An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Visits made by patients to health service providers' offices for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Glucose in blood.
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.
The consumption of edible substances.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway. It catalyzes the oxidation of proline to pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid in the presence of oxygen and water. The action is not reversible. The specific activity of proline oxidase increases with age. EC 1.5.3.-.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
An organized group of three or more full-time physicians rendering services for a fixed prepayment.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.
Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.
The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.
Net protein Utilization (NPU). *Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER). *Nitrogen Balance (NB). *Protein digestibility (PD) ... The true percentage utilization (usually shown with a percent symbol).. *The percentage utilization relative to a readily ... There are two scales on which BV is measured; percentage utilization and relative utilization. By convention percentage BV has ... Relative utilization[edit]. Due to experimental limitations BV is often measured relative to an easily utilizable protein. ...
This ratio allows for optimal utilization of available dissolved nutrients. Larger phytoplankton, such as diatoms, cannot ... The molecular ratio of 106(Carbon):16(Nitrogen):1(Phosphorus) was discovered by Redfield, Ketcham, and Richards (RKR) and is ... For example, the selection of phytoplankton with a high surface area to volume ratio results in HNLC regions being dominated by ... Compared to more productive regions of the ocean, HNLC zones have higher ratios of silicic acid to nitrate because larger ...
The variable ratio allowed for a better utilization of force. Compared with the towing from the land this system could move ...
At these levels, actual address utilization ratios will be small on any IPv6 network segment. The new design also provides the ...
Teaching quality (30) - Staff to student ratio; ratio of PhD faculty and full-time faculty; faculty training and recruitment; ... internet bandwidth and HEC Digital Library utilisation; number of national and international conferences/seminars/workshops/ ... Finance and facilities (10) - Ratio of non-salary expenditures in total budget; amount generated through own resources; amount ... ratio of PhD students and total PhD output per year; amount of external research grants obtained; amount of travel grants ...
Variation of utilization factor and stage efficiency with blade-to-gas speed ratio ... Therefore, the utilization factor is given by E. =. U. (. c. y. 2. +. c. y. 3. ). 1. 2. c. 2. {\displaystyle E=U{\frac {(c_{y2 ... The blade-to-gas speed ratio parameter (velocity ratio) σ = u/c2. Efficiencies of the turbine stages can also be plotted ... Sometimes it is more convenient to use an isentropic velocity ratio. This is the ratio of the blade velocity and the isentropic ...
f-ratio Primary production Richard W. Eppley; Bruce J. Peterson. "Particulate organic matter flux and planktonic new production ... The rate of ammonia utilization is, in the same sense, a measure of recycled production. The use of 15N-compounds makes it ... The rate of nitrate utilization remains a good measure of the new production. While if the organic matter is then eaten, ...
This high data-to-overhead ratio also enables high utilization with low-cost optical components. The 802.3av defines several ...
... hospital-level utilization statistics, and county-level utilization statistics. It then generates a website that reports this ... 1. AHRQ's Quality Indicators software for Windows (in MONAHRQ versions 1.0 to 3.0) 2. AHRQ's Cost-to-Charge Ratio (CCR) files 3 ... 3. Provider-level utilization statistics (number of hospital stays, costs, and length of stay). These are reported at the ... 4. Area-level utilization statistics (rates and costs). These are reported at the county level. Specific information is ...
... ratio. The ratio can be increased by adding CO2 or reduced by adding steam to the reactor. In situ resource utilization Lane ... An important limitation for the HTS is the H2O/CO ratio where low ratios may lead to side reactions such as the formation of ... In the Fischer-Tropsch process, the WGSR is one of the most important reactions used to balance the H2/CO ratio. It provides a ...
Ethernet packet loss ratio from 10−9 to 10−12, wireless mesh networks around 10−5; high utilization of the available network ...
Gage AJ (October 2007). "Barriers to the utilization of maternal health care in rural Mali". Social Science & Medicine. 65 (8 ... "Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births by WHO region, 1990-2008". World Health Organization.. ... September 1993). "A community survey on maternal and child health services utilization in rural Ethiopia". European Journal of ... Worldwide, the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) has decreased, with South-East Asia seeing the most dramatic decrease of 59% and ...
The utilization rate is the ratio of production capacities versus actual production output for a given year. A low of 49% was ... Solar module production utilization of production capacity in % As the polysilicon industry had started to build additional ... IEA-PVPS published in 2014 historical data for the worldwide utilization of solar PV module production capacity that showed a ... As of 2013, the utilization rate had recovered somewhat and increased to 63%. After anti-dumping petition were filed and ...
The thrust and mixture ratio are calibrated with venturis and a propellant utilization valve on ground tests. The engine also ...
The utilization of gold in skin care and cosmetics dates back at least to the 1st century B.C in Egypt, where Queen Cleopatra ... TiO2 NPs become more effective sunblocking materials due to their larger surface area to volume ratio. The purpose behind this ... This phenomenon explains the cosmetically undesired opaqueness of inorganic sunscreens and makes the utilization of NPs ...
The amount of debt you have divided by your total credit limit is called the credit utilization ratio. There are three types of ... Closing one or more credit card accounts will reduce their total available credit limits and likely increase the utilization ... The most important measurement from this category is called "Revolving Utilization", which is the relationship between the ... thus yielding the utilization percentage. The higher that percentage, the lower the cardholder's score will likely be. This is ...
The amino acids are not catabolized for energy, and are conserved in the body in a greater ratio. The amount of protein used in ... Bodybuilding and other strength training promotes the utilization and conservation of protein's amino acids in the body. Using ... Decreasing dietary DP/DE ratio results in an increase of protein conservation. ...
Coiled systems were developed mainly to improve space utilization. The main advantages are: 1) large ratio of culture volume to ... Jan 2009). "Lipid accumulation and CO2 utilization of N. oculata in response to CO2 aeration". Bioresour Technol. 100 (2): 833- ... Other disadvantages include large area required, low efficiency of light utilization, poor gas/liquid transfer, no temperature ...
... space utilization and tenant efficiency ratio. Cost, either expressed as the cost of the project per square meter or the total ...
On the other hand, a compression ratio chosen too low results in insufficient heat utilisation. When designing his theory, ... The thermal efficiency and motor work do not depend on the amount of air, but on the compression ratio. The greater the ... Rudolf Diesel In fact, a high compression ratio increases efficiency, however, only to a certain point, because, like Diesel ... This is how Diesel found out that he has to use an air-fuel ratio of ~14:1 rather than ~100:1 for a working engine. Furthermore ...
