Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Pancreatic Function Tests: Tests based on the biochemistry and physiology of the exocrine pancreas and involving analysis of blood, duodenal contents, feces, or urine for products of pancreatic secretion.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Pancreatin: A mammalian pancreatic extract composed of enzymes with protease, amylase and lipase activities. It is used as a digestant in pancreatic malfunction.ChymotrypsinogenPancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Acinar Cells: Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Pancrelipase: A preparation of hog pancreatic enzymes standardized for lipase content.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.4-Aminobenzoic Acid: An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 220.127.116.11.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.para-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Steatorrhea: A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 18.104.22.168.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Pancreaticojejunostomy: Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pancreatic Extracts: Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Proglumide: A drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on gastric secretion and reduces gastrointestinal motility. It is used clinically in the drug therapy of gastrointestinal ulcers.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 22.214.171.124.Lithostathine: The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Pancreatic alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.Colipases: Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gastric Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Milk Substitutes: Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 188.8.131.52) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 184.108.40.206) by its action on glycogen. With EC 220.127.116.11, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 18.104.22.168.Receptors, Cholecystokinin: Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.Parasympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from parasympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers use acetylcholine as transmitter. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Gabexate: A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Pancreatic Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.Lipomatosis: A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.Bethanechol CompoundsZebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Aminosalicylic Acid: An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbonic Anhydrase II: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Pancreatic Stellate Cells: Star-shaped, myofibroblast-like cells located in the periacinar, perivascular, and periductal regions of the EXOCRINE PANCREAS. They play a key role in the pathobiology of FIBROSIS; PANCREATITIS; and PANCREATIC CANCER.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.5-Hydroxytryptophan: The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Physiological Processes: Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 4: A retinoblastoma-binding protein that is involved in CHROMATIN REMODELING, histone deacetylation, and repression of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Sulpiride: A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Catecholamine: Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Annexin A4: Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Diphtheria Antitoxin: An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Mice, Inbred C57BLVeratrum Alkaloids: Alkaloids with powerful hypotensive effects isolated from American or European Hellebore (Veratrum viride Ait. Liliaceae and Veratrum album L. Liliaceae). They increase cholinergic and decrease adrenergic tone with appropriate side effects and at higher doses depress respiration and produce cardiac arrhythmias; only the ester alkaloids have been used as hypotensive agents in specific instances. They have been generally replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chief Cells, Gastric: Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.Enzyme Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic replacement or supplementation of defective or missing enzymes to alleviate the effects of enzyme deficiency (e.g., GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE replacement for GAUCHER DISEASE).Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Carboxypeptidases A: Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124 and EC 126.96.36.199.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Endocrine Cells: Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDucksCorticotropin-Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide: A peptide derived from the cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, found primarily in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY but also in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of basal HYPOTHALAMUS. Its sequence is identical to the C-terminal 22-amino acids of ACTH or ACTH 18-39.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Radioactive Tracers: Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Islets of Langerhans have a well-established structure and form density routes through the exocrine tissue. The exocrine part ... Pancreatic cancer is rare in those younger than 40, and the median age of diagnosis is 71. Risk factors include smoking, ... corresponding to the dual endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas. In progenitor cells of the exocrine pancreas, ... Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which affects the exocrine part of the pancreas, is by far the most common form. The many types of ...
Acinic cell carcinoma
The pancreatic form of acinic cell carcinoma is a rare subtype of exocrine pancreatic cancer. Exocrine pancreatic cancers are ... There have been rare cases of primary tumors involving the parapharyngeal space and the sublingual gland. Acinic cell carcinoma ... Acinic cell carcinoma of the lung is a very rare variant of lung cancer that, in this organ, is classified among the salivary ... The prognosis of an acinic cell carcinoma originating in the lung is much more guarded than cases of this rare histotype ...
Other rarer diseases affecting the pancreas may include pancreatic pseudocysts, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and ... Other rarer diseases affecting the small intestine include Curling's ulcer, blind loop syndrome, Milroy disease and Whipple's ... One of the most common conditions of the exocrine pancreas is acute pancreatitis, which in the majority of cases relates to ... Pancreatic diseases that affect digestion refers to disorders affecting the exocrine pancreas, which is a part of the pancreas ...
Pancreatoblastoma is a rare form, mostly occurring in childhood, and with a relatively good prognosis. Other exocrine cancers ... known as the exocrine component. There are several sub-types of exocrine pancreatic cancers, but their diagnosis and treatment ... Exocrine cancers are thought to arise from several types of precancerous lesions within the pancreas. But these lesions do not ... The exocrine group is dominated by pancreatic adenocarcinoma (variations of this name may add "invasive" and "ductal"), which ...
