Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mice, Inbred DBAChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Mice, Inbred AKRPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Inbred AInbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred CBAAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rats, Inbred BNNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Animals, LaboratoryBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Animals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Mice, Inbred NZBGenome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Rats, Inbred LewKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Mice, Inbred ICRDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (1/25382)A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration. (+info)
Leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor cause dendritic retraction in cultured rat sympathetic neurons. (2/25382)Dendritic retraction occurs in many regions of the developing brain and also after neural injury. However, the molecules that regulate this important regressive process remain largely unknown. Our data indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) cause sympathetic neurons to retract their dendrites in vitro, ultimately leading to an approximately 80% reduction in the size of the arbor. The dendritic retraction induced by LIF exhibited substantial specificity because it was not accompanied by changes in cell number, in the rate of axonal growth, or in the expression of axonal cytoskeletal elements. An antibody to gp130 blocked the effects of LIF and CNTF, and both cytokines induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat3. Moreover, addition of soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor to the medium endowed IL-6 with the ability to cause dendritic regression. These data indicate that ligands activating the gp130 pathway have the ability to profoundly alter neuronal cell shape and polarity by selectively causing the retraction of dendrites. (+info)
Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine. (3/25382)Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations. (+info)
The physiological strain index applied to heat-stressed rats. (4/25382)A physiological strain index (PSI) based on heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Tre) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress in humans. The purpose of this study was to adjust PSI for rats and to evaluate this index at different levels of heat acclimation and training. The corrections of HR and Tre to modify the index for rats are as follows: PSI = 5 (Tre t - Tre 0). (41.5 - Tre 0)-1 + 5 (HRt - HR0). (550 - HR0)-1, where HRt and Tre t are simultaneous measurements taken at any time during the exposure and HR0 and Tre 0 are the initial measurements. The adjusted PSI was applied to five groups (n = 11-14 per group) of acclimated rats (control and 2, 5, 10, and 30 days) exposed for 70 min to a hot climate [40 degrees C, 20% relative humidity (RH)]. A separate database representing two groups of acclimated or trained rats was also used and involved 20 min of low-intensity exercise (O2 consumption approximately 50 ml. min-1. kg-1) at three different climates: normothermic (24 degrees C, 40% RH), hot-wet (35 degrees C, 70% RH), and hot-dry (40 degrees C, 20% RH). In normothermia, rats also performed moderate exercise (O2 consumption approximately 60 ml. min-1. kg-1). The adjusted PSI differentiated among acclimation levels and significantly discriminated among all exposures during low-intensity exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this index was able to assess the individual roles played by heat acclimation and exercise training. (+info)
A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 with a new locus for variant activity of liver aldehyde oxidase. (5/25382)A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 consisting of five loci including a new biochemical marker representing a genetic variation of the activity of the liver aldehyde oxidase, (Aox) was constructed. Linkage analysis of the five loci among 92 backcross progeny of (WKS/Iar x IS/Iar)F1 x WKS/Iar revealed significant linkages between these loci. Minimizing crossover frequency resulted in the best gene order: Aox-D9Mit4-Gls-Cryg-Tp53l1. The homologues of the Cryg, Gls, and Aox genes have been mapped on mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2q. The present findings provide further evidence for the conservation of synteny among these regions of rat, mouse, and human chromosomes. (+info)
Altered renal hemodynamics and impaired myogenic responses in the fawn-hooded rat. (6/25382)The present study examined whether an abnormality in the myogenic response of renal arterioles that impairs autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) contributes to the development of renal damage in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats. Autoregulation of whole kidney, cortical, and medullary blood flow and PGC were compared in young (12 wk old) FHH and fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL) rats in volume-replete and volume-expanded conditions. Baseline RBF, cortical and medullary blood flow, and PGC were significantly greater in FHH than in FHL rats. Autoregulation of renal and cortical blood flow was significantly impaired in FHH rats compared with results obtained in FHL rats. Myogenically mediated autoregulation of PGC was significantly greater in FHL than in FHH rats. PGC rose from 46 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 2 mmHg in response to an increase in renal perfusion pressure from 100 to 150 mmHg in FHH rats, whereas it only increased from 39 +/- 2 to 53 +/- 1 mmHg in FHL rats. Isolated perfused renal interlobular arteries from FHL rats constricted by 10% in response to elevations in transmural pressure from 70 to 120 mmHg. In contrast, the diameter of vessels from FHH rats increased by 15%. These results indicate that the myogenic response of small renal arteries is altered in FHH rats, and this contributes to an impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow and elevations in PGC in this strain. (+info)
Evidence for involvement of B lymphocytes in the surveillance of lung metastasis in the rat. (7/25382)These studies examined the composition of lymphocytes within the lung after the introduction of tumor cells that metastasize to the lung in rats. i.v. delivery of MADB106 tumor cells into syngeneic Fischer 344 rats caused dose- and time-dependent development of lung tumors, with surface metastases evident 7 days after injection and markedly increased 11 days after injection. The total number of lymphocytes recovered from the lung was increased 11 days after injection but not 7 days after injection. When lymphocytes from the lung, spleen, and blood were subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, the most conspicuous change was an increase in the percentage of CD45RA+ cells (i.e., B lymphocytes in the rat) in the lung, with no changes seen in the percentage of natural killer (NKR-P1+), CD4+, or CD8+ cells in the lung. Analysis of the time course showed that B lymphocytes increased in the lung soon after i.v. tumor injection, with an initial peak seen 6 h after injection. Rapid influx of B lymphocytes into lung after i.v. tumor cell injection was also observed in another syngeneic tumor model, i.e., after injection of CC531 cells into WAG rats. To determine whether the influx of B lymphocytes into the lung might participate in tumor surveillance, a high dose of antibody (100 microg) to rat B lymphocytes was given to immunoneutralize these cells; this produced an increase in lung tumors in both models. Finally, Fischer 344 rats were given a s.c. injection of MADB106 tumor cells that made them resistant to lung tumors when given a later i.v. injection of these tumor cells. These animals were found to have an elevated level of B lymphocytes residing in the lung associated with the resistance to lung tumor. These findings suggest that early responses of B lymphocytes are important in protection against tumor development in two rat models of cancer. (+info)
Ethylnitrosourea-induced development of malignant schwannomas in the rat: two distinct loci on chromosome of 10 involved in tumor susceptibility and oncogenesis. (8/25382)Inbred rodent strains with differing sensitivity to experimental tumor induction provide model systems for the detection of genes that either are responsible for cancer predisposition or modify the process of carcinogenesis. Rats of the inbred BD strains differ in their susceptibility to the induction of neural tumors by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). Newborn BDIX rats that are exposed to EtNU (80 microg/g body weight; injected s.c.) develop malignant schwannomas predominantly of the trigeminal nerves with an incidence >85%, whereas BDIV rats are entirely resistant. A T:A-->A:T transversion mutation at nucleotide 2012 of the neu (erbB-2) gene on chromosome 10, presumably the initial event in EtNU-induced schwannoma development, is later followed by loss of the wild-type neu allele. Genetic crosses between BDIX and BDIV rats served: (a) to investigate the inheritance of susceptibility; (b) to obtain animals informative for the mapping of losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumors with polymorphic simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs); and (c) to localize genes associated with schwannoma susceptibility by linkage analysis with SSLPs. Schwannoma development was strongly suppressed in F1 animals (20% incidence). All of the F1 schwannomas displayed LOH on chromosome 10, with a consensus region on the telomeric tip encompassing D10Rat3, D10Mgh16 and D10Rat2 but excluding neu. A strong bias toward losing the BDIV alleles suggests the involvement of a BDIV-specific tumor suppressor gene(s). Targeted linkage analysis with chromosome 10 SSLPs in F2 intercross and backcross animals localized schwannoma susceptibility to a region around D10Wox23, 30 cM centromeric to the tip. Ninety-four % of F1 tumors exhibited additional LOH at this region. Two distinct loci on chromosome 10 may thus be connected with susceptibility to the induction and development of schwannomas in rats exposed to EtNU. (+info)
Although it is now well documented (6, 8) that pial as well as intracerebral vessels are amply supplied with sympathetic adrenergic nerves which, as shown for pial arteries, fulfill ultra-structural...
