'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
Inbreed BN (Brown Norway) rats are a strain of laboratory rats that are specifically bred for research purposes, characterized by their uniform genetic makeup and susceptibility to various diseases, which makes them ideal models for studying human physiology and pathophysiology.
Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
A member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION of TRANSPORT VESICLES to their target membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
"WF (Wistar Furth) rats are an inbred strain of albino rats that were developed through brother-sister mating for over 80 generations, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and predictability, making them widely used in biomedical research."
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
Arthritis is a general term used to describe inflammation in the joints, often resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility, which can be caused by various conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or lupus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Benzyl compounds are organic substances that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional structure consisting of a carbon atom attached to a phenyl ring and a methylene group (-CH2-).
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate. EC
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.

Gamma interferon stimulates rat alveolar macrophages to kill Pneumocystis carinii by L-arginine- and tumor necrosis factor-dependent mechanisms. (1/4121)

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia remains a serious complication for immunocompromised patients. In the present study, P. carinii organisms interacted with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs) to activate the L-arginine-dependent cytocidal pathway involving reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that were assayed as nitrite (NO2-). Unstimulated cultures of AMs produced negligible quantities of RNI. Addition of P. carinii organisms to IFN-gamma-primed AMs resulted in greatly enhanced production of RNI. NO2- levels increased from 0.8 +/- 0.4 to 11.1 +/- 3.8 microM as early as 6 h after P. carinii organisms were incubated with IFN-gamma-stimulated AMs and to 35.1 +/- 8.9 microM after a 24-h incubation, a near-maximum level. High levels of NO2- were produced by AMs primed with as little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml in the presence of P. carinii, and a 20-fold increase in IFN-gamma concentration resulted in only a further 65% increase in NO2- production. RNI-dependent killing of P. carinii was demonstrated by both a 51Cr release assay and a [35S]methionine pulse immunoprecipitation assay. Addition of either monoclonal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing antibody or 200 microM NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NGMMA), a competitive inhibitor of the L-arginine-dependent pathway, significantly decreased NO2- production and reduced P. carinii killing. TNF-alpha alone had no effect on P. carinii viability. These results suggest that (i) the specific interaction of P. carinii organisms with IFN-gamma-primed AMs triggers the production of RNI, (ii) RNI are toxic to P. carinii, and (iii) TNF-alpha likely plays a central role in mediating P. carinii killing by IFN-gamma-stimulated AMs.  (+info)

Proteinuria induces tubular cell turnover: A potential mechanism for tubular atrophy. (2/4121)

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria and tubular atrophy have both been closely linked with progressive renal failure. We hypothesized that apoptosis may be induced by tubular cell exposure to heavy proteinuria, potentially leading to tubular atrophy. Apoptosis was studied in a rat model of "pure" proteinuria, which does not induce renal impairment, namely protein-overload proteinuria. METHODS: Adult female Lewis rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of 2 g of bovine serum albumin (BSA, N = 16) or sham saline injections (controls, N = 8) daily for seven days. Apoptosis was assessed at day 7 in tissue sections using in situ end labeling (ISEL) and electron microscopy. ISEL-positive nuclei (apoptotic particles) were counted in blinded fashion using image analysis with NIH Image. Cell proliferation was assessed by detection of mRNA for histone by in situ hybridization, followed by counting of positive cells using NIH Image. RESULTS: Animals injected with saline showed very low levels of apoptosis on image analysis. BSA-injected rats had heavy proteinuria and showed both cortical and medullary apoptosis on ISEL. This was predominantly seen in the tubules and, to a lesser extent, in the interstitial compartment. Overall, the animals injected with BSA showed a significant 30-fold increase in the number of cortical apoptotic particles. Electron microscopy of tubular cells in a BSA-injected animal showed a progression of ultrastructural changes consistent with tubular cell apoptosis. The BSA-injected animals also displayed a significant increase in proximal tubular cell proliferation. This increased proliferation was less marked than the degree of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Protein-overload proteinuria in rats induces tubular cell apoptosis. This effect is only partially balanced by proliferation and potentially provides a direct mechanism whereby heavy proteinuria can induce tubular atrophy and progressive renal failure.  (+info)

Endothelin up-regulation and localization following renal ischemia and reperfusion. (3/4121)

BACKGROUND: Endothelin (ET), a potent vasoconstrictor, is known to play a role in ischemic acute renal failure. Although preproET-1 (ppET-1) mRNA is known to be up-regulated following ischemia/reperfusion injury, it has not been determined which component of the injury (ischemia or reperfusion) leads to initial gene up-regulation. Likewise, although ET-1 peptide expression has been localized in the normal kidney, its expression pattern in the ischemic kidney has not been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine whether ischemia alone or ischemia plus reperfusion is required for the up-regulation of ppET-1 mRNA to occur, and (b) to localize ET-1 peptide expression following ischemia in the rat kidney to clarify better the role of ET in the pathophysiology of ischemia-induced acute renal failure. METHODS: Male Lewis rats underwent clamping of the right renal vascular pedicle for either 30 minutes of ischemia (group 1), 60 minutes of ischemia (group 2), 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion (group 3), or 60 minutes of ischemia followed by three hours of reperfusion (group 4). The contralateral kidney acted as a control. ppET-1 mRNA up-regulation and ET-1 peptide expression were examined using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction yielded a control (nonischemic) value of 0.6 +/- 0.2 densitometric units (DU) of ppET-1 mRNA in the kidney. Group 1 levels (30 min of ischemia alone) were 1.8 +/- 0.4 DU, a threefold increase (P < 0.05). Group 2 levels (60 min of ischemia alone) increased almost six times above baseline, 3.5 +/- 0.2 DU (P < 0.01), whereas both group 3 and group 4 (ischemia plus reperfusion) did not experience any further significant increases in mRNA levels (1.9 +/- 0.4 DU and 2.8 +/- 0.6 DU, respectively) beyond levels in group 1 or 2 animals subjected to similar ischemic periods. ET-1 peptide expression in the ischemic kidneys was significantly increased over controls and was clearly localized to the endothelium of the peritubular capillary network of the kidney. CONCLUSIONS: Initial ET-1 gene up-regulation in the kidney occurs secondary to ischemia, but reperfusion most likely contributes to sustaining this up-regulation. The marked increase of ET-1 in the peritubular capillary network suggests that ET-induced vasoconstriction may have a pathophysiological role in ischemic acute tubular necrosis.  (+info)

