Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).
Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Financial support of research activities.
Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
Publications, usually annual, containing a calendar for the coming year, the times of such events and phenomena as anniversaries, sunrises, sunsets, phases of the moon, tides, meteorological, and other statistical information and related topics. Almanacs are also annual reference books of useful and interesting facts relating to countries of the world, sports, entertainment, population groups, etc. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The educational process of instructing.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
Books printed before 1501.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.
Those individuals engaged in research.
The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Agents that prevent clotting.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (1/12901)

OBJECTIVE: Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications. METHODS: A search of the Medline database of English-language articles published from 1987 to 1997 was conducted using the terms "colon," "rectum," "postoperative complications," "surgical anastomosis," and "drainage." A manual search was also conducted. Four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 414 patients, were identified that compared the routine use of drainage of colonic and/or rectal anastomoses to no drainage. Two reviewers assessed the trials independently. Trial quality was critically appraised using a previously published scale, and data on mortality, clinical and radiologic anastomotic leakage rate, wound infection rate, and major complication rate were extracted. RESULTS: The overall quality of the studies was poor. Use of a drain did not significantly affect the rate of any of the outcomes examined, although the power of this analysis to exclude any difference was low. Comparison of pooled results revealed an odds ratio for clinical leak of 1.5 favoring the control (no drain) group. Of the 20 observed leaks among all four studies that occurred in a patient with a drain in place, in only one case (5%) did pus or enteric content actually appear in the effluent of the existing drain. CONCLUSIONS: Any significant benefit of routine drainage of colon and rectal anastomoses in reducing the rate of anastomotic leakage or other surgical complications can be excluded with more confidence based on pooled data than by the individual trials alone. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials would further reinforce this conclusion.  (+info)

The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. (2/12901)

We sought to assess the effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure in humans. Our data sources included a MEDLINE search of the literature published before December 1997, bibliography review, and expert consultation. We selected controlled trials in which coffee consumption was the only difference between the intervention and control groups, mean blood pressure change was reported for each group or period, and treatment lasted for >24 hours. Of 36 studies initially identified, 11 (522 participants) met these inclusion criteria. Information on sample size, study design, participant characteristics (gender, race, age, baseline blood pressure, and antihypertensive medications), and treatment results were abstracted by 3 reviewers using a standardized protocol. Treatment effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure was estimated with the use of a random-effects model. In the 11 trials, median duration was 56 days (range, 14 to 79 days), and median dose of coffee was 5 cups/d. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2.4 (range, 1.0 to 3.7) mm Hg and 1.2 (range, 0.4 to 2.1) mm Hg, respectively, with coffee treatment compared with control. Multiple linear regression analysis identified an independent, positive relationship between cups of coffee consumed and subsequent change in systolic blood pressure, independent of age of study participants and study design characteristics. The effect of coffee drinking on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was greater in trials with younger participants. Our findings provide support for a relationship between coffee consumption and higher blood pressure. Trials of coffee cessation of longer duration and in persons with hypertension should be performed.  (+info)

One-year survival among patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, and its relation to early revascularization: results from the GUSTO-I trial. (3/12901)

BACKGROUND: Although 30-day survival is increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who undergo coronary revascularization, the longer-term outcome in such patients and the duration of benefit from revascularization are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 30-day survivors of acute myocardial infarction in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue-Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO-I) trial and identified 36 333 who had not had cardiogenic shock (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg for >/=1 hour, group 1) and 1321 patients who had shock (group 2). Group 2 patients were older and sicker. At 1 year, 97.4% of group 1 patients were alive versus 88.0% of group 2 (P=0.0001). Among group 2 patients, 578 (44%) had undergone revascularization within 30 days (group 2A) and 728 (56%) had not (group 2B). Revascularization was not required by protocol but was selected by the attending physicians. At 1 year, 91.7% of group 2A patients were alive versus 85.3% of group 2B (P=0.0003). With the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics of shock patients alive at 30 days, revascularization within 30 days was independently associated with reduced 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.6, [95% confidence interval 0.4, 0.9], P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients (88%) with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who are alive at 30 days survived at least 1 year. Shock patients who underwent revascularization within 30 days had improved survival at 1 year compared with shock patients who did not receive revascularization, even after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups.  (+info)

Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction. (4/12901)

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review. (5/12901)

We reviewed the literature and the manufacturer's U.S. clinical data pool for safety data on long-term administration of ciprofloxacin (Bayer, West Haven, CT). Only controlled clinical trials including patients treated for >30 days were selected. We identified 636 patients by literature search and 413 patients in the Bayer U.S. database who fulfilled our search criteria; the average treatment duration for these patients was 130 and 80 days, respectively. Main indications for long-term therapy were osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, prophylaxis for urinary tract infection, mycobacterial infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Adverse events, premature discontinuation of therapy, and deaths occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment arms. Most adverse events occurred early during therapy with little increase in frequency over time. As with short-term therapy, gastrointestinal events were more frequent than central nervous system or skin reactions, but pseudomembranous colitis was not observed. No previously unknown adverse events were noted. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is tolerated as well as other antibiotics when extended courses of therapy are required.  (+info)

Separate and joint effects of micronutrient deficiencies on linear growth. (6/12901)

Recent studies have investigated the effect of micronutrient deficiencies on growth stunting, with special attention toward the effect of zinc, iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies. In Mexico, the prevalence of growth stunting in children <5 y old is approximately 24%; it is higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas. In an initial study, the effect of zinc and/or iron supplementation on linear growth was investigated in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled design. After 12 mo of supplementation, there was no difference between the groups supplemented with zinc, iron or zinc plus iron and the placebo group. At baseline, 82% of the children in this study were deficient in at least two out of the five micronutrients that were determined, and 73% were anemic. In another study, a mixture of those micronutrients that were documented to be lacking in Mexican children was formulated in a supplement and given to Mexican children over a period of 12 mo in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled, supplementation design. Children in the low and medium socioeconomic status grew about 1 cm more than similar children in the placebo group. This difference was not found in children of high socioeconomic status. It is suggested that, in most cases, growth stunting is associated with marginal deficiencies of several micronutrients and that in populations with multiple micronutrient deficiencies, the effect on linear growth of supplementation with single nutrients will not be significant. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients is expected to be more effective, but even in that case the actual increment in height was less than the expected potential increment.  (+info)

Colorectal cancer mortality: effectiveness of biennial screening for fecal occult blood. (7/12901)