Efficiency is defined here as the ratio of input required to produce an output. An output or product or service is efficient if ... In a nutshell, EBAC focuses on the efficiency aspect by identifying the products' different level of overhead utilization ...
... utilization ratio). A leading stochastic strategy, with utilization ~0.79, gives each customer a probability p of choosing the ... This is a better result than deterministic algorithms or simple random choice (noise trader), with utilization fraction 1 - 1/e ... "The Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem and resource utilization". Physica A. 388 (12): 2420-2426. arXiv:0711.1639. Bibcode: ...
Measures include the biological value, net protein utilization, protein efficiency ratio, protein digestibility-corrected amino ... The ratio of essential amino acids (the quality of protein) is not taken into account, one would actually need to eat more than ... The net protein utilization is profoundly affected by the limiting amino acid content (the essential amino acid found in the ... Therefore, a balance of essential amino acids is necessary for a high degree of net protein utilization, which is the mass ...
Many methods are used to measure soil respiration; however, the closed dynamic chamber and utilization of stable isotope ratios ... When the carbon in these structures is respired, the CO2 will show a similar ratio of the two isotopes. Researchers will grow a ... By taking soil respiration measurements and analyzing the isotopic ratios of the CO2 it can be determined whether the soil ... and the use of stable isotope ratios. These systems measure at one location over long periods of time. Since they only measure ...
The usual ratio of NADPH/NADP+ in the cytosol of tissues engaged in biosyntheses is about 100/1. Increased utilization of NADPH ...
"Feeding behaviour and food utilisation in tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus: Effect of sex ratio and relationship with the ...
... that efficiency refers to the utilisation of resources and mainly influences the required input of the productivity ratio. ... Productivity traditionally refers to the ratio between the quantity of software produced and the cost spent for it. Here the ... However, as profitability is usually defined as the ratio between revenue and cost Profitability = Revenue / Cost It has a ... Effectiveness on the other hand mainly influences the output of the productivity ratio as it usually has direct consequences ...
... the lower the utilization ratio average for all of a borrower's credit card accounts. The utilization ratio is the amount owed ... Because a significant portion of the FICO score is determined by the ratio of credit used to credit available on credit card ... According to FICO there are six different metrics in the debt category including the debt to limit ratio, number of accounts ... the ratio lowers to 30 percent, which could boost the FICO rating. There are other special factors that can weigh on the FICO ...
The ratio takes into consideration the concepts of information generation (IG) and information utilization (IU) expressed as " ... The outcome of this wastage ratio provides support for the initiation of communication policies to ensure full utilization of ... Technology has brought people around the world to be confronted with so much information that utilization of this information ... Alexander Flor, in his article on the information wastage ratio, argues that although information can be consumed anytime and ...
He is credited with the description of the ratio of metabolism to body mass, which became Kleiber's law. 1961: The Fire of Life ... He also provided the basis for the conclusion that total efficiency of energy utilization is independent of body size. These ...
Large tanks are low aspect ratio (height to width) and cylindrical in design with a domed steel or concrete roof. Storage ... high cost of building large LNG facilities makes the progressive development of gas sources to maximize facility utilization ... An important part of traditional engine design is designing the cylinders, compression ratios, and fuel injectors such that pre ...
Thus they present a large surface to volume ratio with a small diffusion distance. Activated carbon (R 1) is defined as the ... Utilization, and Environmental Effects. 29 (9): 839-850. doi:10.1080/00908310500430901.. ...
... the ratio of speed in a vacuum to speed in the crystal. Crystals whose point symmetry group falls in the cubic system are ... as well as their utilization. ...
Isacsson G, Holmgren P, Druid H, Bergman U (August 1997). "The utilization of antidepressants--a key issue in the prevention of ... "Moclobemide treatment causes a substantial rise in the sparteine metabolic ratio. Danish University Antidepressant Group". Br ...
Ratios vary depending upon formation pressure, depth of coal and oxidant balance. Gas output may be combusted for electricity ... "Underground Coal Gasification Resource Utilisation Efficiency" (PDF). CSIRO Exploration & Mining. Archived from the original ...
Even if one region has an absolute advantage as to the ratio of its outputs to inputs in every type of output, it may still ... labour ratios. According to theory, this may give a comparative advantage in production of goods that make more intensive use ...
According to a joint research agenda conducted through the US Department of Energy,[30] the fossil energy ratios (FER) for ... GA Mansoori, N Enayati, LB Agyarko (2016), Energy: Sources, Utilization, Legislation, Sustainability, Illinois as Model State, ... energy ratio, energy requirements, carbon emissions levels, sustainable biofuel production, deforestation and soil erosion, ... which allows an increase of an engine's compression ratio for increased thermal efficiency. In high-altitude (thin air) ...
The large expansion ratio requires a large cylinder volume. To gain the maximum potential work from the engine a high ... The first large-scale utilization of a Uniflow engine was in Atkinson steam wagons, in 1918.[3] ...
"Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. PMID 24199255. Archived from the original on 2017-03-14.. ... and a FEV1/FVC ratio less than 70% in someone with symptoms of COPD defines a person as having the disease.[75] Based on these ...
... a yield/cost ratio of 1.78).. When straw was burned as fuel and oilseed rapemeal was used as a fertilizer, the yield/cost ratio ... "Procédé de Transformation d'Huiles Végétales en Vue de Leur Utilisation comme Carburants") Belgian Patent 422,877. This patent ... this higher brake thermal efficiency was recorded at compression ratios of 21:1). It was noted that, as the compression ratios ... The ratio of input to output in these cases is roughly 1:12.5 and 1:16.5. Photosynthesis is known to have an efficiency rate of ...
... are any arrangement under which wages are paid in the form of: payment in kind (i.e. commodities, including goods and/or services); credit with retailers or; a money substitute, such as scrip, chits, vouchers or tokens, rather than with conventional money. Truck, in this context, is an archaic English language word meaning "exchange" or "barter" (and is derived from the French troquer). By contrast, the term truck system usually refers to a specific set of practices under which employees are defrauded and/or exploited. This may take one or both of two forms. Firstly, the payment in kind, credit, or money substitute is demonstrably of a lesser market value than the amount of money that would normally be paid for the same work. Secondly, truck systems are normally regarded as undesirable or illegal because they limit employees' ability to choose how to spend their earnings. For example, credit or company scrip might be usable only for the purchase of goods at a monopolistic ...
