Rats, Inbred F344
Amino Acid Sequence
Viral Fusion Proteins
Long-term transplantability and morphological stability of three experimentally induced urinary bladder carcinomas in rats. (1/7889)Three transitional cell carcinomas induced in Fischer 344 rats by a methylcholanthrene pellet or a foreign body inserted locally into the bladder have been serially transplanted in the syngeneic strain for up to 6.5 years. There have been no changes in the individual morphological characteristics of the tumors during this time. Cells cultured in vitro for varying numbers of passages reproduce regularly the morphology of each tumor when they are injected back into the animals and results from a microcytotoxicity assay for cellular immunity indicate that they retain a common, bladder tumor-specific antigen. These tumors are useful for research in turmo biology and are offered to other scientists seeking transplantable carcinomas for experimentation. (+info)
Low resting potential and postnatal upregulation of NMDA receptors may cause Cajal-Retzius cell death. (2/7889)Using in situ patch-clamp techniques in rat telencephalic slices, we have followed resting potential (RP) properties and the functional expression of NMDA receptors in neocortical Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells from embryonic day 18 to postnatal day 13, the time around which these cells normally disappear. We find that throughout their lives CR cells have a relatively depolarized RP (approximately -50 mV), which can be made more hyperpolarized (approximately -70 mV) by stimulation of the Na/K pump with intracellular ATP. The NMDA receptors of CR cells are subjected to intense postnatal upregulation, but their similar properties (EC50, Hill number, sensitivity to antagonists, conductance, and kinetics) throughout development suggest that their subunit composition remains relatively homogeneous. The low RP of CR cells is within a range that allows for the relief of NMDA channels from Mg2+ blockade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that CR cells may degenerate and die subsequent to uncontrolled overload of intracellular Ca2+ via NMDA receptor activation by ambient glutamate. In support of this hypothesis we have obtained evidence showing the protection of CR cells via in vivo blockade of NMDA receptors with dizocilpine. (+info)
Virulence of a spaP mutant of Streptococcus mutans in a gnotobiotic rat model. (3/7889)Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiologic agent of dental caries in humans, possesses a variety of virulence traits that enable it to establish itself in the oral cavity and initiate disease. A 185-kDa cell surface-localized protein known variously as antigen I/II, antigen B, PAc, and P1 has been postulated to be a virulence factor in S. mutans. We showed previously that P1 expression is necessary for in vitro adherence of S. mutans to salivary agglutinin-coated hydroxyapatite as well as for fluid-phase aggregation. Since adherence of the organism is a necessary first step toward colonization of the tooth surface, we sought to determine what effect deletion of the gene for P1, spaP, has on the colonization and subsequent cariogenicity of this organism in vivo. Germ-free Fischer rats fed a diet containing 5% sucrose were infected with either S. mutans NG8 or an NG8-derived spaP mutant strain, PC3370, which had been constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. At 1-week intervals for 6 weeks after infection, total organisms recovered from mandibles were enumerated. At week 6, caries lesions also were scored. A significantly lower number of enamel and dentinal carious lesions was observed for the mutant-infected rats, although there was no difference between parent and mutant in the number of organisms recovered from teeth through 6 weeks postinfection. Coinfection of animals with both parent and mutant strains resulted in an increasing predominance of the mutant strain being recovered over time, suggesting that P1 is not a necessary prerequisite for colonization. These data do, however, suggest a role for P1 in the virulence of S. mutans, as reflected by a decrease in the cariogenicity of bacteria lacking this surface protein. (+info)
Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors. (4/7889)We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging. (+info)
An intramembrane modulator of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase that potentiates neuregulin signaling. (5/7889)The ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in a variety of developmental processes, and its aberrant activation may contribute to the progression of some breast and ovarian tumors. ASGP2, a transmembrane glycoprotein found on the surface of the highly metastatic ascites 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line, is constitutively associated with ErbB2 in these cells and in mammary tissue from pregnant rats. Expression studies indicate that ASGP2 interacts directly and specifically with ErbB2 through one of its epidermal growth factor-like domains and that the co-expression of the two proteins in the same cell dramatically facilitates their direct stable interaction. Ectopic expression of ASGP2 in human melanoma tumor cells potentiates the response of endogenous ErbB2 to the neuregulin-1 growth factor. These observations point to a novel intramembrane mechanism for the modulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity. (+info)
In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (6/7889)The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity. (+info)