BACKGROUND: In 1993, a randomized controlled trial in Minnesota showed, after 13 years of follow-up, that annual fecal occult blood testing was effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality by at least 33%. Biennial screening (i.e., every 2 years) resulted in only a 6% mortality reduction. Two European trials (in England and in Denmark) subsequently showed statistically significant 15% and 18% mortality reductions with biennial screening. Herein, we provide updated results-through 18 years of follow-up--from the Minnesota trial that address the apparent inconsistent findings among the trials regarding biennial screening. METHODS: From 1976 through 1977, a total of 46551 study subjects, aged 50-80 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to an annual screen, a biennial screen, or a control group. A screen consisted of six guaiac-impregnated fecal occult blood tests (Hemoccult) prepared in pairs from each of three consecutive fecal samples. Participants with at least one of the six tests that were positive were invited for a diagnostic examination that included colonoscopy. All participants were followed annually to ascertain incident colorectal cancers and deaths. RESULTS: The numbers of deaths from all causes were similar among the three study groups. Cumulative 18-year colorectal cancer mortality was 33% lower in the annual group than in the control group (rate ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51-0.83). The biennial group had a 21% lower colorectal cancer mortality rate than the control group (rate ratio, 0.79; 95% CI = 0.62-0.97). A marked reduction was also noted in the incidence of Dukes' stage D cancers in both screened groups in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSION: The results from this study, together with the other two published randomized trials of fecal occult blood screening, are consistent in demonstrating a substantial, statistically significant reduction in colorectal cancer mortality from biennial screening.  (+info)

Report of a National Institutes of Health--Centers for Disease Control and Prevention workshop on the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons. (8/12901)

A workshop was convened in 1997 by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to consider the need for and feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons. Although the benefits of weight loss in obese individuals may seem obvious, little information is available showing that intentional weight loss improves long-term health outcomes. Observational studies may be unable to provide convincing answers about the magnitude and direction of the health effects of intentional weight loss. Workshop participants agreed that a well-designed randomized clinical trial could answer several questions necessary for developing a rational clinical and public health policy for treating obesity. Such information will ultimately provide needed guidance on the risks and benefits of weight loss to health care providers and payers, as well as to millions of obese Americans.  (+info)

