Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred F344Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Clofibrate: A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Orotic AcidCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rats, Inbred BUFBiological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Coenzyme ATransaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene: A very potent liver carcinogen.TritiumOxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Tyrosine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PyruvatesBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cytochrome ReductasesGalactosamineImmunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1: A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tryptophan Oxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenine NucleotidesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.TriglyceridesDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Liver Abscess, Pyogenic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to bacterial infection within the hepatic parenchyma. It can be caused by a variety of BACTERIA, local or disseminated from infections elsewhere such as in APPENDICITIS; CHOLECYSTITIS; PERITONITIS; and after LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Okamoto H, Hayaishi O (1967). "Flavin adenine dinucleotide requirement for kynurenine hydroxylase of rat liver mitochondria". ... from rat liver". Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 352 (6): 837-842. PMID 5087636. Amaral, M; Levy, C; Heyes, DJ; Lafite, P; ... Currently, most research on the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme has been focused primarily on rat models and in yeast, both ... Rios, C.; Santamaria, A. (1991). "Quinolinic acid is a potent lipid peroxidant in rat brain homogenates". Neurochem. Res. 16: ...
A; Villalba, R; Moreno, A; Quintanilla, M; Lobatón, CD; Sillero, A (1977). "Dinucleosidetriphosphatase from rat liver. ...
Simon D, Hoshino J, Kroger H (1973). "L-serine dehydratase from rat liver. Purification and some properties". Biochim. Biophys ... Suda M, Nakagawa H (1971). "L-Serine dehydratase (rat liver)". Methods Enzymol. 17B: 346-351. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(71)17060-7 ...
Rat liver citrate cleavage enzyme". J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3239-3241. PMID 6027798. Berg, Jeremy; John Tymoczko; Lubert Stryer ( ...
Tollbom O, Valtersson C, Chojnacki T, Dallner G (1988). "Esterification of dolichol in rat liver". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (3): 1347 ...
Sumizu K (1962). "Oxidation of hypotaurine in rat liver". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 63: 210-212. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(62)90357-8 ...
Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G (1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochem Pharmacol. 24 (17): 1639-41 ...
Tsunazawa, S.; Narita, K.; Ogata, K. (1975). "Acylamino acid-releasing enzyme from rat liver". J. Biochem. 77: 89-102. PMID ... Kobayashi, K.; Smith, J.A. (1987). "Acyl-peptide hydrolase from rat liver. Characterization of enzyme reaction". J. Biol. Chem ...
Segal, H.L.; Brenner, B.M. (1960). "5′-Nucleotidase of rat liver microsomes". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 471-474. PMID 14444527. Huets ... Elevated levels may indicate cholestasis, destruction of liver cells, hepatitis (liver inflammation), liver ischemia, a liver ... In other words, the test is used to determine if elevated protein levels are due to skeletal damage or liver damage. Normal ... The concentration of 5'nucleotidase protein in the blood is often used as a liver function test in individuals that show signs ...
Schmoldt, A; Benthe, HF; Haberland, G (1 September 1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochemical ...
Blaner WS, Prystowsky JH, Smith JE, Goodman DS (1984). "Rat liver retinyl palmitate hydrolase activity. Relationship to ...
doi:10.1016/0006-3002(61)90746-6. Weisiger RA, Jakoby WB (1979). "Thiol S-methyltransferase from rat liver". Arch. Biochem. ... Borchardt RT, Cheng CF (1978). "Purification and characterization of rat liver microsomal thiol methyltransferase". Biochim. ...
In addition, it has been shown to be effective in removing fatty liver deposits in rats, preventing liver disease, and reducing ... 1938, volume 18, 77.doi:10.15227/orgsyn.018.0077 Sumizu K (1962). "Oxidation of hypotaurine in rat liver". Biochim. Biophys. ... However, when rats were supplemented with taurine in their drinking water, only female rats showed an increase in blood ... and nerve sensory thresholds in experimental diabetic neuropathic rats. In diabetic rats, taurine significantly decreased ...
Mattock P, Jones JG (1970). "Partial purification and properties of an enzyme from rat liver that catalyses the sulphation of L ... Sekura RD, Jakoby WB (1981). "Aryl sulfotransferase IV from rat liver". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 211 (1): 352-9. doi:10.1016/ ...