Age-related reductions in [3H]WIN 35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic brain regions of the fischer 344 rat. (7/7889)In the present study, we used the potent cocaine analog [3H]WIN 35, 428 to map and quantify binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) within the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area in young (6-month-old), middle-aged (12-month-old), and aged (18- and 24-month-old) Fischer 344 rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of indirect [3H]WIN 35,428 saturation curves revealed two-site binding for all four brain regions in every age group. The percentage of binding to the high- or low-affinity sites did not differ with age or region and was approximately 50%. However, significant age-related decreases in the overall density (Bmax) of [3H]WIN 35,428-binding sites were observed in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The Bmax within all brain regions declined by more than 15% every 6 months, with the Bmax in the aged (24-month-old) group being approximately half that measured in the young adult (6-month-old) group. Competition experiments indicated that nomifensine also exhibited two-site binding to the DAT in Fischer 344 rats. No consistent age-related differences in binding affinities were noted with either [3H]WIN 35,428 or nomifensine. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that functional DATs within the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems are down-regulated with age, without changing their affinity for ligands. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of a rat homologue of the human tuberous sclerosis 1 gene (Tsc1) and analysis of its mutations in rat renal carcinomas. (8/7889)In the Eker rat, a germ-line mutation in the homologue of the human tuberous sclerosis gene (Tsc2) causes renal cell carcinomas (RCs) with a complete penetrance in all heterozygotes. Tsc2 mutations have also been found in a subset of chemically induced non-Eker rat RCs. Because tuberous sclerosis patients with alteration of either of the two predisposing genes (TSC1 and TSC2) show identical symptoms, the products of these two genes are thought to be involved in a common biological pathway. In this study, to analyze the possible overlap between the functions of Tsc2 and Tscl gene products, we isolated and characterized a rat homologue of the TSC1 gene (Tsc1). The rat Tsc1 gene, which has an identical exon-intron structure to that of human TSC1 and is localized on rat chromosome 3, has been shown to encode a protein (hamartin) that is highly homologous to the human counterpart with an approximately 86% amino acid sequence identity. Using PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis, we identified two splicing donor site mutations in one chemically induced rat RC (1 of 15). This suggests that alterations of the Tsc1 gene may be involved in the development of a subset of rat RCs. (+info)
F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.
Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.
F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.
It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.
I'm not aware of a widely recognized or established medical term called "F factor." It is possible that it could be a term specific to certain medical specialties, research, or publications. In order to provide an accurate and helpful response, I would need more context or information about where you encountered this term.
If you meant to ask about the F-plasmid, which is sometimes referred to as the "F factor" in bacteriology, it is a type of plasmid that can be found in certain strains of bacteria and carries genes related to conjugation (the process by which bacteria transfer genetic material between each other). The F-plasmid can exist as an independent circular DNA molecule or integrate into the chromosome of the host bacterium.
If this is not the term you were looking for, please provide more context so I can give a better answer.
F2-isoprostanes are a type of prostaglandin-like compound that is formed in the body through the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid found in cell membranes. They are produced in response to oxidative stress and are often used as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in various diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. F2-isoprostanes are chemically stable and can be measured in biological fluids such as blood, urine, and breath condensate. They have been shown to cause vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases.
Prostaglandin F (PGF) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandin F is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various tissues throughout the body, including the uterus, lungs, and kidneys.
There are two major types of prostaglandin F: PGF1α and PGF2α. These compounds play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including:
* Uterine contraction: Prostaglandin F helps to stimulate uterine contractions during labor and childbirth. It is also involved in the shedding of the uterine lining during menstruation.
* Bronchodilation: In the lungs, prostaglandin F can help to relax bronchial smooth muscle and promote bronchodilation.
* Renal function: Prostaglandin F helps to regulate blood flow and fluid balance in the kidneys.
Prostaglandin F is also used as a medication to induce labor, treat postpartum hemorrhage, and manage some types of glaucoma. It is available in various forms, including injections, tablets, and eye drops.
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG-18) is not a medical condition, but a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging. It is a type of glucose (a simple sugar) that has been chemically combined with a small amount of a radioactive isotope called fluorine-18.
FDG-18 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help identify areas of the body where cells are using more energy than normal, such as cancerous tumors. The FDG-18 is injected into the patient's vein and travels throughout the body. Because cancer cells often use more glucose than normal cells, they tend to absorb more FDG-18.