M. Yamaguchi, A. PAKDEL, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, T. Daiming, K. Faerstein, D. Shtansky, D. Golberg : «Utilization of multiwalled ... Slenderness ratio and crystalline filling effects» Nanotechnology 20[40] (2009) 405707-1 DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/20/40/405707 ... Large-Scale Fabrication of Boron Nitride Nanosheets and Their Utilization in Polymeric Composites with Improved Thermal and ... Large-surface-area BN nanosheets and their utilization in polymeric composites with improved thermal and dielectric properties ...
Mason JW, Giller EL, Kosten TR, Harkness L (August 1988). "Elevation of urinary norepinephrine/cortisol ratio in posttraumatic ... health care utilization, and cost of care". Psychosomatic Medicine. 66 (5): 749-56. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.508.9827. doi:10.1097/01. ... with a norepinephrine/cortisol ratio consequently higher than comparable non-diagnosed individuals.[86] This is in contrast to ...
While the number of psychiatrists has increased since 2010, it is still far from a healthy ratio.[135] ... Public health policies can influence access and utilization, which subsequently may improve mental health and help to progress ... and access to and utilization of mental health treatment. ...
Various exercises require a predominance of certain muscle fiber utilization over another. Aerobic exercise involves long, low ... specifically the ratio of in-lever to out-lever. For example, moving the insertion point of the biceps more distally on the ... The efficiency is defined as the ratio of mechanical work output to the total metabolic cost, as can be calculated from oxygen ...
Preliminary utilization of trawl survey data for the hake (M. merluccius) population dynamics from the Western Greek waters. ... First data on sexual maturation and sex-ratio of hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) from ICES divisions VIIIc and IXa. ICES C.M. ...
Göth, Anne (2007). "Incubation temperatures and sex ratios in Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami) mounds". Austral ... "Energy relations of winter roost-site utilization by American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis)" (PDF). Oecologia. 68 (1): 126- ... for which higher temperatures during incubation resulted in a higher female-to-male sex ratio.[99] This, however, was later ... "Temperature-dependent sex ratio in a bird". Biology Letters. 1: 31-3. PMC 1629050 . PMID 17148121. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2004.0247 ...
The bicarbonate buffer system regulates the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate to be equal to 1:20, at which ratio the blood ... energy utilization, osmolarity and blood pressure. ... This restores the normal ratio between bicarbonate and the ... or altered by metabolic changes in the carbonic acid to bicarbonate ion ratio. ...
Some versions provide concentrates containing about 65% yttrium oxide, with the HREE being present in ratios reflecting the ... International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization. 35 (6): 295-330. doi:10.1080/19392699.2015.1033097.. ...
When diluted with water (at a 1:5 ratio for container-grown annual crops with fresh growing medium each season or a 1:8 ratio ... animal manure is often not used as targeted as mineral fertilizers and thus the nitrogen utilization efficiency is poor. Animal ... due to the high ratio of that macronutrient), and inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, which are also part of the wastes ...
The main problem with the utilization of NMDA receptor antagonists for neuroprotection is that the physiological actions of the ... greater ratios of the GluN2B subunit leads to NMDA receptors which remain open longer compared to those with more GluN2A.[42] ...
The common measures are the coefficient-of-performance (COP), energy-efficiency ratio (EER), and seasonal-energy-efficiency ... but a more detailed measure of seasonal energy effectiveness is the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE).[2] ... ratio (SEER). The Efficiency of a Heat pump (HP) and Refrigerators (R)*: E. H. P. =. ,. Q. H. ,. ,. W. ,. {\displaystyle E_{HP ...
... to discuss the price/value ratio of anti-cancer drugs between physicians and patients and on a societal level.[78][80] A 2017 ... drug coupon users had higher drug utilization rates and lower rates of discontinuation than for non coupon users.[71] ... "Effect of Prescription Drug Coupons on Statin Utilization and Expenditures: A Retrospective Cohort Study". Pharmacotherapy. 37 ...
... the ratio of public to private spending on health is lower in the U.S. than that of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, or ... most measures of aggregate utilization such as physician visits per capita and hospital days per capita were below the OECD ...
The Western United States has a higher sex ratio (more males than females) than any other region in the United States.[6] ... "Overview of Hospital Utilization, 2012". HCUP Statistical Brief #180. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and ...
Likelihood ratio Main article: Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing. The pre-test odds of a particular diagnosis, multiplied ... resource utilization).[66] ... The differences in likelihood ratio between clinical tests can ... by the likelihood ratio, determines the post-test odds. (Odds can be calculated from, and then converted to, the [more familiar ...
They include biological value, net protein utilization, and PDCAAS (Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acids Score) which ... was developed by the FDA as a modification of the Protein efficiency ratio (PER) method. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the ...
Lungs: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 300), different ratio in pediatric acute respiratory ... "Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Statistical Brief #168. National Library of Medicine. PMID 24455786.. ... the ratio of the arterial partial-pressure of oxygen to the fraction of oxygen in the gases inspired (PaO2/FiO2) , 300 (the ... "Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Statistical Brief #161. United States National Library of Medicine. PMID 24228290. ...
... and improve the nitrogen utilization ratio. GE, Shunfeng; REN, Yihua; PENG, Ling; XU, Haigang; JI, Mengmeng; WEI, Shaochong; ... The results showed that, with the increasing of soil C/N ratio, apple shoot length and fresh weight increased at first, and ... Fuji/ Malus hupehensis) were used to understand the effect of soil C/N ratio [6.52 (CK), 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40] on ... With the increasing of soil C/N ratio, fertilizer nitrogen loss decreased at first, and then increased, fertilizer nitrogen ...
Exploratory study on the utilization of different dietary methionine sources and methionine to lysine ratio for growing- ... Exploratory study on the utilization of different dietary methionine sources and methionine to lysine ratio for growing- ... Exploratory study on the utilization of different dietary methionine sources and methionine to lysine ratio for growing- ... Eighty-three percent of the articles in the database were not used for the determination of the methionine:lysine ratio because ...
Feed Utilization and Body Composition of Sub-adult Silver Pomfrets, Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen, 1788) ... but there were significant differences in feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent net protein utilization, ... This study investigated the effect of varying levels of lipid and protein to energy (P:E) ratios on growth and feed utilization ... Effects of the dietary protein/lipid ratio on growth and nutrient utilization in common dentex (Dentex dentex L.) at different ...
