The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The absence of light.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea during pregnancy and radiation sickness.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Amides of salicylic acid.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A species of SHEWANELLA noted for its ability to reduce iron and manganese anaerobically.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The name "prickly burweed" is sometimes used but causes confusion with AMSINCKIA.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Anesthetics typically affect respiration. Inhalational anesthetics elicit bronchodilation, an increase in respiratory rate, and ... No respiration occurs in stage IV. This is shortly followed by circulatory failure and depression of the vasomotor centers. ... Respiratory rate and inspiratory volume will also effect the promptness of anesthesia onset, as will the extent of pulmonary ... This drop in blood pressure may activate a reflexive increase in heart rate, due to a baroreceptor-mediated feedback mechanism ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Yosef M, Langer R, Lev S, Glickman YA (17 September 2009). "Effect of airflow rate on ... Becker, Heinrich D. (2009). "Vibration response imaging--finally a real stethoscope". Respiration. 77 (2): 236-239. doi:10.1159 ... Respiration. 77 (2): 134-138. doi:10.1159/000178023. PMID 19033680. S2CID 20555396. Kompis, M; Pasterkamp, H; Wodicka, GR (2001 ...
Breathing is abdominal; respiration rate depending on activity; rate and patterns vary from infant to infant. Very active Teeth ... Respiration rate varies with emotional state and activity. Rate of growth slows. Head size increases slowly; grows ... Looks for fallen objects by 7 months Plays "peek-a-boo" games Cannot yet understand "no" or "danger" Physical Respiration rates ... Heart rate and respiratory rates are close to adults. Body may appear lanky as through period of rapid growth. Baby teeth ...
Aerobic respiration releases carbon dioxide, while anaerobic respiration releases methane. Microbial activity releases carbon ... Peat accumulation rates are as high as 0.5mm/yr while sedimentation may cause a rise of 0.7mm/yr. Thick silt deposits resulting ... The rate of microbial decomposition within organic soils, including thawed permafrost, depends on environmental controls. These ... When cryoturbation and the deposition of sediments act together carbon storage rates increase. The amount of carbon stored in ...
ISBN 978-0-521-83078-2. Ludlow, C. Joseph; Wolf, Frederick T. (April 1975). "Photosynthesis and Respiration Rates of Ferns". ...
... both heart rate and respiration rate decrease; judgment becomes impaired as drowsiness supervenes, becoming steadily deeper ... respiration became increasingly feeble; heart-impulse usually continued after respiration had ceased, the beats becoming very ... However, too high a temperature speeds up the metabolism of different tissues to such a rate that their metabolic capital is ... Daily torpor occurs in small endotherms like bats and hummingbirds, which temporarily reduces their high metabolic rates to ...
Morphine helps lower respiration rates and hypertension. It is given in doses of two milligrams to eight milligrams but can be ... She displayed increased respiration, increased heart rate, diaphoresis, and increased blood pressure. She also displayed minor ... Hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system can manifest as increased heart rate, increased respiration, increased blood ... tachypnea classified as respiration rate higher than 30 breaths per minute, excess sweating, and severe dystonia. Ruling out ...
Temperature controls the rate of microbial respiration; the higher the temperature, the faster the microbial decomposition ... Decomposition rates are low under very wet or very dry conditions. Decomposition rates are highest in wet, moist conditions ... Decomposition rates vary among ecosystems. The rate of decomposition is governed by three sets of factors-the physical ... About half of the GPP is consumed in plant respiration. The remainder, that portion of GPP that is not used up by respiration, ...
The respiratory centre in the medulla and pons of the brainstem controls the rate and depth of respiration, (the respiratory ... Drugs can greatly influence the rate of respiration. Opioids and anesthetics tend to depress ventilation, by decreasing the ... Ventilation facilitates respiration. Respiration refers to the utilization of oxygen and balancing of carbon dioxide by the ... Ventilatory rate (respiratory minute volume) is tightly controlled and determined primarily by blood levels of carbon dioxide ...
This rise in respiration rate however is not necessarily associated with a greater rate of oxygen consumption. Therefore, ... The increase in respiration rate from the low range to the high range is sudden and occurs in response to hyperthermia. Birds ... So, the metabolic rate in a resting, unfed bird, that is producing heat is known as the standard metabolic rate (SMR) or ... Ratite Science Newsletter: 1-4. Mitchell Louw, Gideon; Belonje, Coetzee (1969). "Renal Function, Respiration, Heart Rate and ...
Oral doses of 500-1500 mg of the drug did not affect blood pressure or respiration, but pulse rate was increased by ~12%, and ... Respiration was generally not affected during these experiments. Subcutaneous administration of synephrine in doses ≤ 200 mg ... A more recent study showed that the administration of synephrine by continuous intravenous infusion, at the rate of 4 mg/minute ... of the drug produced an increase in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate, without affecting the diastolic pressure. The blood ...
The rate of hydrogen released in sound tissue is slow in comparison to that in partially weakened tissues. Weak living tissues ... Respiration is accelerated and formazan is produced rapidly. During the early stages of deterioration, these tissues become ... This reaction occurs in or near living cells, which are releasing hydrogen in respiration processes. Depending on size, all ... Dead tissues do not stain, remaining usually white (aged tissue) because the lack of respiration prevents the production of ...
They set and maintain the rate of respiration. Most of the neurons are located in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Other ... Absence of the center results in an increase in depth of respiration and a decrease in respiratory rate. The pneumotaxic center ... The number of cycles per minute is the respiratory rate. The respiratory rate is set in the respiratory center by the dorsal ... When a faster rate of breathing is needed the pneumotaxic center signals the dorsal respiratory group to speed up. When longer ...
To aid in surviving this long underwater, D. marina has a lower respiration rate than other spiders of similar size, which ... Mcqueen, D. J.; Pannell, L. K.; McLay, C. L. (1983-10-01). "Respiration rates for the intertidal spider Desis marina (Hector ...
"FDA clears Masimo Rainbow SET Acoustic Respiration Rate Monitor , News , RT: for decision makers in respiratory care". ... Rainbow acoustic monitoring provides noninvasive and continuous measurement of respiration rate using an adhesive sensor with ... Researchers have evaluated acoustic respiration rate (RRa) and found the acceptable accuracy and significantly fewer false ... "Accuracy of acoustic respiration rate monitoring in pediatric patients". Paediatr Anaesth. 23 (12): 1166-73. doi:10.1111/pan. ...
Another contributing factor to DOM release is respiration rate. Physical factors such as oxygen availability, pH, and light ... Low feeding rates typically lead to high AE and small, dense pellets, while high feeding rates typically lead to low AE and ... Absorption efficiency, respiration, and prey size all further complicate how zooplankton are able to transform and deliver ... Depending on the feeding rate and prey composition, variations in AE may lead to variations in fecal pellet production, and ...
Another contributing factor to DOM release is respiration rate. Physical factors such as oxygen availability, pH, and light ... Low feeding rates typically lead to high AE and small, dense pellets, while high feeding rates typically lead to low AE and ... of faster sinking rates or fragment organic matter (due to sloppy feeding) with slower sinking rates (step 3). Filter feeders ... A single phytoplankton cell has a sinking rate around one metre per day. Given that the average depth of the ocean is about ...
... inputs or organic matter and sedimentation of primary producers can increase rates of respiration in the hypolimnion. If oxygen ... k is a rate constant in year-1, and t is time in years. For most POC of phytoplankton, the k is around 12.8 years-1, or about ... Spawning and growth rates of fish species such as roach and perch also increased to such an extent that they are now amongst ... The rate of phytoplankton breakdown can be represented using this equation: G ( t ) = G ( 0 ) e − k t {\displaystyle G(t)=G(0)e ...
The polygraph measures the EDA, respiration and heart rate. Carlson, N. R. (2013). Structure and Functions of Cells of the ... Heart rate increases after the onset of startle stimuli. The heart rate decreases during the orienting response. The ... The sympathetic division increases automaticity and excitability of the SA node, which increases heart rate. It also increases ... The parasympathetic division decreases automaticity and excitability, which increases heart rate. It also decreases ...
In certain instances, such as Cr(VI) reduction, the use of small organic compounds can optimize the rate of metal reduction. ... Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K. (2007-07-01). "Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by ... Sturm, Gunnar; Dolch, Kerstin; Richter, Katrin; Rautenberg, Micha; Gescher, Johannes (2013). Microbial Metal Respiration. pp. ... Another factor that influences metal respiration is environmental acidity. Although acidophilic and alkaliphilic dissimilatory ...
