reproduction as opposed to inbreeding and the evolution of sex and genetic recombination ...
Bull JJ (2016-04-02). "Lethal Gene Drive Selects Escape through Inbreeding". bioRxiv 10.1101/046847. Oye KA, Esvelt K, Appleton ... once a strain or a line carrying the gene drive has been produced, the drive can be passed to any other line by mating. Here, ... including rats, short-tailed weasels, and possums) from the country by 2050. The project was first announced in 2016 by New ... inbreeding could in principle be an escape mechanism, but the extent to which this can happen in practice is difficult to ...
An in-vitro study completed in 2005 showed that Colostrinin can increase the lifespan of cells isolated from inbred mice ... This study showed the effect of Colostrinin on the mitochondria of cells isolated from strains of senescence-prone (SAMP1) and ... Alleviates Amyloid-β Induced Toxicity in Rat Primary Hippocampal Cultures" (PDF). Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 20 (2): 423- ... Alleviates Amyloid-β Induced Toxicity in Rat Primary Hippocampal Cultures" (PDF). Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 20 (2): 423- ...
"Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of ... Safiulina VF, Fattorini G, Conti F, Cherubini E (January 2006). "GABAergic signaling at mossy fiber synapses in neonatal rat ... "GABAergic cells are the major postsynaptic targets of mossy fibers in the rat hippocampus". The Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (9 ... granule cells of the rat dentate gyrus". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (13): 5594-8. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.23-13-05594.2003. ...
These strains appear to have diverged from those found in China and Iran. The date of divergence appears to be 270,000 years ... Final hosts are humans and other mammals including cats, dogs, goats, horses, pigs, rats and water buffalo. S. malayensis This ... Such a biological mechanism would serve to decrease inbreeding, and may be a factor behind the unusually high genetic diversity ... The natural vertebrate host is Müller's giant Sunda rat (Sundamys muelleri). The snail hosts are Robertsiella species (R. ...
The risk of injury may be worsened by obesity, jumping, rough handling, or intense exercise, which place greater strain on the ... ISBN 978-0-470-22968-2. Gresky C, Hamann H, Distl O (2005). "[Influence of inbreeding on litter size and the proportion of ... rats. In Germany, dachshunds are widely called Dackel (both singular and plural). Among hunters, they are mainly referred to as ... It was found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased and the percentage of stillborn puppies ...
314, 320, 326 Hemann MT, Greider CW (November 2000). "Wild-derived inbred mouse strains have short telomeres". Nucleic Acids ... DNA oxidation and caloric restriction: Caloric restriction reduces 8-OH-dG DNA damage in organs of ageing rats and mice. Thus, ... The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... However, telomere length in wild mouse strains is unrelated to lifespan, and mice lacking the enzyme telomerase do not have a ...
... these English strains are albino, although pigmented strains are also available. Inbred strains are less common and are usually ... Since that time, they have been largely replaced by other rodents, such as mice and rats. However, they are still used in ... Of the inbred strains that have been created, the two still used with any frequency are, following Sewall Wright's designations ... A hairless and immunodeficient breed was the result of a spontaneous genetic mutation in inbred laboratory strains from the ...
Genomic organization of the rat Clock gene and sequence analysis in inbred rat strains ... Genomic organization of the rat Clock gene and sequence analysis in inbred rat strains ...
32 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two treatment groups, namely, a copper-adequate (8 mg Cu/kg ... Rats, Inbred Strains Substances * Apolipoproteins * Lipids * Lipoproteins * Copper * Cholesterol Grant support * S07 RR07002/RR ... Alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations in copper-deficient rats J Nutr. 1983 Nov;113(11): ... In the second experiment, 20 similar rats were assigned to the two treatments and were used for plasma and blood volume ...
2. Offspring of rats maintained on a calcium-supplemented (1.2%), vitamin-D-deficient diet were weaned onto the same diet and ... 4. The concentration of calcium in parotid saliva was normal in vitamin-D-deprived rats, although total parotid calcium output ... was normal in vitamin-D-deprived rats. 6. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure changes in response to I.V. pilocarpine ... and administration of vitamin D3 to these rats corrected this abnormality. 8. It is concluded that fluid and electrolyte ...