We advocate use of the device utilization ratio (DUR) as an additional performance measure for potential urinary catheter harm ... We advocate use of the device utilization ratio (DUR) as an additional performance measure for potential urinary catheter harm ...
It is an address allocation utilization ratio and not an address assignment utilization ratio. ... Utilization. Utilization is a measure of IPv6 address usage where "utilization" is only measured in terms of the bits to the ... Utilization 2.8.1. HD-Ratio. 2.9. End site2.10. aut-num object2.11. Routing policy2.12. Transfers 2.12.1. Counterpart RIR2.12.2 ... Appendix A: HD-Ratio. The utilization threshold T, expressed as a number of individual /56 prefixes to be allocated from IPv6 ...
The relationship of local cerebral glucose utilization to optical density ratios. Frank R Sharp, Thomas S. Kilduff, Sherzad ... The relationship of local cerebral glucose utilization to optical density ratios. Brain Research. 1983 Mar 14;263(1):97-103. ... The relationship of local cerebral glucose utilization to optical density ratios. / Sharp, Frank R; Kilduff, Thomas S.; ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The relationship of local cerebral glucose utilization to optical density ratios ...
Credit Utilization Ratio. Your credit utilization ratio is the amount of credit youve used divided by your total available ... Debt ratio sounds pretty good but if its your utilization ratio then bringing it down a bit further might help, depending on ... Having a good credit score requires a credit utilization ratio of 30% or less and 10% is even better. To hit 10% with a ... If you have credit cards with a combined credit limit of $8,000 with balances of $3,000, your credit utilization ratio is 37.5 ...
The ratio of water intake to feed intake can be a good way of determining whether or not water consumption is adequate. Water ... Water to feed ratio. Inadequate water supply can result in reduced feed intake and health issues, and changes in water ... At Aviagen it is recommended that at 21oC (69.8oF), birds will be consuming enough water if the ratio of water to feed is ... Figure 7. Changes in ratio of water intake to feed intake with age in broilers on nipple drinkers. ...
Methods: Trauma patients at 12 Level 1 North American trauma centers were randomized based on transfusion ratios as described ... Damage control laparotomy utilization rates are highly variable among Level I trauma centers: Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal ... Damage control laparotomy utilization rates are highly variable among Level I trauma centers: Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal ... Damage control laparotomy utilization rates are highly variable among Level I trauma centers : Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal ...
Net Protein Utilization (NPU). *Protein Efficiency Ratio. *Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) ... Net Protein Utilization (NPU). NPU is extremely similar to BV. But while BV is comparing the amount of protein that is actually ... Protein Efficiency Ratio. PER is a measure of the amount of weight gain (in grams) in rats compared to their protein intake. ...
Odds ratio. In addition to the authors, the Millennium Cohort Study Team includes Edward J. Boyko, MD, MPH (Seattle ... Prior health care utilization as a potential determinant of enrollment in a 21-year prospective study, the Millennium Cohort ... Mental disorders among US Military personnel in the 1990s: association with high levels of health care utilization and early ...
odds ratio. SSTIs - skin and soft tissue infections. *Accepted November 12, 2012. ... Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. I&D - incision and drainage. KID - Kids Inpatient Database. LOS - length of stay. ... Trends in Resource Utilization for Hospitalized Children With Skin and Soft Tissue Infections. Michelle A. Lopez, Andrea T. ... Increased resource utilization included changes in mean charges from $6722 to $11 534 per hospitalization and a twofold ...
Odds ratio. CI. Confidence interval. ED. Emergency department. NHS. National Health Service ... Aung NC, Rechel B, Odermatt P (2010) Access to and utilisation of GP services among Burmese migrants in London: a cross- ... Utilization of health-care services among immigrants recruited through non-profit organizations in southern Italy. ... This study yielded current and broader insight into the model of health-care utilization among immigrants. The findings adds to ...
Net protein Utilization (NPU). *Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER). *Nitrogen Balance (NB). *Protein digestibility (PD) ... The true percentage utilization (usually shown with a percent symbol).. *The percentage utilization relative to a readily ... There are two scales on which BV is measured; percentage utilization and relative utilization. By convention percentage BV has ... Relative utilization[edit]. Due to experimental limitations BV is often measured relative to an easily utilizable protein. ...
Visit CIHIs online store for the Resource Utilization Group, version III Home Care (RUG-III-HC) Grouping Methodology: ... Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio: A National Look at Sepsis (PDF) December 10, 2009 ...
The sacrifice ratio is an economic ratio that measures the effect of rising or falling inflation on the countrys total ... Capacity Utilization Rate. The capacity utilization rate is a metric used to measure the rate at which potential output levels ... What is the Sacrifice Ratio The sacrifice ratio is an economic ratio that measures the effect of rising and falling inflation ... BREAKING DOWN Sacrifice Ratio A countrys historic sacrifice ratios can be used to guide policymaking by providing a snapshot ...
Credit Utilization Ratio. The credit utilization ratio is the percentage of a borrowers total available credit that is ... Paying down your current balances can improve your utilization ratio. Another option you could try is requesting a credit-limit ... By increasing your available credit limit, you could improve your utilization ratio, assuming you dont make any new purchases ... Credit utilization is how much of your credit limit youre using at any given time. Knowing how to manage these two factors is ...
Isotope Ratio Measurements - Metabolomics Core - Mayo Clinic Research. Isotope Ratio Measurements - Metabolomics Core - Mayo ... In Vivo Assessment of Glutamine Utilization by Bone Marrow Plasma Cells - Mayo Clinic. In Vivo Assessment of Glutamine ... Untargeted Metabolomics Targeted Metabolomics Isotope Ratio Measurements Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Specialties ART-20189579 ... Utilization by Bone Marrow Plasma Cells - Mayo Clinic Overview Tab Title Description Study type Interventional Study IDs Study ...
Leaf‐Inspired Flexible Thermoelectric Generators with High Temperature Difference Utilization Ratio and Output Power in Ambient ... 7 provide further insight into the n-doping effect, in which the enhanced intensity ratio of D to G mode illustrates the ...
Net Protein Utilization (NPU). Net protein utilization is the overall determination of how many amino acids are eventually ... Protein Efficiency Ratio. One of the primary reasons for using a protein such as PSWHEY™ is to promote lean muscle growth and ... maintenance.* The PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio) is a number that measures the muscle weight gain of an individual, when taking ...