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas
Pancreatic cancer is rare in those younger than 40, and the median age of diagnosis is 71. Risk factors include chronic ... The pancreas is a heterocrine gland, having both an endocrine and a digestive exocrine function. As an endocrine gland, it ... As a part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the ... The pancreas contains tissue with an endocrine and exocrine role, and this division is also visible when the pancreas is viewed ...
... is very rare, less than hundred cases have been reported in medical literature worldwide. The syndrome was ... Specifically, Pearson Syndrome is a combination of syndromes that involves the bone marrow and the exocrine pancreas.[citation ... It has now been identified as a rare condition that affects multiple systems. The symptoms of Pearson Syndrome are ... Pearson Syndrome causes the exocrine pancreas to not function properly because of scarring and atrophy Individuals with this ...
... (SDS), or Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome, is a rare congenital disorder characterized by exocrine ... Disorders, National Organization for Rare (2003). NORD guide to rare disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 417-. ISBN ... Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency arises due to a lack of acinar cells that produce digestive ... Bodian M, Sheldon W, Lightwood R (1964). "Congenital hypoplasia of the exocrine pancreas". Acta Paediatr. 53: 282-93. doi: ...
Maturity onset diabetes of the young
Those mutations for which a homozygous form has not been described may be extremely rare, may result in clinical problems not ... January 2006). "Mutations in the CEL VNTR cause a syndrome of diabetes and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction". Nat. Genet. 38 (1 ... Unsurprisingly, combined (homozygous) defects of these genes are much rarer and much more severe in their effects. MODY2: ... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES OF THE YOUNG, TYPE VIII, WITH EXOCRINE DYSFUNCTION; MODY8 - ...
Although common in the past, they are now a relatively rare species due to the destruction of the rainforest in which these ... Numerous exocrine glands across the bee body produce these pheromones. Melipona bicolor also communicates through sound, ... This species is unique among the stingless bees species because it is polygynous, which is rare for eusocial bees. M. bicolor ... M. bicolor exhibits a rare case of mating amongst stingless bees. It is facultatively polygynous, meaning one or more ...
International Cancer Genome Consortium
Vitamin E deficiency
Rare disorders of fat metabolism - There is a rare genetic condition termed isolated vitamin E deficiency or 'ataxia with ... liver disease or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency may not absorb fat (people who cannot absorb fat often pass greasy stools or ... Vitamin E deficiency is rare and is almost never caused by a poor diet. Instead, there are three specific situations when a ... have chronic diarrhea and bloating). Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism that results in poor ...
The disorder is especially noted for causing profound developmental errors and exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas, and it is ... Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS) is a rare, sometimes fatal autosomal recessive multisystem congenital disorder featuring ... The most prominent effect of JBS is pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Varying degrees of decreased secretion of lipases, ... pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in JBS can additionally stem from congenital replacement of the acini with fatty tissue. Near ...
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
A rare side-effect of use of dried pancreatic extracts is oral ulceration and bleeding. Because of malabsorption, serum levels ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is the inability to properly digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes made by the ... The exocrine pancreas is a portion of this organ that contains clusters of ducts (acini) producing bicarbonate anion, a mild ... Kim J, Jung D, Kang B, Kim H, Park C, Park E, Lim C, Park H (2005). "Canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency treated with ...
Rare and slow growing carcinoid and non-carcinoid tumors develop from these cells. When a tumor arises it has the capacity to ... S cells secrete secretin from the duodenum and jejunum, and stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. also called Delta cells, ... They modulate bile secretion, exocrine pancreas secretion, and satiety. Stomach enteroendocrine cells, which release gastrin, ...
... fossils are rare, whether as adults or as eggs; isolated wings are the parts most commonly found. The modern group ... One is the instance among all species of Phasmatodea of a pair of exocrine glands inside the prothorax used for defense. ... Phasmids are rare in amber, but Gallophasma longipalpis was found in 2010 in the Early Eocene of France. Engel, Wang and ... they are rare. Fossils of the extinct genus and species Eoprephasma hichensi have been recovered from Ypresian age sediments in ...
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
Using this scheme, the stage by stage outcomes for PanNETs are dissimilar to pancreatic exocrine cancers. A different TNM ... these rare tumors are associated with elevated blood glucose levels, achlorhydria, cholelithiasis, and diarrhea less common ... which arises in the exocrine pancreas. Only 1 or 2% of clinically significant pancreas neoplasms are PanNETs. PanNETs are ...
In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the gastrointestinal tract, tend to be ... puffiness and in rare cases reduced or double vision. A neuroendocrine system has been observed in all animals with a nervous ... The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its hormones to the outside of the body using ducts ... Male endocrine system Endocrine disease Endocrinology Exocrine gland Neuroendocrinology Nervous system Paracrine signalling ...