... by water loss rate. Insects with a higher initial body water content have better survival rates during arid conditions than ... respiration); and (3) excretion, or waste products. The important feature in reducing water loss in land snails during ... In general, the rate of water loss in insects is low at moderate temperatures. Once a species-specific critical temperature (Tc ... Another strategy used to reduce the risk of death by dehydration is to reduce the rate at which water is lost. The three main ...
The specific respiration rate decreases with (maximum) body size between species because large bodied species have relatively ... After hatching, however, the respiration rate further increases, while the weight now also increases all mass fluxes are linear ... Many other life history parameters directly or indirectly relate to respiration. the observed respiration patterns, which ... Freshly laid eggs hardly respire, but their respiratory rates increase during development while egg weight decreases. ...
It can occur with or without an increase in respiration rate. It is characterized by deep breathing. It may be physiologic-as ... which involves an increase in volume and respiration rate, resulting in rapid and deep breaths. The word hyperpnea uses ... List of terms of lung size and activity Control of respiration "Types of breathing at a glance". Healthline. 2020. Whited L, ... Hyperpnea is distinguished from tachypnea, which is a respiratory rate greater than normal, resulting in rapid and shallow ...
This is done by introducing a rate of BOD removal combined with a rate of oxygen consumption by BOD. Giving a total rate for ... Respiration is also performed by bacteria and animals. Assuming steady state (net daily average) the change in deficit will be ... is the deoxygenation rate, usually in d − 1 {\displaystyle d^{-1}} . k 2 {\displaystyle k_{2}} is the reaeration rate, usually ... Both the deoxygenation rate, k 1 {\displaystyle k_{1}} and reaeration rate, k 2 {\displaystyle k_{2}} can be temperature ...
Oxygen availability - affects the rate of energy production by respiration. Light availability - for photosynthesis. light may ... Parasites - These may cause disease, and slow down the growth and reproductive rate of organisms within a population. Important ... as opposed to the act of protecting a species from excessive rates of extinction, which is referred to as conservation biology ...
"Vital Signs (Body Temperature, Pulse Rate, Respiration Rate, Blood Pressure)". OHSU Health Information. Oregon Health & Science ... Along with body temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate, blood pressure is one of the four main vital signs routinely ... as well as heart rate. The oscillometric method uses a sphygmomanometer cuff, like the auscultatory method, but with an ...
Endurance training typically results in an increase in the respiration rate. With adaptation, lung capacity is increased over ... With higher intensity training, breathing rate is increased in order to allow more air to move in and out of the lungs, which ... Muscles involved in respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, increase in strength and endurance. This ...
The respiratory rate is directly affected by concentration of carbon dioxide in blood. Lungs do not collapse after forceful ... Khanorkar, p. 205 Blom, p. 7 Books Blom, J. A. (2004). Monitoring of Respiration and Circulation. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493- ...
Moreover, the respiration rate is actually greater than the photosynthesis rate. The reason why phytoplankton production is so ... In the photic zone, the photosynthesis rate exceeds the respiration rate. This is due to the abundant solar energy which is ... These phytoplankton grow extremely quickly because of sunlight's heavy influence, enabling it to be produced at a fast rate. In ... In addition to overall attenuation, the oceans absorb the different wavelengths of light at different rates. The wavelengths at ...
So, because of the central chemoreceptors, respiration rate would be increased. Renal compensation for metabolic alkalosis, ... But, because respiration slows, there's an increase in pCO2 which would cause an offset of the depression because of the action ... Posthypercapnia - Hypoventilation (decreased respiratory rate) causes hypercapnia (increased levels of CO2), which results in ...
Population structure, migration rates, and environmental refuge for prey are other possible causes for pyramids with biomass ... Abbreviations: I=input, A=assimilation, R=respiration, NU=not utilized, P=production, B=biomass.[25] ... Energy flow diagrams illustrate the rates and efficiency of transfer from one trophic level into another and up through the ... Aquatic communities are often dominated by producers that are smaller than the consumers that have high growth rates. Aquatic ...
... openings called stomata which open or close to regulate the rate exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor into and ... or metabolized by cellular respiration to provide chemical energy to run cellular processes. The leaves draw water from the ... carbon dioxide and water vapor can diffuse into and out of the leaf and access the mesophyll cells during respiration, ...
The capability to detect focal hypoxia causes an excitatory response in the motor output responsible for respiration, which ... causing an increase in action potential firing rate. The neuropeptide can also activate CS pacemakers and less dramatically, CI ... Rett Syndrome Sleep Apnea Control of respiration Ventral respiratory group Smith JC, Ellenberger HH, Ballanyi K, Richter DW, ... Many other neuromodulators have roles in respiration. The aforementioned are simply three examples. Investigation of the ...
Respiration[change , change source]. Amphibians like to live near freshwater in warm weather. There have also been species ... "Amphibian decline or extinction? Current declines dwarf background extinction rate" (PDF). Journal of Herpetology. 41 (3): 483 ... Respiration differs between species of salamanders. Species that lack lungs respire through gills. In most cases, these are ... Some salamanders that are terrestrial have lungs that are used in respiration, although these are simple and sac-like, unlike ...
... in the prevention of recurrent epistaxis in people without active bleeding at the time of treatment-both had a success rate of ...
The balance between respiration and fermentation metabolisms is strain specific.[5] This species also ferments inulin, glucose ... exhibiting a high growth rate at 40 °C (104 °F).[9] ... of simultaneously generating energy from both respiration via ...
The siphon is used both for respiration and for locomotion, by expelling a jet of water. Octopuses have a complex nervous ... Both the structures and editing sites are conserved in the coleoid genome and the mutation rates for the sites are severely ... Respiration involves drawing water into the mantle cavity through an aperture, passing it through the gills, and expelling it ... During crawling, the heart rate nearly doubles, and the animal requires ten or fifteen minutes to recover from relatively minor ...
Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, and hemoglobin oxygen ... Since knowledge, techniques, and medical technology continue to evolve at a rapid rate, many regulatory authorities require ...
Added to this would be the photosynthate to produce energy to sustain respiration over this period, an amount estimated to be ... Tree rings are records of the influence of environmental conditions, their anatomical characteristics record growth rate ...
Respiration. *breath *inhalation. *exhalation. *respiratory rate. *respirometer. *pulmonary surfactant. *compliance. *elastic ...
Amniotes acquired new niches at a faster rate than before the collapse and at a much faster rate than primitive tetrapods. They ... resulting in effective respiration, since many of these muscles have attachment points in conjunction with their forelimbs ( ... van Tuninen, M.; Hadly, E.A. (2004). "Error in Estimation of Rate and Time Inferred from the Early Amniote Fossil Record and ... Younger reptiles shed more because of their rapid growth rate. Once full size, the frequency of shedding drastically decreases ...
This category contains information about photosynthesis and respiration. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metabolism. ...
Recombination rates exceeded those of uninduced cultures by up to three orders of magnitude. Frols et al.[150][152] and Ajon et ... Photosynthesis, cellular respiration and fermentation. Reproduction. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual ... Lake JA (January 1988). "Origin of the eukaryotic nucleus determined by rate-invariant analysis of rRNA sequences". Nature. 331 ... 1988). "Origin of the eukaryotic nucleus determined by rate-invariant analysis of rRNA sequences". Nature. 331 (6152): 184-6. ...
The SimMan mannequin is capable of speech, heart rate control, respiration and a host of other controls to make it a realistic ... Studies have shown that students perform better and have higher retention rates than colleagues under strict traditional ... of studies have shown that students engaged in medical simulation training have overall higher scores and retention rates than ...
a flow-volume loop, which graphically depicts the rate of airflow on the Y-axis and the total volume inspired or expired on the ...
... maximizing harvest rates and reducing travel costs, but later redistributed more widely, minimizing theft by other rodents.[11] ... To reduce loss of moisture through respiration when sleeping, a kangaroo rat buries its nose in its fur to accumulate a small ... and high summer temperature and evaporation rates.[8] They can be found in areas of varying elevation, ranging from below sea ... They do this in part by lowering their metabolic rate, which reduces loss of water through their skin and respiratory system. ...