Higgins, GM; RM Anderson RM (1931). "Experimental pathology of the liver. I. Restoration of the liver of the white rat ... The human liver is particularly known for its ability to regenerate, and is capable of doing so from only one quarter of its ... Resection of liver can induce the proliferation of the remaining hepatocytes until the lost mass is restored, where the ... These include the liver, fingertips, and endometrium. More information is now known regarding the passive replacement of ...
Schepers L, Van Veldhoven PP, Casteels M, Eyssen HJ, Mannaerts GP (1990). "Presence of three acyl-CoA oxidases in rat liver ... Gustafsson J (1975). "Biosynthesis of cholic acid in rat liver. 24-Hydroxylation of 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta- ... "Further characterization of the peroxisomal 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver. Relationship between the different ... 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-chole stanoyl-CoA oxidase from rabbit liver". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (29): 18481-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.29 ...
1994). "Isoprenoid biosynthesis in rat liver mitochondria. Studies on farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and trans- ... trans-prenyltransferase in rat liver microsomes". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (31): 23081-6. PMID 8226825. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa ...
Vallejo CG, Lobaton CD, Quintanilla M, Sillero A, Sillero MA (1976). "Dinucleosidasetetraphosphatase in rat liver and Artemia ...
A specific pterin deaminase in rat liver". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 184 (3): 589-96. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(69)90273-6. PMID ...
The 4'-phosphopantetheine hydrolase of rat liver". J. Biol. Chem. 254 (17): 8561-6. PMID 224058. Vagelos PR, Larrabes AR (1967 ...
Tollersrud OK, Aronson NN (1989). "Purification and characterization of rat liver glycosylasparaginase". Biochem. J. 260 (1): ...
Corte ED, Stirpe F (Feb 1972). "The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. Involvement of thiol groups in the conversion of ... Satoh A, Sasago S, Takahashi S, Kato N (Sep 1993). "Regulation of xanthine dehydrogenase in rat liver in response to peroxisome ... disulphide oxidoreductase from rat liver". The Biochemical Journal. 207 (1): 133-8. doi:10.1042/bj2070133. PMC 1153833 . PMID ... "Ultrastructural localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity in isolated rat liver cells". Acta Histochemica. 104 (1): 29- ...
Takenawa T, Egawa K (1977). "CDP-diglyceride:inositol transferase from rat liver. Purification and properties". J. Biol. Chem. ... Salway JG, Harwood JL, Kai M, White GL, Haworne JN (1968). "Enzymes of phosphoinositide metabolism during rat brain development ...
Mahadevan S, Ayyoub NI, Roels OA (1966). "Hydrolysis of retinol palmitate by rat liver". J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1): 57-64. PMID ...
Tsai, C.H.; Henderson, L.M. (1974). "Degradation of O-phosphohydroxylysine by rat liver. Purification of the phospho-lyase". J ...
The brain stem's involvement of food intake has been researched using rats. Rats that have had the motor neurons in the brain ... There are short-term signals of satiety that arise from the head, the stomach, the intestines, and the liver. The long-term ... The brain checks for glucoprivation on its side of the blood-brain barrier (since glucose is its fuel), while the liver ... Both the brain and the liver monitor the levels of metabolic fuels. ...
Pyogenic liver abscess: Contrast-enhanced MR imaging in rats. R. Weissleder, S. Saini, D. D. Stark, G. Elizondo, C. Compton, J ... Pyogenic liver abscess : Contrast-enhanced MR imaging in rats. / Weissleder, R.; Saini, S.; Stark, D. D.; Elizondo, G.; Compton ... Pyogenic liver abscess: Contrast-enhanced MR imaging in rats. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1987;150(1):115-120. ... title = "Pyogenic liver abscess: Contrast-enhanced MR imaging in rats",. abstract = "MR imaging was used to evaluate ...
Bandi, Z. L. ; Ansari, G. A.S. / Isolation of hydroxy fatty acids from livers of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats by thin- ... Bandi, Z. L., & Ansari, G. A. S. (1989). Isolation of hydroxy fatty acids from livers of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats by ... Bandi, ZL & Ansari, GAS 1989, Isolation of hydroxy fatty acids from livers of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats by thin-layer ... Isolation of hydroxy fatty acids from livers of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats by thin-layer chromatography. / Bandi, Z. L. ...
Protective effect of Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats: a ... in which rats received TAA only; and PLP group, in which rats received PLP and TAA. Liver fibrosis was induced in the rats by ... induced liver fibrosis rat model.. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups of six as follows: Normal ... Protective effect of Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats: a ...