Shiloh Shepherd dog
They are not recognized by any major kennel club, but may be shown in some rare breed organizations. Shiloh Shepherds are ... "Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency". "OFA Hip Dysplasia Statistics". Padgett, George A., DVM (2002). Genetic Diseases and ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is another health concern although manageable with digestive enzyme supplementation. Each ... March 2004). "The Original Shiloh Shepherd - A Rare Breed Dog, Revision 6" (pdf). Wendy Fullerton (1997). "Early History of the ...
... is a term used to classify exocrine glands in the study of histology. Cells which are classified as apocrine bud their ... Apocrine carcinoma is a very rare form of female breast cancer. The rate of incidence varies from 0.5 to 4%. Cytologically, the ... "A rare case of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: Cytopathological and immunohistopathological study." Journal of Cytology/ ... accessed November 3, 2014) http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/kimmel_cancer_center/centers/breast_cancer_program/rare_tumors/ ...
In addition to the two main categories of GEP-NET, there are rarer forms of neuroendocrine tumors that arise anywhere in the ... PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual form of pancreatic cancer, adenocarcinoma, which arises in the exocrine pancreas. ... a rare gastrointestinal tract tumor. Placing a given tumor into one of categories depends on well-defined histological features ... mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma (goblet cell carcinoma, also called adenocarcinoid and mucous adenocarcinoid) Hindgut ...
Very rare effects include abnormal behaviour, psychosis, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and suicide. In a ... Problems with the meibomian and salivary glands are likely due to the non-selective apoptosis of the cells of the exocrine ... Uncommon and rare side effects include muscle aches and pains (myalgias), and headaches. Isotretinoin is known to cause birth ... Myalgia (muscular pain) and arthralgia (joint pain) are rare side effects. Retinoids, such as high dose etretinate, are ...
Worker bees of a certain age secrete beeswax from a series of exocrine glands on their abdomens. They use the wax to form ... In very rare instances workers subvert the policing mechanisms of the hive, laying eggs which are removed at a lower rate by ... This relationship leads to a phenomenon known as "worker policing". In these rare situations, other worker bees in the hive who ...
... carcinoma is a very rare form of female breast cancer. The rate of incidence varies from 0.5 to 4%. Cytologically, ... Apocrine is a term used to classify exocrine glands in the study of histology. Cells which are classified as apocrine bud their ... "A rare case of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: Cytopathological and immunohistopathological study." Journal of Cytology/ ... http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/kimmel_cancer_center/centers/breast_cancer_program/rare_tumors/apocrine_breast_cancer (accessed ...
Vitamin D deficiency
Health of Frédéric Chopin
A 20-year history of hemoptysis is rare in tuberculosis but not impossible. Similarly, cavernous tuberculosis is rare in ... In the last year of his life, he endured diarrheas, caused either by cor pulmonale or by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (see ... It revealed that a rare case of pericarditis, caused by complications from chronic tuberculosis, was the likely cause of ...
Historically, coeliac disease was thought to be rare, with a prevalence of about 0.02%. The reason for the recent ... exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and microscopic colitis, among others. In untreated coeliac disease, these ... exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and microscopic colitis, among others. ...
Amoebic liver abscess
The other rare E.C.G. changes include deformity of QRS complexes, prolongation of PR interval, atrial premature beats, and ... Psychic disturbances though rare may interfere with the safe operation of machines and vehicles. The drug may be toxic to ... Cardiovascular symptoms are rare. Treatment should be discontinued promptly if ataxia or any other symptoms of C.N.S. ... Serious cardiac toxicity, however, is rare. Both recovered with the treatment for heart failure and withdrawal of emetine. One ...
A sebaceous gland is a microscopic exocrine gland in the skin that opens into a hair follicle to secrete an oily or waxy matter ... Sebaceous adenoma, a benign slow-growing tumour-which may, however, in rare cases be a precursor to a cancer syndrome known as ... A true sebaceous cyst is relatively rare and is known as a steatocystoma. ...
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
somatostatinoma: these rare tumors are associated with elevated blood glucose levels, achlorhydria, cholelithiasis, and ... the stage by stage outcomes for PanNETs are dissimilar to pancreatic exocrine cancers. A different TNM system for PanNETs ... which arises in the exocrine pancreas. Only 1 or 2% of clinically significant pancreas neoplasms are PanNETs. ...
Exocrine glands secrete their products into a duct that then delivers the product to the lumen of an organ or onto the free ... Stratified columnar epithelium is rare but is found in lobar ducts in the salivary glands, the eye, pharynx and sex organs. ... Cuboidal epithelium is commonly found in secretive tissue such as the exocrine glands, or in absorptive tissue such as the ... There are two major classifications of glands: endocrine glands and exocrine glands:. *Endocrine glands secrete their product ...
Hormone - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Some hormones are produced by exocrine glands, and some exocrine secretions go outside the body. Sweat glands and salivary ... One rare way is positive feedback. In negative feedback, the hormone's effect makes a gland stop making hormones. In positive ... The opposite word is "exocrine", which means secreting through a duct or tube. ... glands are examples of exocrine glands whose products are released outside the body. ...