Inhibits reabsorption of Na+, increase glomerular filtration rate 1. tubules Chemically, diuretics are a diverse group of ... The reduced concentration of calcium in the urine can lead to an increased rate of calcium in serum. The sparing effect on ... The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of ...
"Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 85 (3): 179-92. doi:10.1159/000346525. PMID 23364286.. ... If pulmonary rehabilitation improves mortality rates or hospital readmission rates is unclear.[109] Pulmonary rehabilitation ... People who live in large cities have a higher rate of COPD compared to people who live in rural areas.[54] While urban air ... They show promise in decreasing the rate of exacerbations, but do not appear to change a person's quality of life.[2][200] ...
Increasing literacy rates in Europe during the course of the Enlightenment enabled science to enter popular culture through ... Lavoisier subsequently discovered and named oxygen, described its role in animal respiration[89] and the calcination of metals ...
Poor growth occurs for two reasons: the work of breathing is intense enough that calories are burned at high rates even at rest ... blocking ports of airflow and hindering effective respiration.[13][14] There have been documented instances of severe airway ... increased heart rate and/or blood pressure; decreased sex drive; unexplained weight gain; increased urination and/or nocturia; ... Food and Drug Administration in 2014 granted pre-market approval for an upper airway stimulation system that senses respiration ...
Carbon dioxide is essential to life because animals release it during cellular respiration when they breathe and plants use it ... Association, Press (2014-09-09). "Greenhouse gas emissions rise at fastest rate for 30 years". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. ... Carbon dioxide is released naturally by decomposition, ocean release and respiration. Humans contribute an increase of carbon ... the rate of which they are being produced has increased because of humans. These gases are emitted from fossil fuel usage in ...
This is probably the most common hypothesis, and fits well with the idea that many dinosaurs had fairly high metabolic rates. ... Ruben, J. A.; Jones, T. D. & Geist, N. R. (2003). "Respiration and reproductive paleophysiology of dinosaurs and early birds". ... But this does not imply that ornithischians could not have had metabolic rates comparable to those of mammals, since mammals ...
In the 21st century, the rate of prevalence across Indonesia is slightly under one new case per 10,000 people, with ... difficult and hoarse respiration, as well as anaesthesia."[8] ... difficult and hoarse respiration, as well as anesthesia."[8] ... mortality rates were 4% and 8%, respectively). The remainder absconded from the Home, apparently in improved condition.[ ... the three provinces where the rate of incidence of the disease is amongst the highest in Indonesia.[51] ...
The rate of progression can be measured using the "ALS Functional Rating Scale Revised (ALSFRS-R)", a 12-item instrument survey ... respiration) is generally preserved, at least initially. Two small studies have shown that people with isolated bulbar ALS may ... Rates peaked in the early 1950s and steadily declined thereafter, and by 1985 the incidence of ALS/PDC in Guam was about the ... It was then approved in Europe in 1996 and in Japan in 1998.[94] In 1996, the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) was first ...
Insect respiration happens without lungs. There is a system of internal tubes and sacs through which gases diffuse or are ... Adult insects use oxygen at a high rate when they fly. They need it for the flight muscles, the most active tissue known in ... at any rate out in the open. In the winter, many insects go into something called diapause, which is the insect version of ... and still consume oxygen at this rate) is about 0.5 cm.[12] Even with special extra arrangements, insects cannot get larger ...
The rates of onset of damage and recovery from it depend upon the turnover rate of epithelial cells. Typically the skin starts ... These uncertainties can be caused by internal movement (for example, respiration and bladder filling) and movement of external ... and fluence output rate (dose rate) of the medical linear accelerator. VMAT has an advantage in patient treatment, compared ... by 1.5 to 4 times a person's normal rate, aggravating factors included.[19] The increase is dose dependent, related to the RT's ...
When retracted, the tongue is held in the oropharynx by the secondary palate, preventing it from blocking respiration. This ... Giant anteaters swallow at a much higher rate than most other mammals; when feeding, they swallow almost continuously.[13] ... Lovegrove, B. G. (August 2000). "The Zoogeography of Mammalian Basal Metabolic Rate". The American Naturalist. The University ... Xenarthrans in general tend to have lower metabolic rates than most other mammals, a trend thought to correlate with their ...
... increase survival rate, and decrease the rate of neuronal degradation in Htt mutant mouse models.[19]. *Trichostatin A ... muscles of the lower extremities are often affected first followed by upper extremities and sometime the muscles of respiration ... sodium butyrate improved locomotor impairment and reduced early mortality rates.[23]. Valproic acid. In an inducible rat model ...
In some cases, dietary restriction requires mitochondrial respiration to increase longevity (chronological aging), and in some ... Benedict is known for the Harris-Benedict equation used to measure metabolic rate. ... metabolic rate, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and membrane fatty acid composition". J Gerontol A Biol Sci ... and lower fasting blood glucose levels were factors associated with fewer disorders of aging and with improved survival rates.[ ...
... of human babies and toddlers reflexively moving themselves through water and changing their rate of respiration and heart rate ... Of all the age groups, children aged 0-4 years had the highest death rate and also non-fatal injury rate. In 2013, among ... The slowing of heart rate and breathing is called the bradycardic response. It is not true that babies are born with the ... Drowning is a leading cause of unintentional injury and death worldwide, and the highest rates are among children. Overall, ...
The respiration rate is dependent of species, type of tissue or organ studied and temperature. Respiratory rate v t e. ... usually loss of biomass by respiration per unit of weight), also referred to as relative respiration rate. In theoretical ... The respiration rate is a parameter which is used in ecological and agronomical modeling. In theoretical production ecology and ... aquaculture, it typically refers to respiration per unit of time ( ...
... the rate control system including a timing cylinder with a movable piston therein forming two mutually adjustable timing ... A system for timing the maximum lengths of inspiration and expiration phases of the respiration cycles of a positive pressure ... 1 Drawing Figure RESPIRATION RATE CONTROL SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a respiration rate ... The rate control system may be provided as a separate attachment for the basic respiration apparatus, or may be built into the ...
... and determining a respiration rate based on the heart rate variability. The photoplethysmographic signal may be based on one or ... monitoring the heart rate sample to identify a heart rate variability associated with respiration, ... The invention thus allows for noninvasive monitoring of respiration rate and expands the functionality of pulse oximeters. ... processing the pleth signal to obtain heart rate samples, ... rate variability parameter associated with respiration rate. In ...
Aerobic cellular respiration rates vary according to three main factors: the amount of nutrients available to the cell, the ... Aerobic cellular respiration rates vary according to three main factors: the amount of nutrients available to the cell, the ... This means that a cell lacking nutrients has a lower respiration rate than a cell that has access to all the nutrients it ... Therefore, neurons have a higher cellular respiration rate than lipid cells.. The temperature of the environment also affects ...
Basal rates of soil respiration are correlated with photosynthesis in a mixed temperate forest ... This is relevant because estimates of the Q10 of SR (Q10 is the relative change in a process rate per temperature change of 10° ... Within all six plots, we found strong correlations between the basal rate of SR (BR; defined as the SR at 10°C) and modeled ... Many field studies have demonstrated that soil temperature explains most of the temporal variation in soil respiration (SR). ...
... and regulation of respiration. You will have a better ... ... Week 5: Respiration Rate. This week we will learn about ... The vital signs - heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration rate, and pain - communicate important information ... You will have a better understanding of how health care providers assess respiration rate and the quality of lung sounds. ... pulmonary anatomy, capillary gas exchange, and regulation of respiration. ...
The Mean Error value estimates the mean difference in simultaneous estimates of respiration rate (the Respiration Rate ... The Mean Error value estimates the mean difference in simultaneous estimates of respiration rate (the Respiration Rate ... the Respiration Rate calculated from the Max-N sensor minus the Respiration Rate calculated from capnography. ... Respiration Rate V2.0 in a Hospital Setting. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ...
... The respiration rate is the rate at which a person breathes. It increases with fever and some ... The best time to count the respiration rate is when a person is resting, perhaps after you take the persons pulse while your ... Normal resting breathing rate:. *Newborn to 6 months: 30-60 breaths per minute ...
What is the respiration rate?. The respiration rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. The rate is usually ... Vital Signs (Body Temperature, Pulse Rate, Respiration Rate, Blood Pressure). Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. What ... Respiration rates may increase with fever, illness, and other medical conditions. When checking respiration, it is important to ... What is the pulse rate?. The pulse rate is a measurement of the heart rate, or the number of times the heart beats per minute. ...