Characterization of CD4+ CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in rats. (4/4121)

Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IEL) of aged rats comprise CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ T cells expressing TCR alphabeta. In the present study, we compared characteristics between CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ and CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL, which were purified by a cell sorter from the i-IEL of 6-month-old Lewis rats. Most of the CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL were of the CD44(hlgh) phenotype, while CD4-CD8alphabeta+ i-IEL were CD44(low). Vbeta usage in the CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL was much diversified, while CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL showed a skewed Vbeta repertoire. The CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL but not the CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL proliferated in response to syngeneic spleen cells, which was partially inhibited by addition of anti-MHC class I mAb. The CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL produced IFN-gamma and IL-2 but no IL-4 or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in response to syngeneic spleen cells, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL produced abundant levels of TGF-beta but no IL-2, IFN-gamma or IL-4. CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL proliferated in response to exogenous IL-2 but not to IL-15, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL could respond to IL-15 as well as IL-2. These results suggest that a significant fraction of CD4+CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL belongs to Th1-type T cells capable of responding to self-MHC class I, while CD4-CD8alphaalpha+ i-IEL are a unique population with a diversified Vbeta repertoire that respond to IL-15 in rats.  (+info)

Hormonal prevention of breast cancer: mimicking the protective effect of pregnancy. (5/4121)

Full term pregnancy early in life is the most effective natural protection against breast cancer in women. Rats treated with chemical carcinogen are similarly protected by a previous pregnancy from mammary carcinogenesis. Proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland does not explain this phenomenon, as shown by the relative ineffectiveness of perphenazine, a potent mitogenic and differentiating agent. Here, we show that short term treatment of nulliparous rats with pregnancy levels of estradiol 17beta and progesterone has high efficacy in protecting them from chemical carcinogen induced mammary cancers. Because the mammary gland is exposed to the highest physiological concentrations of estradiol and progesterone during full term pregnancy, it is these elevated levels of hormones that likely induce protection from mammary cancer. Thus, it appears possible to mimic the protective effects of pregnancy against breast cancer in nulliparous rats by short term specific hormonal intervention.  (+info)

Non-coding plasmid DNA induces IFN-gamma in vivo and suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (6/4121)

Regulatory sequences used in plasmids for naked DNA vaccination can modulate cytokine production in vivo. We demonstrate here that injection of plasmid DNA can suppress the prototypic T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, by inducing IFN-gamma.  (+info)

Decreased hexosamine biosynthesis in GH-deficient dwarf rat muscle. reversal with GH, but not IGF-I, therapy. (7/4121)

Enhanced glucose flux via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HNSP) has been implicated in insulin resistance. We measured L-glutamine:D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase activity (GFAT, a rate-limiting enzyme) and concentrations of UDP-N-acetyl hexosamines (UDP-HexNAc, major products of HNSP) in muscle and liver of growth hormone (GH)-deficient male dwarf (dw) rats. All parameters measured, except body weight, were similar in 5-wk-old control and dw rats. Muscle GFAT activity declined progressively with age in controls and dw rats but was consistently 30-60% lower in 8- to 14-wk-old dw rats vs. age-matched controls; UDP-HexNAc concentrations in muscle were concomitantly 30% lower in dw rats vs. controls (P < 0.01). Concentrations of UDP-hexoses, GDP-mannose, and UDP in muscle were similar in control and dw rats. Muscle HNSP activity was similarly diminished in fed and fasted dw rats. In liver, only a small difference in GFAT activity was evident between controls and dw rats, and no differences in UDP-HexNAc concentrations were observed. Treatment with recombinant human GH (rhGH) for 5 days restored UDP-HexNAc to control levels in dw muscles (P < 0.01) and partially restored GFAT activity. Insulin-like growth factor I treatment was ineffective. We conclude that GH participates in HNSP regulation in muscle.  (+info)

Decreased lactic acidosis and anemia after transfusion of o-raffinose cross-linked and polymerized hemoglobin in severe murine malaria. (8/4121)

Severe anemia is a major cause of death in falciparum malaria. Blood transfusion increases survival in humans and in animal models of this disease. Because of logistic constraints and viral contamination of the blood supply, transfusions are frequently not practical in endemic regions. Modified hemoglobin is an effective O2 carrier in hemorrhagic shock. It is free of infectious contamination, may not require refrigeration, and because of its nitric oxide scavenging and small size, may have pharmacologic benefits in malaria. The effects of transfusions of modified hemoglobin in rats with high-grade parasitemia were evaluated. Modified hemoglobin decreased lactic acidosis and corrected anemia as well as transfusions with red blood cells; these findings may correlate with improved survival and suggest a possible proerythropoietic effect. Further study of this novel therapy is warranted.  (+info)

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

"Rats, Inbred BN" are a strain of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been inbred for many generations to maintain a high level of genetic consistency and uniformity within the strain. The "BN" designation refers to the place where they were first developed, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia).

These rats are often used in biomedical research because their genetic homogeneity makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on health and disease. They have been widely used as a model organism to study various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including hypertension, kidney function, immunology, and neuroscience.