As reported by Hope S. Rugo, MD, and John W. Park, MD, both of the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues in The New England Journal of Medicine, the multiarm adaptive randomization phase II I-SPY 2 trial has shown that the addition of veliparib/carboplatin and the addition of neratinib to standard neoadjuvant therapy have met criteria predictive of success in a phase III trial of the same comparators in early breast cancer patients with specific biomarker signatures.1,2. I-SPY 2 Details. In the I-SPY 2 trial, multi-arm adaptive randomization is being used to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple new agents added to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy in producing pathologic complete response in high-risk stage II to III breast cancer based on biomarker subtypes. The aim of the multi-arm adaptive randomization scheme is to more rapidly and accurately identify experimental regimens with a higher likelihood of success in phase II trials that can include smaller numbers of ...
BACKGROUND: Adults in intensive care units (ICUs) often suffer from a lack of sleep or frequent sleep disruptions. Non-pharmacological interventions can improve the duration and quality of sleep and decrease the risk of sleep disturbance, delirium, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the length of stay in the ICU. However, there is no clear evidence of the effectiveness and harms of different non-pharmacological interventions for sleep promotion in adults admitted to the ICU. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for sleep promotion in critically ill adults in the ICU.To establish whether non-pharmacological interventions are safe and clinically effective in improving sleep quality and reducing length of ICU stay in critically ill adults.To establish whether non-pharmacological interventions are cost effective. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (OVID, 1950 to June 2014), EMBASE ...
© 2017 Tucker et al. Background: Self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) appears to reduce BP in hypertension but important questions remain regarding effective implementation and which groups may benefit most. This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was performed to better understand the effectiveness of BP self-monitoring to lower BP and control hypertension. Methods and findings: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomised trials comparing self-monitoring to no self-monitoring in hypertensive patients (June 2016). Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility and the authors of eligible trials were approached requesting IPD. Of 2,846 articles in the initial search, 36 were eligible. IPD were provided from 25 trials, including 1 unpublished study. Data for the primary outcomes-change in mean clinic or ambulatory BP and proportion controlled below target at 12 months-were available from 15/19 possible studies (7,138/8,292 [86%] of randomised
Introduction: Self-monitoring of blood pressure is effective in reducing blood pressure in hypertension. However previous meta-analyses have shown a considerable amount of heterogeneity between studies, only part of which can be accounted for by meta-regression. This may be due to differences in design, recruited populations, intervention components or results among patient subgroups. To further investigate these differences, an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of self-monitoring of blood pressure will be performed. Methods and analysis: We will identify randomised trials that have compared patients with hypertension who are self-monitoring blood pressure with those who are not and invite trialists to provide IPD including clinic and/or ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure at baseline and all follow-up points where both intervention and control groups were measured. Other data requested will include measurement methodology, length of followup, cointerventions, baseline demographic
Although the effects of physical fitness training on death, dependence, and disability after stroke are unclear, there is sufficient evidence to incorporate cardiorespiratory training that involves walking within poststroke rehabilitation programs to improve speed, tolerance, and independence during walking, say authors of a meta-analysis published in November in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The authors searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and 5 additional databases. They also searched ongoing trials registers, handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, screened reference lists, and contacted experts in the field.. Selection criteria included randomized trials comparing either cardiorespiratory training or resistance training, or both, with no intervention, a nonexercise intervention, or usual care in stroke survivors. Two review authors independently selected ...
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may enhance recovery from stroke through neuroprotective mechanisms if administered early, or neurorepair if given later. Several small trials suggest administration is safe but effects on efficacy are unclear. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCT) assessing G-CSF in patients with hyperacute, acute, subacute or chronic stroke, and asked Investigators to share individual patient data on baseline characteristics, stroke severity and type, end-of trial modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Barthel Index, haematological parameters, serious adverse events and death. Multiple variable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, baseline severity and time-to-treatment. Individual patient data were obtained for 6 of 10 RCTs comprising 196 stroke patients (116 G-CSF, 80 placebo), mean age 67.1 (SD 12.9), 92% ischaemic, median NIHSS 10 (IQR 5-15), randomised 11 days (interquartile range IQR 4-238) post ictus; data from three commercial trials were not shared. ...
Objectives: To assess the accuracy in diagnosing heart failure of clinical features and potential primary care investigations, and to perform a decision analysis to test the impact of plausible diagnostic strategies on costs and diagnostic yield in the UK health-care setting. Data sources: MEDLINE and CINAHL were searched from inception to 7 July 2006. Grey literature databases and conference proceedings were searched and authors of relevant studies contacted for data that could not be extracted from the published papers. Review methods: A systematic review of the clinical evidence was carried out according to standard methods. Individual patient data (IPD) analysis was performed on nine studies, and a logistic regression model to predict heart failure was developed on one of the data sets and validated on the other data sets. Cost-effectiveness modelling was based on a decision tree that compared different plausible investigation strategies. Results: Dyspnoea was the only symptom or sign with high
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials without reported adequate allocation concealment have been shown to overestimate the benefit of experimental interventions. We investigated the robustness of conclusions drawn from meta-analyses to exclusion of such trials. MATERIAL: Random sample of 38 reviews from The Cochrane Library 2003, issue 2 and 32 other reviews from PubMed accessed in 2002. Eligible reviews presented a binary effect estimate from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials as the first statistically significant result that supported a conclusion in favour of one of the interventions. METHODS: We assessed the methods sections of the trials in each included meta-analysis for adequacy of allocation concealment. We replicated each meta-analysis using the authors methods but included only trials that had adequate allocation concealment. Conclusions were defined as not supported if our result was not statistically significant. RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 70 meta-analyses contained a mixture of
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Our present results are similar to the latest Cochrane review by Cooney et al, 24 who found a moderate effect of exercise on depressive symptoms (−0.62 SMD) when including all trials and no effect when restricting the analysis to trials with less risk of bias (−0.18 SMD). The Cochrane review did find evidence of a small antidepressant effect beyond the intervention, which we could not confirm in our present systematic review. Bridle et al 13 included nine trials allocating old (,60 years) participants with depression to exercise interventions versus control interventions. Restricting the analysis to four trials at lower risk of bias they found small-to-moderate effect estimates (SMD −0.34) in favour of exercise. The studies by Cooney et al 24 and Bridle et al 13 both included trials allocating participants with depressive symptoms and not necessarily diagnosed using a validated diagnostic system, potentially explaining the differences in the effect sizes. However, in our present systematic ...