Irish medical device maker Coviden has revealed that it has received the CE Mark of Approval to market its Nellcor Respiration ... of Approval to market its Nellcor Respiration Rate System that can be used in keeping track of the patients respiration rate ... The Respiration Rate system from Covidien gives us a better picture of a patients overall respiratory status, does not change ... The Respiration Rate System has been backed by a number of doctors, including Dr Graham Douglas, Respiratory Unit, Aberdeen ...
... and regulation of respiration. You will have a better ... ... Week 5: Respiration Rate. This week we will learn about ... The vital signs - heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration rate, and pain - communicate important information ... You will have a better understanding of how health care providers assess respiration rate and the quality of lung sounds. ... This week, were going to be dealing with the vital sign respiration rate. ...
Soil desiccation, which occurs under good access of the air, and leads to the increase of respiration rate (the ... Watering of the soil was applied starting from two initial moisture contents: 1) GWC > 0.1, desiccated soil, respiration equals ... This paper aims at analyzing changes in soil respiration depending on the levels of soil moisture and aeration. Organic forest ... Desiccation increases soil respiration rates so substantially that respiration is statistically higher than of the non- ...
Respiration rate of the 4 goldfish was again observed and recorded. Dependent variable: respiration rate of the goldfish ... The respiration rate is proportional to the temperature change; as temperature decreases, respiration rate also decreases. Our ... Transcript of The effect of temperature change on the respiration rate of The Effect of Temperature Change on the Respiration ... The respiration rate of each goldfish was determined by counting the number of times one would open and close its mouth. Or by ...
... and heart rate (HR) were obtained in ten healthy young adults during spontaneous respiration at supine rest, before and after ... Respiration-synchronous fluctuations in stroke volume, heart rate and arterial pressure in humans J Physiol. 1993 Dec;472:501- ... and heart rate (HR) were obtained in ten healthy young adults during spontaneous respiration at supine rest, before and after ... Respiration-synchronous fluctuations in MAP were mainly caused by variations in CO. 4. After cholinergic blockade, respiratory ...
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List of Respiration Rate Monitoring companies, manufacturers and suppliers for the Health and Safety industry on Environmental ... Respiration Rate Monitoring Companies for the Health and Safety industry Related terms for "respiration rate monitoring ": ...
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Root respiration, calculated from the difference between CO2-uptake and net assimilation rate, accounted for 6 to 69 per cent ... Maintenance and constructive respiration, photosynthesis, and net assimilation rate in seedlings of pitch pine (Pinus rigida ... Maintenance and constructive respiration, photosynthesis, and net assimilation rate in seedlings of pitch pine (Pinus rigida ... there were differences among populations in the rate of CO2-uptake. ...
Oscillations of heart rate and respiration synchronize during poetry recitation. Dirk Cysarz, Dietrich von Bonin, Helmut ... Oscillations of heart rate and respiration synchronize during poetry recitation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Oscillations of heart rate and respiration synchronize during poetry recitation. Dirk Cysarz, Dietrich von Bonin, Helmut ... This kind of cardiorespiratory interaction has its origin in the modulation of heart rate by respiration, i.e., RSA (1). For ...
What is a dogs normal resting heart rate? What should a dogs body temperature be? Is your dog breathing too fast? These are ... Changes In Your Dogs Respiration. There are many conditions that can change the resting respiration rate for dogs. ... How To Measure Your Dogs Respiration. To measure your dogs breathing rate, use a stop watch or clock that shows a count in ... This is for resting respiration rate only. Any physical activity or change in emotional state can result in increased breathing ...
... respiration rate explanation free. What is respiration rate? Meaning of respiration rate medical term. What does respiration ... Looking for online definition of respiration rate in the Medical Dictionary? ... Respiration Rate. Respiration rate for strawberries, exposed to pure [N.sub.2] for 0 or 9 h and then stored at 20[degrees] C ... erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.. fatality rate the death rate in a specific group of ...
Photo-Plethysmographic Camera to Monitor Heart Rate, Respiration Rate and Oxygen Saturation in Infants. The safety and ... ambient light, PPG can monitor reliably heart rate, respiration rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]. ... A Pilot Study Using Photo-plethysmographic (PPG) Camera to Monitor Heart Rate, Respiration Rate and Oxygen Saturation in ... The researchers want to determine if ambient light, plethysmographic , can monitor reliably heart rate, respiration rate and ...
... as well as respiration rate is a critical need in medical applications. There are several methods for respiration rate ... We also suggest a procedure to improve the accuracy of respiration rate for patients at rest positions. The overall error in ... In this work, we present a real-time cloud-based platform for both monitoring the respiration rate and breath pattern ... the respiration rate calculation is obtained 0.53% considering SPR-BTA spirometer as the reference. Five types of respiration ...
Heilmayer, O. , Lörz, A. N. , Sartoris, F. J. and Brey, T. (2001): Respiration Rate of Antarctic Amphipods. , The expedition ... Respiration Rate of Antarctic Amphipods. Heilmayer, Olaf, Lörz, A. N., Sartoris, Franz-Josef and Brey, Thomas ORCID: https:// ...
... can monitor reliably heart rate, respiration rate and oxygen satur... ... heart rate, respiration rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) in infant patients in a hospital setting. ... Home » Topics » Patient Monitoring » Research » Photo-Plethysmographic (PPG) Camera to Monitor Heart Rate, Respiration Rate and ... Photo-Plethysmographic (PPG) Camera to Monitor Heart Rate, Respiration Rate and Oxygen Saturation in Infants. 2014-08-27 03:18: ...
The aim of our studies was to determine the relation between temperature and the respiration rate of the forest soil organic ... The temperature effect was significant for both the respiration rate and the Q 10 values. The calculated Q 10 values were ... The respiration rate was measured in laboratory conditions at different temperatures, 0, 10, 20, and 30°C, in samples collected ... The aim of our studies was to determine the relation between temperature and the respiration rate of the forest soil organic ...
Tropical rainforest carbon sink declines during El Niño as a result of reduced photosynthesis and increased respiration rates. ... Tropical rainforest carbon sink declines during El Niño as a result of reduced photosynthesis and increased respiration rates ...
Respiratory rate, or breathing rate, is the number of breaths you take per minute. Each breath, or respiration, has two phases ... The normal range for a resting heart rate is between 60 bpm and 100 bpm. Respiratory rate, reported in respirations (breaths) ... Sleeping heart rate, breathing rate and HRV: What your sleep data means. A lower resting heart rate (RHR) is a sign of quality ... Contact-free measurement of heart rate, respiration rate, and body movements during sleep Behav Res Methods. For example, it ...
PhysIQ now adds ambulatory respiration rate analysis to its repertoire of physiology algorithms, which include analytics for ... PhysIQs cloud-based analytics tackle ambulatory respiration rates with latest 510(k) clearance. ... continuous ambulatory respiration rates, according to an update to the FDAs device clearance database that was confirmed by ... "We are encouraged by the successful clearance of respiration as a core dimension of human cardiopulmonary physiology which will ...
Spectral analysis of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal indicated a higher respiration regularity during deep sleep, ... Spectral analysis of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal indicated a higher respiration regularity during deep sleep, ... The spectral and cross-spectral parameters of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal were computed at low frequency (LF) ... The spectral and cross-spectral parameters of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal were computed at low frequency (LF) ...