Inbred BN rats are known for their low renin-angiotensin system activity, which makes them a useful model for studying hypertension and related disorders. They also have a unique sensitivity to dietary protein, making them a valuable tool for studying the relationship between diet and kidney function.

Overall, Inbred BN rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing researchers with a consistent and well-characterized model organism for studying various aspects of human health and disease.

Congenic animals are genetically identical organisms, except for a specific genetic locus or region that has been intentionally altered. In the context of animal research, congenic animals are created through selective breeding to transfer a particular gene or genes from one strain to another while keeping the rest of the genetic background as similar as possible.

The process involves repeatedly backcrossing the offspring of the initial cross between two strains to one of the parental strains for several generations, followed by brother-sister mating to establish a congenic strain. The resulting congenic animals share more than 99% of their genetic material with the recipient strain but carry the donor strain's gene(s) at the specific locus of interest.

Congenic animal models are essential tools in biomedical research, as they allow researchers to study the effects of a particular gene or genetic variant while minimizing the influence of other genetic factors. These models help isolate the contribution of a single gene to a phenotype, disease susceptibility, or drug response, facilitating a better understanding of complex biological processes and potential therapeutic interventions.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

A coronavirus that primarily infects rats is called "rat coronavirus." It is a type of virus that belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, which also includes coronaviruses that can infect humans, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Rat coronavirus is closely related to coronaviruses that infect mice and can cause respiratory illness in rats. It is typically transmitted through direct contact with infected rats or their feces and urine. Rat coronavirus infection is not known to spread to humans or other animals outside of laboratory settings.

It's worth noting that the current global pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, which is distinct from rat coronavirus and other known coronaviruses that infect animals.

Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1 (VAMP-1), also known as synaptobrevin-1, is a type of SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptor) protein found on the membranes of small synaptic vesicles in neurons. It plays a crucial role in the process of neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone by interacting with other SNARE proteins to form a tight complex, which brings the vesicle membrane into close proximity with the plasma membrane, allowing for the fusion of the two and subsequent release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. VAMP-1 is specifically involved in the exocytosis of dense core vesicles that contain neuropeptides and neuromodulators. Mutations or dysregulation of VAMP-1 have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight error in your question. "WF" is not a recognized strain identifier for inbred rats used in scientific research. Instead, "WI" or "Wistar-Imamichi" is sometimes used to refer to an inbred strain of rat developed in Japan.

Assuming you meant to ask about "Rats, Inbred WI," here's a definition:

Inbred WI rats are a strain of laboratory rats that have been selectively bred for research purposes. "Inbred" means that the rats have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 generations, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This uniformity makes it easier to control variables and repeat experiments.

WI rats were developed in Japan by crossing outbred Wistar rats with an inbred strain called F344. They have since been maintained as an independent inbred strain.

These rats are often used in biomedical research due to their well-characterized genetic background and consistent phenotypic traits, such as their size, behavior, and susceptibility to certain diseases. However, like all animal models, they have limitations and may not always accurately reflect human physiology or disease processes.

Histocompatibility antigens, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells. Histocompatibility antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are two main types of histocompatibility antigens: class I and class II. Class I antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells, while class II antigens are primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These antigens present pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

When foreign peptides are presented to T-cells by histocompatibility antigens, it triggers an immune response aimed at eliminating the threat. This is why histocompatibility antigens are so important in organ transplantation - if the donor's and recipient's antigens do not match closely enough, the recipient's immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and attack it.

Understanding the role of histocompatibility antigens has been crucial in developing techniques for matching donors and recipients in organ transplantation, as well as in diagnosing and treating various autoimmune diseases and cancers.

Organogold compounds are chemical compounds that contain carbon-gold bonds, where gold is bonded directly to carbon atoms. These compounds have been synthesized and studied for their unique properties and potential applications in various fields, including medicine, catalysis, and materials science. In the medical context, organogold compounds have been explored as potential therapeutic agents, particularly in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Some organogold compounds have shown promising antitumor and antibacterial activities, although their clinical use is still under investigation.

Dimercaprol is a chelating agent, which means it can bind to and help remove certain toxic substances from the body. It is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead, mercury, or arsenic poisoning. Dimercaprol works by forming stable complexes with these toxic metals, allowing them to be excreted from the body through urine and bile.

The chemical name for dimercaprol is British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), as it was initially developed during World War II as an antidote against the chemical warfare agent Lewisite, a type of arsenic-based blistering agent. Dimercaprol is administered parenterally, usually by intramuscular injection, and its use requires medical supervision due to potential side effects, including hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and pain at the injection site.

Arthritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in one or more joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, and lupus, among others.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by wear and tear on the joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joint lining, causing inflammation and damage.

Arthritis can affect people of all ages, including children, although it is more common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis may include medications to manage pain and reduce inflammation, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Mercuric chloride, also known as corrosive sublimate, is defined medically as a white or colorless crystalline compound used historically as a topical antiseptic and caustic. It has been used in the treatment of various skin conditions such as warts, thrush, and some parasitic infestations. However, its use is limited nowadays due to its high toxicity and potential for serious side effects, including kidney damage, digestive problems, and nervous system disorders. It is classified as a hazardous substance and should be handled with care.