ED, emergency department • MEPS, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey • IRR, incidence rate ratio • CI, confidence interval. ... Overall ED Utilization. ED utilization data for parents and children were collected for the first part of the analysis. Overall ... Consequently, parental ED utilization would be related to child ED utilization. We found no previous studies that assessed ... Whether parental ED utilization is truly a causative factor in childhood utilization cannot be determined from this study. ...
Microbial amino acid synthesis and utilization in rats: incorporation of 15N from 15NH4Cl into lysine in the tissues of germ- ... Hauck, R. D. (1982). Nitrogen isotope-ratio analysis. In Methods of Soil Analysis, pp. 735-779 [Page, A. L., Miller, R. H. and ... Torrallardona, D., Harris, C. I. & Fuller, M. F. (1996). Microbial amino acid synthesis and utilization in rats: the role of ... Microbial amino acid synthesis and utilization in rats: the role of coprophagy. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 76, Issue. ...
... the compression ratios were changed, corresponding to the values of 18:1, 19:1, 20:1, 21:1 and 22:1. At the compression ratio ... Utilization of Waste Cooking Oil via Recycling as Biofuel for Diesel Engines by Hoi Nguyen Xa 1, Thanh Nguyen Viet 2, Khanh ... Muralidharan explored the effects of compression ratio on the combustion characteristics of a variable compression ratio engine ... Muralidharan, K.; Vasudevan, D. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a variable compression ratio engine ...
We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. The study sample was drawn from ... the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. Patients with a ... Data regarding utilization of DCCV as a procedural treatment for AF in the United States is scarce. In this study, we describe ... Utilization and Predictors of Electrical Cardioversion in Patients Hospitalized for Atrial Fibrillation,. Cardiology Research ...
d) C-peptide/insulin ratio. The ratio of C-peptide to insulin was calculated to evaluate effects on insulin clearance in IR ... FoxO1 integrates direct and indirect effects of insulin on hepatic glucose production and glucose utilization.. O-Sullivan I1, ... Erratum: FoxO1 integrates direct and indirect effects of insulin on hepatic glucose production and glucose utilization. [Nat ... FoxO1 integrates direct and indirect effects of insulin on hepatic glucose production and glucose utilization ...
The peak ratio approach is reported to have a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.30 pH units with an R. CAL. 2 ... Critical Review on the Utilization of Handheld and Portable Raman Spectrometry in Meat Science by Anel Beganović ... This decrease in signal-to-background ratio is mainly responsible for the separation of the time-dependent Raman spectra in ... In the following chapters, a critical review of peer reviewed literature on the utilization of handheld and portable Raman ...
Have a $4,000 balance on a credit card with a $10,000 limit? Then you have a 40% utilization ratio. Your utilization matters ... Then, by keeping spending on the card low, you create a low utilization ratio. Credit cards also positively impact your credit ... Utilization represents 30% of a FICO credit score.. Utilization is the amount of debt outstanding on your revolving credit ... You can control your credit utilization by:. *Paying down revolving credit debt, focusing first on cards or lines that are ...
Utilisation ratio.. 7. Distributed generation. Benefits of introducing embedded generation. Grid operators views. Issues with ...
The result is your "utilization ratio.". Though you may have heard its important to keep your balances below, say 30% or 25% ... of your available credit, theres no perfect ratio. FICO reports that "high achievers" - consumers with very high FICO scores ...
  • to evaluate the influence of different carbohydrate / lipid ratios (CHOL) on growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization of hybrid catfish (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x Leiarius marmoratus). (bvsalud.org)
  • There are controversies regarding superiority in nutrient utilization between cross bred cattle and buffaloes. (ijlr.org)
  • Therefore present experiment was carried out to compare cross bred cattle and buffaloes for nutrient utilization and Nitrogen balance by feeding three different TMR (ratios of concentrate and roughage). (ijlr.org)
  • To constrain nutrient utilization, a primary control on the pCO 2 in the surface ocean, we also analysed Cd/Ca and δ 13 C in N. pachyderma . (nature.com)
  • To describe trends in national resource utilization for pediatric skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) hospitalizations. (aappublications.org)
  • Outcomes examined included patient and hospital characteristics, number of hospitalizations, and resource utilization including length of stay (LOS), hospital charges, and performance of incision and drainage (I&D). Trends in resource utilization were assessed by using linear regression in a merged data set with survey year as the primary independent variable. (aappublications.org)
  • Visit CIHI's online store for the Resource Utilization Group, version III Home Care (RUG-III-HC) Grouping Methodology: Flowcharts and SAS Code, HCRS Version, 2010-2011 manual. (cihi.ca)
  • According to statistics, the resource utilization rate of datacenter is very low, which is only about 30% on average. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis to investigate relevant risk factors for ICU resource utilization postoperatively. (healio.com)
  • Thus, studies on resource utilization in the elderly population will gain in importance for reasons of financing and health services research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Germany, for example, no single source exists for resource utilization data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Are health risk attitude and general risk attitude associated with healthcare utilization, costs and working ability? (springer.com)
  • Higher WTTR was significantly associated with lower healthcare utilization (physician visits, physical therapy, and medication intake), work absence days and indirect costs. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that variations in risk attitudes contribute to the heterogeneity of healthcare utilization. (springer.com)
  • Soil C/N ratio is an important influencing factor in soil nitrogen cycling. (umn.edu)
  • Fuji'/ Malus hupehensis) were used to understand the effect of soil C/N ratio [6.52 (CK), 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40] on apple growth and nitrogen utilization and loss by using 15N trace technique. (umn.edu)
  • Amount of residual nitrogen in soil increased gradually with the soil C/N ratio increasing, the amount of residual nitrogen in C/N=40 treatment was 1.32 times than that in CK. (umn.edu)
  • Therefore, regarding the apple growth and nitrogen balance situation, the value of soil C/N ratio in the range of 15-25 would be favorable for apple growth and could increase effectively nitrogen fixed by soil, reduce nitrogen loss, and improve the nitrogen utilization ratio. (umn.edu)
  • A ratio of nitrogen incorporated into the body over nitrogen absorbed gives a measure of protein "usability" - the BV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two experiments were conducted to study magnesium utilization in wether lambs fed diets with varying ratios of nitrogen to readily fermentable carbohydrate (N:RFC). (usda.gov)
  • Like the above ratios, high asset utilization may indicate that a company is efficient. (nasdaq.com)
  • Utilization outcomes (advanced imaging, lumbar injections or surgery, and opioid use) were compared using adjusted odds ratios with 99% confidence intervals. (nih.gov)
  • The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of thrombolysis rates in NR vs OT and NR vs NT increased with each decade increment in age. (neurology.org)
  • The validity of optical density ratios used in [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose neuroanatomical mapping experiments is evaluated by comparing local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) and optical density (OD) ratios in the same animals. (elsevier.com)