  • What Factors Affect the Rate of Cellular Respiration? (
  • Aerobic cellular respiration rates vary according to three main factors: the amount of nutrients available to the cell, the specific type of cell and the ambient temperature. (
  • Aerobic cellular respiration is the process by which a cell converts nutrients into energy through a chemical reaction, according to UC Clermont College. (
  • Therefore, neurons have a higher cellular respiration rate than lipid cells. (
  • The temperature of the environment also affects cellular respiration. (
  • The higher the temperature is, the higher the cellular respiration rate is. (
  • You just viewed Cellular Respiration Glycolysis,... . (
  • Learning Modules on the parts of Cellular Respiration. (
  • The reactants in photosytnthesis are H20 and CO2, and the products are C6h12O6 and O2, but in cellular respiration the products and reactants are switched. (
  • Meaning that In cellular respiration the reactants are C6H12O6 and O2 while the products are H20 and C02. (
  • Photosynthesis is the reverse of the Cellular Respiration.Cellular Respiration: what cells do to break up sugars into a form that the cell can use as energy. (
  • Cellular Respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis. (
  • What is cellular respiration in germinating seeds? (
  • Cellular respiration is the consumption of oxygen by a cell within a living organism. (
  • In plant seeds, the cellular respiration does not occur until the seed has absorbed moisture and released stored starches that can then be metabolized into energy for the purpose of growth. (
  • Cellular respiration exists in both animal and plant cells. (
  • The production of this energy allows cellular respiration to begin. (
  • How is the rate of cellular respiration measured? (
  • Cellular respiration is measured primarily through the use of two different methods: one that involves measuring changes in temperature over time and anoth. (
  • Cellular respiration is a metabolic reaction that requires glucose and oxygen. (
  • How Is Breathing Related to Cellular Respiration? (
  • Cellular respiration is directly related to breathing, as breathing provides the necessary oxygen molecules for the process of cellular respiration to take. (
  • What raw materials are needed for cellular respiration? (
  • Cellular respiration requires energy from an organic source, such as glucose and oxygen, to take place. (
  • Cellular respiration is the process by which energy. (
  • Which part of cellular respiration produces the most NADH? (
  • You have reached the point in your biology or life science class where you must teach cellular respiration. (
  • All cellular respiration releases energy, water and CO2 from organic compounds. (
  • The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle - or citric acid cycle - is an important step in cellular respiration. (
  • 3. They will be able to differentiate between photosynthesis and respiration. (
  • 2. These will be used to act out the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. (
  • Many biology teachers tell me that they dread teaching photosynthesis and respiration to their students. (
  • Photosynthesis and respiration may be the two topics I love teaching the most! (
  • What is more fundamental to the study of biology than photosynthesis and respiration? (
  • Anaerobic respiration is the production of carbon dioxide without the use of oxygen. (
  • Eukaryotes and most other organisms use aerobic respiration, while prokaryotes amd other organisms with little oxygen use anaerobic respiration. (
  • Due to the lack of oxygen, this pathway is described as anaerobic respiration. (
  • Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning. (
  • Evaluation of acoustic respiration rate monitoring after extubation in intensive care unit patients. (
  • Soil desiccation, which occurs under good access of the air, and leads to the increase of respiration rate (the "Birch effect"), is predominantly related to aerobic respiration following the change in soil aeration. (
  • There are two different types of respiration, aerobic and anaerobic. (
  • The first part of aerobic respiration is glycolysis. (
  • The second part of aerobic respiration is the krebs cycle. (
  • Since the process relies on oxygen to occur, this is referred to as aerobic respiration. (
  • The software calculates respiration rate values via Adult Respiratory Sensor with a mean error of +/- 1 breath per minute relative to a capnography based reference. (
  • The Mean Error value estimates the mean difference in simultaneous estimates of respiration rate (the Respiration Rate calculated from the sensor and the Respiration Rate calculated from capnography). (
  • Irish medical device maker Coviden has revealed that it has received the CE Mark of Approval to market its Nellcor Respiration Rate System that can be used in keeping track of the patient's respiration rate continuously through one finger sensor. (
  • The device is a combination of Coviden's Adult Respiratory Sensor, Nellcor Respiration Rate Version 2.0 software and Nellcor Bedside Respiratory Patient Monitoring System, both of which have also received the CE Mark of approval. (
  • The Respiration Rate system from Covidien gives us a better picture of a patient's overall respiratory status, does not change the workflow of our clinical staff and allows us to better provide effective treatment through a finger sensor that is familiar to clinicians and comfortable for patients. (
  • In this paper a software sensor for estimating the respiration rate and the nonlinear oxygen transfer function K L a is presented. (
  • Nellcor™ respiration rate technology provides a continuous assessment of oxygenation and respiration rate trends through a single finger sensor. (
  • Another light-operated sensor gives a second heart rate measurement, and accelerometers measure how frantically the person is shaking the controller. (
  • The stoichiometries of the reactions and the connections between them are known, which provides us with a metabolic map of respiration that includes glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the citric acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain ( mETC ), ATP synthase, and several other surrounding reactions. (
  • We also suggest a procedure to improve the accuracy of respiration rate for patients at rest positions. (
  • Accuracy of Respiration Rate and Detection of Respiratory Pause by Acoustic Respiratory Monitoring in the PACU. (
  • Basal rates of soil respiration are correlated with photosynthesi. (
  • Many field studies have demonstrated that soil temperature explains most of the temporal variation in soil respiration ( SR ). However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that SR is also influenced by current, or recent, photosynthate. (
  • This paper aims at analyzing changes in soil respiration depending on the levels of soil moisture and aeration. (
  • If respiration of non-desiccated soil is assumed as 100%, the oxygen consumption of desiccated soil equaled to 209.90% of such value in the non-desiccated soil at the lowest moisture level, and only to 51% at the highest. (
  • Fischer, Z. , Blažka, P. and Dubis, L. (2017) Respiration Rates of Organic Soil Depending on Changes of Moisture and Aeration. (
  • Thus, a response of decomposition and mineralization rate, as well as carbon dioxide emission to various levels of watering or even waterlogging of the soil becomes an important issue for various climate zones. (
  • If rewetting stimulates mineralization, it is understandable that it also enhances both: soil respiration and fermentation. (
  • The key issue for the whole ecosystem is the ratio between the degree to which soil moisture content influences soil respiration and the degree to which it influences the fermentation. (
  • The aim of our studies was to determine the relation between temperature and the respiration rate of the forest soil organic layer along an altitudinal gradient while controlling the effects of the soil characteristics. (
  • The calculated Q 10 values were highest for the temperature range between 10 and 20°C, and the lowest values were obtained from the highest temperature range (20-30°C). The altitude effect was significant for the respiration rate but not for the Q 10 values, indicating that the temperature sensitivity of the soil respiration did not change much along the studied altitudinal gradient. (
  • Bekku YS, Nakatsubo TN, Kume A, Adachi M, Koizumi H (2003) Effect of warming on the temperature dependence of soil respiration in arctic, temperate and tropical soil. (
  • Bonito GM, Coleman DC, Haines BL, Cabrera ML (2003) Can nitrogen budgets explain differences in soil nitrogen mineralization rates of forest stands along an elevation gradient? (
  • Soil respiration rates were studied as a function of soil type, texture and light intensity at five selected natural beech forest stands with contrasting geology: stands on silicate bedrock at Kladje and Bricka in Pohorje, a stand on quartz sandstone at Vrhovo and two stands on a carbonate bedrock in the Karstic-Dinaric area in Kocevski Rog, Snezna jama and Rajhenav, Slovenia, during the growing season in 2005-2006. (
  • Soil respiration exhibited pronounced seasonal and spatial variations in the studied forest ecosystem plots. (
  • An empirical model describing the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature predicted seasonal variations in soil respiration reasonably well during 2006. (
  • Nevertheless, there were also some indications that soil moisture in relation to soil texture could influence the soil CO(2) efflux rates in both sampling seasons. (
  • It was shown that spatial variability of mean soil respiration at the investigated sites was high and strongly related to root biomass. (
  • Based on the [image omitted] data, it was shown that new photoassimilates could account for a major part of the total soil respiration under canopy conditions in forest ecosystems where no carbonate rocks are present, indicating that microbial respiration could not always dominate bulk soil CO(2) fluxes. (
  • Further spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration was clearly affected by management practice. (
  • Soils store about four times as much carbon as plant biomass(1), and soil microbial respiration releases about 60 petagrams of carbon per year to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide(2). (
  • Short-term experiments have shown that soil microbial respiration increases exponentially with temperature(3). (