Mycoplasma infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma. These are among the smallest free-living organisms, lacking a cell wall and possessing a unique molecular structure. They can cause various respiratory tract infections (like pneumonia, bronchitis), urogenital infections, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

The most common Mycoplasma species that infect humans include M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Transmission usually occurs through respiratory droplets or sexual contact. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the site of infection but may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, fatigue, joint pain, rash, and genital discharge or pelvic pain in women. Diagnosis often requires specific laboratory tests due to their unique growth requirements and resistance to many common antibiotics. Treatment typically involves macrolide or fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

Mycoplasma: A type of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are among the smallest organisms capable of self-replication. They can cause various infections in humans, animals, and plants. In humans, they are associated with respiratory tract infections (such as pneumonia), urogenital infections (like pelvic inflammatory disease), and some sexually transmitted diseases. Mycoplasma species are also known to contaminate cell cultures and can interfere with research experiments. Due to their small size and lack of a cell wall, they are resistant to many common antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

Isoantibodies are antibodies produced by the immune system that recognize and react to antigens (markers) found on the cells or tissues of another individual of the same species. These antigens are typically proteins or carbohydrates present on the surface of red blood cells, but they can also be found on other cell types.

Isoantibodies are formed when an individual is exposed to foreign antigens, usually through blood transfusions, pregnancy, or tissue transplantation. The exposure triggers the immune system to produce specific antibodies against these antigens, which can cause a harmful immune response if the individual receives another transfusion or transplant from the same donor in the future.

There are two main types of isoantibodies:

1. Agglutinins: These are IgM antibodies that cause red blood cells to clump together (agglutinate) when mixed with the corresponding antigen. They develop rapidly after exposure and can cause immediate transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.
2. Hemolysins: These are IgG antibodies that destroy red blood cells by causing their membranes to become more permeable, leading to lysis (bursting) of the cells and release of hemoglobin into the plasma. They take longer to develop but can cause delayed transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.

Isoantibodies are detected through blood tests, such as the crossmatch test, which determines compatibility between a donor's and recipient's blood before transfusions or transplants.

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins in vertebrates that play a central role in the adaptive immune system. They are responsible for presenting peptide antigens to T-cells, which helps the immune system distinguish between self and non-self. The MHC is divided into two classes:

1. MHC Class I: These proteins present endogenous (intracellular) peptides to CD8+ T-cells (cytotoxic T-cells). The MHC class I molecule consists of a heavy chain and a light chain, together with an antigenic peptide.

2. MHC Class II: These proteins present exogenous (extracellular) peptides to CD4+ T-cells (helper T-cells). The MHC class II molecule is composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, together with an antigenic peptide.

MHC genes are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different alleles within a population. This diversity allows for better recognition and presentation of various pathogens, leading to a more robust immune response. The term "histocompatibility" refers to the compatibility between donor and recipient MHC molecules in tissue transplantation. Incompatible MHC molecules can lead to rejection of the transplanted tissue due to an activated immune response against the foreign MHC antigens.

Experimental arthritis refers to the induction of joint inflammation in animal models for the purpose of studying the disease process and testing potential treatments. This is typically achieved through the use of various methods such as injecting certain chemicals or proteins into the joints, genetically modifying animals to develop arthritis-like symptoms, or immunizing animals to induce an autoimmune response against their own joint tissues. These models are crucial for advancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of arthritis and for developing new therapies to treat this debilitating disease.

Benzyl compounds are organic chemical compounds that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom attached to a CH3 group (methyl group) and an aromatic ring, usually a phenyl group. The benzyl group can be represented as -CH2-C6H5.

Benzyl compounds have various applications in different fields such as pharmaceuticals, flavors, fragrances, dyes, and polymers. In pharmaceuticals, benzyl compounds are used as active ingredients or intermediates in the synthesis of drugs. For example, benzylpenicillin is a widely used antibiotic that contains a benzyl group.

Benzyl alcohol, benzyl chloride, and benzyl acetate are some common examples of benzyl compounds with various industrial applications. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent, preservative, and intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals. Benzyl chloride is an important chemical used in the production of resins, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Benzyl acetate is used as a flavoring agent and fragrance in food and cosmetic products.

It's worth noting that benzyl compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin, depending on their chemical properties and concentrations. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used under appropriate safety measures.

Mammalian chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of mammalian cells, consisting of DNA, hist proteins, and RNA. They carry genetic information that is essential for the development and function of all living organisms. In mammals, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, with one set inherited from the mother and the other from the father.

The chromosomes are typically visualized during cell division, where they condense and become visible under a microscope. Each chromosome is composed of two identical arms, separated by a constriction called the centromere. The short arm of the chromosome is labeled as "p," while the long arm is labeled as "q."

Mammalian chromosomes play a critical role in the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next and are essential for maintaining the stability and integrity of the genome. Abnormalities in the number or structure of mammalian chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Azaserine is a antineoplastic and antibiotic agent. Its chemical name is O-diazoacetyl-L-serine. It is an analog of the amino acid serine, which inhibits the enzyme necessary for the synthesis of DNA and RNA, thus preventing the growth of cancer cells. Azaserine is used in research but not in clinical medicine due to its high toxicity.

Parvovirus is a type of virus that is known to cause diseases in various animals, including dogs and humans. The most common strain that infects humans is called Parvovirus B19. This particular strain is responsible for the illness known as Fifth disease, which primarily affects young children and causes symptoms such as fever, rash, and joint pain.

Parvovirus B19 spreads through respiratory droplets, such as when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be transmitted through blood or contaminated objects. Once the virus enters the body, it typically targets and infects rapidly dividing cells, particularly those found in the bone marrow and the fetal heart.

In dogs, a different strain of parvovirus called Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is responsible for a highly contagious and often fatal gastrointestinal illness. CPV primarily affects puppies between 6 weeks and 6 months old, but older dogs can also be infected if they haven't been vaccinated.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices and ensure proper vaccination to prevent parvovirus infections in both humans and animals.

Disease susceptibility, also known as genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, refers to the increased likelihood or risk of developing a particular disease due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations. These genetic factors can make an individual more vulnerable to certain diseases compared to those who do not have these genetic changes.

It is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will definitely develop the disease. Other factors, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and additional genetic variations, can influence whether or not the disease will manifest. In some cases, early detection and intervention may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease in individuals with a known genetic susceptibility.