Secretina, a enciclopedia libre
Very rare effects include abnormal behaviour, psychosis, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and suicide. In a ... Problems with the meibomian and salivary glands are likely due to the non-selective apoptosis of the cells of the exocrine ... Uncommon and rare side effects include muscle aches and pains (myalgias), and headaches. Isotretinoin is known to cause birth ... Myalgia (muscular pain) and arthralgia (joint pain) are rare side effects. Retinoids, such as high dose etretinate, are ...
Acinar cell carcinoma | definition of acinar cell carcinoma by Medical dictionary
Creon 10 (Pancrelipase Delayed-Released Capsules): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
Types of pancreatic cancer | Exocrine and endocrine - Macmillan Cancer Support
Other rarer pancreatic cancers. There are other rare types of pancreatic cancer:. *lymphoma - this is a cancer of the lymphatic ... Exocrine pancreatic cancer. The most common type of exocrine pancreatic cancer is ductal adenocarcinoma. This cancer starts ... Cancers that develop in the endocrine cells can behave differently to those that develop in the exocrine cells. This means they ... More than 9 out of 10 pancreatic cancers (95%) develop in the exocrine cells that make pancreatic juices. ...
Special Investigation (All Cases) of LipaCreon in Patients With Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Due to Cystic Fibrosis - Full...
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Cystic Fibrosis U.S. FDA Resources ... Special Investigation (All Cases) of LipaCreon in Patients With Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Due to Cystic Fibrosis. The ... Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. Digestive System Diseases. Gastrointestinal Diseases. Pancreatic Diseases. Pathologic ... This study aims at collecting the information related to the safety and effectiveness in the pancreatic exocrine insufficiency ...
Special Investigation of LipaCreon on Long-term Use in Patients With Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency - Full Text View -...
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Cystic Fibrosis U.S. FDA Resources ... Special Investigation of LipaCreon on Long-term Use in Patients With Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency. This study has been ... This study aims at collecting the information related to the safety and effectiveness in the pancreatic exocrine insufficiency ... Special Investigation of LipaCreon on Long-term Use in Patients With Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Due to Chronic ...
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Dogs (EPI) - PetPlace
It is rare in cats.. EPI is seen most commonly in young dogs secondary to pancreatic acinar atrophy (a decrease in the enzyme ... Overview of Canine Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI). Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, commonly abbreviated and ... Information In-depth on Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Dogs. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is most often caused ... Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Dogs (EPI). 18 Aug, 2015 Dr. Bari Spielman 282,640 Views ...
Beneficial Endocrine but Adverse Exocrine Effects of Sitagliptin in the Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Transgenic Rat Model of...
Exenatide and rare adverse events. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 1969- 1970 [discussion 1971-1962]. ... Exocrine pancreas histology.. Pancreas sections were deparaffinized in xylene and rehydrated in ethanol gradient, and ... Exocrine pancreatic function in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Digestion 1982; 25: 211- 216. ... GLP-1 receptor, PDX-1, and insulin expression in exocrine ducts.. As previously reported (32), GLP-1 receptors were expressed ...
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Cats (EPI) - PetPlace
This deficiency results in maldigestion (poor digestion) and malabsorption (poor absorption). EPI is rare in cats. ... Feline Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI). Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a disorder in which the pancreas ... Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Cats (EPI). 3 Jul, 2015 Dr. Bari Spielman 13,102 Views ... Treatment of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Cats. Cats with EPI generally feel well and are otherwise healthy. Treatment ...
Special Investigation (All Cases) of LipaCreon in Patients With Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Due to Cystic Fibrosis - ICH...
This study aims at collecting the information related to the safety and effectiveness in the pancreatic exocrine insufficiency ... Rare Diseases. Alphabetic (A-Z). Drug. Interventions. Alphabetic (A-Z). By Category. ... Special Investigation (All Cases) of LipaCreon in Patients With Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Due to Cystic Fibrosis. ... This study aims at collecting the information related to the safety and effectiveness in the pancreatic exocrine insufficiency ...
002899 - FVB.129S2(B6)-Trp53|tm1Tyj|/J
endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype. *decreased thymocyte apoptosis*in irradiated thymocytes. (MGI Ref ID J:195018)*in response ... 12% of heterozygous mutants developed carcinomas, which are rare in homozygotes. (MGI Ref ID J:95318)*2.9% incidence of ... endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype. *increased T cell derived lymphoma incidence*75% of observed tumors are thymic lymphomas ... endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype. *decreased thymocyte apoptosis*radiation-induced apoptosis in the thymus is decreased as ...
Symptoms of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency | Everyday Health
Certain digestive symptoms may be caused by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Learn more about this uncommon and serious ... Symptoms of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. Many of the symptoms of this rare digestive condition are actually quite common ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is relatively rare, because about 90 percent of your pancreas has to be non-functioning or ... Symptoms of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Common Yet Difficult. Because the symptoms of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency ...