Once inside the body, the FDG-18 emits positrons, which interact with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays that can be detected by a PET scanner. The resulting images can help doctors locate and assess the size and activity of cancerous tumors, as well as monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
Proton-translocating ATPases are complex, multi-subunit enzymes found in the membranes of many organisms, from bacteria to humans. They play a crucial role in energy transduction processes within cells.
In simpler terms, these enzymes help convert chemical energy into a form that can be used to perform mechanical work, such as moving molecules across membranes against their concentration gradients. This is achieved through a process called chemiosmosis, where the movement of ions (in this case, protons or hydrogen ions) down their electrochemical gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, an essential energy currency for cellular functions.
Proton-translocating ATPases consist of two main domains: a catalytic domain responsible for ATP binding and hydrolysis, and a membrane domain that contains the ion transport channel. The enzyme operates in either direction depending on the energy status of the cell: it can use ATP to pump protons out of the cell when there's an excess of chemical energy or utilize the proton gradient to generate ATP during times of energy deficit.
These enzymes are essential for various biological processes, including nutrient uptake, pH regulation, and maintaining ion homeostasis across membranes. In humans, they are primarily located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (forming the F0F1-ATP synthase) and plasma membranes of certain cells (as V-type ATPases). Dysfunction of these enzymes has been linked to several diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.
An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.
Dinoprost is a synthetic form of prostaglandin F2α, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like substance in the body. It is used in veterinary medicine as a uterotonic agent to induce labor and abortion in various animals such as cows and pigs. In human medicine, it may be used off-label for similar purposes, but its use must be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks.
It is important to note that Dinoprost is not approved by the FDA for use in humans, and its availability may vary depending on the country or region. Always consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any medication, including Dinoprost.
A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.
In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."
1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.
2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.
3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.
4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).
Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.
In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.
The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.
In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.
Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.
In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.
Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.
Viral fusion proteins are specialized surface proteins found on the envelope of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral infection process by mediating the fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane, allowing the viral genetic material to enter the host cell and initiate replication.
The fusion protein is often synthesized as an inactive precursor, which undergoes a series of conformational changes upon interaction with specific receptors on the host cell surface. This results in the exposure of hydrophobic fusion peptides or domains that insert into the target cell membrane, bringing the two membranes into close proximity and facilitating their merger.
A well-known example of a viral fusion protein is the gp120/gp41 complex found on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The gp120 subunit binds to CD4 receptors and chemokine coreceptors on the host cell surface, triggering conformational changes in the gp41 subunit that expose the fusion peptide and enable membrane fusion. Understanding the structure and function of viral fusion proteins is important for developing antiviral strategies and vaccines.
Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.
List of MeSH codes (B01)
Peripheral nerve explants grafted into the vitreous body of the eye promote the regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons...
Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation by silibinin in male Fisher 344 rats
Biblio | Page 2 | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University
Biblio | Page 4 | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University
Successful induction of pseudopregnancy using sonic vibration in mice | Scientific Reports
Strain Report - Rat Genome Database
Inbred strain - Wikipedia
WTS database | WHO FCTC
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
A quantitative model for spontaneous bone metastasis: evidence for a mitogenic effect of bone on Walker 256 cancer cells -...
Transplanted hepatocytes engraft, survive, and proliferate in the liver of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis<...
Effect of chronic cortisone use in rats strain susceptible to ligature-induced periodontitis
Effect of methylprednisolone on radiotherapy of F344 rats with avian sarcoma virus induced gliomas.
Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel TRβ selective agonists sustained by ADME-toxicity analysis
Nasal cavity. Medical search. Definitions
Venous graft-derived cells participate in peripheral nerve regeneration - D-Scholarship@Pitt
Steven Paul Anderson - Citation Index - NCSU Libraries
Effect of oxidant challenge on contractile function of the aging rat diaphragm. - Texas A&M University (TAMU) Scholar
Basal Ganglia Pathophysiology - Research output - Lund University
Paul M Arnold - Research & Scholarship - University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Search results | DigiNole
Research Institute - Research output - Houston Methodist Scholars
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
Absorption and disposition of bromate in F344 rats<...
Fluoride-induced changes in renal papillary cyclic-AMP - HSC
Subchronic exposure to phytoestrogens alone and in combination with diethylstilbestrol - Pituitary tumor induction in Fischer...