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Alterations in protein synthesis in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells were examined after their exposure to the potent carcinogens, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Co-planar PCB congeners (3,4,5,3′,4′-PCB and 3,4,5,3′,4′,5′-PCB) (10 nM) induced a protein, the Mr of which was 25,000 (25 k protein) under denaturing conditions. However, non-co-planar PCB congeners and several xenobiotics, which induce microsomal proteins, did not induce the 25 k protein. By using immunoblotting, the 25 k protein was identified as glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P, 7-7, EC 18.104.22.168).. ...
The expression and induction of the cytochrome P450 2B1/2 isoenzyme is heterogeneous, exhibiting a regional pattern in the intact liver and a varied response to phenobarbital in isolated cultured hepatocytes. We report that P450 2B1/2 immunostaining of hepatocytes isolated from the perivenous liver region and cultured in the presence of phenobarbital is much stronger than that of cells identically treated but isolated from the periportal region. P450 2B1 mRNA, quantified by a sensitive and specific RNAase protection assay, is also preferentially induced in perivenous hepatocytes, demonstrating that the difference in induced expression is at the pretranslational level. Our results suggest that perivenous and periportal hepatocytes are differentially imprinted to retain regiospecific factors governing their inducibility after isolation.. ...
Visual pathways and acuity hooded rats.: Three experiments on the effects of lesions of the visual system on contrast-detection in hooded rats are described, in
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We have studied the effect of glucagon on the expression of a triiodothyronine (T3) and carbohydrate-inducible mRNA sequence (mRNA-S14) in rat liver that undergoes a threefold diurnal variation (peak, 2200 h; nadir, 0800 h). Glucagon injection into euthyroid rats (25 micrograms/100 g body wt i.p., three doses at 15-min intervals) during the nocturnal plateau of mRNA-S14 caused a monoexponential disappearance of this sequence (t1/2, 90 min) accompanied by a 90% reduction in the transcriptional rate in a nuclear run-off assay, indicative of a near total reduction of synthesis. This effect was markedly attenuated in rats treated with T3 (200 micrograms/100 g body wt i.p.) 24 h before glucagon injection. When T3 was given 15 min after glucagon, the glucagon-initiated decline in mRNA-S14 was reversed within 90 min, suggesting a rapid interaction between the two hormones in the evening. Curiously, administration of T3 alone at this hour did not affect a significant increase in mRNA-S14. At 0800 h, ...
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Reference: Klimenko A.I., Age-related characteristics of the concentration of RNA, DNA and proteins in the nuclei of rat liver cells following hydrocortisone induction, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(6), 615-619 ...
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Fakulteta za informacijske študije v Novem mestu je pred kratkim v Dolenjskih Toplicah organizirala zaključni dogodek projekta COSMOS. V interdisciplinarnem projektu s področja matematičnega modeliranja zapletenih sistemov je sodelovalo 15 študentov, ki so pod vodstvom 15 mentorjev pripravljali doktorat.
This study was conducted to compare the effects of n-6 linoleic acid and n-3 linolenic acid on lipid peroxidation and the activities of enzymes defending against oxidation, which are involved in the tumor promotion, and histolOgical changes of hepatocarcinogen treated rat liver. In this study, weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of three diets, containing 15% (w/w) of beef fat (BF), com oil (CO) or perilla oil (PO), for 11 weeks. During the 3rd week, experimental groups were injected with 2-AAF (50 mg/kg of BW) intraperitoneally 3 times. Findings show that the com oil diet group has greater liver MDA content than the beef fat and perilla oil diet groups. Also, it is observed that the perilla oil diet group has lower MDA content than beef fat and com oil diet groups, even though perilla oil is more desaturated than beef fat and com oil. In terms of activity, mixed-function oxidase activity is not Significantly affected by the different dietary fats and 2-AAF treatment. GSH-peroxidase, ...
The acute pulmonary responses after exposure to sulfur and nitrogen mustards are well documented whereas the late pulmonary effects are not. With a novel focus on the immune system this paper investigate whether late phase pulmonary effects developed in rats exposed to the nitrogen mustard melphalan are linked to the acute responses and whether the reactions are genetically regulated. The DA rat strain was used to establish a lung exposure model. Five other inbred rat strains (PVG, PVG.1AV1, LEW, WF and F344) were compared within the model at selected time points. All rat strains displayed a biphasic pattern of leukocyte infiltration in the lungs, dominated by neutrophils 2 days after exposure and a second peak dominated by macrophages 29 days after exposure. The number of macrophages was higher in the DA rat compared with the other strains. The infiltration of lymphocytes in the lungs varied in both time of appearance and magnitude between strains. The quantity of collagen deposition in the ...
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Evidence was presented to indicate that the binding of benzo(a)pyrene (50328) (BaP) to a protein in rat liver cytosol facilitates its oxidation by microsomal enzymes. Cytosols were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley-rats. Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography of rat liver cytosol saturated with carbon- 14 labeled BaP resulted in two peaks of protein bound radioactivity. Glutathione-S-transfe
Sedlis, A and Stone, D F., "Experimental carcinogenesis in pregnant mice, a preliminary report." (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 820 ...
Chlorophyll (Ch) a, b and total content (µg g FW−1) measured in fully developed leaves of Citrus macrophylla seedlings grown for 25 days in B-normal (50 μM,
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Το KC-53 είναι ένα νεοσυντιθέμενο biyouyanagin ανάλογο μόριο με γνωστή ισχυρή αντιφλεγμονώδη και αντιική δράση. Στην παρούσα εργασία, διερευνήσαμε την αντιπολλαπλασιαστική του δράση σε 13 αντιπροσωπευτικές ανθρώπινες ...
Periodical: Sokoloff, Louis, Martin Reivich, Charles Kennedy, M. H. Des Rosiers, C. S. Patlak, K. D. Pettigrew, O. Sakurada, and M. Shinohara. The [14C]Deoxyglucose Method for the Measurement of Local Cerebral Glucose Utilization: Theory, Procedure, and Normal Values in the Conscious and Anesthetized Albino Rat. Journal of Neurochemistry 28, 5 (1977): 897-916. Article. 20 Images ...
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... : IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement by neuropeptide γ of DNA synthesis stimulated with EGF or TGFα in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. AU - Hasegawa, K.. AU - Carr, B. I.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - DNA synthesis was stimulated by primary (complete) mitogens such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transforming growth factor α (TGFα) in adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Addition of neuropeptide γ (10-9 M) to the hepatocyte culture amplified the stimulatory effect of EGF or TGFα by 5- to 6-fold. Neuropeptide γ-amplified DNA synthesis was observed in a dose-dependent manner with maximal effect at 10-9 to 10-7 M, although it effect was significantly observed at as low as 10-10 M. Neuropeptide γ by itself did not stimulate DNA synthesis in the absence of EGF. Amplification of DNA synthesis by neuropeptide γ was observed when hepatocytes were cultured in Williams medium E, but not in Leibovitz L-15 medium, suggesting that culture medium enriched with nutrients is required for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor-mediated uptake of human α1-acid glycoprotein into liver parenchymal cells in mice. AU - Matsumoto, Kazuaki. AU - Nishi, Koji. AU - Kikuchi, Mari. AU - Watanabe, Hiroshi. AU - Nakajou, Keisuke. AU - Komori, Hisakazu. AU - Kadowaki, Daisuke. AU - Suenaga, Ayaka. AU - Maruyama, Toru. AU - Otagiri, Masaki. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Human α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a serum glycoprotein, is thought to have anti-inflammatory effects by a mechanism that is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of AGP in mice using enzymatically modified AGP (AGP with the sialic acids removed, asialo-AGP, and with both sialic acids and galactose removed, agalacto-AGP). It was observed that AGP was eliminated from the circulation slowly, and was mainly taken up by the liver. The elimination of labeled AGP, asialo-AGP and agalacto-AGP from the circulation was suppressed in the presence of excess unlabeled AGP, asialo-AGP and agalacto-AGP, ...