Canine Cancer: Exocrine Pancreatic Cancer - DogTime
Exocrine pancreatic cancer is uncommon in dogs. They arise from the epithelial tissues (they form the covering or lining of all ... Benign exocrine pancreatic tumors are rare. Nodular hyperplasia (hard, pale elevations on the surface of the gland) is common ... Exocrine pancreatic cancer is uncommon in dogs. They arise from the epithelial tissues (they form the covering or lining of all ... Like all other cancers, the etiology of exocrine pancreatic cancer is also unknown. But in order to study the incipient phase ...
Tommasi S[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Feline Pancreatitis: Exocrine Pancreas Insufficiency in Cats
Feline pancreatitis, or more specifically exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, is a rare but serious condition. Fortunately, this ... Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, also called pancreatic insufficiency and maldigestion ... Symptoms of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. Cats who have feline pancreatitis often display the same symptoms and follow the ... Cats who have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are often placed on low-fiber diets and may need vitamin supplementation. ...
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Cystic Fibrosis
Up to 90 percent of those with cystic fibrosis also have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. See why these two conditions are ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is a rare and relatively unknown condition that affects the pancreas and its enzymes. ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a rare digestive disorder thats tied to other conditions, including chronic ... More in Nurturing a Healthier You with Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. *. What Is Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency? What ...
Pathology of exocrine neoplasms of the pancreas
Pancreatoblastoma is the commonest malignant pancreatic neoplasm in childhood, but is extremely rare. ... Epithelial neoplasms of the exocrine pancreas in adults can be divided into solid neoplasms (ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell ... mesenchymal tumours and primary lymphoma are exceedingly rare. Secondary involvement of the pancreas can occur; the commonest ...
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency & GI surgery | Internal Medicine News
FDA Approval: Oral cannabidiol for treatment of rare epilepsies. Take Quiz. Gastroenterology ... Diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: Symptoms. Take Quiz. Features of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). Take ... Fat absorption during exocrine pancreatic insufficiency treatment. Take Quiz. Etiologies & concurrent conditions of exocrine ... Guidelines: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency treatment & outcomes. Take Quiz. Guideline: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency ...
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Inability to properly digest food due to lack of pancreatic digestive enzymes ... contact gard Office of Rare Disease Research Facebook Page Office of Rare Disease Research on Twitter ... Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of ...
Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma » November 2017
Histological changes in endocrine and exocrine pancreatic tissue from patients exposed to incretin-based therapies. ... Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » PubMed - Acinar Cell Carcinoma » November 2017. Share , ... Website: Rare-Cancer.org Last Update: Tue 12 Dec 2017 05:01:05 AM GMT ... Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions were very rare, all low-grade (PanIN 1a and 1b) and tended to occur more ...
EPI - Causes, Signs & Symptoms | Everyday Health
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is somewhat rare, and information can be hard to find. Heres how to learn more about this ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is considered a rare condition. Search the Internet for information on this condition and you ... More in Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. 6 Healthy Habits to Help You Manage EPI. ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency has also been work with your doctor to get the advice and guidance you need. According to ...
An infant with Pearson syndrome: a rare cause of congenital sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow failure | Blood Journal
Another hallmark clinical feature is exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Currently, there is no cure for this condition. The ... An infant with Pearson syndrome: a rare cause of congenital sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow failure. Corey P. Falcon and ... An infant with Pearson syndrome: a rare cause of congenital sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow failure. Blood, 129(19), 2710 ... Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome (PMPS) is an exceedingly rare mitochondrial disorder. Therefore, prevalence of PMPS is unknown ...
JCI - Matrix metalloproteinase-7 is expressed by pancreatic cancer precursors and regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in...
Arrowhead indicates one of the rare metaplastic duct lesions found in these pancreata, within a region of fibrosis and ... Matrix metalloproteinase-7 is expressed by pancreatic cancer precursors and regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in exocrine ... we found FasL in the exocrine pancreas restricted to metaplastic ducts (Figure 5b), a pattern similar to that found in the ... from sFasL-mediated apoptosis in order to allow for its selective expansion to become the dominant epithelium of the exocrine ...
Diabetes Overview - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
What Is Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency?
... exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a potential cause of diarrhea and chronic weight loss in cats. ... exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a potential cause of diarrhea and chronic weight loss in cats. ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is thought to be rare in cats. But new research indicates that vets might need to take ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), also called pancreatic insufficiency and maldigestion syndrome, is thought to be rare ...