Studies with Hxb/Bxh Recombinant Inbred Rat Strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jul; 38(7):2148-57. doi: 10.1111/acer.12471. ... Studies with Hxb/Bxh Recombinant Inbred Rat Strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jul; 38(7):2148-57. doi: 10.1111/acer.12471. ... Standard models of drug testing have routinely used only one strain of mouse or rat, but this approach does not take into ... They have used a wide selection of inbred mouse strains, and more recently the Collaborative Cross mice, to screen for variable ...
rat strain. 6516. inbred strain. 2709. LE (inbred). 9. LE/Stm. 2. ... The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) is currently being developed at the Rat Genome Database. For more information about this ... Strain Medical Records Phylogenetics Strain Availability Calendar Rats 101 Submissions Photo Archive ... Rat Community Forum Directory of Rat Laboratories Video Tutorials News RGD Publications RGD Poster Archive Nomenclature ...
Comparative studies in arthritis resistant and susceptible inbred rat strains. Arthritis Rheum. 26: 1442-1451, 1983. PubMed: ... Strain designation. Wilders D58 Type strain. No Product format. Freeze-dried See Additional Product Information ... Strain and sex variation in the susceptibility to streptococcal cell wall-induced polyarthritis in the rat. Arthritis Rheum. 25 ... Sex hormonal effects on the severity of streptococcal cell wall-induced polyarthritis in the rat. Arthritis Rheum. 26: 560-563 ...
... in perfusates collected from the right and left striatum of halothane-anaesthetized naive and 6-hydroxydopamine-denervated rats ... Rats * Rats, Inbred Strains Substances * Hydroxydopamines * Hypoxanthines * 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid * Guanosine ... Striatal adenosine levels measured in vivo by microdialysis in rats with unilateral dopamine denervation Neurosci Lett. 1987 ... In naive rats, basal adenosine (1 microM), inosine (2 microM), hypoxanthine (4 microM), guanosine (0.5 microM) and dopamine (DA ...
Genetic alterations include inbred strains (e.g., SHR, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)) [23-26] or ... Hypertensive rat strains can undergo white matter changes [23-26, 91]. SHRSP typically live for 9-12 months before developing ... Is the spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat a pertinent model of sub cortical ischemic stroke? A systematic review. Int ... An improved post-operative care protocol allows detection of long-term functional deficits following MCAo surgery in rats. J ...
Recombinant congenic inbred strains involved the separation of the unlinked components of a multigene trait into inbred strains ... Congenic strains of mice, rats, and hamsters were employed in research areas such as carcinogenesis, toxicology, teratogenesis ... However, many inbred and congenic strains were based on observed spontaneous mutations. Advantages of inbred strains included ... Recombinant inbred strains were viewed as useful for evaluating the linkage between traits and determining chromosomal ...
"Mechanics and crossbridge kinetics of tracheal smooth muscle in two inbred rat strains." European Respiratory Journal 22.2 ( ... "Mechanics and crossbridge kinetics of tracheal smooth muscle in two inbred rat strains." European Respiratory Journal 22.2 ( ... "Mechanics and crossbridge kinetics of tracheal smooth muscle in two inbred rat strains." European Respiratory Journal 22.2 ( ... "Mechanics and crossbridge kinetics of tracheal smooth muscle in two inbred rat strains." European Respiratory Journal 22.2 ( ...
Female albino rats of inbred Wistar strain (body wt. 180-210 g) were used in this study. Animal ethical committee clearance was ... TC treatment for 10 and 30 days in diabetic rats showed a significant reduc-tion (p, 0.05) in all these lipids profile (Table.1 ... Significant ef-fect of TC on plasma HDL cholesterol levels was ob-served in these TC treated rats after 10 and 30 days of ... The drug was administered orally for 10 days in 24 rats of 4 different groups treated with Tinospora cordifolia. Similarly, in ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Mice and Rats as Pets. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the ... Dermal hypersensitivity is well described in certain inbred strains of mice and is characterized by severe pruritus, the ... read more and rats Introduction to Rats Pet rats (scientific name Rattus norvegicus) originated from the Norway rat, found on ... Adults with pet rats should practice regular hand-washing and avoid hand-to-mouth contact when handling rats or cleaning rat ...