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DRH strain rats are a unique experimental model in which to study chemically induced liver carcinogenesis. They have been selected from a closed colony of Donryu rats fed 3′-Me-DAB by sister-brother mating for over 40 generations. Their resistance to hepatocarcinogens has been suggested to be genetically dominant (15) . In the present study, we focused on genetic control in the induction of preneoplastic lesions. Five phenotypic parameters were selected to quantitatively describe the preneoplastic lesions; i.e., the number of GST-P-positive foci, the percentage of liver area occupied by EAF, the size of the foci, and the amounts of GST-P as well as GGT mRNA. Their phenotypic values were mutually closely interrelated [for instance, percentage of liver area occupied by EAF and GST-P mRNA (r = 0.763)], but still they seemed under differential genetic control by combinations of host loci. No single phenotypic parameter was controlled by a single locus. The contributions of the loci to phenotype ...
Changes in binding of dexamethasone (9α-fluoro-11β, 17α,21-trihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione) to its receptors in regenerating rat liver after 70% hepatectomy were examined. Specific receptors for dexamethasone in the liver remnants of adrenalectomized rats decreased significantly during the period of DNA synthesis after 70% hepatectomy; then, they increased to above the control values between Days 4 and 7 after partial hepatectomy and subsequently returned to the control values. During the period of DNA synthesis, decreased binding was observed in partially hepatectomized rats with or without adrenals, but later enhanced binding was not prominent in rats with adrenals.. ...
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Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) has been cited in 35 publications. References for Mouse, Rat, Rabbit in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IF, IHC-FrFl, IHC-P, WB
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Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in the rat extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles regenerating from notexin-induced necrosis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-response characteristics for effects of insulin on production and utilization of glucose in man.. AU - Rizza, R. A.. AU - Mandarino, L. J.. AU - Gerich, J. E.. PY - 1981/6/1. Y1 - 1981/6/1. N2 - To determine the dose-response characteristics for the effects of insulin on glucose production, glucose utilization, and overall glucose metabolism in normal man, 15 healthy subjects were infused with insulin for 8 h at sequential rates ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 mU.kg-1.min-1; each rate was used for 2 h. Glucose production and utilization were measured isotopically ([3-3H]glucose). Tissue insulin receptor occupancy was estimated from erythrocyte insulin binding. Glucose production was completely suppressed at plasma insulin concentrations of approximately 60 microunits/ml. Maximal glucose utilization (10-11 mg.kg-1.min-1) occurred at insulin concentrations of 200-700 microunits/ml. The concentration of insulin causing half-maximal glucose utilization (55 + 7 microunits/ml) was ...
When HRP was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), labelled amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) were consistently localized in the subcortical white matter and circumventricular zones in early postnatal (1 and 7 days old) but absent in late postnatal (14-day-old) rats. The ingested HRP disappeared from the labelled cells 5 days after IP injection. Subcutaneous injection of HRP had also resulted in the labelling of amoeboid microglial cells in the corpus callosum of early postnatal rats. When the injected HRP was followed ultrastructurally over a time course sequence in intravenously (i.v.) injected rats, it was first detected in the invaginations on the luminal side of endothelium and in the endothelial cytoplasm 30 min after injection. HRP was present both in the endothelium and amoeboid microglial cells 3 hours later. With time, the tracer was progressively accumulated in the cytoplasm of AMC and it was sequestered in the vacuoles and lysosomes. It is concluded from this study that when injected ...
Schwartz WJ, Zimmerman P. Circadian timekeeping in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. J Neurosci. 1990; 10: 3685-3694. ... They found in albino rats that Fos has altered immunoreactive levels in a phase-dependent manner when exposed to light. This ... Sumová A, Trávnícková Z, Peters R, Schwartz WJ, Illnerová H. The rat suprachiasmatic nucleus is a clock for all seasons. Proc ... Light regulates expression of a Fos-related protein in rat suprachiasmatic nuclei. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990; 87: 5959-5962 ...
... of the WAG/Rij inbred rat strain: a classical mendelian crossbreeding study". Behavior Genetics. 22 (3): 361-8. doi:10.1007/ ... van Luijtelaar ELJM; van der Staay FJ; Kerbusch JML (August 1989). "Spatial memory in rats: a cross validation study". The ... Peeters BWMM; Kerbusch JML; van Luijtelaar ELJM; Vossen JMH; Coenen AML (May 1990). "Genetics of absence epilepsy in rats". ...
NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... Developed obese and diabetic mutant rat models: WNIN/GR-Ob, WNIN/Ob, WNIN/Ob-IGT, to serve as pre-clinical animal models in ... K. S. Jayaraman (2005). "'Sumo' rats set researchers on hunt for obesity genes". Nature Medicine. 11 (2): 108. doi:10.1038/ ... a novel rat model of premature aging". Neuroscience. 269: 256-64. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.03.040. PMID 24709042. "New ...
Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for particular traits, often of medical interest, e.g. body size, obesity ... Cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) - formerly used in polio research. Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) - an important respiratory and ... Pseudomonas fluorescens, a soil bacterium that readily diversifies into different strains in the lab. Azotobacter vinelandii, a ... Quantitative genetics, Molecular evolution, Genomics) Naked mole-rat, (Heterocephalus glaber), studied for their characteristic ...
... of emotionality in rats and his discovery that a single dominant gene led to acoustical traumas in one inbred strain of mice". ... This work extended his mentor Tryon's earlier rat demonstration that they could be bred to do well or poorly in learning a maze ...
Main article: Biobreeding rat. Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that ... Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory. *Rat Model Summary database, Knock Out Rat Consortium (archived copy ... Brattleboro rat. Main article: Brattleboro rat. The Brattleboro rat is a strain that was developed by Henry Schroeder and ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ...
West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ... Rats have also been used in the diet-induced obesity model. Commonly used in medical research, rats were specifically chosen to ... Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. Some common mouse strains show large ... This has led to cases of studies that used the same strain of mice concluding that the strain is prone to becoming obese in one ...
Effects of Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata on exploratory behaviour of an inbred mouse strain. Laboratory Animal ... An example of this behaviour is the attraction of rats to cat urine after infection with Toxoplasma gondii. In some cases the ... Berdoy, M.F., Webster, J. P & MacDonald, D. W. (2000) Fatal Attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of ...
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits), but populations of ... Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits, guinea-pigs and ferrets. ... rats, guinea pigs and cats. Examples of pet mammals artificially selected for albinism Intentionally bred albinistic strains of ... The Okinawa strain of this species is deficient in [His7]-corazonin and is albino. One of the typical features of Locusta ...
However, certain strains have been known to be quite temperamental. Mice and rats have the same organs in the same places, with ... The average litter size is 10-12 during optimum production, but is highly strain-dependent. As a general rule, inbred mice tend ... These terms are also used to refer to the various growth stages of rats (see Fancy rat). List of fictional mice and rats ... Like pet rats, pet mice should not be left unsupervised outside as they have many natural predators, including (but not limited ...
... strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the ... Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different ... Congenic strains are discussed in detail in Lee Silver's online book Mouse Genetics: Concepts and Applications: "Mouse Genetics ... November 1997). "Theoretical and empirical issues for marker-assisted breeding of congenic mouse strains". Nat. Genet. 17 (3): ...
... rats, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.760.080 --- rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 --- rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050. ... rats, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520.760.080 --- rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.199.520.760.090 --- rats, inbred bb MeSH ... rats, inbred buf MeSH B01.050.157.760.165 --- rats, inbred dahl MeSH B01.050.157.760.200 --- rats, inbred f344 MeSH B01.050. ... rats, inbred lew MeSH B01.050.157.760.290 --- rats, inbred oletf MeSH B01.050.157.760.300 --- rats, inbred shr MeSH B01.050. ...
... in fluid dynamics and transport phenomena Lewis rat, an inbred strain of laboratory rat Lewis structure, a diagram of a ...
... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... "Rules and guidelines for nomenclature of mouse and rat strains". "Outbred stocks". Crow JF (August 2002). "C. C. Little, cancer ... There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ... Many (but not all) laboratory strains are inbred. The different strains are identified with specific letter-digit combinations ...