Neuroendocrine tumors - The Full Wiki
WHO: mixed endocrine/exocrine tumor. *Subclass 5 (miscellaneous) *WHO: rare neuroendocrine-like lesions ... In addition to the two main categories, there are even rarer forms of GEP-NETs. At least one form - neuroendocrine lung tumors ... The term pancreatic cancer almost always refers to adenopancreatic cancer, also known as exocrine pancreatic cancer. ... Neuroendocrine tumors other than coincidental carcinoids are rare. Incidence of PETs is estimated at one new case per 100,000 ...
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists ... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Frequent (present in 30%-79% of cases). Hemihypertrophy. Frequent (present in 30%-79% of ... contact gard Office of Rare Disease Research Facebook Page Office of Rare Disease Research on Twitter ... Much of the information in the HPO comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. If available, the list includes a ...
Pancreatic Cancer: Silent but deadly policy
The pancreas is composed of two glands The exocrine gland helps digest foodsThe endocrine gland produces insulin ... ... The exocrine gland helps digest foods. The endocrine gland produces insulin and glucose that helps manage blood sugar levels in ... This type of cancer is rarer.. Symptoms. Abdominal pain that radiates to the back. Loss of appetite or unexplained weight loss ... Exocrine pancreatic cancer is more common and accounts for 85% of pancreatic cancers. It typically begins in the duct that ...
Types of pancreatic cancer - Macmillan Cancer Support
There are other rare types of pancreatic cancer. Most of these are investigated and treated differently from exocrine cancers ... Exocrine pancreatic cancer. The most common type of exocrine pancreatic cancer is:. *Ductal adenocarcinoma It starts from cells ... More than 9 out of 10 pancreatic cancers (95%) develop in the exocrine cells that make pancreatic juices.. Cancers that develop ... Supportive care of the patient with locally advanced or metastatic exocrine pancreatic cancer. UpToDate online. Feb 2017. ...
Neuroendocrine tumors, also known as islet cell tumors, are more rare than exocrine tumors. ... Exocrine tumors (e.g., pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) will be the focus of the rest of this article because they are more ... The exocrine pancreas makes, stores, and releases powerful enzymes to digest fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the small ... Exocrine tissues also make and release bicarbonate that neutralizes stomach acids and allows for the activation of pancreatic ...
Johanson-Blizzard Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)
Exocrine glands secrete substances through ducts, either internally (e.g., glands in the lungs) or externally (e.g., sweat ... NORDs Rare Disease Database provides brief introductions for patients and their families to more than 1,200 rare diseases. ... This is not a comprehensive database since there are nearly 7,000 diseases considered rare in the U.S. We add new topics as we ... It contains specialized exocrine cells that secrete enzymes that travel to the intestines and aid in digestion. Pancreatic ...
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center
This is a rare genetic disorder. It causes tumors within the pancreas that are often not cancer. But sometimes they can become ... The exocrine pancreas. This makes enzymes that go into the intestines and help break down food. ... A pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor is a rare type of cancer that starts in the pancreas. It is often called a pancreatic NET. ... Most cancers that start in the pancreas are exocrine cancers. Endocrine tumors of the pancreas are covered here. ...
Pancreas: neoplasia in cats | Vetlexicon Felis from Vetstream | Definitive Veterinary Intelligence
Cause: neoplasia of exocrine or endocrine pancreas is rare: *Exocrine: *Adenocarcinoma.. *Nodular hyperplasia. ... Nicoletti R, Chun R, Curran K M et al (2018) Postsurgical outcome in cats withe exocrine pancreatic carcinoma: nine cases (2007 ... Bennett P F, Hahn K A, Toal R L et al (2001) Ultrasonographic and cytopathological diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic carcinoma ...