  • FoxO1 integrates direct and indirect effects of insulin on hepatic glucose production and glucose utilization. (nih.gov)
  • 13)C-glucose and insulin clamp studies indicate that regulation of both hepatic glucose production (HGP) and glucose utilization is impaired in LIRKO mice, and these defects are also restored in LIRFKO mice corresponding to changes in gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that (1) inhibition of FoxO1 is critical for both direct (hepatic) and indirect effects of insulin on HGP and utilization, and (2) extrahepatic effects of insulin are sufficient to maintain normal whole-body and hepatic glucose metabolism when liver FoxO1 activity is disrupted. (nih.gov)
  • This study will evaluate the effect of 150 mg MSDC-0160 taken daily for 90 days compared to the effect of placebo on changes in brain glucose utilization using FDG-PET and cognition in older persons with mild Alzheimer's disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Estimate the effect size of 150 mg daily MSDC-0160 versus placebo on 3-month change in brain glucose utilization using FDG-PET pre-specified regions of interest analysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Explore whether baseline levels of peripheral inflammatory biomarkers (HMW adiponectin, TNFα, IL-6, hsCRP, and FFA) or genotypes including, but not limited to, the apolipoprotein ε4 allele explain the heterogeneity in baseline level of brain glucose utilization and, in MSDC-0160 users, 3-month brain glucose utilization. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Explore whether changes in peripheral inflammatory biomarkers correlate with changes in 3-month brain glucose utilization in MSDC-0160 users. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) contains data on hospital inpatient stays from states participating in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). (hindawi.com)
  • This Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Brief presents data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) on adult hospitalizations involving M/SUDs in 2012. (ahrq.gov)
  • Early referral to guideline adherent physical therapy was associated with significantly lower utilization for all outcomes and 60% lower total LBP-related costs. (nih.gov)
  • A common alternative to estimating service utilization are population-based surveys with retrospective self-reports. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of multivariable logistic regression models showed disparities in maternal health care service utilization, including antenatal care, facility-based delivery, postnatal care and contraceptive use across selected maternal factors. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, we describe trends in utilization of DCCV as a procedural treatment for AF in the United States over a 10-year period, explore demographics related disparities in utilization of DCCV for AF, identify predictors for DCCV use in a real world setting, and assess the impact of DCCV use on outcomes. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we comparatively explored the utilization level of maternal health care, and examined disparities in the determinants of major maternal health outcomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Methods: This paper used data from two rounds of Benin Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) to examine the utilization and disparities in factors of maternal health care indicators using logistic regression models. (deepdyve.com)
  • Utilization and long-term outcomes of kidneys from donors with elevated terminal serum creatinine (sCr) levels have not been reported. (nih.gov)
  • Results confirm and extend prior program outcomes and support the longitudinal value of the MHG program in reducing hospital utilization and costs for individuals with heart disease or diabetes and demonstrate the increasing program effect with continued participation over time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diet that provided the best growth, feed utilization and digestibility with minimal HSI contained 546 g kg⁻¹ protein (513 g kg⁻¹ DP), 114 g kg⁻¹ lipid, 164 g kg⁻¹ carbohydrate, 17.0 MJ kg DE⁻¹ and a DP DE⁻¹ ratio of 30.2 g DP MJ DE⁻¹. (canada.ca)
  • During UE, no speed related differences in either carbohydrate or fat utilisation were observed. (bmj.com)
  • Whereas contraction frequency affects energy expenditure similarly during both UE and LE, its impact on carbohydrate utilisation appears to be influenced by exercise modality or relative exercise intensity. (bmj.com)
  • Odds ratio with 95% CI was estimated to identify predictors of skilled delivery care utilization. (omicsonline.org)
  • Daily feed intake was not affected by the dietary lipid levels, but there were significant differences in feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent net protein utilization, energy and lipid retention values. (scialert.net)
  • Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels and DP DE-1 ratio on growth, feed utilization and hepatosomatic index of juvenile haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus L. (canada.ca)
  • Juvenile haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus L. (initial weight, 13.5 ± 0.1 g) were fed practical diets containing digestible protein to digestible energy (DP DE⁻¹) ratios of 25-30 g DP MJ DE⁻¹ as-fed using three protein levels (450, 500 and 550 g kg⁻¹) each at two lipid levels (110 and 160 g kg⁻¹) for 63 days. (canada.ca)
  • Methods: Trauma patients at 12 Level 1 North American trauma centers were randomized based on transfusion ratios as described in the Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios trial. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods This was a secondary data analysis of the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative survey of health care utilization. (aappublications.org)
  • DP DE⁻¹ ratio had little effect on apparent digestibility (AD) of protein while AD of lipid was significantly affected. (canada.ca)
  • Increased parental ED utilization is significantly associated with increased childhood ED utilization. (aappublications.org)
  • Eighty-three percent of the articles in the database were not used for the determination of the methionine:lysine ratio because the diets did not meet the pigs' lysine requirements. (gc.ca)
  • Duplicate groups of fish (average weight 98.2±0.2 g) were fed for 8 weeks three iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (49% protein) containing 12, 16 and 20% crude lipids with corresponding P:E ratio of 23.66, 22.62 and 21.60 for diets 1, 2 and 3 respectively. (scialert.net)
  • Nine diets composed from ordinary feedstuffs and supplemented with crystalline AA were used (three EAA(N):NEAA(N) ratios of 38:62, 50:50, and 62:38 at three T(N) levels of 18.8, 22.9, and 30.0 g/kg). (wur.nl)
  • In all diets, EAA (including arginine) supply was according to or slightly above the recommended ratios to lysine. (wur.nl)
  • The results showed mean weight gain and feed conversion ratio were highest for diets containing 28.5 and 30.2 g DP MJ DE⁻¹. (canada.ca)
  • The PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio) is a number that measures the muscle weight gain of an individual, when taking protein intake and overall diet into account. (bodybuilding.com)
  • DP DE⁻¹ ratio had no significant effect on protein efficiency ratio except at the lowest level (24.7 g DP MJ DE⁻¹) indicating a protein sparing effect of higher lipid when dietary protein is below the requirement. (canada.ca)