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a type of atypical pneumonia, which is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This organism is not a true bacterium, but rather the smallest free-living organisms known. They lack a cell wall and have a unique mode of reproduction.

Mycoplasma pneumonia infection typically occurs in small outbreaks or sporadically, often in crowded settings such as schools, colleges, and military barracks. It can also be acquired in the community. The illness is often mild and self-limiting, but it can also cause severe pneumonia and extra-pulmonary manifestations.

The symptoms of Mycoplasma pneumonia are typically less severe than those caused by typical bacterial pneumonia and may include a persistent cough that may be dry or produce small amounts of mucus, fatigue, fever, headache, sore throat, and chest pain. The infection can also cause extrapulmonary manifestations such as skin rashes, joint pain, and neurological symptoms.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumonia is often challenging because the organism is difficult to culture, and serological tests may take several weeks to become positive. PCR-based tests are now available and can provide a rapid diagnosis.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as macrolides (e.g., azithromycin), tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline), or fluoroquinolones (e.g., levofloxacin). However, because Mycoplasma pneumonia is often self-limiting, antibiotic treatment may not shorten the duration of illness but can help prevent complications and reduce transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Mutant Strains" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It may be a term used in science fiction, gaming, or other non-medical contexts to refer to genetically modified rats with altered characteristics. However, in the field of medical research, scientists do conduct studies using various strains of lab rats, some of which have been selectively bred or genetically modified to exhibit specific traits, but these are not referred to as "mutant strains." If you have any questions related to medical definitions or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Phosphoglycerate Mutase (PGM) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the glycolytic pathway, which is a metabolic process that converts glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy currency for the cell.

The enzyme catalyzes the interconversion of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG), which is the ninth step in glycolysis. Specifically, PGM transfers a phosphate group from the third carbon atom to the second carbon atom of 3-PG, resulting in the formation of 2-PG and inorganic phosphate.

There are two types of Phosphoglycerate Mutase isoenzymes in humans, including:

1. Phosphoglycerate Mutase 1 (PGAM1): This is a cytosolic enzyme that is widely expressed in various tissues, including skeletal muscle, heart, brain, and liver.
2. Phosphoglycerate Mutase 2 (PGAM2): This is a muscle-specific isoenzyme that is primarily found in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

Mutations in the PGAM1 gene have been associated with hemolytic anemia, neurodevelopmental disorders, and other metabolic abnormalities, while mutations in the PGAM2 gene have been linked to myopathies and other muscle-related disorders.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