In rat liver all enzymes involved in UMP syn-thesis from bicarbonate have a considerable activity (1-4), but in... ... In rat liver all enzymes involved in UMP syn-thesis from bicarbonate have a considerable activity (1-4), but in rat brain not ... Peters G.J., Veerkamp J.H. (1984) Pyrimidine Metabolism in Rat Brain Cortex and Liver. In: De Bruyn C.H.M.M., Simmonds H.A., ...
artificial liver; bioartificial liver; decellularization; liver matrix; liver progenitor cell; liver transplant; organ ... These decellularized livers provide a natural matrix for research in the fields of bio-artificial livers and liver engineering. ... Method for the decellularization of intact rat liver.. Shupe T1, Williams M, Brown A, Willenberg B, Petersen BE. ... D) Cryosection of WB344 rat liver progenitor cells delivered to the center of the IDL through the cannulated IVC remnant. ...
Finally, we present how transfer rates generate Gd-BOPTA concentrations in rat liver compartments. These findings better ... in isolated perfused rat livers (IPRLs). In IPRL, we developed a new set up that quantifies simultaneously the Gd-BOPTA ... the estimation of liver concentrations is now possible following the injection of hepatobiliary contrast agents and ... we investigated the liver distribution of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, ...
High-resolution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study of rat liver mitochondria. S Ogawa, H Rottenberg, T R Brown, R G Shulman, ... High-resolution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study of rat liver mitochondria. S Ogawa, H Rottenberg, T R Brown, R G Shulman, ... High-resolution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study of rat liver mitochondria. S Ogawa, H Rottenberg, T R Brown, R G Shulman, ... High-resolution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study of rat liver mitochondria Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
The formation of bilirubin diglucuronide by rat liver microsomal preparations.. Gordon ER, Goresky CA. ... Bilirubin transformation in vitro to bilirubin conjugates in the presence of activated rat liver microsomal preparations and ... No evidence was found with liver plasma membranes that transglucuronidation plays a major role in the formation of bilirubin ...
Since the effect of VE on miRNA regulation is unknown, we fed rats for 6 months diets deficient or sufficien … ... Vitamin E dependent microRNA regulation in rat liver FEBS Lett. 2008 Oct 15;582(23-24):3542-6. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2008.09. ... Since the effect of VE on miRNA regulation is unknown, we fed rats for 6 months diets deficient or sufficient in VE and ...
VALENCA, Samuel Santos; GOUVEIA, Lucas; ALVES PIMENTA, Wagner y PORTO, Luís Cristóvão. Effects of Oral Nicotine on Rat Liver ... Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after last day, the blood was collected and the liver was removed. Lipidogram was performed by ... Male Wistar rats were treated with oral nicotine (ON) diluted in drinking water during 32 days. The control group was treated ... Because nicotine is first metabolized in the liver, our aim was to investígate the effects of nicotine on this organ by ...
... Mei Liu,1,2 Su-Jun Zheng,1 Weihong Xu,3 ... "Changing Interdigestive Migrating Motor Complex in Rats under Acute Liver Injury," BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, ... 1Artificial Liver Center, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China. 2Department of Biological ...
Rat liver slices were preserved for 0, 24, and 48 hr in University of Wisconsin machine perfusion solution (UW-MP) with 0%, 21 ... Oxygenation during hypothermic rat liver preservation: an in vitro slice study to demonstrate beneficial or toxic oxygenation ... This study also shows that ROS formation occurs during hypothermic preservation and the liver is not protected by UCP-2. We ... Liver Transplantation. 11, 11, p. 1403-1411 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review ...
In this study, we report a dynamic tracing of protein synthesis in rat regenerating liver with a new proteomic technique, (35) ... Chronological protein synthesis in regenerating rat liver.. [Jinjun He, Shuai Hao, Hao Zhang, Fuzheng Guo, Lingyun Huang, ... Liver regeneration has been studied for decades; however, its regulation remains unclear. ... protein synthesis within short as 30 min was visualized and protein regulations in the first 8 h of regenerating liver were ...
... or excessive amounts of fat in the livers tissue, says a new study with rats. ... Anthocyanins from sweet cherries may protect against diet-induced liver steatosis, ... Related tags: Cholesterol, Fatty liver Anthocyanins from sweet cherries may protect against diet-induced liver steatosis, or ... Sweet cherry anthocyanins support liver health... for rats at least. By Adi Menayang ...