The role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of chronic bronchitis is unclear. Since a number of studies have been published on this topic, a systematic review of published studies seems justified. A systematic search (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, bibliographies, no language restriction) for published randomized trials comparing oral NAC with placebo in patients with chronic bronchitis was performed. Dichotomous data on prevention of exacerbation, improvement of symptoms and adverse effects were extracted from original reports. The relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat were calculated for both individual trials and combined data. Thirty-nine trials were retrieved; eleven (2,011 analysed patients), published 1976-1994, were regarded as relevant and valid according to preset criteria. In nine studies, 351 of 723 (48.5%) patients receiving NAC had no exacerbation compared with 229 of 733 (31.2%) patients receiving placebo (relative benefit 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) ...
Many key RCT methods were not used or not reported. Adequate allocation concealment, adequate double-blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis were reported in only 50% of the trials. These findings suggest that there is much room for improvement in respiratory RCTs. However, improvement was found in the COPD RCTs, in which there was adequate allocation sequence generation, adequate allocation concealment, and intention-to-treat analysis in 27.0%, 11.6%, and 21.8%, respectively.8 Registered trials, trials cited ≥ 10 times, trials in journals with impact factor ≥ 5, and trials in the general medical journals were more likely to be of adequate methodological quality.. Important aspects of RCT methodology, such as randomization methods, allocation concealment, blinding, and sample-size calculation, are commonly inadequate in RCTs.12 That was the reason we conducted the analysis: to find the related facts on these methodological items. We decided to include trials published in leading journals ...
Background: The quality and quantity of individuals social relationships has been linked not only to mental health but also to both morbidity and mortality.. Objectives: This meta-analytic review was conducted to determine the extent to which social relationships influence risk for mortality, which aspects of social relationships are most highly predictive, and which factors may moderate the risk.. Data extraction: Data were extracted on several participant characteristics, including cause of mortality, initial health status, and pre-existing health conditions, as well as on study characteristics, including length of follow-up and type of assessment of social relationships.. Results: Across 148 studies (308,849 participants), the random effects weighted average effect size was OR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.59), indicating a 50% increased likelihood of survival for participants with stronger social relationships. This finding remained consistent across age, sex, initial health status, cause of ...
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a widespread complaint in the general population. Wendan decoction has been widely applied in the treatment of primary insomnia. However, to our knowledge, there has been no systematic review or meta-analysis of randomized controlled trails regarding the effectiveness of this treatment. Here, we provide a protocol to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Wendan decoction for primary insomnia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Relevant randomized controlled trials in 5 English databases [EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library), PubMed, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Databases (AMED), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)], 4 Chinese databases [Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database] will be comprehensively searched by 2 researchers in October 2017 ...
OBJECTIVES: To survey the frequency of use of indirect comparisons in systematic reviews and evaluate the methods used in their analysis and interpretation. Also to identify alternative statistical approaches for the analysis of indirect comparisons, to assess the properties of different statistical methods used for performing indirect comparisons and to compare direct and indirect estimates of the same effects within reviews. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases. REVIEW METHODS: The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) was searched for systematic reviews involving meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that reported both direct and indirect comparisons, or indirect comparisons alone. A systematic review of MEDLINE and other databases was carried out to identify published methods for analysing indirect comparisons. Study designs were created using data from the International Stroke Trial. Random samples of patients receiving aspirin, heparin or placebo in 16 centres were used
Publication bias has long been associated with funnel plot asymmetry.10 Among published studies, however, the probability of identifying relevant trials for meta-analysis is also influenced by their results. English language bias-the preferential publication of negative findings in journals published in languages other than English-makes the location and inclusion of such studies less likely.8 As a consequence of citation bias, negative studies are quoted less frequently and are therefore more likely to be missed in the search for relevant trials.7 36 Results of positive trials are sometimes reported more than once, increasing the probability that they will be located for meta-analysis (multiple publication bias).37 These biases are likely to affect smaller studies to a greater degree than large trials.. Another source of asymmetry arises from differences in methodological quality. Smaller studies are, on average, conducted and analysed with less methodological rigour than larger studies. ...
Publication bias has long been associated with funnel plot asymmetry.10 Among published studies, however, the probability of identifying relevant trials for meta-analysis is also influenced by their results. English language bias-the preferential publication of negative findings in journals published in languages other than English-makes the location and inclusion of such studies less likely.8 As a consequence of citation bias, negative studies are quoted less frequently and are therefore more likely to be missed in the search for relevant trials.7 36 Results of positive trials are sometimes reported more than once, increasing the probability that they will be located for meta-analysis (multiple publication bias).37 These biases are likely to affect smaller studies to a greater degree than large trials.. Another source of asymmetry arises from differences in methodological quality. Smaller studies are, on average, conducted and analysed with less methodological rigour than larger studies. ...
BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain is positively associated with fetal growth, and observational studies of food supplementation in pregnancy have reported increases in gestational weight gain and fetal growth.. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of education during pregnancy to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, on energy and protein intake, and the effect on maternal and infant health outcomes.. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups Trials Register (31 January 2015), reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted researchers in the field.. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of dietary education to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, during pregnancy.. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data and checked for accuracy. ...
This study is designed to provide clear evidence for health and social policymakers about the influence of alternate service-delivery models and practices on enhancing and sustaining low-income family linkages to available services. A challenge faced by Canadian health and social service providers is to promote health for low-income families in a proactive and cost-effective manner. Families with low incomes experience an array of health and social barriers that compromise their resilience, lead to negative family outcomes, and act as barriers to available services. Family barriers are compounded by service delivery barriers and result in reduced opportunities for effective, primary-level services and in increased use of secondary-level services (e.g., emergency room visits, emergency intervention, police involvement), with the obvious increase in costs. Randomized-controlled trials are rare in community-based intervention research.. This Families First Edmonton randomized-controlled trial (RCT) ...
Febrile neutropenia is a common complication of therapy in children with cancer. Some patients are at low risk of complications, and research has considered reduction in therapy for these patients. A previous systematic review broadly considered whether outpatient treatment and oral antibiotics were safe in this context and concluded that this was likely to be the case. Since that review, there has been further research in this area. Therefore, we aim to provide a more robust answer to these questions and to additionally explore whether the exact timing of discharge, including entirely outpatient treatment, has an impact on outcomes. The search will cover MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, CDSR, CENTRAL, LILACS, HTA and DARE. A full search strategy is provided. Key conference proceedings and reference lists of included papers will be hand searched. Prominent authors/clinicians in the field will be contacted. We will include randomised and quasi-randomised controlled