Weber, M; Swerdlow, N (2008). "Rat strain differences in startle gating-disruptive effects of apomorphine occur with both ... Paylor, R; Crawley, Jacqueline N (1997). "Inbred strain differences in prepulse inhibition of the mouse startle response". ... Baseline startle response does not affect overall PPI levels - this finding was first discovered in rat studies and later ... Possible hearing impairment must be taken into account, as, for example, several strains of mice develop high frequency hearing ...
In mice, large differences in learning ability exist among different inbred strains. These differences appear to be correlated ... As a result, the rat always has eight possible options. Elaborate controls are used to ensure that the rats are not simply ... Working memory is assessed when the rats enter each arm a single time. Re-entry into the arms would result in a working memory ... The design ensures that, after checking for food at the end of each arm, the rat is always forced to return to the central ...
... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... The rat (Rattus norvegicus) is particularly useful as a toxicology model, and as a neurological model and source of primary ... The classic model vertebrate is currently the mouse (Mus musculus). Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for ... This usually will include characteristics such as short life-cycle, techniques for genetic manipulation (inbred strains, stem ...
These initial observations led to the development of two breeding colonies: (i) a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... Since then, the GAERS has been recognized as a very predictive model for Absence Epilepsy, along with the WAG/Rij rat model. ...
In 2004, Hornig published a controversial paper concluding that, in a highly inbred strain of mice which is unusually ... based on neonatal rat infection with Borna disease virus. ... Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain ... Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin WI (September 2004). "Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent". Mol. ... Davis were unable to reproduce Hornig's results despite using the same strain of mice and ten times the amount of mercury used ...
Strains are used in laboratory experiments. Mouse strains can be inbred, mutated or genetically engineered, while rat strains ... Coli Genetic Stock Center EcoliWiki E. coli strain index International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) Rat strain index. ... A mouse or a rat strain is a group of animals that is genetically uniform. ... The rice plants in the strain can be bred to other rice strains or cultivars, and if desirable plants are produced, these are ...
Rat Genome Rat Genome Database Charles River Laboratories Harlan Sprague Dawley Jax Index of Inbred Rat Strains Knock Out Rat ... Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune ... A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rats were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like ...
"History of inbred strains". Retrieved 2013-12-19. "Rat strains". isogenic.info. Retrieved 2017-11-30. "History of inbred ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... use Backcrossing Linebreeding Recombinant inbred strain Coisogenic strain Congenic strain Inbreeding depression Inbreeding ... "History of inbred strains". isogenic.info. Retrieved 2017-11-30. Dixon LK (1993). "Use of recombinant inbred strains to map ...
... also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ... 12 and 14 have been shown to be linked to Type 1 Diabetes in the BB rat. BB rats are the most extensively studied rat model of ... Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... Subsequent BB rat colonies were established. One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another ...
Between 2005 and 2007, virtually all extant mouse and rat recombinant inbred strains were regenotyped at many thousands of SNP ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...
Other factors that make the species a desirable test subject are the existence of inbred strains, ease of handling, and ... The tawny-bellied cotton rat occurs in the same area as the closely related hispid cotton rat, with the former occupying the ... Cotton rats combine the best traits of human-like lung granuloma formation (trait of rabbits) and inexpensive care (trait of ... The tawny-bellied cotton rat is used as a model organism to develop and test human pathogen treatments. It is affected by many ...
Inbreeding depression. Factors influencing the litter size of puppies and the proportion of stillborn puppies per litter ... which place greater strain on the vertebrae. About 20-25% of dachshunds will develop IVDD. ... enter tunnels with dead ends and obstacles attempting to locate an artificial bait or live but caged and protected rats. ... Gresky C, Hamann H, Distl O (2005). "[Influence of inbreeding on litter size and the proportion of stillborn puppies in ...
4. Strains Made from Multiple Inbred Strains. 4.1 Recombinant Inbred Strains. 4.2 Collaborative Cross Strains. 4.3 Mixed Inbred ... 4.3 Mixed Inbred Strains. Incipient inbred stocks or inbred strains that are derived from up to three parental strains (one of ... 1.2 Rats. 2. Laboratory codes. 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 Indication ... 5.2 Congenic Strains. 5.3 Chromosome Substitution or Consomic Strains. 5.3.1 Consomic Strains 5.4 Segregating Inbred Strains. ...
Rats, Inbred BN · Rats, Inbred Strains Vitamin A Rats of two strains (BN/BiRij and WAG/Rij) were fed the ethanol-containing ... rat strain · Aging · Animal · Biometry · Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation · Male · Muscles · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains ... Rat · Animal · Hemangiosarcoma · Liver Neoplasms · Male · Microscopy, Electron · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains · Sarcoma, ... X ray · Animal · Cell Survival · Comparative Study · Rats · Rats, Inbred Strains · Rhabdomyosarcoma · Sarcoma, Experimental · ...
... background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a ... The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively ... and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain ... resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a ...
Transcriptome Profiling in Rat Inbred Strains and Experimental Cross Reveals Discrepant Genetic Architecture of Genome-Wide ... Transcriptome Profiling in Rat Inbred Strains and Experimental Cross Reveals Discrepant Genetic Architecture of Genome-Wide ... Transcriptome Profiling in Rat Inbred Strains and Experimental Cross Reveals Discrepant Genetic Architecture of Genome-Wide ... Transcriptome Profiling in Rat Inbred Strains and Experimental Cross Reveals Discrepant Genetic Architecture of Genome-Wide ...
Two inbred rat strains have been selected: the BN/hsdCpb which is characterised by a relatively low fertility and the GK/mol, a ... The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains ... The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains. Speech ... In addition, a macroscopical pathological evaluation of all rats at autopsy will be performed, after the reproductional phase ...
Effects of acromelic acid A on the binding of [3H]-kainic acid and [3H]-AMPA to rat brain synaptic plasma membranes.. ... The striatum and the globus pallidus send convergent synaptic inputs onto single cells in the entopeduncular nucleus of the rat ... Convergence of synaptic inputs from the striatum and the globus pallidus onto identified nigrocollicular cells in the rat: a ... The anterograde and retrograde transport of neurobiotin in the central nervous system of the rat: comparison with biocytin.. ...
Neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata receive a dense GABA-containing input from the globus pallidus in the rat.. ... Colocalization of glycine-like and GABA-like immunoreactivities in Golgi cell terminals in the rat cerebellum: a postembedding ... Simultaneous recording of local electrical activity, partial oxygen tension and temperature in the rat hippocampus with a ... Cholinergic synaptic input to different parts of spiny striatonigral neurons in the rat.. ...
Effect of a thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor on the dyslipoproteinemia of an inbred rat strain with spontaneous age-related ... Effect of a thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor on the dyslipoproteinemia of an inbred rat strain with spontaneous age-related ... reduced the progression of glomerular lesions and proteinuria in MNS rats, an inbred strain which develops an age-related ... in T-MNS-rats. A significant increase of apo A-I/apo E ratio was found in C-MNS rats from 28 (2.28+/-0.36) to 48 weeks of age ( ...
Main article: Biobreeding rat. Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that ... Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory. *Rat Model Summary database, Knock Out Rat Consortium (archived copy ... Brattleboro rat. Main article: Brattleboro rat. The Brattleboro rat is a strain that was developed by Henry Schroeder and ... The Sprague Dawley rat and Long-Evans rat were developed from Wistar rats. Wistar rats are more active than others like Sprague ...
We have studied PACAP-like immunoreactivity in the pancreas of rat and mouse, and the effects of PACAP-38 on basal and ... Rats, Inbred Strains Substances * Adcyap1 protein, mouse * Adcyap1 protein, rat * Blood Glucose ... We have studied PACAP-like immunoreactivity in the pancreas of rat and mouse, and the effects of PACAP-38 on basal and ... Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated the presence of PACAP-like immunoreactivity in nerve fibers in both the rat and mouse ...
Rats learned to self-administer d-amphetamine (10 micrograms/microliter) through a cannula implanted in the nucleus accumbens. ... Rats, Inbred Strains * Reinforcement, Psychology* * Self Administration Substances * Dextroamphetamine Grant support * DA 01672 ... Rats learned to self-administer d-amphetamine (10 micrograms/microliter) through a cannula implanted in the nucleus accumbens. ... In tests for leakage into the ventricles, eight rats that self-injected with an accumbens cannula showed response extinction ...