... increasing their risk of liver disease in later life, according to a recent study in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. ... Lifelong intake of sunflower oil induced structural changes in the livers of rats, ... Lifelong intake of sunflower oil induced structural changes in the livers of rats, increasing their risk of liver disease in ... Sunflower oil consumption linked to liver damage in rats. By Tim Cutcliffe ...
... in rat liver are not similar. It was observed that CO is not under sex control as CSD is. The... ... The patterns of development of cysteine oxidase (CO) and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSD) in rat liver are not ... The results obtained agree with the idea that, in liver, as well as in brain, CSD is the limiting factor for the regulation of ...
Rat liver tissue lysate - mitochondrial extract Lysates datasheet (ab110346). Abcam offers quality products including ... Also, from what starting amount of liver tissue is this product derived?. I plan to inject this into healthy rats and measure ... As far as we know the expression of Thioredoxin 2 in rat liver mitochondria has not been determined. However, there is a ... 2 mg of purified rat liver mitochondrial membranes resuspended in 400 µl of heart mitochondria resuspension buffer (10 mM Tris. ...
... usually liver) homogenate by centrifuging at 9000 g for 20 minutes in a suitable medium; this fraction contains cytosol and ... Rat Liver S9 Homogenate is a Supernatant fraction obtained from an organ ( ... S9 from Liver Application Notes Rat Liver S9 Homogenate is used in Ames Mutagen Assay, to assess the mutagenic potential of ... Rat Liver S9 Homogenate is a Supernatant fraction obtained from an organ (usually liver) homogenate by centrifuging at 9000 g ...
Rat study suggests liver danger but doses must be very high ...WEDNESDAY Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Very high doses of ... Rat study suggests liver danger, but doses must be very high. WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Very high doses of ... Rat study suggests liver danger but doses must be very high ...WEDNESDAY Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Very high doses of ... In prior studies, Nelsons team had found that high doses of caffeine boosted liver damage in rats that had already suffered ...
... and proteins has been isolated from rat liver in a highly purified form bya six-step procedure comprising extraction from liver ... Purification and properties of acylamino acid-releasing enzyme from rat liver J Biochem. 1975 Jan 1;77(1?):89-102. ... An enzyme that releases acylamino acid from amino terminal acylated peptides and proteins has been isolated from rat liver in a ... About 1,500-fold purification was achieved from the liver homogenate. The purified enzyme preparation showed a single band on ...
Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and reproducible research results. To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No matter how you are using your cells, you can count on these products to help keep them healthy.. ...
TNF-α McAb significantly decreased these serum indices in CBDL rats. TNF-α McAb significantly alleviated liver damage, ... Tc-MAA was mainly located in lung and very weak in brain in sham group and mainly in brain of CBDL rats. TNF-α McAb ... Next article in issue: Pitfalls in assessing platelet activation status in patients with liver disease Next article in issue: ... TNF-α McAb improves HPS in cirrhotic rats; this effect is likely mediated through the inhibition of TNF-α PI3K/Akt-NO pathway. ...
... Andreone T.L., Printz R.L., Pilkis S.J., Magnuson M ... Rat liver glucokinase (ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1) was purified to homogeneity, cleaved, and subjected to ... and this information was used to design oligonucleotide probes to screen a rat liver cDNA library. A 1601-base pair cDNA (GK1) ... Four hours of insulin treatment of diabetic rats resulted in a 30-fold induction of this mRNA. GK.Z2 has a long open reading ...
Glucosamine 6-Phosphate Synthase of Regenerating Rat Liver Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer ... When rats were subjected to partial hepatectomy, glucosamine 6-phosphate synthase (EC 5.3.1.19) of the remaining liver ... Glucosamine 6-Phosphate Synthase of Regenerating Rat Liver. Taeko Miyagi and Shigeru Tsuiki ... Although control liver exhibited only one form of glucosamine 6-phosphate synthase with a pl of 5.0, sequential and transient ...
Taurocholate induces preferential release of phosphatidylcholine from rat liver canalicular vesicles. Liver, 18: 306-312. doi: ...