Rats, Inbred Strains ; Rats ; Pertussis Toxin ; Virulence Factors, Bordetella ; Gastric Acid ; Nociceptors ; Male ... In PTX-treated rats there was no change in eCT (2.5 micrograms/rat, ICV)-induced antinociceptive activity (hot-plate test) nor ... In PTX-treated rats there was no change in eCT (2.5 micrograms/rat, ICV)-induced antinociceptive activity (hot-plate test) nor ... In vitro studies showed no reduction of eCT binding in the CNS of rats treated with PTX in vivo. Moreover, PTX treatment did ...
A low coefficient of variation in hepatic triglyceride concentration in an inbred rat strain. Shimoda, T., Hori, S., Maegawa, K ... Acute reduction of serum leptin level by dietary conjugated linoleic acid in Sprague-Dawley rats. Yamasaki, M., Mansho, K., ... 12α-Hydroxylated bile acid enhances accumulation of adiponectin and immunoglobulin A in the rat ileum. Yoshitsugu, R., Liu, H. ... 12α-Hydroxylated bile acid induces hepatic steatosis with dysbiosis in rats. Lee, J. Y., Shimizu, H., Hagio, M., Fukiya, S., ...
... it is apparent that a hierarchy of susceptibility exists among various inbred mouse strains. ". 06/01/2003 - "The data ... 06/01/2002 - "Immunohistochemical study on the fetal rat pituitary in hyperthermia-induced exencephaly.". 03/01/2002 - "The ... "The present study shows that the multifactorial genetic liability to spontaneous exencephaly in the SELH/Bc mouse strain (10-20 ... demonstrate that a single fetal genetic locus, plus a maternal effect, have likely caused the strain differences in the ...
Analysis of the polymorphism in DNA from 64 inbred mouse strains demonstrated the presence of a single gene with two alleles, ... A DNA polymorphism for the mouse retinol binding protein has been identified using the enzyme BamHI and a rat partial cDNA ... Comparison of the segregation patterns of these alleles in three sets of recombinant inbred strains with allele segregation ...
... diet in multiple rat strains. The inbred Fisher 344 and Brown Norway rats were more metabolically sensitive to the diet changes ... Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to assess the effect of age, high-fat diet, and rat strain on the liver ... strains. Sprague-Dawley, Fischer 344, and Brown-Norway male rats were maintained on a high-fat, or regular diet for 24 weeks. ... and Fisher 344 strains, whereas diet had the greatest influence in the Sprague Dawley strain only at the 4-week time point. As ...
... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains.[4] The mouse has since been used extensively as ... Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent ... There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ... Many (but not all) laboratory strains are inbred. The different strains are identified with specific letter-digit combinations ...
We previously reported that three different inbred strains of mice (CBA/Ki, C3H/f/Ki and C57BI/Ki) survived in a healthy ... Similarly, Sprague-Dawley rats showed comparable skeletal and organ growth and development when fed a similar bee pollen diet ... Two mice strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6 (20 animals from each strain), were used and randomly divided into 4 groups: control group ... Inbred Mice Fed Only Bee Pollen Journal of ApiProduct & ApiMedical Science, Vol. 2 (4) pp. 156 - 160 ...
Ro 15-1788 on ethanol withdrawal convulsions were investigated in rats. The study originated from recent reports of ... Animals, Benzodiazepines, Benzodiazepinones, Ethanol, Flumazenil, Humans, Male, Rats, Rats, Inbred Strains, Seizures, Substance ... The benzodiazepine antagonist, Ro 15-1788 does not decrease ethanol withdrawal convulsions in rats. ... The effects of the benzodiazepine antagonist, Ro 15-1788 on ethanol withdrawal convulsions were investigated in rats. The study ...
... the failure of 8-OH-DPAT to increase food intake in PCPA-treated rats suggests that 8-OH-DPAT-induced hyperphagia is ... in rats were investigated. PCPA depleted brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations by 90% and increased ... Rats, Rats, Inbred Strains, Receptors, Serotonin, Serotonin, Stereotyped Behavior, Tetrahydronaphthalenes ... in rats were investigated. PCPA depleted brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations by 90% and increased ...