Cystic FibrosisDisorderDigestive enzymesSpecialized exocrine cellsAcinar cellsLead to exocrine pancreatic inTreatment of Exocrine Pancreatic InCharacterized by exocrine pancreatic inCysticForm-of pancreatic cancerDiagnosisMalabsorptionNeuroendocrineTypes of pancreatic cancerAdenocarcinomasSymptoms of exocrineIslet cell tumorsGlandGlands secreteType of pancreatic cancerNeoplasms are rareBone marrow failureSideroblastic anemiaCancerousDuctsPancreatitisCarcinomaCancerTumorDiarrheaExceedingly rare
- Inclusion Criteria - Patients who receive LipaCreon for the replacement of pancreatic digestive enzymes in pancreatic exocrine insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis Exclusion Criteria - Patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the ingredient of LipaCreon. (ichgcp.net)
- A breakdown in pancreatic function called exocrine pancreatic insufficiency , or EPI, means you lack the digestive enzymes needed to properly digest food. (everydayhealth.com)
- As a result, there is a deficiency in the amount of digestive enzymes required to break down food (exocrine pancreatic insufficiency), which, in turn, prevents fats and other essential nutrients from being absorbed properly (malabsorption) in the intestines. (rarediseases.org)
- The mature organ is composed of an exocrine compartment with acinar and duct cells that produce and transport digestive enzymes into the gut, and an endocrine compartment from which metabolism-regulating peptide hormones including insulin are secreted into the blood stream. (biologists.org)
- Exocrine tumors affect the glands that make digestive enzymes. (dignityhealth.org)
- The exocrine component secretes digestive enzymes that helps in the digestion of food. (healthhype.com)
Specialized exocrine cells1
- In humans and mammalian model systems, the partial loss of exocrine tissue, such as after acute pancreatitis or partial pancreatectomy induces rapid recovery via expansion of surviving acinar cells. (biologists.org)
- Here, we used the zebrafish as an alternative model to study cellular mechanisms of exocrine regeneration following an almost complete removal of acinar cells. (biologists.org)
- In conclusion, we show a conserved requirement for Wnt signaling in exocrine tissue expansion and reveal a potential novel progenitor or stem cell population as a source for exocrine neogenesis after complete loss of acinar cells. (biologists.org)
- There is also a rare type of exocrine pancreatic cancer, which is cystic tumors and cancer of the acinar cells. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
Lead to exocrine pancreatic in2
- Certain digestive diseases, such as stomach ulcers, celiac disease, and Crohn's, and autoimmune diseases like lupus can lead to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (everydayhealth.com)
- You can also find out about the causes and signs and symptoms of chronic pancreatitis, which can lead to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (everydayhealth.com)
Treatment of Exocrine Pancreatic In1
Characterized by exocrine pancreatic in2
- A rare autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction, and skeletal abnormalities. (cibmtr.org)
- This is the first report to describe a Brazilian child with molecular diagnosis of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, intermittent or persistent neutropenia and skeletal changes. (scielo.br)
- This study aims at collecting the information related to the safety and effectiveness in the pancreatic exocrine insufficiency patients due to cystic fibrosis receiving the treatment with LipaCreon in order to evaluate the effective and safe use of LipaCreon. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- About 90 percent of people with cystic fibrosis also develop exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). (healthline.com)
- Cystic fibrosis is characterized by abnormalities affecting certain glands (exocrine) of the body especially those that produce mucus. (rarediseases.org)
- Cystic fibrosis is often apparent shortly after birth, but before newborn screening, when symptoms were not severe, CF may not have been detected until years later and, in rare cases, even as late as during adulthood. (rarediseases.org)
- Scattered endocrine cells have been reported to be present in exocrine pancreatic carcinomas, including ductal, mucinous cystic, and acinar cell carcinomas. (thefreelibrary.com)
Form-of pancreatic cancer4
- The most common type-and most dangerous form-of pancreatic cancer originates from exocrine cells. (thirdage.com)
- Exocrine pancreatic cancers are the most common form of pancreatic cancer when compared to endocrine pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Apple co-founder Steve Jobs, who died in October at the age of 56, had a rare form of pancreatic cancer called pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer , which produces islet cell or neuroendocrine tumors. (courant.com)
- Exocrine cancer is the more common, and more deadly, form of pancreatic cancer. (techworld.com.au)
- What Does an Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency Diagnosis Mean? (healthline.com)
- Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and staging of exocrine pancreatic cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
- Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction is an important flag to the underlying diagnosis of SDS in a patient presenting with marrow failure. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- SDS patients may experience improvement in exocrine pancreatic function over time, rendering diagnosis obscure. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- By the time chronic pain, vomiting, malabsorption , and, in some rare instances, problems with blood sugar control develop and are recognized, the pancreatic cancer has usually spread to other tissues and organs. (labtestsonline.org)
- Growth deficiency associated with JBS may occur because of malabsorption and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (rarediseases.org)
- Thus, history is important in differentiating the common toddler's diarrhea from the rarer malabsorption syndromes. (medscape.com)
- Postprandial pain may contribute to weight loss by voluntary fasting not to provoke pain - increasing the negative effects of malabsorption due to exocrine insufficiency [ 2 ]. (lww.com)
- Neuroendocrine tumors, also known as islet cell tumors, are more rare than exocrine tumors. (labtestsonline.org)
- Mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) is a rare neoplasm comprising of exocrine and neuroendocrine elements, each representing ≥ 30% lesion. (nih.gov)