Inbred Strains of Rats: OXYS. OXYS Inbr.F>75. Colour: Albino. Genet. c. Origin: Developed in 1972 at the Institute of Cytology ... INBRED STRAINS OF RATS. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Inherited enhancement of hydroxyl radical generation and lipid peroxidation in the S strain rats results in DNA rearrangments, ... since this S symbol has previously been used to designate the Dahl Salt Sensitive strain the symbol assigned to the strain is ...
The inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), when compared with each other, display high and ... Two inbred rat strains contrasting for anxiety-related behaviors show similar levels of defensive responses to cat odor. ... Ramos A, Berton O, Mormede P, Chaouloff F: A multiple-test study of anxiety-related behaviors in six inbred rat strains. Behav ... The objective of the present study was thus to compare the LEW (Lewis) and SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) inbred rat ...
Genetic Monitoring of Inbred Strains of Rats. New York: Gustav, Fischer Verlag. 539 pp. ... Standardized nomenclature for inbred strains of rats. Fourth listing. Transplantation 16(3):221-245. ... Rules for the nomenclature of inbred strains. Pp.368-372 in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, M. C. Green. ... inbred rats (Festing and Staats 1973; Gill 1984; NRC 1992a), inbred mice (International Committee on Standardized Genetic ...
The effect of halothane on mesenteric intralymphatic pressure was examined in 20 rats. Following administration of 1.5% ... Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. Time Factors. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 151-67-7/Halothane ... The effect of halothane on mesenteric intralymphatic pressure was examined in 20 rats. Following administration of 1.5% ...
... during exercise was investigated in chronically catheterized rats. Supranormal hepatic glycogen levels were obtained by a 24-h ... Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. Running*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Catecholamines; 0/Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0/Lactates ... and liver glucogen breakdown was larger in fasted-refed compared with control rats, although the stimuli for Ra were higher in ... in control compared with fasted-refed rats. Also, plasma concentrations of glucagon and both catecholamines tended to be higher ...
Inbred BALB C, Rats, Rats; Inbred Strains, Species Specificity, Toxicity Tests/methods National Category Medical and Health ... In paper III the use of peripheral blood lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse to detect species differences in cellular ... The effect of 17 different cytotoxic drugs on lymphocytes from human, dog, rat and mouse was evaluated. A higher sensitivity of ...
Heart size in inbred strains of rats. Part 1. Genetic determination of the development of cardiovascular enlargement in rats ... The hypertrophic heart rat : a new normotensive model of genetic cardiac and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy HARRAP SB ... Assessment of Rat-Mouse Sequence Homology in the NIA 15K Clone Library : Implications for Gene Expression Studies in Species ... Activation of NF-kappa B is required for hypertrophic growth of primary rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes PURCELL NH. ...
1985) Alcohol preference and brain monoamines in five inbred strains. IRCS Med Sci 13:1192-1193. ... Male Wistar rats (Charles River) weighing between 400-600 gm at the time of testing were used. The rats were housed in groups ... 1987) Re-examination of the relationship between alcohol preference and brain monoamines in inbred strains of mice including ... To keep caloric intake and body weights in rats maintained on control diet equal to that of ethanol-exposed rats, a pair- ...
Heart size in inbred strains of rats. Part 1. Genetic determinationof the development of cardiovascular enlargement in rats. ... Strain-specific deletions in exon 10 of rat K-kininogen andT1-kininogen genes allow mapping of both genes to rat chromosome11. ... Between 1992 and 2000, 21papers1-21were published that used rats from inbred colonies in Melbourne and Tokyo thatwere believed ... These rats were thought tohave been the same strain as DRY used by Dr Tanase in early breedingexperiments in relation to blood ...
Erythrocyte B1 Antigen in Inbred Rat Strains B. Frenzl, R. Brdička, V. Křen, O. Štark ... Blood Groups in Chickens, Ducks, Rabbits, Rats and Mink. * Front Matter Pages 171-171 ... Red Cell Antigenic Polymorphism in a Strain of the Wyandotte Hen (M 11) ...
Rodgers, D.A. Factors underlying differences in alcohol preference among inbred strains of mice. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1966, ... Myers, R.D., and Melchior, C.L. Dietary tryptophan and the selection of ethyl alcohol in different strains of rats. ... Amir, S. Brain and liver aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and voluntary ethanol consumption by rats: Relations to strain, sex ... Eriksson, C.J.P. Ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism in rat strains genetically selected for their ethanol preference. ...
Strong genetic influences on measures of behavioral-regulation among inbred rat strains. Genes, Brain and Behavior. Volume 12, ... Mediation of oxidative stress in hypothalamic ghrelin-associated appetite control in rats treated with phenylpropanolamine. ...
Rats, Inbred Strains. Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC access!. Take advantage of free CureHunter research ... Focal ischmia was induced in rat by clipping a left middle cerebral artery by Zens clip. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and ...
... of acid and hyperosmolal solution suppresses pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion but not histamine mobilization in the rat ... Rats. *Rats, Inbred Strains. *Sodium Chloride (administration & dosage) Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC ... In chronic gastric fistula rats provided with a duodenal loop anastomosed to the jejunum (Roux-en-Y), maximal stimulation of ... of acid and hyperosmolal solution suppresses pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion but not histamine mobilization in the rat ...
Among inbredMice and ratsHypertensionHypertensiveVarious strains of inbredRecombinant Inbred StrainsBehaviorNucleus AccumbensGenomeDopamine1979Highly inbredColonies1994GenotypeAnalysesHybridsCongenic strainF344PhysiologicalParentalC57BLChromosomeWistar Kyoto1995BehavioralGeneBrainFischerBALBAdultPhenotypicKyoto UniversityResponse to amphetamine1971Albino ratLiverDrosophila1985Brown NorwayTraitLesionsStimuliTransientNorwayNomenclatureMusculus
- One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and Flybase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes, from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and Coisogenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
- The continuous nature of the distribution of PPI responses among inbred strains of mice indicates that PPI is a polygenic trait. (nih.gov)
- In addition to our work on aggressive behaviors, we have demonstrated differences among inbred mouse strains in sociability, using a social choice behavioral paradigm (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
- Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (jax.org)
- The genetic analysis of a multifactorial disease in experimental animals such as mice and rats is much more revealing than that of a similar disease in human subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This essay presents some practical advice and suggestions for those who wish to use mice and rats in experiments on the biology of aging. (afar.org)
- This article is intended to convey some rules-of-thumb for investigators just starting to think about the design of experiments on aging using mice and rats. (afar.org)
- In addition the word "mice" will be used throughout to mean "mice and rats," except in those cases where mice are different from rats. (afar.org)
- Thousands of mice and rats are specially bred each year throughout the world for biological, biomedical, and behavioral research. (encyclopedia.com)
- Use of mice and rats continues to follow this general pattern although micro-methods have made mice more available for physiological research and the collection of more genetic information about rats has made them more available to geneticists. (encyclopedia.com)
- We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly "outbred" colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. (g3journal.org)
- Genetic crosses involving multiple inbred lines are hugely powerful for genetic experiments, but true inbred strains of mammals are rare outside of "model" rodents such as mice and rats. (g3journal.org)
- In both mice and rats, ethanol- and cocaine-induced Fos immunoreactivity occured exclusively in urocortin 1-, but not in tyrosine hydroxylase-, positive cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Set the standard for industry quality with its International Health Monitoring System, an enduring health quality program for mice and rats. (taconic.com)
- 1960 Herman Brant and Paul Quimby of Taconic learn how to raise germ-free mice and rats at the Lobund Institute at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana. (taconic.com)
- 1985 Awarded contract from the National Institute of Environmental Health Science to raise various strains of inbred/hybrid mice and rats. (taconic.com)
- Awarded contract to supply MPF and germ-free mice and rats for the NASA Space Science shuttle missions. (taconic.com)