Effect of a conditioned aversive stimulus on the immune response in three strains of rats<...
Ross, A. W.<...
PRIME PubMed | Toxic effects of octylphenol on cultured rat and murine splenocytes
- Genetic contributions were assessed using three strains of male rats with different genetic backgrounds [Fischer-344 (F344), Sprague-Dawley (SD), Brown-Norway (BN)] maintained on a standard or high fat (HF) diet for 24 wk. (cdc.gov)
- Walker 256 (W256) cells or vehicle were injected into the left upper thigh muscle of male Fischer rats, which were killed 7, 10 or 14 days later. (mcmaster.ca)
- Objective The present study assessed the effect of prolonged betamethasone use in ligature-induced periodontitis in adult Fischer-344 rats. (bvsalud.org)
- To investigate whether exercise training can reverse age-related impairment of myogenic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle arterioles, young (4 mo) and old (22 mo) male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to either sedentary or. (fsu.edu)
- Background: Subchronic administration of the potent pharmaceutical estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) to female Fischer 344 (F344) rats induces growth of large, hemorrhagic pituitaries that progress to tumors. (utmb.edu)
- In the present study we investigated the effect of a brief exposure (15 s) to a conditioned aversive stimulus (CS) on the proliferative response of spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in Lewis, Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Enhancement of PBL responsiveness to mitogens was observed in Fischer and Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after exposure to the CS. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- The PBL response of Sprague-Dawley and Fischer rats returned to baseline at 30 min, but not in Lewis rats. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Fischer rats had the largest percentage of suppression. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- The earliest suppression of spleen mitogenic function after exposure to the CS was in Fischer rats, while the Lewis rats had the latest onset of suppression, with the Sprague-Dawley rats being intermediate. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Because these compounds are toxic to aquatic animals, we studied the effects of OP on splenocytes removed from male Fischer 344 rats or male Balb/c mice and cultured in vitro. (unboundmedicine.com)
- We sought to achieve this 'fine mapping' by increasing the marker density within the interval and undertaking a linkage analysis in a previously defined population of F2 hybrids generated from inbred spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of the Okamoto strain and Fischer rat (F344) progenitors. (mcw.edu)
- A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). (lookformedical.com)
- P, Cervenka L, Falck JR, Imig JD, Kompanowska-Jezierska E. Combined treatment with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid antagonist provides substantial hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (uams.edu)
- Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog EET-B attenuates post-myocardial infarction remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (uams.edu)
- Transplantation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived airway epithelial cell sheet into the middle ear of rats. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- A significant decrease in the response of PBL to mitogens was found in Lewis and Sprague-Dawley rats 10 min after exposure to the CS. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Accordingly, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Brown Norway (BN) rats were maintained on either regular (Reg) or high fat (HF) diets for 24wk. (cdc.gov)
- The LEXF: a new set of rat recombinant inbred strains between LE/Stm and F344. (mcw.edu)
- Evaluation of LEXF/FXLE rat recombinant inbred strains for the genetic dissection of complex traits. (mcw.edu)
- The BAC browser for the parental strains (F344 & LE) of the LEXF/FXLE recombinant inbred panel has been released. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
- Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the population to be isogenic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
Strains of rats3
- Propylnitrosourea-induced T-lymphomas in LEXF RI strains of rats: genetic analysis. (mcw.edu)
- Significant differences were found in both the kinetics and the magnitude of altered mitogenic responsiveness of PBL between the different strains of rats. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone peaked at 10 min in all strains of rats. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Stable superovulation, in vitro fertilization and high effective genome editing in rat have been accomplished by Dr. Honda and others! (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The recent release of the rat genome sequence allowed us to retest and refine this relatively broad QTL with a view to identifying within it candidate genes worthy of structural investigation. (mcw.edu)
- By reference to the ENSEBL rat genome data bank, we identified within Lvm1 27 known genes, 109 predicted genes and 7 pseudogenes. (mcw.edu)
- In vivo experiments were conducted using doses of BrO 3 - ranging from 0.077 to 15.3mg/kg, administered intravenously (IV) or orally (gavage) to female F344 rats. (arizona.edu)
- Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is effectively wildtype in nature, where there is as little inbreeding as possible. (wikipedia.org)
- Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self-pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (wikipedia.org)