- Endocrine cancers are very rare and are known as neuroendocrine tumors or islet cell tumors . (healthhype.com)
- Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing tumors that originate in cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. (uwhealth.org)
- The rare type of pancreatic cancer are called islet cells tumors or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and as the name implies those are tumors that arise from the cells that produce the various hormones that I mentioned. (cancer.net)
Types of pancreatic cancer1
- Almost all exocrine cancers are adenocarcinomas . (healthhype.com)
- Ampullary or periampullary adenocarcinomas are rare tumors which arise from the ampulla of Vater or the adjacent duodenum. (healthhype.com)
- More than 80% of exocrine pancreatic cancers are categorized as adenocarcinomas and most of these are the ductal type . (consumerhealthdigest.com)
Symptoms of exocrine3
- Because the symptoms of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency mimic those of other more common digestive diseases and syndromes, the condition can be difficult to identify, both for you and your doctor. (everydayhealth.com)
- Symptoms of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are similar to those associated with hyperthyroidism and inflammatory bowel disease . (vetinfo.com)
- Signs and symptoms of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency such as weight loss, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping can be confused with other digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome. (everydayhealth.com)
Islet cell tumors3
- Islet cell tumors can be detected earlier than exocrine cancers because they can cause signs and symptoms if they produce excess pancreatic hormones, such as insulin or glucagon. (labtestsonline.org)
- We are delighted by these findings which demonstrate that Sutent provides a benefit for patients with advanced, well-differentiated pancreatic islet cell tumors - a rare cancer with limited treatment options," said Dr. Mace Rothenberg, senior vice president of medical development and clinical affairs for Pfizer's Oncology Business Unit. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Pancreatic NET, also known as islet cell tumors, is a rare type of cancer different from pancreatic exocrine cancer, which is generally referred to as pancreatic cancer,. (webwire.com)
- As a part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct . (wikipedia.org)
- There have been rare cases of primary tumors involving the parapharyngeal space and the sublingual gland. (wikipedia.org)
- Acinic cell carcinoma of the lung is a very rare variant of lung cancer that, in this organ, is classified among the salivary gland-like carcinoma of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
Type of pancreatic cancer1
Neoplasms are rare1
Bone marrow failure1
- Arteriovenous Pearson syndrome is a very rare multisystemic mitochondrial disease characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (bioportfolio.com)
- Feline pancreatitis , or more specifically exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, is a rare but serious condition. (vetinfo.com)
- National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) provides a thorough discussion of pancreatitis and how it evolves into exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (everydayhealth.com)
- Pancreatitis has been reported as a rare complication after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). (biomedsearch.com)
- Ethyl alcohol abuse, gallstones, trauma, and other common and rare conditions can induce pancreatitis. (annals.org)
- Hereditary pancreatitis is a very rare form of chronic relapsing pancreatitis. (genome.jp)
- Patients had recurrent pancreatitis with impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, maldigestion, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. (genome.jp)
- Recurrent acute pancreatitis is a rare clinical entity in childhood with unknown incidence (Rosendahl et al. (hindawi.com)
- The pancreatic form of acinic cell carcinoma is a rare subtype of exocrine pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- The prognosis of an acinic cell carcinoma originating in the lung is much more guarded than cases of this rare histotype occurring in most other organs, but is still considerably better than for other types of lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Amphicrine carcinoma is a distinct type of carcinoma characterized by synchronous exocrine and endocrine differentiation within the same tumor cell. (ovid.com)
- This series highlights a rare variant of pulmonary carcinoma showing synchronous exocrine and endocrine differentiation. (ovid.com)
- The Italian Rare Pancreatic Exocrine Cancer Initiative. (nih.gov)
- Exocrine pancreatic cancer is uncommon in dogs. (dogtime.com)
- Like all other cancers, the etiology of exocrine pancreatic cancer is also unknown. (dogtime.com)
- Pancreatic Cancer Action Network provides information on enzyme treatments for people with pancreatic cancer , the same medications used to treat exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (everydayhealth.com)
- The term pancreatic cancer almost always refers to adenopancreatic cancer , also known as exocrine pancreatic cancer . (thefullwiki.org)
- Exocrine pancreatic cancer is more common and accounts for 85% of pancreatic cancers. (selfgrowth.com)
- This type of cancer is rarer. (selfgrowth.com)
- Supportive care of the patient with locally advanced or metastatic exocrine pancreatic cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
- Pancreatic NETs are managed differently than typical (exocrine) pancreatic cancer. (mercy.net)
- Vulvar cancer is a rare cancer that can occur at any age. (medindia.net)
- Pancreatic cancer often involves its exocrine part. (medindia.net)
- The Hereditary Paraganglioma Syndrome (hPGL) is a rare genetic cancer syndrome that is most commonly caused by a defect in mitochondrial metabolism. (stanford.edu)
- This form is usually less aggressive than pancreatic exocrine cancer, and patients can live longer, with the average survival rate more than three years. (courant.com)
- As a result, it Is extremely rare to diagnose pancreatic cancer in the early stages. (adventisthealth.org)
- In the rare cases that pancreatic cancer is caught in the early stages, it may be possible to remove tumors before they spread. (adventisthealth.org)
- The survival rates for this rarer form of pancreatic are "many times the survival rates" for the more common exocrine pancreatic cancer, according to the Sun. (techworld.com.au)
- And that's cancer that develops from the exocrine component that I just described to you. (cancer.net)