  • 80 fish at average weight of 15 ± 3 g were randomly distributed on 8 glass tanks at 10 fish / tank to study the effect of salinity on feed conversion rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein intake and efficiency of protein utilization ratio in common carp. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Protein intake, also decreased to 25.23, 24.07 and 21.37% with the increasing of salinity to 5, 10 and 15 g/L respectively, compared to the control treatment (25.67%), while the efficiency of protein utilization slump to 21.32, 10.94 and -10.07% in the salt concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 g/L, respectively while it was 29.16% in the control treatment. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Utilization of cellulose by anaerobic microorganisms is a challenging proposition from a bioenergetic perspective, because the modest ATP available from anaerobic catabolism needs to support both microbial growth and cellulase production ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Existing bioenergetic models of microbial cellulose utilization are not sufficient to definitively evaluate the extent of the "metabolic burden" associated with cellulase synthesis for either naturally occurring cellulolytic microorganisms or biotechnological processes. (pnas.org)
  • 2004. Effects of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus . (scialert.net)
  • Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer . (scialert.net)
  • A BV of 100% indicates complete utilization of a dietary protein, i.e. 100% of the protein ingested and absorbed is incorporated into proteins into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigated the effect of varying levels of lipid and protein to energy (P:E) ratios on growth and feed utilization and body composition of sub-adult silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus ). (scialert.net)
  • This study demonstrated that there is no difference between the requirement for dietary lipid between juvenile and the sub-adult silver pomfrets and a dietary lipid level of 16% in a 49% protein diet corresponding to a P:E ratio of 22.6 is optimum for better growth, feed utilization and whole body composition of sub-adult silver pomfret. (scialert.net)
  • Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization, body composition and serum metabolites of meager ( Argyrosomus regius ) juveniles. (scialert.net)
  • Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization and body composition by juvenile grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ). (scialert.net)
  • It has high utilization efficiency and good isolation characteristics with each other. (hindawi.com)
  • This is the reason why one must consider popular efficiency ratios while selecting stocks. (nasdaq.com)
  • The ratio of 12-month cost of goods sold (COGS) to a four-quarter average inventory is considered one of the most popular efficiency ratios. (nasdaq.com)
  • This ratio indicates a company's capability to convert assets into output and is thus a widely known measure of efficiency level. (nasdaq.com)
  • This efficiency measure is the ratio of operating income over the past 12 months to sales over the same period. (nasdaq.com)
  • Values of these ratios higher than industry averages may indicate that the efficiency level of the company is higher than its peers. (nasdaq.com)
  • 0.05) between sorghum hybrid and maturation stages was observed for the efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance (km), which ranged between 0.53 and 0.78. (scielo.br)
  • A coefficient of utilization (CU) is a measure of the efficiency of a luminaire in transferring luminous energy to the working plane in a particular area. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper investigates the association of risk attitudes with the utilization of preventive and general healthcare services, work absence and resulting costs to explore their contribution to the heterogeneity in utilization. (springer.com)
  • Future interventions aimed at decreasing ED utilization should focus on parental or family utilization. (aappublications.org)
  • Second, to assess intervention costs and associated harms, as well as interventions intended to promote equitable CR utilisation in vulnerable patient subpopulations. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Interventions had to aim to increase utilisation of comprehensive phase II cardiac rehabilitation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Researchers tested a variety of interventions to increase utilisation of cardiac rehabilitation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In terms of equity, trialists tested interventions designed to improve utilisation among women and older patients. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Because children constitute nearly one quarter of the 100 million ED visits annually, 5 a principal focus of investigation has been on pediatric ED utilization. (aappublications.org)
  • Exploratory study on the utilization of different dietary methionine sources and methionine to lysine ratio for growing-finishing pigs. (gc.ca)
  • The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the response of growing-finishing pigs to different dietary methionine sources and to determine the ideal methionine:lysine ratio for nursery to finishing pigs. (gc.ca)
  • On the basis of the outcome of this study, it allowed the evaluation of different methionine sources were they promoted similar performance in nursery piglets and to determine minimum methionine:lysine ratios for pigs, from nursery to finishing, that was calculated as 26% methionine as a function of lysine requirement. (gc.ca)
  • Since credit reporting agencies don't have your income information, they use a factor called "credit utilization" instead of a debt-to-income ratio. (forbes.com)
  • Your debt-to-income ratio (DTI) compares the total amount you owe every month to the total amount you earn. (experian.com)
  • Lenders may consider your debt-to-income ratio in tandem with credit reports and credit scores when weighing credit applications. (experian.com)
  • What's a Good Debt-to-Income Ratio? (experian.com)
  • When you're applying for a mortgage, improving your debt-to-income ratio can make a difference in how lenders view you. (experian.com)
  • Utilization represents 30% of a FICO credit score. (forbes.com)
  • In climate engineering, the residue-to-product ratio (RPR) is used to calculate how much unused crop residue might be left after harvesting a particular crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also called the residue yield or straw/grain ratio, the equation takes the mass of residue divided by the mass of crop produced, and the result is dimensionless. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also included are quantitative analyses of the company's financial statements, extensive ratio analyses and up to 10-year history of sales, earnings, dividends and security pricing. (alacrastore.com)
  • Ceramic with zero temperature coefficient could be obtained at suitable ratio . (youdao.com)
  • As a ratio, the coefficient of utilization is unitless. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether a change in speed would affect patterns of energy expenditure and substrate utilisation has not been thoroughly investigated. (bmj.com)
  • Although there is no shortage of studies involving CAM use among various defined populations in the literature, very few have considered health care utilization patterns among CAM users compared with nonusers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isotope Ratio Measurements - Metabolomics Core - Mayo Clinic Research Core Resources Metabolomics Core Sections Overview About About Faculty and Staff Facilities and Equipment Services Services Untargeted Metabolomics Targeted Metabo. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The Volcano iFR®-FFR option, which is a measurement modality for the Volcano system that provides the capability to make FFR and instantaneous wave-Free Ratio™ (iFR®) measurements (CE-Marked). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The capacity utilization rate is a metric used to measure the rate at which potential output levels are being met or used. (investopedia.com)
  • CHOL ratios around 1.31 produced large benefit by best growth performance in the studied hybrid model. (bvsalud.org)
  • In 36 growing pigs (30 to 60 kg), N balance and amino acid (AA) composition of weight gain were measured to evaluate the interactive effect of the ratio between N from essential amino acids (EAA(N)) to nonessential amino acids (NEAA(N)) and total N level (T(N)) in the diet on N retention and utilization of N, EAA(N), NEAA(N), and AA. (wur.nl)