Rats, Inbred Strains. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Stereotyped Behavior --drug effects. en_US. ... and amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour in rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 1990 Jan; 34(1): 45-7. en ... and amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour in rats.. en_US. ...
Rats, Inbred strains.. Dissertations, Academic. National Library of Medicine Call No.: QW 154 ... Some studies on Campylobacter jejuni in Sprague Dawley and Wistar female rats / Suleman, Mbaruk A. Some studies on ... Campylobacter jejuni in Sprague Dawley and Wistar female rats / by Mbaruk A. Suleman. - 1986. - 37 leaves. Thesis (M.Sc.) - ...
Rat Inbred Strain Rat Inbred Strains Rat Strain, Inbred Rat Strains, Inbred Rat, Inbred Strain Rat, Inbred Strains Rats Inbred ... Inbred Rat Strain Inbred Rat Strains Inbred Strain Rat Inbred Strain Rats Inbred Strain of Rat Inbred Strain of Rats Inbred ... Inbred Strains Rat. Inbred Strains Rats. Inbred Strains of Rats. Rat Inbred Strain. Rat Inbred Strains. Rat Strain, Inbred. Rat ... Rats Inbred Strains Rats, Inbred Strain Strain Rat, Inbred Strain Rats, Inbred Strain, Inbred Rat Strains, ...
395 Rats, Wistar. *217 Rats, Inbred Strains. *101 Rats, Sprague-Dawley. *85 Mice ... Effect of PEMF on fresh fracture-healing in rat tibia.. Sarker, A B; Nashimuddin, A N; Islam, K M; Rabbani, K S; Rahman, M; ... Effect of high protein carbohydrate free diet on the evolution of diabetes mellitus in rats.. Mostafa, M G; Nasir, T A; Islam, ... Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on healing of experimental nonunion in rat tibiae.. Muhsin, A U; Islam, K M; Ahmed, A M ...
A multiple-test study of anxiety-related behaviors in six inbred rat strains. Behavioural Brain Research , 85(1),57-69. doi: ...
The specific inbreeding of rats was primarily achieved in America. The oldest known strains of inbred rats were started by ... Strains in the laboratory can include: inbred, outcrossed, and sub strains.. In the lab it takes 20 generations of inbreeding ... King also started an inbred strain from wild Norway rats that she caught locally. When it reached generation 35 it was ... These strains were the origination either in part/or in whole of many of the modern day rat strains. The direct descendants of ...
  • In the first experiment, 32 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two treatment groups, namely, a copper-adequate (8 mg Cu/kg diet) or a copper-deficient (0.85 mg Cu/kg diet) group. (
  • SAS Sprague Dawley Rat Details. (
  • We determined the fecal microbiota composition of healthy Sprague Dawley laboratory rats from 3 weeks to 2 y of age, kept under controlled environmental and dietary conditions. (
  • The pathological investigation is another area that Sprague-Dawley rats are frequently utilized. (
  • old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, or 3Gy of g-radiation delivered in a single acute exposure. (
  • The Sprague Dawley rat is an outbred multipurpose breed of albino rat used extensively in medical research. (
  • The average litter size of the Sprague Dawley rat is 10.5. (
  • Effects of nicotine self-administration on incentive salience in male Sprague Dawley rats. (
  • Another study of 7,803 Sprague-Dawley rats described 34 brain or meningeal tumors, an incidence of 0.44% [4]. (
  • Eight-week-old F-344, Wistar, and Sprague-Dawley rats received 20 μCi [3 H]DFP via the jugular vein. (
  • A lifespan whole-body exposure study was conducted to evaluate the possible carcinogenic effects of ELFEMF exposure administered alone to Sprague-Dawley rats, as part of the integrated project of the Ramazzini Institute (RI) for studying the effects on health of ELFEMF alone or in combination with other known carcinogens. (
  • This report deals with the effects of γ‐radiation in groups of 416-1,051 6‐weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, or 3 Gy of γ‐radiation delivered in a single acute exposure. (
  • The SPRAGUE DAWLEY® rat aka SD, is an albino outbred rat with an elongated head and a tail that is longer than its body. (
  • Try out the SAS Sprague Dawley rat with our animal model evaluation program→ The employer, a Mr Sprague Dawley of the Upper 666th Pitcairns Fucken Parallel, was unavailable for comment via fucken Zoom. (
  • 15. Abstract: Neoplastic lesions were observed in untreated aged Sprague Dawley (SD) rats throughout their lifespan starting at 5 weeks. (
  • Randomly breed healthy female Sprague Dawley rats body weight ranges between 132-183 grams, were used for the study. (
  • The natural life cycle for Sprague Dawley rats is short and therefore, reproduction occurs between the ages of 2-3 months. (
  • Effect of repeated novel stressors on depressive behavior and brain norepinephrine receptor system in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. (