- Other studies are designed to determine the genetic and physiological basis of protection from salt-induced hypertension resulting from the introgression of chromosome 13 from a normal Brown Norway rat into a Dahl salt-sensitive rat. (mcw.edu)
- The SHR.BN- D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain represents an important new model for fine mapping and characterization of genes on chromosome 1 involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- The spontaneously hypertensive rat is the most widely used animal model of human essential hypertension and has been studied extensively using physiological and biochemical approaches. (ahajournals.org)
- In contrast to studies in segregating populations, chromosome transfer studies in congenic strains can be used to isolate chromosome regions that contain BP QTL and to test directly their importance in the pathogenesis of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- These findings suggest that we have isolated a QTL-regulating blood pressure on chromosome 1 in the rat that appears to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of spontaneous hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- Okamoto and Aoki 1 in 1963 selectively bred Wistar rats to spontaneously develop hypertension. (scielo.br)
- Recognized as an inbred strain in 1969 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is accepted as the most studied animal model of essential hypertension. (scielo.br)
- Regional differences in brain norepinephrine and dopamine uptake kinetics in inbred rat strains with hypertension and/or hyperactivity. (semanticscholar.org)
- The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/Jr) rat is an extensively used model of salt-sensitive hypertension that exhibits concomitant renal disease. (deepdyve.com)
- First, establishment of comprehensive and efficient high-throughput screening setups will be challenging, although the rat has already been used for decades as the primary model organism in, for example, behavioral neurobiology, hypertension, and diabetes research. (genetics.org)
- The SS rat develops a low-renin form of hypertension when fed a high-salt diet and is also insulin resistant and hyperlipidemic ( 7 , 23 , 30 , 35 , 40 ). (physiology.org)
- The objective of the present study was thus to compare the LEW (Lewis) and SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) inbred rat strains, which display genetic differences in other classical models of anxiety, in the cat odor test. (biomedcentral.com)
- The inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), when compared with each other, display high and low basal indices of anxiety-related behaviors, respectively, when tested in classical anxiety models. (biomedcentral.com)
- These rats were thought tohave been the same strain as DRY used by Dr Tanase in early breedingexperiments in relation to blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR). (ahajournals.org)
- Increased levels of bradykinin and its metabolites in tissues ofyoung spontaneously hypertensive rats. (ahajournals.org)
- Angiotensin peptides in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensiveDonryu rats. (ahajournals.org)
- Converting enzyme inhibitor treatment and its withdrawal inspontaneously hypertensive rats. (ahajournals.org)
- 14. Knardahl S, Sagvolden T. (1979) Open-field behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (mcmaster.ca)
- 1979) Patterns of behavioral development in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto normotensive controls. (mcmaster.ca)
- 16. Mook DM, Jeffrey J, Neuringer A. (1993) Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) readily learn to vary but not repeat instrumental responses. (mcmaster.ca)
- 17. Moser M-B, Moser EI, Wultz B, Sagvolden T. (1988) Component analyses differentiate between exploratory behaviour of spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats in a two- compartment free-exploration open field. (mcmaster.ca)
- 18. Myers MM, Musty RE, Hendley ED. (1982) Attenuation of hyperactivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat by amphetamine. (mcmaster.ca)
- 19. Sagvolden T, Hendley ED, Knardahl S. (1992) Behavior of hypertensive and hyperactive rat strains: Hyperactivity is not unitarily determined. (mcmaster.ca)
- 20. Sagvolden T, Metzger MA, Schi rbeck HK, Rugland AL, Spinnangr I, Sagvolden G. (1992) The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model of childhood hyperactivity (ADHD): changed reactivity to reinforcers and to psychomotor stimulants. (mcmaster.ca)
- 1993) Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a putative animal model of childhood hyperkinesis: SHR behavior compared to four other rat strains. (mcmaster.ca)
- 22. Wultz B, Sagvolden T. (1992) The hyperactive spontaneously hypertensive rat learns to sit still, but not to stop bursts of responses with short interresponse times. (mcmaster.ca)
- The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been proposed as an animal model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (sun.ac.za)
- 1975 Begins offering SHR hypertensive rat, followed soon by the control strain, WKY. (taconic.com)
- Experimental models include various strains of inbred and genetically manipulated rats and mice. (mcw.edu)
- In other studies, however, benzodiazepines did not change the defensive behavior of rats [ 6 , 10 ] or mice [ 1 , 10 ] exposed to cat odor. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, these results also suggest that SWDs and associated immobility may be nonepileptic in healthy outbred rats and reflect instead voluntary rodent behavior unrelated to genetic manipulation or to brain trauma. (jneurosci.org)
- SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our evidence that inbred and outbred rats learn to control the duration of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) suggests a voluntary behavior with maintenance of consciousness. (jneurosci.org)
- Alternatively, the presence and voluntary control of SWDs in healthy outbred rats could indicate that these phenomena do not always model heritable absence epilepsy or post-traumatic epilepsy in humans, and may instead reflect typical rodent behavior. (jneurosci.org)
- A peripheral cannabinoid mechanism suppresses spinal fos protein expression and pain behavior in a rat model of inflammation. (duke.edu)
- We have used ENU mutagenesis to increase genetic variation in laboratory rats and identified a recessive mutant, named tornado, showing aberrant circling behavior, hyperactivity, and stereotypic head shaking. (genetics.org)
- Rats learned to self-administer d-amphetamine (10 micrograms/microliter) through a cannula implanted in the nucleus accumbens. (nih.gov)
- Unlike desipramine, a potent blocker of noradrenaline uptake, the antidepressant drugs, mianserin and citalopram did not, after chronic administration (28 days), attenuate the clonidine-induced inhibition of [3H]dopamine (DA) release from rat nucleus accumbens slices. (sun.ac.za)
- Mianserin, like desipramine, failed to alter the isoproterenol-induced enhancement of [3H]DA release from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices. (sun.ac.za)
- The binding of [3H]SCH 23390 to dopamine (DA) D1-receptors was measured in the nucleus accumbens of rats treated chronically with desipramine for 14 days. (sun.ac.za)
- Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/amsp_submission.cgi . (jax.org)
- Rat strain names should be registered through the Rat Genome Database (RGD) at http://rgd.mcw.edu/tools/strains/strainRegistrationIndex.cgi . (jax.org)
- Beyond knockout rats: new insights into finer genome manipulation in rats. (nih.gov)
- Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome. (nih.gov)
- Generation of site-specific mutations in the rat genome via CRISPR/Cas9. (nih.gov)
- Polymerase chain reaction genotyping using 60 polymorphic microsatellite markers dispersed throughout the genome confirmed the congenic status of the new strain designated SHR.BN- D1Mit3/Igf2 . (ahajournals.org)
- Each SV40 strain was derived from an independent isolate of the virus, and DNA sequence polymorphisms in genetically stable regions of the viral genome outside of the viral regulatory region were used to distinguish strains (7,8). (bioscience.org)
- Currently, the availability of genetic markers to scan the rat genome for linkage to traits of interest is limited. (genetics.org)
- Previously, in a whole genome scan, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosome 10 and chromosome X that affect intermale aggressive behaviors in a cross of NZB/B1NJ and A/J inbred mice (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
- In 2011, we developed a next generation version of this computational method, which analyzes whole genome sequence data for 20 inbred strains. (stanford.edu)
- Amit, Z., Brown, Z.W., Levitan, D.E., and Ogren, S.O. Noradrenergic mediation of the positive reinforcing properties of ethanol: I. Suppression of ethanol consumption in laboratory rats following dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. (springer.com)
- 1976) Selective brain dopamine depletion in developing rats: an experimental model of minimal brain dysfunction. (mcmaster.ca)
- Dopamine (DA) D1- and D2-receptor densities were determined in 18 discrete areas of the caudate-putamen-globus pallidus of male Wistar rats and compared to local DA concentrations. (sun.ac.za)
- Between 1992 and 2000, 21papers 1-21 were published that used rats from inbred colonies in Melbourne and Tokyo thatwere believed to be of the Donryu (DRY) strain. (ahajournals.org)
- This colony is the result of the strain specific brother-sister mating of 13 SHRSP (6 males and 7 females of each) that were obtained from Dr D.F. Bohr (Department of Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) where they had been maintained as inbred colonies for more than 15 years. (mcw.edu)