  • Here we collect soils from different ecosystems along a climate gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon and investigate how microbial community-level responses control the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. (
  • Efficiency of Root Respiration in Relation to Growth Rate, Morphology and Soil Composition LAMBERS, HANS 1979-06-01 00:00:00 Root growth respiration and root maintenance respiration rate of the following species were determined: Hypochaeris radicata L. ssp. (
  • The efficiency of root respiration, as determined by the values for root growth respiration and root maintenance respiration rate could not be demonstrated to be of advantage in adaptation to soil conditions, as e.g. nitrogen content, moisture content and pH. (
  • Cylindrical soil microcosms (10 x 15 cm) were also collected from elevational and latitudinal gradients and warmed in the laboratory at ambient field temperature, ambient +3 °C, and ambient +6 °C. Soil respiration increased with increasing temperature for both experiments. (
  • Summary 1,Relationships were examined among photosynthetic capacity (Amass and Aarea), foliar dark respiration rate (Rd-mass and Rd-area), stomatal conductance to water (Gs), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) across 79 perennial species occurring at four sites with contrasting rainfall levels and soil nutrients in eastern Australia. (
  • Soil respiration refers to the production of carbon dioxide when soil organisms respire. (
  • Soil respiration is a key ecosystem process that releases carbon from the soil in the form of CO2. (
  • When plant respiration occurs below-ground in the roots, it adds to soil respiration. (
  • This heterotrophic consumption releases CO2 and when this CO2 is released by below-ground organisms, it is considered soil respiration. (
  • The amount of soil respiration that occurs in an ecosystem is controlled by several factors. (
  • The temperature, moisture, nutrient content and level of oxygen in the soil can produce extremely disparate rates of respiration. (
  • Soil respiration rates can be largely affected by human activity. (
  • This is because humans have the ability to and have been changing the various controlling factors of soil respiration for numerous years. (
  • All of these factors can affect the rate of global soil respiration. (
  • Soil respiration and its rate across ecosystems is extremely important to understand. (
  • This is because soil respiration plays a large role in global carbon cycling as well as other nutrient cycles. (
  • Soil respiration is also associated with positive feedback with global climate change. (
  • Therefore, soil respiration rates can be affected by climate change and then respond by enhancing climate change. (
  • Any respiration that occurs below-ground is considered soil respiration. (
  • Respiration by plant roots, bacteria, fungi and soil animals all release CO2 in soils, as described below. (
  • This is how the majority of soil respiration occurs at its most basic level. (
  • This is an important source of CO2 in soil respiration in waterlogged ecosystems where oxygen is scarce, as in peat bogs and wetlands. (
  • However, most CO2 released from the soil occurs via respiration and one of the most important aspects of below-ground respiration occurs in the plant roots. (
  • Root respiration accounts for approximately half of all soil respiration. (
  • Directly next to the root is the area known as the rhizosphere, which also plays an important role in soil respiration. (
  • The respiration rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. (
  • The rate is usually measured when a person is at rest and simply involves counting the number of breaths for one minute by counting how many times the chest rises. (
  • I then ask students to record their respiration rate in breaths per minute. (
  • Also referred to as the "respiratory rate," a child's respiration refers to the number of breaths taken in one minute. (
  • The normal respiratory rate is 30 to 60 breaths per minute from birth to one year, 24 to 50 breaths per minute from one to three years and 22 to 34 breaths from three to six years old. (
  • From age six to twelve, the normal rate is 18 to 30 breaths per minute, while 12 to 16 breaths is the normal rate from age 12 to 18. (
  • Normal rates for an adult are 12-16 breaths per minute. (
  • Abstract: Quantifying the energetic costs of human induced behavioral disturbance on wildlife is a crucial step to evaluate the potential long-term effects of disturbance on individual vital rates. (
  • ABSTRACT In extremely acidic lakes, low primary production rates have been measured. (
  • Here, large-scale screens revealed 2-fold variation in nighttime leaf respiration rate (R N ) among mature leaves from an Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) natural accession collection grown under common favorable conditions. (
  • The production of CO2 increased between 2- and 4-fold when temperature increased from 1 to 12 °C. Minor differences in leaf respiration rate between the first and second leaf cutting were observed for salad rocket and wild rocket, while leaves from the second cutting of mizuna and watercress leaves had a higher respiration rate than from the first cutting. (
  • This means that a cell lacking nutrients has a lower respiration rate than a cell that has access to all the nutrients it requires, states the Journal of Experimental Botany. (
  • Baby leaves washed with cold water consistently showed a lower respiration rate than the other washing treatments. (
  • Kirpichnikova, O. 2009-05-10 00:00:00 This work deals with two intertwined questions: (1) what are the factors underlying equally high respiration rates of arctic plants at low temperature and of temperate zone plants at 20-25°C and (2) whether this respiration feature would explain small size of the northern plants. (
  • Coursera brinda acceso universal a la mejor educación del mundo, al asociarse con las mejores universidades y organizaciones, para ofrecer cursos en línea. (
  • PhysIQ now adds ambulatory respiration rate analysis to its repertoire of physiology algorithms, which include analytics for heart rate, heart rate variability, QRS detection, atrial fibrillation detection and changes in personalized physiology. (
  • The pulse rate is a measurement of the heart rate, or the number of times the heart beats per minute. (
  • There are several methods for respiration rate measurement. (
  • The pulse rate is a measurement of the heart rate. (
  • Analog Devices offers a variety of signal chain components and integrated solutions to convert thoracic impedance changes into a respiration rate measurement. (
  • Raza, A. and Augousti, A.T (1995) Optical measurement of respiration rates. (
  • The preliminary experiment showed that as the concentration of the water and yeast solution to the fixed amount of glucose increases the rate of reaction and therefore produces more carbon dioxide, we measured this in how long 10 bubbles took to come out of the water. (
  • 2) The rate of CO2 was measured by calculating the amount released from the graduated tube every one minute for ten minutes with the graduated tube being attached to the yeast and glucose solution. (
  • Cells of the mutant strain showed a very low respiration rate with glucose and no respiration with ethanol. (
  • Our study provides the first baseline estimates of respiration rates and carbon flux of myctophids in the Southern Ocean. (
  • 2. Ruthenium Red prevented the stimulation of mitochondrial respiration by extramitochondrial Ca2+, showing that the effect required Ca2+ uptake into the mitochondrial matrix. (
  • 3. Starvation of rats for 48 h abolished the stimulation of mitochondrial respiration by extramitochondrial Ca2+ when pyruvate was used as substrate, but did not affect the stimulation of 2-oxoglutarate oxidation by extramitochondrial Ca2+. (
  • Concurrently, we uncovered daily oscillations in mitochondrial respiration that are substrate-specific and peak during different times of the day. (
  • The second pulse and respiration rates are recorded after the students do ten jumping jacks. (
  • The final pulse and respiration rates are recorded after vigorous exercise (my students ran in place for 1 minute or around our school track one time). (
  • I personally count pulse and respiration for 15 seconds and multiply by four, but that's mostly because most owners are trying to talk to me before 30 seconds is up. (
  • temperature will cause an increase of respiration in yeast. (
  • The cost of high leaf N is reflected in higher dark respiration rates and, presumably, additional costs incurred by N acquisition and increased herbivory risk. (
  • 2Elevated CO2 partial pressure had a strong effect on dark respiration, decreasing both mass-based and area-based rates at all canopy positions, but had little or no effect on leaf physical and biochemical properties. (
  • Modules use animations to convey dynamic process of cell respiration. (
  • You just viewed Cell Respiration and Bioenergetics . (
  • If you know the author of Cell Respiration and Bioenergetics , please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. (
  • Thus, silk fibroin coatings enhance fruits' shelf life at room conditions by reducing cell respiration rate and water evaporation. (
  • We find that the microbial community-level response more often enhances than reduces the mid-to long-term (90 days) temperature sensitivity of respiration. (
  • After 90 days, microbial community responses increased the temperature sensitivity of respiration in high-latitude soils by a factor of 1.4 compared to the instantaneous temperature response. (
  • High elevation mesocosms transplanted to low elevations also increased their microbial enzyme activity rates such that they exceeded all other treatments. (
  • At the site without nodules, potential microbial respiration rates, determined by incubation experiments using 14C-labelled acetate, are slightly higher than at sites with nodules. (
  • Five types of respiration disorders, Bradapnea, Tachypnea, Cheyn-stokes, Kaussmal, and Biot's breathing are classified based on hierarchical Support Vector Machine (SVM) with seven different features. (
  • Both types of respiration occur in the cytoplasm (prokaryote)or the mitochondria (eukaryote) of a cell. (
  • In a predicted future of warmer global temperatures, researchers at the University of Minnesota had guessed that the respiration rates of trees , including some output of carbon dioxide, would increase by broad margins. (