inbred rat~inbred rats~Lewis inbred rats~Lewis inbred rat~Lewis~Lewis rat~LEW/Han®Hsd~Albino~RT1l~861~017 ... Origin: Inbreeding of the Lewis rat is begun by Dr. Margaret Lewis from a Wistar stock. In 1924, at F20 to Aptekman and Bogdon ... Envigo uses an impedance meter for determining the stage of estrus in rats.* Timed mated rats and mice are determined by ... For models fulfilled from Envigo Affiliates in Europe, the last stage of gestation for mice is over 17 days and for rats is ...
Rats, Inbred Lew * Signal Transduction / immunology* * Spleen / immunology * T-Lymphocytes / immunology* * T-Lymphocytes / ...
Based on prior experimental results, we hypothesized that rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived DPCs can be used … ... Rats * Rats, Inbred Lew * Regeneration* * Tissue Engineering / methods* * Tissue Scaffolds* * Titanium Substances * Dental ... Rat PDL DPCs also exhibited differentiative potential characteristic of stem cells. These proof-of-principle findings suggest ... Based on prior experimental results, we hypothesized that rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived DPCs can be used to ...
Rats (MeSH) * Rats, Inbred BN (MeSH) * Rats, Inbred Lew (MeSH) * Skin Transplantation (MeSH) ...
... rats, inbred f344 MeSH B01.050.157.760.275 - rats, inbred lec MeSH B01.050.157.760.280 - rats, inbred lew MeSH B01.050.157.760. ... rats, inbred f344 MeSH B01.050.199.520.760.275 - rats, inbred lec MeSH B01.050.199.520.760.280 - rats, inbred lew MeSH B01.050. ... rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 - rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050.157.760.110 - rats, inbred bn MeSH B01.050.157.760.130 ... rats, inbred shr MeSH B01.050.157.760.360 - rats, inbred wf MeSH B01.050.157.760.390 - rats, inbred wky MeSH B01.050.199.040 - ...
Rats, Inbred Lew. *Rats, Inbred ACI. *Rats. *Muscles. *Male. *Liver Transplantation. Citation. APA ...
... is defective in inbred Lewis (LEW) rats in comparison with their genetically related inbred Fischer 344 (F344) and outbred ... Acrophase of LEW males shifted from dark to light on the first day of withdrawal. All rats responded to EtOH exposure with a ... At 8 weeks, swimming in the forced swim test was significantly less in TBI than sham rats. At 9 weeks, rats were rendered ... LEW and F344 rats differed significantly. The specific hormonal factors that mediate the differential temperature responses ...
rat strain. 6637. inbred strain. 2713. LEW. 269. LEW/Crl. 38. LEW/CrlArc. 1. ... Rat Community Forum Directory of Rat Laboratories Video Tutorials News RGD Publications RGD Presentations Archive Nomenclature ... The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) is currently being developed at the Rat Genome Database. For more information about this ... Hybrid Rat Diversity Panel Phenotypes GERRC (Gene Editing Rat Resource Center) Phenotypes in Other Animal Models Animal ...
Rats, Inbred Lew (MeSH) * Recovery of Function (MeSH) * Treatment Outcome (MeSH) published in * Annual International Conference ... Rat gastrocnemius muscle was denervated and repaired using the peroneal nerve either immediately or following three-months with ... Determining the effects of electrical stimulation on functional recovery of denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle using motor ...
Rats, Inbred Lew. *Rats. *Phenotype. *Peripheral Nerves. *Nerve Regeneration. *Mannose-Binding Lectins ...
Uveitis, autoimmune, experimental/immunology; T-lymphocytes, regulatory/immunology; Lymphocyte activation; Rats, inbred Lew; ... rats and explore the role of Treg cells in the pathological process of EAU rats. ... The pathogenesis and development is closely associated with the dynamic changes of CD4+ CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells in EAU rats. ... Eighty four 6-8 week-old SPF Lewis rats were randomly divided into model group and control group.The mixed emulsifier of ...
UK 1.LF 563/13, MSMT-14808/2014-6) Pets Adult man inbred Brown-Norway (BN; RT1n) and Lewis (LEW; RT1l) rats had been extracted ... No immunosuppressed isogeneic (ISO) and allogeneic (ALO) rats mixture offered as control. Aortal wall structure infiltration by ... the purpose of our research was to simulate in rats all factors and techniques found in our scientific plan of cryopreserved ... and antibody-mediated rejection of cold-stored arterial grafts in rats [13,14]. Furthermore, we confirmed a chance of delaying ...
In biopsies from inflamed joints obtained from rats suffering from AA or CIA, an intense staining with ML 30 was seen within ... Reactivity of ML 30 was also seen in a Western blot assay performed on lysates from inflamed synovia from rats with CIA, ... The demonstration of epitopes cross-reactive with hsp 65 of mycobacteria in normal and, in higher quantity, in arthritic rat ... Immunohistochemical stainings with the anti-hsp 65 antibody on paraffin sections from normal rat joints revealed a weak but ...
Rats, Rats, Inbred Lew, Spinal Cord Injuries, Sympathetic Nervous System ...
Rats, Inbred LewMice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred WFTransplantation ChimeraMice, Inbred C3HRats, Inbred BNRats ... Inbred C3HRats, Inbred BNAntibodies, MonoclonalH-2 AntigensRats, Inbred ACILymphocyte Culture Test, MixedCD40 LigandT- ... Inbred ACIMice, Inbred CBARadiation ChimeraMice, Inbred StrainsMice, KnockoutMice, TransgenicMice, Inbred DBAChimeraMice, SCID ... VascularTransplantation ToleranceIsoantigensCyclosporineLiver TransplantationRats, Inbred LewImmunosuppressionIsoantibodiesMice ...
Previously, we found that overexpression of rapsyn by cDNA transfection protects AChRs in rat muscles from antibody-mediated ... Active immunization against purified AChR was performed in female Lewis rats. Rapsyn overexpression resulted in an increase in ... Rats, Rats, Inbred Lew, Receptors, Cholinergic, Synaptic Membranes ... Previously, we found that overexpression of rapsyn by cDNA transfection protects AChRs in rat muscles from antibody-mediated ...
In control rat brain, mRNA for all of the MMPs examined was detectable. However, by immunohistochemistry, only MMP-2 could be ... Rats, Rats, Inbred Lew ... In control rat brain, mRNA for all of the MMPs examined was ... Matrix metalloproteinase expression in an experimentally-induced DTH model of multiple sclerosis in the rat CNS. ... Matrix metalloproteinase expression in an experimentally-induced DTH model of multiple sclerosis in the rat CNS. ...
Using T1D-susceptible LEW.1WR1 rats that express RT1B/Du and a susceptible allele of the Ubd promoter, we demonstrate that ... Inbred rats with a high-risk class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype (RT1B/Du) can illuminate such mechanisms ... Using the RT1B/Du-identical LEW.1W rat, which does not develop T1D despite also having the same Tcrb-V13S1A1 ß chain gene but a ... T Cell Receptor Genotype and Ubash3a Determine Susceptibility to Rat Autoimmune Diabetes. ...
Mice-Inbred-C3H, Mice-Inbred-C57BL, Mice-Inbred-DBA, Mice-Inbred-NZB, Molecular-Weight, Peptides: an, im, Rats, Rats-Inbred-LEW ... Mice-Inbred-AKR, Mice-Inbred-BALB-C, Mice-Inbred-CBA, ...
Consequently, we quantified NO synthase (NOS) isoform protein levels in a rat heart transplant model during short and prolonged ... Rats, Rats, Inbred Lew, Reperfusion, Time Factors, Transplantation, Heterotopic, Transplantation, Isogeneic ... Consequently, we quantified NO synthase (NOS) isoform protein levels in a rat heart transplant model during short and prolonged ... Modulation of the NO pathway during short or prolonged blood reperfusion following ischaemia in a heterotopic rat heart ...
... to provide investigators with a highly genetically diverse rat model from commercially available inbred rats. We made ... LEW), and Wistar Kyoto (KY)] ... Male rats, by contrast, differed in a mitochondrial genotype- ... We generated a genetically heterogenous rat model by a four-way cross strategy using four inbred strains [Brown Norway (BN), ... A Genetically Heterogeneous Rat Model with Divergent Mitochondrial Genomes.. Roshini Sathiaseelan, Bumsoo Ahn, Michael B Stout ...