  • Effect of stress on the behavior and 5-HT system in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Kyoto rat strains. (
  • Investigatory behavior of a novel conspecific by Wistar Kyoto, Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. (
  • 5. Pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow from submandibular gland, a tissue which does not possess 1,25(OH)2D3 receptors, was normal in vitamin-D-deprived rats. (
  • Brain corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity and receptors in five inbred rat strains: relationship to forced swimming behaviour. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. (
  • Amplified behavioral and endocrine responses to forced swim stress in the Wistar-Kyoto rat. (
  • Are Wistar-Kyoto rats a genetic animal model of depression resistant to antidepressants? (
  • Selectively bred Wistar-Kyoto rats: an animal model of depression and hyper-responsiveness to antidepressants. (
  • Stress ulcer susceptibility and depression in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. (
  • Depressive behavior and stress ulcer in Wistar Kyoto rats. (
  • Passive-avoidance behavior in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), Wistar, and Fischer-344 rats. (
  • Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat. (
  • Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats. (
  • However, many inbred and congenic strains were based on observed spontaneous mutations. (
  • Congenic strains were developed by introgressing Add1, Add2, and Add3 genes (and chr14, chr4, and chr1 associated segments) of MHS in the Milan normotensive rat (MNS) genetic background (MNS.H-Add1, MNS.H-Add2, and MNS.H-Add3) and vice versa (MHS.N-Add1, MHS.N-Add2, and MHS.N-Add3). (
  • In contrast, SBPs of Add2 and Add3 congenic strains were not different from those of the correspondent recipient parental strain. (
  • female rats are sexually mature by 8-12 weeks. (
  • The breeding life of both male and female rats is 9-12 months. (
  • Estrous cycle length in female rats is 4-5 days, and estrus lasts 10-20 hours. (
  • Female rats ovulate ~10-20 eggs. (
  • Male and female rats from the 10th generation were used to assess anxiety-like reactions in the elevated plus maze (EPM), depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), and aversive memory in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. (
  • In the EPM, female rats showed lower anxiety-like behavior than males, whereas CHF rats were more anxious than CLF rats. (
  • In female rats, the Synergy 1 supplementation (SYN1-F) group also reduced body weight, cholesterol and triacylglycerolaemia levels, but results were less consistent over the experiment. (
  • [5] The laboratory is also the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database. (
  • One must also not breed related rats together just because of the pedigree, not all the rats from each litter are the same genetically. (
  • With the species rat, we have a great variety of genetically different inbred strains. (
  • Advantages of inbred strains included the stability of strain characteristics, genetic reliability and homogeneity, and the elimination of genetic confounders. (
  • The creation of double congenic inbred strains for the study of two genetic polymorphisms was also addressed. (
  • Beyond Genes: Inclusion of Alternative Splicing and Alternative Polyadenylation to Assess the Genetic Architecture of Predisposition to Voluntary Alcohol Consumption in Brain of the HXB/BXH Recombinant Inbred Rat Panel. (
  • Saba L, Hoffman P, Tabakoff B. Using Baseline Transcriptional Connectomes in Rat to Identify Genetic Pathways Associated with Predisposition to Complex Traits. (
  • When two unknown rats, or even rats from different known lines, are brought together for a breeding the offspring may all appear to be robust and free of any unwanted genetic issues. (
  • As part of two ongoing large-scale behavioral genetic studies in heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, we have created two preclinical biobanks using well-validated long access (LgA) models of intravenous cocaine and oxycodone self-administration (SA) and comprehensive characterization of addiction-related behaviors. (
  • Genetic variants of α adducin (ADD1) taken alone or in interaction with those of β (ADD2) and β (ADD3) subunits have been associated with primary hypertension in humans and in Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats. (
  • The application combines these with tables of rat, human and mouse pathway genes, including genetic information, analysis tool and reference links, and disease, phenotype and other pathway annotations to pathway genes. (
  • The purpose of this study was to use these inbred rat strains as a genetic substrate for differential cardiac gene expression to identify candidate genes for the observed ARC QTLs. (