  • But for trees that were allowed to acclimate to the warmth, the increased respiration rates only went up by a little bit, translating to a rising output of carbon dioxide by just 5 percent. (
  • The average carbon-specific respiration rate during the experiment was 0.12 ± 0.03 at 15 °C, and decreased 3.5-fold when the temperature was lowered to 4 °C. No direct influence of temperature on aggregate sinking speed was observed. (
  • Using the remineralisation rate measured at 4 °C and an average particle sinking speed of 150 m d −1 , calculated carbon fluxes were similar to those collected in deep ocean sediment traps from a global data set, indicating that temperature plays a major role for deep ocean fluxes of POC. (
  • Iversen, M. H. and Ploug, H.: Temperature effects on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity of diatom aggregates - potential implications for deep ocean export processes, Biogeosciences, 10, 4073-4085,, 2013. (
  • Similarly, if the respirations are too quick or too slow for too long, the body's levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide become imbalanced. (
  • However, direct measurements of myctophid respiration, and of mesopelagic fish generally, are needed to constrain these estimates further and incorporate these fluxes into carbon budgets. (
  • 4,The lower respiration rates for leaves from trees grown at elevated CO2 partial pressure resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of light-saturated net photosynthesis to respiration, increasing the potential carbon-use efficiency of these leaves. (
  • 3. Since carbon dioxide is also released during respiration, there will be no movement of water into the pipet unless this is removed as a factor affecting the experiment. (
  • As the patient's lungs are inflated, the flow rate to the patient is reduced until a selected terminal flow rate is achieved. (
  • Systems and methods provide for assessing the heart failure status of a patient and, more particularly, to generating a trend parameter based on a distribution of the patient's respiration rate. (
  • Root respiration, calculated from the difference between CO 2 -uptake and net assimilation rate, accounted for 6 to 69 per cent of diurnal assimilation. (
  • The evidence presented shows that relatively inefficient root respiration does not imply a low growth rate. (
  • Thus, the amount of CO2 produced through root respiration is determined by the root biomass and specific root respiration rates. (
  • Spectral analysis of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal indicated a higher respiration regularity during deep sleep, and a higher parasympathetic drive was also confirmed by an increase in the coherence between the HRV and the respiration signal in the HF band during NREM sleep. (
  • Higher respiration rates as well as higher variability in respiration rates were observed in the virgin forest (Rajhenav) than in the management forest (Snezna jama) and could be related to a higher amount of detritus and consequently to less pronounced influence of inorganic pool to CO(2) efflux, lower mixing with atmospheric CO(2) and higher sensitivity to environmental changes. (
  • However, in a closed greenhouse is should be possible to better control the maintenance respiration. (
  • pleiosperma Pilgcr, P. maritime L., Senecio viscosus L., S. vulgaris L. and Urtica dioica L. A high root growth respiration (i.e. the amount of oxygen consumed for synthesis of a given weight of root material) implied a high maintenance respiration rate (i.e. the amount of oxygen consumed per unit of time and dry weight, but not connected with growth). (
  • Root growth respiration and root maintenance respiration rate of the following species were determined: Hypochaeris radicata L. ssp. (
  • Planning Aim and Background information The aim of this investigation is to find out how the affect of changing the sucrose concentration affects the rate of respiration of yeast. (
  • The rate of respiration in yeast and how it is affected by temperature. (
  • Science Biology: Planning For my coursework I am going to investigate how temperature can change the rate of respiration on yeast. (
  • Aim: The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of changing the temperature on the rate of respiration in yeast. (
  • Top of FormRate This Paper: 12345Bottom of Form Length: 5831 words (16.7 double-spaced pages) Rating: Red (FREE) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Effect of Temperature on the Respiration of Yeast In this piece of coursework I will be researching, studying and experimenting with yeast . (
  • I will be aiming to find out how temperature affects the rate of respiration of yeast . (
  • I will research thoroughly the effects of temperature on respiration of yeast by using a variety of resources such as books, internet, and scientific programs. (
  • the products of respiration of yeast. (
  • In theoretical production ecology and aquaculture, it typically refers to respiration per unit of time (usually loss of biomass by respiration per unit of weight), also referred to as relative respiration rate. (
  • We apply this regression to net haul data collected across the Scotia-Weddell sector of the Southern Ocean to estimate respiration rates of the biomass-dominant myctophid species. (
  • We strongly encourage comparative respiration measurements of worldwide Euphausiid key species at different seasons to improve accuracy in ecosystem modelling. (
  • The respiration rate and the oxygen transfer function were estimated from measurements of the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) and airflow rate by a Kalman filter. (
  • Other measurements mentioned before that could tell you more about emotions or cognitive workload are respiration, heart rate and from this also the possibility to calculate the variability of the heart rate (HRV). (
  • The respiration rate is dependent of species, type of tissue or organ studied and temperature. (
  • A linear correlation between log k and the mid-point potentials (Em) of these protein species indicates that the higher rates of electron transfer from the Ac2 species are due to the differences in Em of the 4Fe-4S cluster. (
  • On the other hand, respiration rates of the Brassica species were not substantially affected by the washing treatments when stored at 4 °C. Maximum CO2 production was observed immediately after washing but decreased during the first 24 h of storage. (
  • For single Euphausiid species investigated in a large range of DLh and DoY, we also tested the standard respiration rate for seasonality with Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and General Additive model (GAM). (
  • In an attempt to answer these questions, we collected various hypotheses scattered in the current literature and experimentally examined the respiration- growth relationships by analyzing plant productivity characteristics in three representative species inhabiting Wrangel Island (lat. (
  • Root growth rate in the present species appears limited by a factor produced in the shoot under light conditions, and which factor is distinct from carbohydrates. (
  • In the present manuscript the short term effect (3-24 h) of a saline shock (NaCl 100 mM) on fresh weight, water content, respiration rate, ethylene production and Na + , Cl - , ACC and polyamine concentration was studied in four plant species with different salt sensitivity, pepper, lettuce, spinach, and beetroot. (
  • The company revealed that the device will provide accurate data with regards to the respiration rate of a patient through a continuous, non-invasive patient monitoring platform. (
  • PhysIQ has received 510(k) clearance for an algorithm facilitating cloud-based analysis of patients' continuous ambulatory respiration rates, according to an update to the FDA's device clearance database that was confirmed by the company to MobiHealthNews. (
  • The acoustic technique of measuring continuous respiration rate (RR a ) interprets the large airway sound envelope to calculate respiratory rate while pulse oximetry-derived respiratory rate (RR oxi ) interprets modulations of the photoplethsymograph in response to hemodynamic changes during the respiratory cycle. (
  • Assessment of continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an addition to a pulse oximetrybased patient surveillance system. (
  • The vital signs - heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration rate, and pain - communicate important information about the physiological status of the human body. (
  • Belongs in the aquatic ectotherms category, which suggests their body temperature can be regulated through adaptation of their eating habits or physical, but respiration regulation is also important. (
  • The researchers want to determine if ambient light, plethysmographic , can monitor reliably heart rate, respiration rate and oxygen saturation in infant patients in a hospital setting. (
  • With the current prototype of our system, we can monitor heart rate reliably and estimate oxygen saturation in adults, using normal artificial light or daylight, entering through a window. (
  • Heart rate and oxygen saturation will be extracted from the plethysmographic signal off the cheek, forehead or hand while the respiration rate may be retrieved from the plethysmographic signal off the chest area. (
  • heart rate, respiration rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) in infant patients in a hospital setting. (
  • In this image, our meter shows oxygen saturation on the left and pulse rate on the right. (
  • The respiration rate is a parameter which is used in ecological and agronomical modeling. (
  • A pleth signal is analyzed to identify a heart rate variability parameter associated with respiration rate. (
  • Summary 1,Mass-based and area-based rates of respiration, leaf nitrogen content, leaf total protein content, non-structural carbohydrates and leaf mass per unit area (LMA) all decreased with depth in the canopy of Nothofagus fusca (Hook. (
  • Increased nitrogen fertilization by humans also has the potential to affect rates over the entire planet. (
  • The respiration of plant structures releases not only CO2 but also other nutrients in those structures, such as nitrogen. (
  • The changes in HR and SV were inversely related and variation in SV was the main source of respiratory variability in CO. Respiration-synchronous fluctuations in MAP were mainly caused by variations in CO. 4. (