- There's a problem with the colonies of naked mole rats that Rochelle Buffenstein carted down to her new lab in Texas four years ago. (slate.com)
- 8. Diaz-Granados JL, Greene PL, Amsel A. (1994) Selective activity enhancement and persistence in weanling rats after hippocampal X-irradiation in infancy: possible relevance for ADHD. (mcmaster.ca)
- Inceoglu S, Siemionow M, Chick L et al (1994) The effect of combined immunosuppression with systemic low-dose cyclosporin and topical fluocinolone acetonide on the survival of rat hind-limb allografts. (springer.com)
- Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. (wikipedia.org)
- The SC rats differed according to genotype, with SC LEW rats taking more amphetamine than SC F344 rats. (drugabuse.gov)
- Figure S4 - Phenotype analyses in BN.GK congenic strains. (g3journal.org)
- The purported DRY were never intended torepresent genetically appropriate controls for any strain, in particular SHR.Instead, they were intended simply as inbred normotensive controls, unrelatedto SHR and used to maximize the informativeness of the linkage analyses. (ahajournals.org)
- For minimizing the variation of glucose tolerance in each strain, all mice were fed the high-carbohydrate diet and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Through interval mapping analyses of 353 phenotypically defined female F2 progeny, we mapped to rat Chromosome 14 (RNO14) a genetic locus, designated Renag1 (Renal agenesis 1), that serves as the major determinant of URA in these crosses. (deepdyve.com)
- Table S10 - Details of the adipose tissue eQTL hotspot detected on chromosome 1 (49.4-59.4cM) in the GKxBN F2 cross and expression pattern of the linked gene in the congenic strain BN.GK1p. (g3journal.org)
- We found that the systolic and diastolic BPs of the SHR congenic strain carrying the chromosome 1 segment transferred from the BN rat are significantly lower than the BPs of the progenitor SHR strain. (ahajournals.org)
- The SHR congenic strain was derived from a progenitor strain of SHR (SHR/Ola) descended from inbred SHR originally obtained from the National Institutes of Health. (ahajournals.org)
- The SHR congenic strain was derived by a selective breeding protocol in which a segment of chromosome 1 from the normotensive BN/Cr strain was transferred onto the genetic background of the progenitor SHR. (ahajournals.org)
- Accompanying documentation attributed specific geneticbiochemical profiles of the DRY strain to these animals and differentiatedthem from the F344, BUF (Buffalo), and LEW (Lewis) strains. (ahajournals.org)
- Recently, Dr Tanaseindicated that the animals supplied to Melbourne and Tokyo that had beenlabeled as DRY were instead likely to be F344 rats. (ahajournals.org)
- Infact, it is fortuitous that the control strain for crossbreeding studies ofcardiac size should transpire to be the F344, which has one of the smallesthearts among normotensiverats. (ahajournals.org)
- For example, the inbred rat strain LEW has been shown to self-administer stimulant drugs more readily than the F344 strain. (drugabuse.gov)
- This study examined gene-by-environment interactions in susceptibility to drug use by raising LEW and F344 rats in varied environmental conditions. (drugabuse.gov)
- The enriched rats of both strains showed less amphetamine self-administration, while the isolated rats of both strains were more prone to self-administration of amphetamine, with the IC condition causing even greater self-administration in the F344 strain than the LEW strain. (drugabuse.gov)
- In research programs throughout the twentieth century, rats have been most used for physiological research because of their large size, and mice in genetic research because of their small size. (encyclopedia.com)
- We tested the physiological relevance of these pathways by experimentally determining the responsiveness of neonatal cardiomyocytes to factors from identified pathways and found that cells isolated from SS-16 BN /Mcwi rats had a greater growth response to epidermal growth factor and endothelin-1 than those from parental SS/Mcwi. (physiology.org)
- THE rat is the most frequently used organism in a wide spectrum of biomedical studies, e.g. , physiological and nutritional studies, and drug development. (genetics.org)
- The rat represents an important animal model that, in many respects, is superior to the mouse for dissecting behavioral, cardiovascular and other physiological pathologies relevant to humans. (plos.org)
- For more than a century the rat has been an important animal model, which is superior in many respects to the mouse, for example for behavioral, cardiovascular and other physiological studies. (plos.org)
- A widely used approach to addressing these issues is the use of inbred rat strains, since the rat is a well-recognized model for studying physiological traits. (physiology.org)
- Furthermore, inbred rat strains minimize the effects of genetic heterogeneity in determining physiological phenotypes. (physiology.org)
- Table S3 - Oligonucleotides used for eQTL validation by quantitative RT PCR in congenic strains and GK and BN parental strains. (g3journal.org)
- Madhira SL, NappanVeettil G, Kodavalla V, Venkatesan V (2011) Comparison of adipocyte-specific gene expression from WNIN/Ob mutant obese rats, lean control and parental control. (springer.com)
- In a standard F2 intercross between two inbred parental lines there are two alleles at every polymorphic locus that are often referred to as the little "a" allele and big "A" allele. (genenetwork.org)
- When combined with our previous findings, these data suggest that that SS-16 BN /Mcwi may have an increased angiogenic potential and better protection from oxidative stress than the parental SS/Mcwi strain. (physiology.org)
- Our previous characterization of this model indicated that despite early transient idiopathic LVH, aging SS-16 BN /Mcwi rats did not experience the impaired left ventricle function or pathological tissue remodeling characteristic of the SS/Mcwi parental strain. (physiology.org)
- The dose response of aortic rings from each strain of rat to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and three different levels of tissue bath hypoxia (10, 5, and 0% O 2 ) was measured and compared with the parental SS rat. (physiology.org)
- The parental strains of rats used in this study, Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/JrHsdMcwi) and Brown Norway (BN/NHsdMcwi) rats, express very different cardiovascular phenotypes. (physiology.org)
- PhysGen has developed a panel of chromosomal substitution strains (consomic panel) of these two parental strains in which single chromosomes from the BN rat (≥95% of the BN chromosome) are introgressed onto the homogeneous genetic background of the SS rat, one chromosome at a time ( 6 ). (physiology.org)
- Because each strain is genetically equivalent to the SS parental strain except for the introgressed chromosome, the consomic rat is an ideal control animal for the parental rat (in this case the SSMcwi). (physiology.org)
- Neonatal rats, C57BL/6J, C3HeB/FeJ (TLR4 wild type), and C3H/HeJ (TLR4 mutant) mice were delivered by Cesarean section and were subjected to formula feeding and cold asphyxia stress or were delivered naturally and were mother-fed. (jimmunol.org)
- Previously, besides the considered Swiss Webster mice, only two inbred strains (C57Bl/6, DBA/2) were investigated for the presence of helminths in Brazil (Pinto et al. (scielo.br)
- The group B was represented by the strains C57Bl/6, CBA, BALB/c and C3H/He, with 25 mice each. (scielo.br)
- In the study regarding the prevalence of species, the strains C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10 and C3H/He showed high percentages (88-96%) for A. tetraptera , whereas BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He presented higher prevalence (80-100%) for S . obvelata , while the prevalence of V. nana was higher (92%) in the C3H/He strain. (scielo.br)
- To investigate this possibility, we replaced a region of chromosome 1 in the SHR (defined by the markers D1Mit3 and Igf2 ) with the corresponding chromosome segment from the normotensive Brown-Norway (BN) strain. (ahajournals.org)
- In male SHR congenic rats carrying the transferred BN chromosome segment, 24-hour average systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower than in male progenitor SHR. (ahajournals.org)
- 9 To confirm the presence of a putative BP QTL on chromosome 1 and to begin fine genetic mapping of specific variants responsible for increased blood pressure, we replaced an SHR chromosome 1 segment defined by the markers D1Mit3 and Igf2 with the corresponding chromosome region from the normotensive BN strain. (ahajournals.org)
- After 10 generations of selective back-crossing to the SHR progenitor strain, the differential chromosome segment was fixed using the markers D1Mit3 (a microsatellite marker that maps close to C ) and Igf2 and maintained in the homozygous state by brother×sister mating and selective inbreeding of the offspring. (ahajournals.org)
- The SS-16 BN /Mcwi consomic rat was produced by the introgression of chromosome 16 from the Brown Norway (BN/NHsdMcwi) rat onto the genetic background of the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/Mcwi) rat by marker-assisted breeding. (physiology.org)
- The SS-16 BN /Mcwi rats exhibited much higher mRNA levels of expression of transcription factor JunD, a gene found on chromosome 16. (physiology.org)
- In this research we attempted to mapping bg gene on rat chromosome. (nii.ac.jp)
- PhysGen (Programs for Genomic Applications) created a consomic panel of rats derived from the introgression of a single chromosome (≥95% of the BN chromosome, one at a time) of the Brown Norway (BN/NHsdMcwi) rat onto the homogeneous genetic background of the Dahl salt-sensitive rat (SS/JrHsdMcwi). (physiology.org)