  • Our results indicated that Tinospora cordifolia stem extract is able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid me-tabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats towards normal level. (
  • Methods: β-adrenergic responses were investigated in vivo (echocardiography) and ex vivo (left ventricular papillary muscles) in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, who were pre-treated or not by oral atorvastatin over 15 days (50 (
  • Inbred Fischer rats produce greater amounts of the abovementioned substances, which has a direct effect on the nervous, connective, and epithelial tissues of the periodontium, facilitating the progression of ligatureinduced periodontitis 7-9 . (
  • Recombinant inbred strains were viewed as useful for evaluating the linkage between traits and determining chromosomal locations. (
  • Recombinant congenic inbred strains involved the separation of the unlinked components of a multigene trait into inbred strains. (
  • Vitamin D and Parotid Gland Function in the Rat" The Journal of Physiology Vol. 398 Iss. (
  • The laboratory rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) has been used as an animal model for over 150 years, with inbred strains used to study human physiology and many human diseases, such as autoimmune, cardiovascular, kidney, and pulmonary diseases, and metabolic, reproductive, and urogenital disorders [ 1 ]. (
  • The WKY lineage was particularly influential, with five out of the six QTL affecting coping behavior only in rats of the WKY lineage, and one locus affecting only those in the F344 lineage. (
  • Strain-dependent modification of behavior following antidepressant treatment. (
  • The performance of WKY rats on three tests of emotional behavior. (
  • Central monoamine levels differ between rat strains used in studies of depressive behavior. (
  • Multiplex PCR-Based Next-Generation Sequencing and Global Diversity of Seoul Virus in Humans and Rats. (
  • The effects of para-chlorophenylalanine pre-treatment (PCPA, 150 mg/kg IP daily for 3 days) on feeding and stereotyped behaviour elicited by the serotonin agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) in rats were investigated. (
  • Quantitative trait loci mapping was viewed as a suitable approach to determining the number and nature of genes involved in multifactorial traits, as well as chromosome locations, in the mouse and rat. (
  • Our previous work found DA rats superior for intrinsic aerobic running capacity (ARC) and several cardiac function indexes compared with Copenhagen (COP) rats, and identified ARC quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on rat chromosomes 16 (RNO16) and 3 (RNO3). (
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (
  • In inbred rodent strains, one type of cancer often predominates. (
  • corresponding annotations made to the rat and mouse orthologs are qualified with the evidence code 'inferred from sequence similarity' (ISS) to denote that the annotation is additionally predicted for the rodent genes based on shared sequence similarity with the human gene. (
  • Male mice and rats produce a small amount of sperm daily at puberty (eg, 40-50 days in a rat). (
  • Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group) were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet) for 5 weeks. (
  • We therefore compared inhalational anaesthesia using isoflurane (ISO), with an intramuscular (i.m.) combination of ketamine and xylazine (KX) as well as a completely antagonizable anaesthesia using the combination of medetomidine, midazolam and fentanyl (MMF) administered i.m. in adult male Wistar rats instrumented for the continuous, telemetric collection of cardiovascular parameters. (
  • Briefly, thirty six male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into 3 groups: the 1st group was administered NDEA alone (NDEA-treated), the 2nd group was treated simultaneously with NDEA and quercetin (NDEA+Q) and the 3rd group was used as control (CON). (
  • A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus ( MICE ) and Rattus ( RATS ), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. (
  • Inbreeding is used extensively in the breeding of many species and can be used either to set a positive trait or identify a potentially negative trait depending upon the choices made. (
  • stem extracts (both aqueous and alcoholic) in differ-ent dosages (200 and 400 mg/ kg b.w) on blood lipid profile in streptozotocin induced dia-betic albino rats was investigated in this study. (
  • White (albino) Strain Code. (
  • 1978. Effects of short-term administration of maleic hydrazide or hydrazine on rat hepatic microsomal enzymes. (
  • The prevalence and type of diseases in mice and rats seen in clinical practice are quite different from those seen in a research setting. (