- One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and FlyBase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and coisogenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
- Rats, Inbred WF are a strain of laboratory rats that are commonly used in medical research due to their consistent genetic makeup and susceptibility to various diseases. (lookformedical.com)
- The 5th training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Mar. 4-5, 2020). (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The 4th training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Feb.13, 2020). (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The 2nd training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Jan.23-24, 2020). (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
Carcinogenesis in the rat2
Different rat strains2
- Effect of diet and occupational exposure in different rat strains on serum biomarkers and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length: development of an animal model to examine the exposome. (cdc.gov)
- The magnitude of hormonal elevation differed in the different rat strains, suggesting that corticosterone may not have a variable immunomodulatory role in each strain. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- Toxicity of MPA (dose range of 0.2-5.0 mg/kg X 7 over 3 weeks) was first established in non-tumor bearing rats as assessed by their relative failure to gain weight. (duke.edu)
- In rats bearing ASV-induced gliomas, treatment with 3,000 cGY (nine fractions over a 3-week period) alone or with 0.2 or 1.0 mg MPA/kg (X 6 during the 3-week radiotherapy course) produced a significantly prolonged survival compared with that of untreated, tumor bearing rats. (duke.edu)
- These animals had a median survival time that was significantly less than that of tumor-bearers receiving radiotherapy alone, but not significantly different from untreated rats with gliomas. (duke.edu)
- Nude rats bearing the LC-6 JCK tumor xenograft (LC-6 rats) exhibited high bone turnover and HHM. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Hypertension-Associated Genes in the Mesenteric Artery of Three Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Substrains Identified Using a DNA Array Method. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- Based on our recent silibinin efficacy studies in human colorectal cancer cells, we investigated the effects of its dietary feeding on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and associated biomarkers in male Fisher 344 rats. (nih.gov)
- Five-week-old male Fisher 344 rats were fed control or silibinin-supplemented (0.033%, 0.1%, 0.33%, or 1%, w/w) diet. (nih.gov)
- Four-week-old inbred male F-344 rats were used in the study. (thestemcellfoundation.com)
- Circuit and cell-specific contributions to decision making involving risk of explicit punishment in male and female rats. (ufl.edu)
- Touchscreen-Based Cognitive Training Alters Functional Connectivity Patterns in Aged But Not Young Male Rats. (ufl.edu)
- Age-related impairments on the touchscreen paired associates learning (PAL) task in male rats. (ufl.edu)
- NBRP Rat & Mouse News vol.1 (Functional analysis tools for GAD isoforms) has been published. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The 11th training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Nov. 4-5, 2021). (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The 10th training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Oct. 28-29, 2021). (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The 9th training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Jul. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The 7th training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Jun. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The 6th training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Apr. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- The 1st training of rat reproduction technology in NBRP-Rat was held (Oct.1-2, 2019). (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- Examination of OLETF-derived non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus QTL by construction of a series of congenic rats. (mcw.edu)
- Our aim was to clone and sequence the cDNA of the BB diabetes prone (DP) and diabetes resistant (DR) alleles of all seven Gimap genes in the congenic DR. lyp rat line with 2 Mb of BB DP DNA introgressed onto the DR genetic background. (hindawi.com)
- The positional cloning and subsequent identification of the Gimap5 gene on RNO4 were in part established through generation of the DR. lyp congenic rat line along with recombination events following our method of marker assisted breeding of DP with F344 rats [ 2 , 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Table on reporter gene transgenic rat has been released. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- Gimap5 was identified as the lyp gene in the BBDP rat through a frameshift mutation and premature truncation of the Gimap5 protein [ 2 , 6 ] and can be rescued in a P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) transgenic rat [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Rats, Inbred WKY" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
- 2001. beta-Catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and the effect of post-initiation treatment with chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol. . (oregonstate.edu)
- Strain susceptibility and resistance to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced enteric tumors in germfree rats (40146). (cdc.gov)
- 2001. Post-initiation effects of chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol in rats given 1,2-dimethylhydrazine or 2-amino-3-methyl- imidazo. . (oregonstate.edu)