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Background: DNA-based disease risk information is becoming widely available. Expectations are high that communicating this information motivates behaviour change to reduce risk. Objective: To assess the impact of communicating DNA-based disease risk estimates on risk-reducing health behaviours and motivation to engage in such behaviours. Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis, using Cochrane methods. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and quality of evidence for each behavioural outcome. Data sources: We searched the following databases up to 25th February 2015: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We also conducted backward and forward citation searches. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving adults in which one group received personalised DNA-based disease risk estimates for diseases for which the risk could be reduced by behaviour change. Eligible studies included ...
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patients with established coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes. Brilinta reduced cardiovascular events in patients with no prior heart attack or stroke. The Phase III THEMIS trial met its primary endpoint and demonstrated that Brilinta (ticagrelor), taken in conjunction with aspirin, showed a statistically-significant reduction in a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) compared to aspirin alone.. THEMIS was conducted in over 19,000 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes (T2D) with no prior heart attack (myocardial infarction, MI) or stroke. Preliminary safety results were consistent with the known profile of Brilinta. A full evaluation of the THEMIS data will be presented at a forthcoming medical meeting.. Elisabeth Björk, Senior Vice President, Head of late Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism, R&D BioPharmaceuticals, said: Approaches to help reduce cardiovascular morbidity further in patients with coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes ...
Rivaroxaban and risk of myocardial infarction: insights from a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials.
In order to avoid selective biases and to minimize random errors, inference about the effects of treatment on serious endpoints needs to be based not on one, or a few, of the available trial results, but on a systematic overview of the totality of the evidence from all the relevant unconfounded randomized trials. But, only where coverage of all, or nearly all, randomized patients in all relevant trials (or a reasonably unbiased sample of such trials) can be assured, is a systematic overview of trials reasonably trustworthy, for then any selective biases are likely to be small in comparison with any moderate effects of treatment. Checks for the existence of such biases can best be conducted if reasonably detailed data are available from each trial. Future trials should take into account the results of any relevant overviews in their design, and should plan to obtain sufficient numbers of events to contribute substantially to such overviews. In many cases, this implies the need for randomized trials that
To summarize data on long-term ipsilateral local recurrence (LR) and breast cancer death rate (BCDR) for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who received different treatments. Systematic review and study-level meta-analysis of prospective (n = 5) and retrospective (n = 21) studies of patients with pure DCIS and with median or mean follow-up time of ≥10 years. Meta-regression was performed to assess and adjust for effects of potential confounders - the average age of women, period of initial treatment, and of bias - follow-up duration on recurrence- and death-rates in each treatment group. LR and BCDR rates by local treatment used were reported. Outside of randomized trials, remaining studies were likely to have tailored patient treatment according to the clinical situation. Nine thousand four hundred and four DCIS cases in 9391 patients with 10-year follow-up were included. The adjusted meta-regression LR rate for mastectomy was 2.6 % (95 % CI, 0.8-4.5); breast-conserving surgery with
Cultural and community-based knowledge help HealthStar to value and better understand people from all walks of life, but health care is also a very individualized service, which is designed one Client at a time. We can teach staff about what is special or unique about a certain culture, but we cant teach them whats special and unique about you without your help. To really create the best plan for you, and achieve your best outcome, HealthStar needs to know what makes you tick. Whats important to you in a caregiver? How can we meet your needs the way that you need most? What makes you the most comfortable, and how can we add that to our routine? How will you measure success? Whether your caregiver is a family member or is trained and provided by HealthStar, our goal is the same: support health, independence and community involvement in the way that works best for each Client. All of our service lines rest on the foundations of dignity as well as accountability - when we cant sleep, its ...
be set to play too loudly. Should all be banned as potentially dangerous? Every practitioner is aware of his/her responsibility to make sure that the device is played at an appropriate level. Basing conclusions on a single, very probably atypical case, is a poor practice-the authors conclusions are not justified.. A good deal of what has been written about AIT is excessively skeptical, negative or derogatory, permeated with the assumption that AIT is ineffective. Our review of all the research on the efficacy of AIT that we have been able to find refutes this negative view.. Probably because AIT lacks a plausible rationale and is counter-intuitive, it has become the target of skepticism and of negatively biased research. Ones opinion about an intervention, like ones opinion about an individual, should be based on evidence rather than prejudice. The present authors were themselves skeptical when first learning about AIT. Their interest was stimulated, despite their initial skepticism, by a ...
Multilevel network meta-regression for population adjustment based on individual and aggregate level data. Abstract: Standard network meta-analysis (NMA) and indirect comparisons combine aggregate data (AgD) from multiple studies on treatments of interest, assuming that any effect modifiers are balanced across populations. We can relax this assumption if individual patient data (IPD) are available from all studies by fitting an IPD meta-regression. However, in many cases IPD are only available from a subset of studies. In the simplest scenario, IPD are available for an AB study but only AgD for an AC study. Methods such as Matching Adjusted Indirect Comparison (MAIC) create a population-adjusted indirect comparison between treatments B and C. However, the resulting comparison is only valid in the AC population without additional assumptions, and the methods cannot be extended to larger treatment networks. Meta-regression-based approaches can be used in larger networks. However, these typically ...
This new Cochrane review looked at school-based interventions aimed at changing behaviour related to toothbrushing habits and the frequency of consumption of cariogenic food and drink in children between the ages of 4 and 12 years. The Cochrane Oral Health Groups Trials Register, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) ,Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, [read the full story…]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is aspirin effective in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)? Results from an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPD MA). AU - Groeneveld, E.. AU - Broeze, K. A.. AU - Lambers, M. J.. AU - Haapsamo, M.. AU - Dirckx, K.. AU - Schoot, B. C.. AU - Salle, B.. AU - Duvan, C. I.. AU - Schats, R.. AU - Mol, B. W.. AU - Hompes, P. G.A.. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Background: Aspirin is believed to improve the outcome of IVF, but previous conventional meta-analyses on the subject are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis with individual patient data (IPD MA) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the subject. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify RCTs assessing the effectiveness of aspirin in IVF. Authors were asked to share their original data. In a one step meta-analytic approach, the treatment effect of aspirin was estimated with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression, based on the ...
Protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of benefit of so-called lung-protective ventilation settings in patients under general anesthesia for surgery. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monitoring initial response to Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based regimens. T2 - An individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized, placebo-controlled trials. AU - Bell, Katy J L. AU - Hayen, Andrew. AU - Macaskill, Petra. AU - Craig, Jonathan C. AU - Neal, Bruce C. AU - Fox, Kim M. AU - Remme, Willem J. AU - Asselbergs, Folkert W. AU - van Gilst, Wiek H. AU - Macmahon, Stephen. AU - Remuzzi, Giuseppe. AU - Ruggenenti, Piero. AU - Teo, Koon K. AU - Irwig, Les. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - Most clinicians monitor blood pressure to estimate a patients response to blood pressure-lowering therapy. However, the apparent change may not actually reflect the effect of the treatment, because a persons blood pressure varies considerably even without the administration of drug therapy. We estimated random background within-person variation, apparent between-person variation, and true between-person variation in blood pressure response to angiotensin-converting enzyme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantifying the effects of prior acetyl-salicylic acid on sepsis-related deaths. T2 - An individual patient data meta-analysis using propensity matching. AU - Trauer, James. AU - Muhi, Stephen. AU - McBryde, Emma S.. AU - Al Harbi, Shmeylan A.. AU - Arabi, Yaseen M.. AU - Boyle, Andrew J.. AU - Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo. AU - Chen, Wei. AU - Chen, Yung Tai. AU - Falcone, Marco. AU - Gajic, Ognjen. AU - Godsell, Jack. AU - Gong, Michelle Ng. AU - Kor, Daryl. AU - Lösche, Wolfgang. AU - McAuley, Daniel F.. AU - ONeal, Hollis R.. AU - Osthoff, Michael. AU - Otto, Gordon P.. AU - Sossdorf, Maik. AU - Tsai, Min Juei. AU - Valerio-Rojas, Juan C.. AU - Van Der Poll, Tom. AU - Violi, Francesco. AU - Ware, Lorraine. AU - Widmer, Andreas F.. AU - Wiewel, Maryse A.. AU - Winning, Johannes. AU - Eisen, Damon P.. N1 - Funding Information: Drs. Gong, Kor, ONeal, and Ware received support for article research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Gongs institution received funding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The price is right!? A meta-regression analysis on willingness to pay for local food. AU - Printezis, Iryna. AU - Grebitus, Carola. AU - Hirsch, Stefan. PY - 2019/5/1. Y1 - 2019/5/1. N2 - We study the literature on willingness to pay (WTP) for local food by applying meta-regression analysis to a set of 35 eligible research papers that provide 86 estimates on consumers WTP for the attribute local. An analysis of the distribution of WTP measures suggests the presence of publication selection bias that favors larger and statistically significant results. The analyzed literature provides evidence for statistically significant differences among consumers WTP for various types of product. Moreover, we find that the methodological approach (choice experiments vs. other approaches) and the analyzed country can have a significant influence on the generated WTP for local.. AB - We study the literature on willingness to pay (WTP) for local food by applying meta-regression analysis to a ...
© 2015 World Stroke Organization. Background: Aspirin is of moderate overall benefit for patients with acute disabling ischemic stroke. It is unclear whether functional outcome could be improved after stroke by targeting aspirin to patients with a high risk of recurrent thrombosis or a low risk of haemorrhage. Aims: We aimed to determine whether patients at higher risk of thrombotic events or poor functional outcome, or lower risk of major haemorrhage had a greater absolute risk reduction of poor functional outcome with aspirin than the average patient. Methods: We used data on individual ischemic stroke patients from three large trials of aspirin vs. placebo in acute ischemic stroke: the first International Stroke Trial (n=18372), the Chinese Acute Stroke Trial (n=20172) and the Multicentre Acute Stroke Trial (n=622). We developed and evaluated clinical prediction models for the following: early thrombotic events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism);
Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS Previews), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Current Awareness in Biological Sciences (CABS), Current Contents /Life Sciences and Clinical Medicine, Chemical Abstracts (CA Search and CAS Online), Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (Life Sciences Collection), Sociedad Iberoamericana de Informaci n Cientifica (SIIC) Data Bases, Current Advances in Clinical Chemistry, SCISEARCH, Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), Medical Documentation Service, Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS), PsycINFO (Psychological Abstracts), Research Alert, Science Citation Index, Derwent ...
Based on small to moderate effect sizes for the wide range of symptomatic treatments in osteoarthritis (OA), and on the heterogeneity of OA patients, treatment guidelines for OA have stressed the need for research on clinical predictors of response to different treatments. A meta-analysis to quantify the effect modified by the predictors using individual patient data (IPD) is suggested. The initiative to collect and analyze IPD in OA research is commenced by the OA Trial Bank. The study aims are therefore: to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular glucocorticoids for knee or hip OA in specific subgroups of patients with severe pain and (mild) inflammatory signs, over both short-term and long-term follow-up, using IPD from existing studies; to reach consensus on the rules for cooperation in a consortium; and to develop and explore the methodological issues of meta-analysis with individual OA patient data ...
An Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analysis is often considered the gold-standard for synthesising survival data from clinical trials. An IPD meta-analysis can be achieved by either a two-stage or a one-stage approach, depending on whether the trials are analysed separately or simultaneously. A range of one-stage hierarchical Cox models have been previously proposed, but these are known to be computationally intensive and are not currently available in all standard statistical software. We describe an alternative approach using Poisson based Generalised Linear Models (GLMs). We illustrate, through application and simulation, the Poisson approach both classically and in a Bayesian framework, in two-stage and one-stage approaches. We outline the benefits of our one-stage approach through extension to modelling treatment-covariate interactions and non-proportional hazards. Ten trials of hypertension treatment, with all-cause death the outcome of interest, are used to apply and assess the approach. We
An Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analysis is often considered the gold-standard for synthesising survival data from clinical trials. An IPD meta-analysis can be achieved by either a two-stage or a one-stage approach, depending on whether the trials are analysed separately or simultaneously. A range of one-stage hierarchical Cox models have been previously proposed, but these are known to be computationally intensive and are not currently available in all standard statistical software. We describe an alternative approach using Poisson based Generalised Linear Models (GLMs). We illustrate, through application and simulation, the Poisson approach both classically and in a Bayesian framework, in two-stage and one-stage approaches. We outline the benefits of our one-stage approach through extension to modelling treatment-covariate interactions and non-proportional hazards. Ten trials of hypertension treatment, with all-cause death the outcome of interest, are used to apply and assess the approach. We
According to previous meta-analyses, coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Whether caffeine, the key ingredient in coffee, has a beneficial effect on the glycemic homeostasis and the anti-diabetic effect is particularly controversial. The aim of this study was to summarize the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on insulin sensitivity in healthy men. A comprehensive literature search for papers published before April 2016 was conducted in EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of caffeine on insulin sensitivity in healthy humans without diabetes were included. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3. The search yielded 7 RCTs in which caffeine intake was the single variant. Compared with placebo, caffeine intake significantly decreased the insulin sensitivity index, with a standardized mean difference of −2.06 (95%
Background Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis (CF). Objectives To compare the effect of NIV versus no NIV in people with CF. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each trial for additional publications possibly containing other trials. Most recent search: June 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing a form of pressure preset or volume preset NIV to no NIV in people with acute or chronic respiratory failure in CF. Data collection and analysis Three reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion criteria and methodological quality, and extracted data. Main results Fifteen trials were identified; seven trials met the ...
Looking for online definition of CancerLit in the Medical Dictionary? CancerLit explanation free. What is CancerLit? Meaning of CancerLit medical term. What does CancerLit mean?
Ancient Egyptian medical papyri (1550 BC) already emphasised diagnosis by physical examination as the cornerstone of the decision to treat or not to treat an ailment [1]. Today, the clinical assessment of the probability of a disease comes from a series of implicitly and explicitly performed tests. In addition to the implicit diagnostic information from history (risk factors and symptoms) and clinical examination (signs), many additional diagnostic imaging or laboratory tests are available. The accuracy of such tests requires to be appropriately assessed before they can be used in clinical practice.. Studies on primary diagnostic research typically examine the accuracy of a test isolated from history and clinical examination or do not adjust for overlap of information captured by clinical history, physical examination and additional tests. Such studies and conventional meta-analyses of their reported results will therefore not show how useful the test will be in practice [2-4].. In addition to ...