  • The diagnosis and treatment of pet mice and rats involves evaluation and care of an individual animal from a household, not the health management of rodents from a research colony. (
  • Most problems in mice and rats are dermatopathies, respiratory infections, and neoplasia. (
  • Development of a strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (
  • Rats have an average litter size of 8-18 pups. (
  • The average litter size is 10-12 during optimum production, but is highly strain-dependent. (
  • In addition, the apolipoprotein E concentration of the HDL fraction was significantly increased in the copper-deficient rats. (
  • In the second experiment, the hematocrit was markedly reduced and the plasma volume was significantly increased in the rats fed the copper-deficient diet. (
  • Obesity in pet rats and mice is common, and calorie-restricted pets live significantly longer lives. (
  • In PTX-treated rats there was no change in eCT (2.5 micrograms/rat, ICV)-induced antinociceptive activity (hot-plate test) nor in eCT (100 ng/rat, ICV) inhibition of gastric acid secretion (Shay test) whereas morphine (5 micrograms/rat, ICV) analgesia was significantly reduced. (
  • KLK4 protein levels in rat enamel and β-galactosidase staining in LacZ-C57BL/6-Klk4 (+/LacZ) mouse enamel were both significantly reduced by F(-) treatment. (
  • Since TGF-β1 induces KLK4 expression, we tested and found that F(-) significantly reduced Tgf-β1 transcript levels in rat enamel organ. (
  • and c) in the DEX/CRH test, areas-under-the-curve (AUCs) and CORT delta (peak minus baseline) responses were significantly larger in RLA rats. (
  • Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of MNS.H-Add1 rats was significantly higher (+10 mmHg) than that of MNS, whereas SBP of MHS.N-Add1 was significantly lower (-10 mmHg) than that of MHS. (
  • Verapamil significantly (P less than 0.05) augmented oxotremorine hypothermia in FRL rats. (
  • Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. (
  • As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. (
  • Although a great deal of information has been accumulated on wild and laboratory rats and mice, very little of this information pertains to these rodents as pets. (
  • An intracerebral dialysis method was used in the halothane-anaesthetized rat to further clarify the site which mediates the amphetamine-induced decrease of the striatal dopamine (DA) metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). (
  • Strain differences in the distribution of dopamine transporter sites in rat brain. (
  • The three methods used to selectively breed towards this goal are inbreeding, line breeding, and outcrossing. (
  • The Flinders Sensitive Line of rats (FSL) has been selectively bred to have increased sensitivity to cholinergic drugs. (
  • As a hobby breeder, breeding rats to involves a combination of breeding methods. (
  • The RGD Pathway Portal provides pathway annotations for rat, human and mouse genes and pathway diagrams and suites, all interconnected via the pathway ontology. (
  • The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) is currently being developed at the Rat Genome Database. (
  • These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. (
  • 2. Offspring of rats maintained on a calcium-supplemented (1.2%), vitamin-D-deficient diet were weaned onto the same diet and examined after 8 weeks. (
  • Effects of calcium channel inhibitors on the hypothermic response to oxotremorine in normo and hypercholinergic rats. (
  • We compared the effects of three chemically different calcium channel inhibitors (diltiazem, nicardipine and verapamil) on the hypothermia induced in FRL and FSL rats by oxotremorine (0.2 mg kg-1 s.c. (
  • There were no significant changes in temperature in separate groups of FRL and FSL rats treated with calcium channel inhibitors alone. (
  • In some mammal populations a high inbreeding coefficient can lead to inbreeding depression. (
  • Increasingly inbred and fragmented populations of Plasmodium vivax associated with the eastward decline in malaria transmission across the Southwest Pacific. (
  • Outcrossing can be used to strengthen or add a trait to a line, but it is the inbreeding of those offspring back to the foundation line that helps it to remain true to the original definition of a line. (
  • Such differences in emotionality responses in the 10th generation of selected rats further indicate a possible use of this model to study correlations between trait anxiety and defensive reactions. (
  • Strain susceptibility and resistance to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced enteric tumors in germfree rats (40146). (
  • In vitro studies showed no reduction of eCT binding in the CNS of rats treated with PTX in vivo. (
  • The Guinness Book of World Records (1995 edition) puts Rodney the rat - who lived to be 7 years and 4 months - as the oldest verifi… Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 968 PubMed citations. (