  • Heart rate variability (HRV) greatly changes during different sleep stages, showing a predominant parasympathetic drive to the heart during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and an increased sympathetic activity during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. (
  • Heart Rate Variability (HRV) on the other hand expresses the quick variations of the frequency between heart beats. (
  • The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environment, with consequently fewer universal mass scaling properties. (
  • Here, we examine the mass scaling of respiration and maximum feeding (clearance and ingestion rates) and growth rates of heterotrophic pelagic organisms over an ~1015 range in body mass. (
  • Rationale: As we all know, respiration is a process that takes place in all living organisms where it converts sugar, taken in by the organism into energy. (
  • Heme is also an essential cofactor of cytochromes in the electron transport chain of respiration. (
  • In one embodiment, an associated process involves obtaining a photoplethysmograpic signal, processing the pleth signal to obtain heart rate samples, monitoring the heart rate sample to identify. (
  • third processing said heart rate information to obtain respiration information regarding respiration of said patient. (
  • 6. A method as set forth in claim 1 , wherein said step of second processing comprises performing a spectral analysis of said pleth signal to obtain said heart rate information. (
  • 7. A method as set forth in claim 1 , wherein said step of second processing comprises using a filter to identify a spectral peak corresponding to said heart rate of the patient. (
  • 8. A method as set forth in claim 1 , wherein said step of second processing comprises obtaining a heart rate signal reflecting a time series of heart rate values for said patient. (
  • 9. A method as set forth in claim 8 , wherein said step of third processing comprises identifying a variation in said heart rate signal of said patient associated with said respiration. (
  • 10. A method as set forth in claim 1 , wherein said step of third processing comprises filtering said heart rate information to identify a variation therein within a frequency range between about 0-1.5 Hz. (
  • 1. Simultaneous recordings of beat-to-beat left cardiac stroke volume (SV, pulsed ultrasound Doppler), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were obtained in ten healthy young adults during spontaneous respiration at supine rest, before and after cholinergic blockade by atropine (0.035 mg kg-1). (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the synchronization between low-frequency breathing patterns and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) of heart rate during guided recitation of poetry, i.e., recitation of hexameter verse from ancient Greek literature performed in a therapeutic setting. (
  • In this context, various effects of poetry recitation on cardiovascular parameters, especially on heart rate oscillations, have been demonstrated ( 4 , 9 , 50 ). (
  • What is a dog's normal resting heart rate? (
  • The normal pulse or heart rate for dogs can vary depending on the dog's age and size. (
  • Large adult dogs can have a resting heart rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute , while s mall adult dogs can have a normal heart rate of 100 to 140 beats per minute . (
  • Heart rate can increase with normal exercise or emotional responses like excitement or stress. (
  • On the other hand, there could be a problem if you notice changes in your dog's resting heart rate while they're relaxed. (
  • If your dog's resting heart rate is outside of the usual range, then it's a good idea to see a vet . (
  • To measure your dog's heart rate, you'll need a stopwatch or clock that can show you a count in seconds. (
  • This provides a reliable heart rate monitor. (
  • Effect of increased intracranial pressure on blood pressure, heart rate, respiration and catecholamine levels in neonatal and adult rabbits. (
  • Heart rate and respiration change with exertion. (
  • Along with blood pressure and temperature, a child's heart rate and respiration provide a picture of the child's overall health. (
  • The heart rate, on the other hand, refers to the number of times the heart beats per minute. (
  • When caring for children, you should understand the normal values for heart rate and respiration in children, along with the implications of abnormal readings. (
  • Also referred to as the "pulse rate," the heart rate can be checked by locating the arteries near the wrist, elbow or neck. (
  • During periods of exercise, excitement, anxiety or fear, a child's heart rate and respirations almost always increase. (
  • To ensure the child's health and safety, consult a physician regarding an abnormal heart rate or respiratory rate. (
  • Heart Rate (HR) reflects the frequency of a complete heartbeat within a specific time window. (
  • The HR is constantly, antagonistically influenced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PsNS) and in general heart rate, similar to GSR, unfolds rather slowly. (
  • You can see heart rate (4bpm) as well as the differences in the inter-beat intervals. (
  • While today many fitness devices exist that measure heart rate in the context of fitness and well being, those solutions might not be the ideal for your research. (
  • In the averaged data the highest heart rate is at around 100 bpm. (
  • As mentioned above, heart rate has a relatively low sensitivity and slow response. (
  • Image 3: In the live visualization the highest heart rate reaches 145bpm. (
  • Another reason why many heart rate trackers available for fitness purposes are not necessarily a suitable solution for researchers is that most of them are worn on the wrist and use light to measure blood flow and from there derive the heart rate. (
  • I am a engineering student at Helsinki University of Technology, and I am planning a experiment measuring EEG and Heart Rate, Respiration, Temperature and GSC. (
  • What is the proceedure and what kind of electrodes can measure Heart Rate, Respiration, Temperature and Galvanic Skin Response? (
  • Stanford Professor Gregory Kovacs and researcher Corey McCall claim that they are able to " read the brain " by measuring heart rate, respiration rate, temperature, perspiration and other body processes. (
  • Small metal pads on the controller's surface measure the user's heart rate, blood flow, and both the rate of breath and how deeply the user is breathing. (
  • The study consists of measuring parameters related to respiration in hospitalized volunteers by means of the Bedside Respiratory Patient Monitoring System with RR V2.0 (Nightingale). (
  • Purpose of the experiment was to observe the effect of different temperatures of water on the respiration rate of goldfish. (
  • The increase in the average respiration rate between two consecutive temperatures was expressed as Q 10 coefficients. (
  • Despite the lower temperatures of the southern Scotia Sea (-1.46 to 0.95°C), total respiration here was as high (reaching 1.1 mg C m-2 d-1) as in the warmer waters of the mid and northern Scotia Sea. (
  • This week we will learn about pulmonary anatomy, capillary gas exchange, and regulation of respiration. (
  • The aim of the present study is to assess both autonomic cardiac regulation and cardiopulmonary coupling variations during different sleep stages in healthy subjects, using spectral and cross-spectral analysis of the HRV and respiration signals. (
  • Upon the experimental results and general concepts for regulation of respiration, we conclude that the intense respiration of plants inhabiting cold climate regions is caused by higher metabolic demands for energy and intermediates under the northern conditions. (
  • In regulation of plant growth the growth rate itself and also the shoot to‐root ratio may be more important than the regulation of the efficiency of energy metabolism. (
  • Respiration rate (RR) is a critical vital sign that provides early detection of respiratory compromise. (
  • The addition of pulse oximetry screening (POS - with new-generation, motion-tolerant technology) to existing screening methods such as antenatal ultrasound and postnatal examination increases the overall detection of CCHD to 90-96%, irrespective of the detection rates of the other screening methods. (
  • We applied sliding peak detection algorithm to calculate respiration rate. (
  • Hypothesis: If the temperature increases, then the rate of the reaction will increase and the rate of CO2 will increase until it reaches its maximum temperature and then begins to denature. (
  • In general, salinity led to rapid increases in respiration rate, ethylene production and ACC and polyamine (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) concentrations in shoot and root. (
  • Steering plant growth based on respiration is very complicated. (
  • This includes respiration of plant roots, the rhizosphere, microbes and fauna. (
  • Cellular RespirationCellular respiration is the process of breking down organic compunds for energy. (
  • Respiration is the process by which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds. (
  • By investing heavily in photosynthetic enzymes, a larger drawdown of internal CO2 concentration is achieved, and a given photosynthetic rate is possible at a lower stomatal conductance. (
  • Remarkably, several rate-limiting mitochondrial enzymes that process different nutrients accumulate in a diurnal manner and are dependent on the clock proteins PER1/2. (
  • Once the experiment was completed, it is clear that a change in the temperature has a direct effect in the respiration of the goldfish. (
  • Rate of respiration in germinating seeds can be measured using a respirometer experiment. (
  • basal metabolic rate an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject. (
  • This blog post is about a simple and effective method of measuring the rate of respiration in a living organism. (
  • We found no significant difference between fed and starved snails in terms of recovery from stress, as measured by respiratory rates. (
  • however, which ones are responsible for the quantitative variation found in respiratory rates is unknown. (
  • Hogan J. Why don't nurses monitor the respiratory rates of patients? (
  • Fortunately, abnormal heart rates and abnormal respiratory rates are relatively harmless for a short period of time. (