  • abstract = "MR imaging was used to evaluate experimentally induced pyogenic liver abscesses in an animal model. (elsevier.com)
  • Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (go.jp)
  • NASH iscan result from worsening of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and can be a precursor to cirrhosis or liver cancer. (nutraingredients.com)
  • In conclusion, therapeutic antifibrotic effects of losartan and candesartan in thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats are possibly through angiotensin-II receptor blocking, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. (scielo.br)
  • The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of UA on the intestinal mucosal barrier in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and identify its associated mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we report a dynamic tracing of protein synthesis in rat regenerating liver with a new proteomic technique, (35) S in vivo labeling analysis for dynamic proteomics (SiLAD). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of rat liver HMG-CoA reductase is an early in vivo regulatory response after intragastric administration of mevalonolactone. (pnas.org)
  • Although it is possible that our MLR findings were due to the necessarily artificial conditions in vitro, our current findings in vivo with hamster-to-rat xenografts are also consistent with increased TH2 activity relative to TH1 activity in xenogeneic responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Because nicotine is first metabolized in the liver, our aim was to investígate the effects of nicotine on this organ by biochemical and stereological methods. (scielo.cl)
  • 4 ng/kg body weight/day daily intake) of a Roundup GBH formulation showed signs of enhanced liver injury as indicated by anatomorphological, blood/urine biochemical changes and transcriptome profiling. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Then all rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and blood samples were taken from the abdominal aorta for biochemical assay. (mdpi.com)
  • We assessed 518 solid-organ transplant recipients (kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplant) who were followed up in Queen Mary Hospital for persistent biochemical hepatitis from January 1, 2014, or date of transplant (whichever date was later) through December 31, 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • After 8 weeks of treatment, biochemical measurements in liver homogenates and histopathological examination of liver sections of different groups using light and transmission electron microscope were done. (nel.edu)
  • The rats were euthanised at the 15th and 25th week of the experiment and examined for the biochemical and hepatopathological profile. (fil-idf.org)
  • Hydrogen inhalation also ameliorated the increase in liver lipid content and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Liver histopathologic changes evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin as well as Oil Red O staining revealed lower lipid deposition in hydrogen inhalation groups, consistent with the decrease in the expression of the lipid synthesis gene SREBP‑1c. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • High vitamin E supplementation in the diets of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats eliminates accumulation of lipid peroxides in the plasma and the liver, returns the plasma triglycerides toward normal levels, and increases the activity of lipoprotein lipase. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No significant differences in protein levels of other antioxidants or markers of lipid and protein oxidative damage were observed in either the gastrocnemius, liver, or brain. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • the concentration of MDA, an end product of lipid peroxidation, in the rats treated with CCl4 was increased 2.7-fold when compared with the vehicle control rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • Conclusion: Our investigation provided convincing data that Centaurea incana decreases the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increases the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, the higher exercise-induced increase in Ra, plasma glucose, and liver glycogen breakdown in fasted-refed compared with control rats indicates that metabolic feedback mechanisms are not able to accurately match Ra to the metabolic needs of working muscles. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tc-MAA was mainly located in lung and very weak in brain in sham group and mainly in brain of CBDL rats. (wiley.com)
  • Clara cells, which are predominant in the bronchiolo-alveolar region in mouse lungs but less numerous in rat and human lung, contain various cytochrome P450s, which may oxidize styrene to the rodent carcinogen styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) and other reactive metabolites. (rti.org)
  • Fractions enriched in Type II cells and Clara cells were isolated from rat and mouse lung, respectively. (rti.org)
  • DNA adduct profiles differed quantitatively and qualitatively in liver, total lung, and enriched lung cell fractions. (rti.org)
  • In both rat and mouse lung, HPEG was the major adduct at 1 per 108 bases at 0 h, and these levels halved at 42 h. (rti.org)
  • In both rat Type II and non-Type II cells, HPEG was the major adduct and was about three times higher in Type II cells than in total lung. (rti.org)
  • Here, we generated recombinant rat pulmonary SPA (rSPA) as an antigen and immunized an alpaca to produce two nanobodies (the smallest naturally occurring antibodies) specific for rSPA, designated Nb6 and Nb17.Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that these anti-rSPA nanobodies selectively bound to rat lungs with high affinity.Collectively, we have generated and characterized lung-specific nanobodies, which may be applicable for lung drug delivery. (nih.gov)
  • We further analyzed the histological alterations caused by Nb17 using cryosections of the lung, liver, spleen, and kidney in acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, and control groups. (nih.gov)