  • Adenosine, inosine, hypoxanthine and guanosine were measured in perfusates collected from the right and left striatum of halothane-anaesthetized naive and 6-hydroxydopamine-denervated rats by using microdialysis. (
  • Different species have different degrees of inbreeding tolerance. (
  • And there are situations, such as when dealing with endangered species, where close inbreeding can be disastrous. (
  • 3H-dialkylhydrazines in the neuroendocrine system and their antigonadotropic effect in rats. (
  • Stress reactivity of the brain noradrenergic system in three rat strains differing in their neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress: implications for susceptibility to stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. (
  • Calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in an experimental rat model of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. (
  • PVG/OrlRj rats are resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) and the induction of autoimmune thyroïditis. (
  • Preclinical experimental transplantation research that is based on microsurgical models in rats fulfills two indispensable conditions for modern organ transplanta tion research: Almost all organ grafts can be performed on the rat with an amount of technical effort that is still justifiable. (
  • A line does not happen over night, it can take years and involves multiple inbred and line bred generations. (
  • Pathway curation for the Pathway Portal involves annotating human, rat, and mouse genes to terms in the PW, which was originated at and continues to evolve at RGD. (
  • Significant elevations in protein and cholesterol contents of HDL and LDL fractions and in triglyceride content of LDL fraction were observed in the copper-deficient rats. (
  • A genome-wide scan was carried out on a segregating F2 population of rats derived from reciprocal intercrosses between two inbred strains of rats. (
  • In a standard F2 intercross between two inbred parental lines there are two alleles at every polymorphic locus that are often referred to as the little "a" allele and big "A" allele. (
  • We have applied these two tests to a putative model of vulnerability to depression in rodents, the Roman high-(RHA) and low-(RLA) Avoidance rat lines. (
  • A distinct neurochemical profile in WKY rats at baseline and in response to acute stress: implications for animal models of anxiety and depression. (
  • Altered hormone levels and circadian rhythm of activity in the WKY rat, a putative animal model of depression. (
  • The present study further analyzed behavioral correlates of two novel breeding lines of rats, Carioca high-and low-conditioned freezing (CHF and CLF), based on defensive freezing responses to contextual cues previously associated with electric footshock. (
  • In electrically stimulated rats, c-fos and NGFI-A mRNA was strongly expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) (predominantly ipsilaterally), area postrema (AP) and in a dorsal subregion of the paratrigeminal nucleus (PTN). (
  • The phytosterol diet increased renal angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. (
  • Moreover, PTX treatment did not change the inhibitory effect of eCT on adenylyl cyclase in isolated membranes from rat striatum in contrast with opiates (DAME and morphine) whose effects were lost. (
  • The effects of the benzodiazepine antagonist, Ro 15-1788 on ethanol withdrawal convulsions were investigated in rats. (
  • This study investigated effects on cardiovascular parameters during anaesthesia with isoflurane (ISO, 2-3 Vol%), ketamine-xylazine (KX, 100 mg kg -1 + 5 mg kg -1 ) or a combination of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF, 0.15 mg kg -1 + 2.0 mg kg -1 + 0.005 mg kg -1 ) in rats throughout induction, maintenance and recovery from anaesthesia. (
  • Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide an accurate and continuous assessment of the cardiovascular effects of three commonly used anaesthetic regimen in rats. (
  • Strain differences in the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs in the rat forced swimming test. (
  • Similarly, in another group of study consisting of 24 rats, the drug was administered orally for 30 days. (
  • In this study, we report the dissection of the individual contribution of each rat Add gene to blood pressure, by congenic substitution mapping. (
  • The objective of our study was to investigate the role of statin treatment on β-adrenergic dysfunction in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes. (
  • The present study assessed the effect of prolonged betamethasone use in ligature-induced periodontitis in adult Fischer-344 rats. (
  • 1. We previously reported that parotid gland secretion is decreased in rats deprived of vitamin D (Glijer, Peterfy & Tenenhouse, 1985). (