- 2003. Promotion versus suppression of rat colon carcinogenesis by chlorophyllin and chlorophyll: modulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and beta-catenin/Tcf signaling. . (oregonstate.edu)
- All rats were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and colon samples were evaluated for ACF, followed by proliferation, apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, by immunohistochemistry and/or immunoblotting. (nih.gov)
- The rat Downunder (Du) coat color mutation is associated with eye anomalies and embryonic lethality and maps to a 3.9-Mb region on chromosome 3. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- Positional cloning of lymphopenia ( lyp ) in the BB rat revealed a frameshift mutation in Gimap5 , a member of at least seven related GTPase Immune Associated Protein genes located on rat chromosome 4q24. (hindawi.com)
- Gimap5 is a member of at least seven related GTPase Immune Associated Protein ( Gimap ) genes located within 150 Kilobases (Kb) on rat chromosome (RNO) 4 [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. (nih.gov)
- rats, where 2 Mb of DP DNA was introgressed onto the BB diabetes resistant (DR) genetic background, are lymphopenic and 100% develop spontaneous T1D by 84 days of age [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. (wikipedia.org)
- 1980. Inhibition by bran of the colonic cocarcinogenicity of bile salts in rats given dimethylhydrazine. (cdc.gov)
- This exceedingly high uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment. (wikipedia.org)
- At the end of the experiment all the rats were killed by exsanguination, the abdominal large vessels were cut under a light ether anesthesia and a complete autopsy was performed. (thestemcellfoundation.com)
- Since the adenoviral E1A gene has been shown to partially transform some epithelial cells from primary rat cell cultures, we constructed retrovirus vectors containing either the 12S or 13S E1A cDNA sequences to facilitate the transfer of these genes into a variety of primary cell types. (cshl.edu)
- Dipeptidyl peptidase IV-deficient F344 rats were used to localize transplanted hepatocytes isolated from the liver of syngeneic normal F344 rats. (elsevierpure.com)
- At 1 year, transplanted hepatocytes formed large clusters containing several-fold more cells than normal control animals, which was in agreement with increased cell turnover in the cirrhotic rat liver. (elsevierpure.com)
- Proliferative activity of spleen lymphocytes in response to the CS was suppressed from baseline in all rat strains, but the timing and degree of suppression differed. (researchwithrutgers.com)
- We have conducted experiments in the adult rat visual system to assess the relative importance of an absence of trophic factors versus the presence of putative growth inhibitory molecules for the failure of regeneration of CNS axons after injury. (nih.gov)
- Rats were euthanized at 7, 12, and 24wk to evaluate local and systemic immune markers corresponding to the baseline, exposure, and recovery phases of the study, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- At 7wk, HF-fed animals exhibited several immune alterations (blood leukocyte/neutrophil number, lymph node B-cell proportionality)-effects which were more pronounced in SD rats. (cdc.gov)
- In BN rats, resolution of immune alterations was further compromised by HF diet, as many exposure-induced alterations in local/systemic immune markers were still evident in HF/WF animals at 24wk. (cdc.gov)
- Collectively, HF diet appeared to have a greater impact on global immune status and exposure-induced lung injury in SD rats, but a more pronounced effect on inflammation resolution in BN rats. (cdc.gov)
- Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all the test animals should be as similar as possible. (wikipedia.org)
- Inbreeding animals will sometimes lead to genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
- however, diet appeared to preferentially impact SD rats at this time point, as several inflammatory markers (lymph node cellularity, lung neutrophils) were further elevated in HF over Reg animals. (cdc.gov)
- The rats were left for 20 days and their optic nerves and retinae prepared for immunohistochemical examination of both the reaction to injury of axons and glia in the nerve and also the viability of Schwann cells in the grafts. (nih.gov)
- The percentages of viable rat or mouse cells after 27 hr of culture were decreased significantly by 10(-12) M OP or greater concentrations. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Intravenous infusion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves tissue perfusion in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- Possible role of intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells to alleviate interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome in a Toll-like receptor-7 agonist-induced experimental animal model in rat. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
- Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging, or they can be selected for traits that make them easier to use in experiments like being easy to use in transgenic experiments. (wikipedia.org)
- The urinary elimination of BrO 3 - and Br - was measured from female F344 rats for four days following administration of single doses of 8.1mgKBrO 3 /kg and for 15 days after a single dose of 5.0mgKBr/kg. (arizona.edu)
- Effect of oxidant challenge on contractile function of the aging rat diaphragm. (tamu.edu)
- The results of these studies demonstrate that OP is toxic to cultured rat and mouse splenocytes and suggest that this toxic effect is exerted, at least partially, through Ca2+-dependent apoptosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
- 3H-dialkylhydrazines in the neuroendocrine system and their antigonadotropic effect in rats. (cdc.gov)