  • In rat liver all enzymes involved in UMP syn-thesis from bicarbonate have a considerable activity (1-4), but in rat brain not all enzymes of the OA-pathway (orotic acid) have been demonstrated, although a significant incorporation of [ 14 C]bicarbo-nate into OA was found (5). (springer.com)
  • In contrast to cultured cells, IPRL maintains the liver architecture and conserves the lobular distribution of drug transporters and metabolising enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • In pharmacology, IPRLs are mainly used to measure pharmacokinetic parameters of injected drug, such as the liver extraction ratios, the synthesis of metabolites by hepatocyte enzymes, and the bile excretion of drugs and their metabolites. (hindawi.com)
  • If left uncorrected, the perfusate will become acidic due to anaerobic glycolysis and leakage of lytic enzymes, damaging the liver. (adinstruments.com)
  • Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. (go.jp)
  • MEL treatment of rats could enhance hepatic antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduce the apoptotic rate and the necrobiotic changes in the liver. (nel.edu)
  • These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. (go.jp)
  • Liver superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase antioxidant protein levels were higher in KD, albeit not significant (p = 0.094 and p = 0.062, respectively). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • For 15 weeks, the researchers investigated the effects of sweet cherry anthocyanin supplementation have on alleviating high-fat diet-induced liver steatosis in rodents to explore the possibility of a none-drug treatment for the liver condition. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate whether daidzein, a soy isoflavone in HISPI, is responsible for increased body weight gain or reduced liver steatosis. (rsc.org)
  • In conclusion, daidzein may not be the main component of HISPI responsible for increasing body weight or reducing liver steatosis in OZR. (rsc.org)
  • The TAA-CLF rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8) treated orally for 14 days (mg·kg −1 ·day −1 ) as follows: TAA (distilled water), losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg), and candesartan (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg). (scielo.br)
  • The rats were randomly divided into four groups, with an equal number of rats in each group. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Methods: For the study of preventive effect of methanolic extract of Centaurea incana on CCL4-induced hepatotoxicity, our study was conducted on rats as follows: The animals were randomly divided into 4 different groups comprising of 7 animals each. (omicsonline.org)
  • Studying acute and chronic toxicity of Nb17 revealed its safety in rats without causing apparent histological alterations. (nih.gov)
  • Histological analysis of rat lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys by hematoxylin and eosin staining.Notes: Different reagents (Nb17 or control antibodies) were administered to rats for acute (1 week) or chronic (3 months) toxicity study. (nih.gov)
  • Effective treatments for acute liver failure (ALF) are still lacking. (nature.com)
  • Acute hepatic encephalopathy (HE) affects 30-45% of patients with severe liver disease while minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) affects 20-60% of patients with liver disease ( 1 ). (scielo.br)
  • The β2-selective AR agonist clenbuterol was administered before, during, and after LPS-challenge to investigate its effects on the acute inflammatory response and associated liver-failure. (tudelft.nl)
  • Conclusions: The results indicate that a selective β2-AR agonist might be used as an additional therapeutic agent in the clinic for the treatment of (acute) systemic inflammatory disorders in order to reduce or prevent subsequent liver failure. (tudelft.nl)
  • Liver grafts from Syrian Golden hamsters were transplanted into male Lewis rats using the cuff technique described by Kamada. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Coleman GL, Barthold SW, Osbaldiston GW, Foster SJ, Jonas AM (1977) Pathological changes during aging in barrier-reared Fischer 344 male rats. (springer.com)
  • Ten month-old male Fisher 344 rats (n = 8 per group) were provided with one of two isocaloric diets: standard chow (SC) or KD. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Rat livers were tested for both rate of cholesterol synthesis and uptake of a p.o. dose of cholesterol- 3 H after rats were fed 0.06% 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for either 1 or 2 weeks. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2018). Age-related differences in function and structure of rat livers subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. (termedia.pl)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. (physiology.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology web site. (physiology.org)
  • Transmission Electron Micrograph of a normal liver cell (hepatocyte) from a rat showing cell structure, i.e. nucleus, cytoplasm and cell organelles. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The laminin basement membranes of the liver vasculature also remain intact. (nih.gov)
  • No evidence was found with liver plasma membranes that transglucuronidation plays a major role in the formation of bilirubin diglucuronide from bilirubin monoglucuronide. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, rats were exposed to a beta-agonist (terbutaline) or a glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) during late gestation, and the development of adenylate cyclase activity and beta-receptor binding was evaluated in membranes prepared from the heart and liver. (rti.org)
  • The ALR gene and gene product were subsequently described, but little is known about the cellular/subcellular sites of ALR synthesis in the liver, or about the release and dissemination of the peptide. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)