BACKGROUND: There are well over a million homeless people in Western Europe and North America, but reliable estimates of the prevalence of major mental disorders among this population are lacking. We undertook a systematic review of surveys of such disorders in homeless people. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched for surveys of the prevalence of psychotic illness, major depression, alcohol and drug dependence, and personality disorder that were based on interviews of samples of unselected homeless people. We searched bibliographic indexes, scanned reference lists, and corresponded with authors. We explored potential sources of any observed heterogeneity in the estimates by meta-regression analysis, including geographical region, sample size, and diagnostic method. Twenty-nine eligible surveys provided estimates obtained from 5,684 homeless individuals from seven countries. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in prevalence estimates for mental disorders among the studies (all Cochrans chi(2)
Harriet L., MacMillan, Professor, Gene Feder, Professor McMaster University and University of Bristol May 18, 2012 Link between evidence and conclusion unclear in USPSTF IPV screening systematic review As two clinician-researchers involved in the intimate partner violence (IPV) screening trial (1) that featured prominently in the recent US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) systematic review on screening women for IPV (2), we were perplexed by the authors conclusion that IPV screening can provide benefits that vary by population. This was the only trial identified as meeting the inclusion criteria to address question 1 of the review: Does screening asymptomatic women in health care settings for current, past, or increased risk for IPV reduce exposure to IPV, physical or mental harms, or mortality? Given that the trial results showed no differences between groups and the overall quality of the study was considered fair, presumably the answer to question 1 would be no - which is what ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth. T2 - A systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: Assessing the effects using the best level of evidence) - study protocol. AU - Crowther, Caroline A.. AU - Aghajafari, Fariba. AU - Askie, Lisa M.. AU - Asztalos, Elizabeth V.. AU - Brocklehurst, Peter. AU - Bubner, Tanya K.. AU - Doyle, Lex W.. AU - Dutta, Sourabh. AU - Garite, Thomas J.. AU - Guinn, Debra A.. AU - Hallman, Mikko. AU - Hannah, Mary E.. AU - Hardy, Pollyanna. AU - Maurel, Kimberly. AU - Mazumder, Premasish. AU - McEvoy, Cynthia (Cindy). AU - Middleton, Philippa F.. AU - Murphy, Kellie E.. AU - Peltoniemi, Outi M.. AU - Peters, Dawn. AU - Sullivan, Lisa. AU - Thom, Elizabeth A.. AU - Voysey, Merryn. AU - Wapner, Ronald J.. AU - Yelland, Lisa. AU - Zhang, Sasha. PY - 2012/2/12. Y1 - 2012/2/12. N2 - Background: The aim of this individual participant ...
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Intermittent claudication is pain in the legs due to muscle ischaemia associated with arterial stenosis or occlusion. Angioplasty is a technique that involves dilatation and recanalisation of a stenosed or occluded artery. The objective of this review was to determine the effects of angioplasty of arteries in the leg when compared with non surgical therapy, or no therapy, for people with mild to moderate intermittent claudication. Sources searched include the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Groups Specialized Trials Register (August 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3, 2006) and reference lists of relevant articles. The review authors also contacted investigators in the field and handsearched relevant conference proceedings (August 2006). Randomised trials of angioplasty for mild or moderate intermittent claudication. The contact author selected suitable trials and this was checked by the other review author. Both review authors assessed trial ...
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the efficacy and tolerability of fluoxetine, the most widely studied of newer antidepressants, in comparison with all other antidepressants in the acute treatment of depression in patients aged more than 18 years. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified through electronic searches of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to March 2004. The terms FLUOXETIN* OR adofen or docutrix or erocap or fluctin or fluctine or fluoxeren or fontex or ladose or lorien or lovan or mutan or prozac or prozyn or reneuron or sanzur or saurat or zactin were used. MEDLINE (1966-2004) and EMBASE (1974-2004) were searched using fluoxetine and randomized controlled trial or random allocation or double-blind method. No language restrictions were applied. Reference lists of relevant papers and previous systematic reviews were hand-searched for published reports up to March 2004. STUDY
BACKGROUND: Much of the brain swelling in ischaemic stroke is due to cytotoxic oedema, which is related to cell membrane dysfunction. Early treatment with corticosteroids may help reduce the swelling and improve the outcomes after a stroke. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effect of corticosteroids in acute presumed ischaemic stroke. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group trials register and contacted investigators in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Published randomised trials comparing corticosteroids with placebo or control in people with acute (presumed or definite) ischaemic stroke. Trials were included if treatment began within 48 hours of stroke onset and if clinical outcome was assessed. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials involving 453 people were included. Details of trial quality that may relate to bias were not available from
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Acupuncture-type treatments are among the most popular options. Several studies have reported that moxibustion is effective in ulcerative colitis (UC). The objective of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against moxibustion as a treatment for UC. We searched the literature using 18 databases from their inception to February 10, 2010, without language restrictions. We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs), in which human patients with UC were treated with moxibustion. Studies were included if they were placebo-controlled or controlled against a drug therapy or no treatment group. The methodological quality of all RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias. In total, five RCTs were included. All were of low methodological quality. They compared the effects of moxibustion with conventional drug therapy. Three tested moxibustion against sulfasalazine and two
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adaptive randomization of neratinib in early breast cancer. AU - the I-SPY 2 Investigators. AU - Park, John W.. AU - Liu, Minetta C.. AU - Yee, Douglas. AU - Yau, Christina. AU - Vant Veer, Laura J.. AU - Symmans, W. Fraser. AU - Paoloni, Melissa. AU - Perlmutter, Jane. AU - Hylton, Nola M.. AU - Hogarth, Michael. AU - DeMichele, Angela. AU - Buxton, Meredith B.. AU - Chien, A. Jo. AU - Wallace, Anne M.. AU - Boughey, Judy C.. AU - Haddad, Tufia C.. AU - Chui, Stephen Y.. AU - Kemmer, Kathleen A.. AU - Kaplan, Henry G.. AU - Isaacs, Claudine. AU - Nanda, Rita. AU - Tripathy, Debasish. AU - Albain, Kathy S.. AU - Edmiston, Kirsten K.. AU - Elias, Anthony D.. AU - Northfelt, Donald W.. AU - Pusztai, Lajos. AU - Moulder, Stacy L.. AU - Lang, Julie E.. AU - Viscusi, Rebecca K.. AU - Euhus, David M.. AU - Haley, Barbara B.. AU - Khan, Qamar J.. AU - Wood, William C.. AU - Melisko, Michelle. AU - Schwab, Richard. AU - Helsten, Teresa. AU - Lyandres, Julia. AU - Davis, Sarah E.. AU - ...
Review authors will work independently to assess risk of bias using criteria described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Higgins 2011) to assess trial quality. This set of criteria is based on evidence of associations between overestimate of effect and high risk of bias of the article such as sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. If the raters disagreed, the final rating was made by consensus, with the involvement of another member of the review group. Where inadequate details of randomization and other characteristics of trials were provided, authors of the studies were contacted in order to obtain further information. Nonconcurrence in quality assessment was reported, but if disputes arose as to in which category a trial was to be allocated, again, resolution was made by discussion. The level of risk of bias was noted in both the text of the review and in the Summary of findings tables. ...
Recently, network meta-analysis of survival data with a multidimensional treatment effect was introduced. With these models the hazard ratio is not assumed to be constant over time, thereby reducing the possibility of violating transitivity in indirect comparisons. However, bias is still present if there are systematic differences in treatment effect modifiers across comparisons. In this paper we present multidimensional network meta-analysis models for time-to-event data that are extended with covariates to explain heterogeneity and adjust for confounding bias in the synthesis of evidence networks of randomized controlled trials. The impact of a covariate on the treatment effect can be assumed to be treatment specific or constant for all treatments compared. An illustrative example analysis is presented for a network of randomized controlled trials evaluating different interventions for advanced melanoma. Incorporating a covariate related to the study date resulted in different estimates for the hazard