  • The effects of T(N) and EAA(N):NEAA(N) and their interaction for N retention and utilization were significant. (wur.nl)
  • We concluded that the required ratio of EAA(N):NEAA(N) for optimal N retention and utilization is approximately 50:50. (wur.nl)
  • Net protein utilization is the overall determination of how many amino acids are eventually converted into whole proteins and utilized in the body. (bodybuilding.com)
  • This study yielded current and broader insight into the model of health-care utilization among immigrants. (springer.com)
  • Aung NC, Rechel B, Odermatt P (2010) Access to and utilisation of GP services among Burmese migrants in London: a cross-sectional descriptive study. (springer.com)
  • In Vivo Assessment of Glutamine Utilization by Bone Marrow Plasma Cells - Mayo Clinic Overview Tab Title Description Study type Interventional Study IDs Study type Interventional Describes the nature of a clinical study. (mayoclinic.org)
  • We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. (hindawi.com)
  • The study sample was drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs within the Military Health System (MHS). (nih.gov)
  • This study examined the associations between the wider availability of sources for health information and health care utilization in Vietnam after adjusting for potential confounding variables. (jmir.org)
  • The utilization of skilled delivery care services is relatively higher in the study area but inadequate in general. (omicsonline.org)
  • SSTI is responsible for an emerging increase in health services utilization. (aappublications.org)
  • Initial management decisions following a new episode of low back pain (LBP) are thought to have profound implications for health care utilization and costs. (nih.gov)
  • These results also extend the findings from similar studies in civilian settings by demonstrating an association between early guideline adherent care and utilization and costs in a single payer health system. (nih.gov)
  • The use of widely available mass media sources (eg, television and the Internet) to obtain health information was associated with higher health care utilization. (jmir.org)
  • The validity of survey-based health care utilization estimates in the older population has been poorly researched. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We calculated age- and sex-standardized mean utilization rates in each domain and compared them with the corresponding estimates derived from official statistics and independent statutory health insurance data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Survey estimates based on self-report tend to underestimate true health care utilization in the older population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To evaluate the longitudinal value of a chronic disease management program, My Health Guardian (MHG), in reducing hospital utilization and costs over 4 years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine use and how it impacts health care utilization in the United States Military is not well documented. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More so, health care programmes and policies should be strengthened to enhance accessibility as well as improve the utilization of maternal care services, especially for the disadvantaged, uneducated and those who live in hard-to- reach rural areas in Benin. (deepdyve.com)
  • Utilization is calculated by taking the total of your credit card balances divided by the total of your credit card limits. (experian.com)
  • Even if you pay your bill in full each month, the reporting agencies may still mark you down at a higher utilization. (forbes.com)
  • DP DE⁻¹ ratios of 28.5 g DP MJ DE⁻¹ or lower resulted in significantly higher hepatosomatic indexes. (canada.ca)
  • Further research is needed to identify safe practices for the optimal utilization of SCD kidneys from donors with acute kidney injury. (nih.gov)
  • We aimed to compare the rates of thrombolysis utilization for acute ischemic stroke in hospitals with neurology residency (NR) to those of other teaching (OT) and nonteaching (NT) hospitals. (neurology.org)
  • Acute stroke care in NR hospitals is associated with an increased thrombolytic utilization. (neurology.org)
  • The maternal mortality ratio is estimated 676 per 100,000 live births according 2011 EDHS compared to 16 per 100,000 live births in developed countries, 500 per 100,000 live births in Sub-Saharan countries [ 3 - 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Studies have examined sex ratios among first-generation migrants from these regions, but few have examined second-generation descendants. (ices.on.ca)
  • Descriptive statistics, utilization, and costs were examined on the basis of timing of referral to physical therapy and adherence to practice guidelines over a 2-year period. (nih.gov)
  • The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction strives to integrate the theory, research, and practice of slag utilization, including the production and processing of slags. (elsevier.com)
  • The relative biological value (RBV) of the Fe powders was determined (2) using the AOAC hemoglobin repletion/ slope ratio method (3) in 220 weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • utilization, as the ratio between flow rate and capacity. (coursera.org)
  • The true percentage utilization (usually shown with a percent symbol). (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentage utilization relative to a readily utilizable protein source, often egg (usually shown as unitless). (wikipedia.org)
  • percentage utilization and relative utilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sacrifice ratio is calculated by taking the cost of lost production and dividing it by the percentage change in inflation. (investopedia.com)
  • This was a cross-sectional analysis of hospital discharges from 1997 to 2009 within the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database for children with isolated SSTIs. (aappublications.org)
  • However, the potential reduction in output in response to falling prices may help the economy in the short term , and the sacrifice ratio measures that cost. (investopedia.com)
  • They'll be called the average labor utilization, and the cost of direct labor. (coursera.org)
  • A matched-cohort analysis retrospectively compared MHG participants with heart disease or diabetes (treatment, N = 4,948) to non-participants (comparison, N = 28,520) on utilization rates (hospital admission, readmission, total bed days) and hospital claims cost savings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A high receivables turnover ratio or the "accounts receivable turnover ratio" or "debtor's turnover ratio" is desirable as it shows that the company is capable of collecting its accounts receivables or that it has quality customers. (nasdaq.com)
  • In addition to the above-mentioned ratios, we have added a favorable Zacks Rank #1 (Strong Buy) or 2 (Buy) to the screen with an objective to make this strategy more profitable. (nasdaq.com)
  • Conclusion: Although DCL utilization varied significantly between institutions, there was no significant mortality difference between centers. (elsevier.com)
  • In a concomitant slaughter experiment, the AA composition of deposited body protein was determined to estimate AA utilization. (wur.nl)
  • Dietary ratios of N:RFC were .2, .4, .7 and .9 in experiment 1 (five lambs/treatment), and .2 and 1.6 in experiment 2 (nine lambs/treatment). (usda.gov)
  • If parental ED utilization is associated with childhood ED utilization, then future efforts to decrease childhood ED utilization may benefit from focusing on parental, or family, ED utilization. (aappublications.org)
  • But those with the highest scores typically have a 10% or less utilization rate. (forbes.com)
  • To examine the association between parental emergency department (ED) utilization and child ED utilization for overall numbers of ED visits, as well as numbers of nonurgent ED visits. (aappublications.org)
  • We sought to examine the association between parental ED utilization and child ED utilization, for both overall and nonurgent ED visits. (aappublications.org)