- Because the BN chromosome is removed from its native background and the SS rat loses a native chromosome, it is also necessary to consider the contribution of changes in gene-to-gene interaction. (physiology.org)
- These consomic rats are then identified as SS-N BN with "N" identifying the BN chromosome that was introgressed ( http://pga.mcw.edu/ ). (physiology.org)
- A few of the rat strains studied in the present investigation were congenic strains in which a portion of the BN chromosome was introgressed into the SS genetic background. (physiology.org)
- The diets have been supplemented with minerals and vitamins according to the recommendations of the National Research Council for rats (1995), in order to avoid deficiencies. (orgprints.org)
- 6. Holene E, Nafstad I, Skaare JU, Bernhoft A, Engen P, Sagvolden T. (1995) Behavioral effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in rats. (mcmaster.ca)
- Based on that, a behavioral test in which rats are exposed to cat odor has been developed and proposed to model some forms of anxiety. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results indicate that SWD and associated immobility in rats may not reflect the obvious cognitive/behavioral interruption classically associated with absence seizures or CPSs in humans. (jneurosci.org)
- Exposure of male rats to the SSRI citalopram at the later end of this critical window (P8-P21) decreases dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) immunoreactivity and elicits behavioral changes consistent with depression [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The laboratory rat thrives in captivity, and its domestication has produced many inbred and outbred lines that are used for different purposes, including medical trials and behavioral studies. (elifesciences.org)
- Our studies indicate that the BALB/cJ inbred strain shows reduced sociability and other behavioral and neurobiological traits relevant to autism (Brodkin, in press). (upenn.edu)
- A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). (ajtmh.org)
- The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. (ajtmh.org)
- The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of resistance to Rift Valley fever virus governed by the dominant Mendelian gene. (ajtmh.org)
- Figure S2 - Effects of introgressed haplotypes in congenic strains on trans-regulated fat gene transcription. (g3journal.org)
- Pluripotent stem cells and other technologies will eventually open the door for straightforward gene targeting in the rat. (nih.gov)
- Generation of gene knockouts and mutant models in the laboratory rat by ENU-driven target-selected mutagenesis. (nih.gov)
- Such gene-by-environment interactions can be explored by studying rats that have been specifically bred to be genetically susceptible or resistant to drug use. (drugabuse.gov)
- We also demonstrate that the SS-16 BN /Mcwi is better protected from developing fibrosis with surgically elevated afterload than other normotensive strains, indicating that gene-gene interactions resulting from BN chromosomal substitution confer specific cardioprotection. (physiology.org)
- It was confirmed that the bg gene was on Chr.17 in rat. (nii.ac.jp)
- Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from rats (riPS) opens the opportunity for gene targeting in specific rat strains, as well as for the development of new protocols for the treatment of different degenerative diseases. (plos.org)
- This is due, in part, to a high degree of conserved gene order between rat and human. (physiology.org)
- Haplotype-based computational genetic analysis and gene expression profiling of lung tissue obtained from fibrosis-susceptible and -resistant strains identified laminin α1 (Lama1) as a genetic modifier for susceptibility to IPF. (stanford.edu)
- Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
- Amir, S. Brain and liver aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and voluntary ethanol consumption by rats: Relations to strain, sex and age. (springer.com)
- Bonnycastle, D.D., Bonnycastle, M.D., and Anderson, E.G. The effect of a number of central depressant drugs upon brain 5-hydroxytrypamine levels in the rat. (springer.com)
- 2019. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived striatal interneurons: differentiation and maturation in vitro and in the rat brain . (cardiff.ac.uk)
- Purpose : To observe metabolic maps of lactate and NAA by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in vivo in the rat brain during the acute stage of hemispheric seizures. (nii.ac.jp)
- SVD rats had a mutation in an ATPase, which was also found in SVD human brain tissue. (sciencemag.org)
- And the way it finds a host is insidious - rats who become infected suffer a change in the brain chemistry which causes them to become attracted to, rather than naturally fearful of the scent of felines. (listverse.com)
- However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. (ajtmh.org)
- However, islets isolated from WNIN adult (≥12 months) control rats gave a good islet recovery, under standard isolation procedures using collagenase digestion. (springer.com)
- Furthermore, i.v. platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes severe bowel injury in a well-established acute model of NEC in adult rats, but PAF failed to elicit injury in the same model in germfree rats ( 8 ) and NEC does not occur in a sterile environment in utero. (jimmunol.org)
- As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (wikipedia.org)
- n.pr an inbred strain of albino rat commonly used in laboratory research. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The Wistar rat is an equally popular inbred strain of albino rat used in laboratory research. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Chronic administration of ethanol with high vitamin A supplementation in a liquid diet to rats does not cause liver fibrosis. (tudelft.nl)
- Effect of liver glycogen content on glucose production in running rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- During treadmill running for 35 min at a speed of 21 m/min, Ra and plasma glucose increased more (P less than 0.05) and liver glucogen breakdown was larger in fasted-refed compared with control rats, although the stimuli for Ra were higher in control rats, the plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose being lower (P less than 0.05) in control compared with fasted-refed rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, the higher exercise-induced increase in Ra, plasma glucose, and liver glycogen breakdown in fasted-refed compared with control rats indicates that metabolic feedback mechanisms are not able to accurately match Ra to the metabolic needs of working muscles. (biomedsearch.com)
- Sakamuri VP, Ananthathmakula P, Veettil GN, Ayyalasomayajula V (2011) Vitamin A decreases pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids in obesity-study on the effect of Vitamin A on 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. (springer.com)
- Publications] Morikawa S, Inubushi T, et al: 'Relationship between gluconeogenesis and phosphoenergeitcs in rat liver assessed by in vivo 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy' NMR in Biomed. (nii.ac.jp)
- Her latest assault involves pouring carcinogens down the mole rats' throats in a last-ditch effort to induce liver or mammary cancer. (slate.com)
- Recombinant congenic inbred strains involved the separation of the unlinked components of a multigene trait into inbred strains. (cdc.gov)
- genetic factors are then computationally predicted by identifying genomic regions where the pattern of genetic variation correlates with the distribution of trait values among the inbred strains. (stanford.edu)
- We have previously shown that the administration of a thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthase inhibitor (FCE 22178) reduced the progression of glomerular lesions and proteinuria in MNS rats, an inbred strain which develops an age-related nephrotic syndrome. (unimore.it)
- Centrosome amplification was found to occur at a very early, premalignant stage prior to detectable lesions after treatment with methylnitrosourea, a condition that was not detected in mammary glands of rats made refractory to the carcinogen via pregnancy or estrogen and progesterone treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
- Some were housed in the standard, social condition (SC) of multiple rats in one cage, others were housed in enriched conditions (EC), which involved group housing and exposure to novel objects, and others were housed in isolated conditions (IC), which removed all social and object stimuli. (drugabuse.gov)
- The rats developed tonic-clonic seizures with the transient opening of the BBB following an injection of bicuculline methiodide. (nii.ac.jp)
- The transient and paroxysmal appearance of SWDs with associated immobility and rhythmic facial movements has led to the belief that SWDs represent a hallmark of seizures in both inbred genetic (i.e., absence) and acquired (post-traumatic) models of epilepsy. (jneurosci.org)
- It is descended from wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus , which despite their name likely originated in Asia. (elifesciences.org)
- Norway rats plague cities such as New York (where population estimates vary wildly- from a few hundred thousand to a few hundred million depending on your source) and London and have pervaded nearly every corner of the globe with the rare exceptions of Arctic and Antarctic areas, the Canadian province of Alberta, and pockets of New Zealand. (listverse.com)