LEW -1AR1 / -iddm rat. Chemically induced. Genetically induced. Virally induced. What Medicines Do I Need To Treat My Type 1 ... It is an inbred, genetically well characterized mouse strain that spontaneously develops T1D. The onset of insulitis occurs at ...
Rats, Inbred LEC. *Rats, Inbred Lew. *Rats, Inbred OLETF. *Rats, Inbred SHR ... Rats, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.400]. *Rats, Inbred SHR [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.400.300] ... Inbred SHR" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred SHR" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Rats, Inbred SHR" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
Rats, Inbred Dahl. *Rats, Inbred F344. *Rats, Inbred LEC. *Rats, Inbred Lew ... Inbred Strains" by people in this website by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred Strains" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Rats, Inbred Strains" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Rats, Inbred Strains" by people in Profiles. ...
Rats, Inbred Dahl. *Rats, Inbred F344. *Rats, Inbred LEC. *Rats, Inbred Lew ... Rats, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.313.992.635.505.700.400]. *Rats, Inbred F344 [B01.050.150.900.649.313.992.635.505.700 ... Inbred F344" by people in this website by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred F344" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Rats, Inbred F344" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
Rats, Inbred Dahl. *Rats, Inbred F344. *Rats, Inbred LEC. *Rats, Inbred Lew ... Rats, Inbred Strains [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.400]. *Rats, Inbred WKY [B01.050.150.900.649.865.635.505.700.400.390] ... Inbred WKY" by people in this website by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred WKY" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Rats, Inbred WKY" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
Rats, Inbred Lew. *Uveitis. *Uveitis, Anterior. _. Top Journals Top journals in which articles about this concept have been ...
Rats, Inbred BN , Rats, Inbred Lew , Transplantation Chimera , Allergy and Immunology , Transplantation Conditioning , Methods ... p,,b,OBJECTIVE,/b,To observe the analgesic effect of triptolide (TP) of high, middle and low doses on rats with adjuvant ... At 14 d after the model establishment, rats in C, D and E groups were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of TP ( ... Effect of triptolide on iNOS and SP expressions in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion of rats with adjuvant arthritis ...
  • Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains. (lookformedical.com)
  • To analyze the relationship between mtDNA variants and cardiometabolic traits, we derived a set of rat conplastic strains (SHR-mtBN, SHR-mtF344 and SHR-mtLEW), harboring all major mtDNA haplotypes present in common inbred strains on the nuclear background of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasma concentrations of unconjugated telmisartan in the SHR were about 5 fold higher when compared to BN rats while plasma levels of telmisartan glucuronide were similar between the strains. (bvsalud.org)
  • Testing of other rat strains, diets, and the ARB valsartan showed that toxic effects of telmisartan in combination with high fructose diet are specific for the SHR. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recently, we tested metabolic effects of telmisartan (5 mg/kg body weight) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a diet containing 60 % fructose, a widely used model of the metabolic syndrome. (bvsalud.org)
  • A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). (wakehealth.edu)
  • P, Cervenka L, Falck JR, Imig JD, Kompanowska-Jezierska E. Combined treatment with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid antagonist provides substantial hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (uams.edu)
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog EET-B attenuates post-myocardial infarction remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (uams.edu)
  • This study was to observe the dynamic changes of Treg in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) rats and explore the role of Treg cells in the pathological process of EAU rats. (cjeo-journal.org)
  • Overexpression of rapsyn in rat muscle increases acetylcholine receptor levels in chronic experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Previously, we found that overexpression of rapsyn by cDNA transfection protects AChRs in rat muscles from antibody-mediated loss in passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Timed mated rats and mice are determined by observation of a vaginal plug. (inotivco.com)
  • For models fulfilled from Envigo Affiliates in Europe, the last stage of gestation for mice is over 17 days and for rats is over 18 days, each at shipping. (inotivco.com)
  • To avoid charges, cancellations for timed mated rats, mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters must be received one week prior to mating date, however, cancelled orders for timed mated rabbits will be charged at full price regardless of the amount of notice supplied. (inotivco.com)
  • If customer's research project requires such litters, Envigo recommends ordering timed mated pregnant rats and mice which can litter at customer's facility. (inotivco.com)
  • No immunosuppressed isogeneic (ISO) and allogeneic (ALO) rats mixture offered as control. (pkc-inhibitor.com)
  • The BN, F344 and LEW mtDNA differ from the SHR in multiple amino acid substitutions in protein coding genes and also in variants of tRNA and rRNA genes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rats, Inbred F344" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (jefferson.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Rats, Inbred F344" by people in this website by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred F344" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (jefferson.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Rats, Inbred F344" by people in Profiles. (jefferson.edu)
  • Modulation of the NO pathway during short or prolonged blood reperfusion following ischaemia in a heterotopic rat heart transplantation model. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) is currently being developed at the Rat Genome Database. (mcw.edu)
  • An inbred strain of rat that is used for general BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH purposes. (jefferson.edu)
  • A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Based on prior experimental results, we hypothesized that rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived DPCs can be used to bioengineer PDL tissues on titanium implants in a novel, in vivo rat maxillary molar implant model. (nih.gov)
  • Use of bone morphogenetic protein 2 on ectopic porous coated implants in the rat. (rush.edu)
  • Effect of tacrolimus and splenectomy on engraftment and GVHD after bone marrow xenotransplantation in the reciprocal hamster to rat animal models. (uchicago.edu)
  • Inside our prior experimental function we considered an optimistic aftereffect of low-dose tacrolimus immunosuppression over the inhibition of severe cell- and antibody-mediated rejection of cold-stored arterial grafts in rats [13,14]. (pkc-inhibitor.com)
  • Inbreeding of the Lewis rat is begun by Dr. Margaret Lewis from a Wistar stock. (inotivco.com)
  • Strategies and Components Cryopreserved stomach aortic grafts were transplanted between Brown-Norway and Lewis Rabbit polyclonal to Albumin rats. (pkc-inhibitor.com)
  • Active immunization against purified AChR was performed in female Lewis rats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Concentrations of both unconjugated telmisartan and telmisartan glucuronide in the liver of SHR rats fed a high fructose diet were approximately 4 fold higher when compared to Brown Norway (BN) rats fed the same diet. (bvsalud.org)
  • A monoclonal antibody to the mycobacterial 65 kDa heat shock protein (ML 30) binds to cells in normal and arthritic joints of rats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A monoclonal antibody reactive with the mycobacterial 65 kDa heat shock protein (ML 30) was investigated for reactivity with biopsies from normal rat joints and with inflamed joints due to adjuvant arthritis (AA) or collagen induced arthritis (CIA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, we quantified NO synthase (NOS) isoform protein levels in a rat heart transplant model during short and prolonged reperfusion following ischemia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Rats on HCD exhibited similar body weights and weights of fat depots, reduced levels of serum insulin, and reduced oxidative stress in the liver. (bvsalud.org)
  • Acute adiponectin delivery is cardioprotective in the aged female rat heart. (jefferson.edu)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase expression in an experimentally-induced DTH model of multiple sclerosis in the rat CNS. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of high cysteine diet administered to SHR-CRP transgenic rats, a model of metabolic syndrome and inflammation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intra-articular injection in an adjuvant-induced rat model of RA induces apoptosis of FLS, leading to significant decrease in joint inflammation, joint damage, and bone loss with improvement in joint function and mobility. (hal.science)
  • Here the authors show that targeting of these cells by a vector, consisting of a baculovirus conjugated to an adenovirus carrying the pro-apoptotic gene PUMA, has therapeutic efficacy in a rat arthritis model. (hal.science)
  • The demonstration of epitopes cross-reactive with hsp 65 of mycobacteria in normal and, in higher quantity, in arthritic rat joints, suggests, together with our preliminary biochemical findings, that a recently identified mammalian counterpart to bacterial hsp 65 is both preferentially expressed in normal joints and subject to increased expression in arthritis of different aetiologies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The use and care of the rats complied with the ARVO Statement. (cjeo-journal.org)
  • In control rat brain, mRNA for all of the MMPs examined was detectable. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Rat PDL DPCs also exhibited differentiative potential characteristic of stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • The pathogenesis and development is closely associated with the dynamic changes of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells in EAU rats. (cjeo-journal.org)
  • Immunohistochemical stainings with the anti-hsp 65 antibody on paraffin sections from normal rat joints revealed a weak but exclusive staining of cells within the synovial lining. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These data show region-specific differences of IL-1β mRNA expression in the brain of these rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to inflammation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Reliable surgical methods, together with the availability of inbred strains and a rapidly developing knowledge of its MHC and immune system in general, have made the rat a prime species in which to study the immunological events which follow liver grafting. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic mapping of two blood pressure quantitative trait loci on rat chromosome 1. (mcw.edu)
  • A genetic map for rat chromosome 1 was constructed using 66 microsatellite markers typed on either or both of two populations derived from inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats: F2(LEW x S) n = 151, and F2(WKY x S) n = 159. (mcw.edu)
  • Nevertheless, there are some physiological and genetic differences between humans and rats, which should be carefully considered when rats are chosen as a model organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methyl palmitate prevents Kupffer cell activation and improves survival after orthotopic liver transplantation in the rat. (musc.edu)
  • Glycine in Carolina rinse solution reduces reperfusion injury, improves graft function, and increases graft survival after rat liver transplantation. (musc.edu)
  • PMID- 3894220 TI - The immunology of experimental liver transplantation in the rat. (nih.gov)
  • Celastrus was fed to LEW rats by gavage daily, beginning either before Mtb challenge (preventive regimen) or after the onset of AA (therapeutic regimen). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The obese phenotype is correlated with a characteristic distribution of inflammatory lesions and BDV-antigen in the rat brain. (nih.gov)
  • In parallel, the draining lymph node cells of Celastrus-treated rats were tested for proliferative and cytokine responses, whereas their sera were tested for the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) mRNA was compared in the brain of inflammatory susceptible LEW/N and resistant F344/N rats at 3, 6, and 12 h after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), sirolimus, and their combination in an experimental model of hepatocyte allotransplantation in rats with acute liver failure. (nih.gov)
  • Noda K, Shigemura N, Tanaka Y, Bhama J, D'Cunha J, Kobayashi H, Luketich JD, Bermudez CA. Hydrogen preconditioning during ex vivo lung perfusion improves the quality of lung grafts in rats. (uams.edu)
  • This is especially so in the rat where, without immunosuppressive treatment, liver grafts between certain strain combinations are accepted permanently, whereas skin, heart and renal allografts undergo acute rejection. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: To characterize the role of the P450 system in the synthesis of NO, NO production, NOS enzyme activity, and steady state NOS mRNA and protein expression were characterized in the setting of P450 isoform activity inhibition by using a model of isolated rat hepatocytes in primary culture. (duke.edu)
  • Improvement of rejection-induced diastolic abnormalities in rat cardia" by P F Soto, C X Jia et al. (lvhn.org)
  • Improvement of rejection-induced diastolic abnormalities in rat cardiac allografts with inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition. (lvhn.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (nitric oxide II) activity has been proposed as a method to attenuate capillary leak and edema during rejection of heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. (lvhn.org)
  • To date, there exist numerous well-established procedures to mimic different forms of injury patterns in rats, animals that are uncomplicated in handling and housing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining the present data with our previously published data on the F2(LEW x S) population showed that four separate quantitative trait loci with additive effects accounted for 106 mmHg and 38% of the total variance of blood pressure and for 506 mg and 34% of the total variance of heart wt. (mcw.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Rats, Inbred Lew" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Rats, Inbred Lew" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Rats, Inbred Lew" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • An additional group of rats was given methotrexate for comparison. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this purpose, heartlung grafting was performed in a strong hystoincompatible combination of rats (BN/LEW). (wustl.edu)
  • At 12 h after LPS administration, increased IL-1β mRNA expression was detected in the hypothalamus of LEW/N rats. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In contrast, increased IL-1β mRNA expression was detected in the cerebral cortex of F344/N rats. (elsevierpure.com)

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