The authors included non-English trials in the review. The inclusion criteria for the individual trials and their participants were stated, and the author assessed the quality of the primary trials. It was not stated, however, how the trials were selected for inclusion or how study quality was assessed.. The authors listed the primary trials and the data extracted in tabular format, and discussed these data in the review. However, some of the participants details, i.e. age and gender, were not reported consistently.. The authors presented the data in a narrative format but did not report any statistical measurements that were used in the individual trials. This made it impossible to verify the results stated by the authors in this review. Heterogeneity was assessed in the narrative, based on the study characteristics used in the trials.. It was not possible to evaluate whether the authors conclusions were supported by their review due to the lack of primary data reported.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Prognostic factors for adolescent knee pain: an individual participant data meta-analysis of 1281 patients. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Systemic therapy for treating locoregional recurrence in women with breast cancer: Cochrane systematic review answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Interventions to improve adherence to lipid-lowering medication: Cochrane systematic review answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
BRILINTA reduced cardiovascular events in these patients with no prior heart attack or stroke. The Phase III THEMIS trial met its primary endpoint which demonstrated that BRILINTA® (ticagrelor) tablets, taken in conjunction with aspirin, showed a statistically-significant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of cardiovascular death, heart attack and stroke) compared to aspirin alone.. THEMIS was conducted in over 19,000 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes (T2D) with no prior heart attack or stroke. Preliminary safety results were consistent with the known profile of BRILINTA. A full evaluation of the THEMIS data will be presented at a forthcoming medical meeting.. Elisabeth Björk, Senior Vice President, Head of late Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism, R&D BioPharmaceuticals, said: Approaches to help reduce cardiovascular morbidity further in patients with coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes are urgently needed. The positive ...
PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness and adverse event profiles of amylin agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, incretin mimetics, TZDs, and certain combination products for people with type 2 diabetes and for people with type 1 diabetes for pramlintide only. DATA SOURCES: To identify published studies, we searched MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and reference lists of included studies through July 2010. We also requested dossiers of information from pharmaceutical manufacturers. REVIEW METHODS: Study selection, data abstraction, validity assessment, grading the strength of the evidence (SOE), and data synthesis were all carried out according to standard Drug Effectiveness Review Project methods. RESULTS: Most of the evidence was limited to adult populations. Most of the included studies evaluated intermediate outcomes, such as HbA1c or weight. Very few studies reported health outcomes and few studies were longer than 6 months. For the amylin agonists, ...
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Scott W, Guildford BJ, Badenoch J, Driscoll E, Chilcot J, Norton S, Kemp HI, Lee MJ, Lwanga J, Boffito M, Moyle G, Post FA, Campbell L, Josh J, Cift P, de C Williams AC, Rice ASC, McCracken ...
Topic (e.g. behavior, charter schools, etc.) Studies meeting certain design standards (e.g. Randomized controlled trial, Quasi- ... It reports mostly on randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluations, recognizing that RCTs offer no guarantee that the study was ... It advocated for systemic change and more randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of educational interventions. He ... nonpartisan organization advocating the use of well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in policy decisions. It ...
... a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis". J. Pineal Res. 39 (4): 360-66. doi:10.1111/j.1600-079X. ... "Topics in complementary and alternative therapies (PDQ)". National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. PMID ... but that blinded and independently conducted randomized controlled trials are needed.[112] ... Burkhart K, Phelps JR (26 December 2009). "Amber lenses to block blue light and improve sleep: a randomized trial". Chronobiol ...
... a randomized controlled trial". JAMA. 289 (21): 2810-8. doi:10.1001/jama.289.21.2810. PMID 12783911.. ... "The Case for Indications on Prescriptions". Drug Topics. Jarvik JG, Hollingworth W, Martin B, Emerson SS, Gray DT, Overman S, ...
... research generally relies on the use of field experiments such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Core topics of her work ... Cohen, J., Dupas, P. (2010). Free Distribution or Cost-Sharing? Evidence from a Randomized Malaria Prevention Experiment. ... Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya. American Economic Review, 101(5), pp. 1739-1774. Dupas, P., Robinson, J. (2013 ...
These studies, however, guide recommendations until prospective, randomized controlled trials are conducted. Current evidence ... method of airway management during CPR is not well established at this time given that the majority of studies on the topic are ...
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". PLoS One. 8 (6): e65835. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...865835B. ... Emerging and Evolving Topics in Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis and Treatments. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. 26 ... a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Psychosomatic Medicine. 76 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/psy. ... a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Obesity Reviews. 15 (6): 528-37. doi:10.1111/obr.12162 ...
A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 103 (3): 824-838. doi:10.1210/jc.2017-01186. PMID ... Suzuki H, Kamiya N, Imamoto T, Kawamura K, Yano M, Takano M, Utsumi T, Naya Y, Ichikawa T (October 2008). "Current topics and ... Gaudet M, Vigneault É, Foster W, Meyer F, Martin AG (2016). "Randomized non-inferiority trial of Bicalutamide and Dutasteride ... None of these drugs have been tested in controlled clinical trials in ferrets. "Bicalutamide". LiverTox: Clinical and Research ...
Although according to the evidence-based medicine consensus the randomized controlled trials are the gold-standard for medical ... Reviews are an overview of one particular topic of clinical interest in order to refresh the readers' memory, to enhance an ... "Medicine in Ancient Greece". Yitschaky O, Yitschaky M, Zadik Y (May 2011). "Case report on trial: Do you, Doctor, swear to tell ... Case reports may be of value in assessing unusual medical conditions that cannot be studied in clinical trials. Currently, most ...
Randomized controlled trial Blind trial Non-blind trial Adaptive clinical trial Nonrandomized trial (quasi-experiment) ... Some of the considerations here are shared under the more general topic of design of experiments but there can be others, in ... Shiel Jr., William C. (December 21, 2018). "Randomized control trial". Medicine Net. Retrieved June 4, 2019. "Are these data ... "Flu, Season, Diseases Affect Trials". Applied Clinical Trials Online. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 26 ...
A randomized control trial examined the efficacy of an Internet-based mindfulness training program (iMIND) and an Internet- ... The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in the college setting has been a recent topic of exploration. ... Randomized Controlled Trial". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 19 (3): e84. doi:10.2196/jmir.6737. PMC 5382258. PMID ... Leppink EW, Odlaug BL, Lust K, Christenson G, Grant JE (December 2016). "The Young and the Stressed: Stress, Impulse Control, ...
... only 1 was a well-designed randomized control trial that met their inclusion criteria for a meta-analysis. Researchers found ... A recent review of the research supporting halotherapy determined that, out of 151 studies conducted on this topic, ... Without vigorous control trials, nothing intelligent can be said to promote the purported beneficial effects of halotherapy, ... that the majority of the research on this topic has serious methodological flaws that should be considered. ...
Adenovirus Vaccine Efficacy Trial Consortium (2013). "A phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the ... "Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 325: 361-382. doi:10.1007/978-3- ... placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial". The Lancet. 381 (9871): 1037-45. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61764-4. PMID 23352749. ... This is a list of vaccine-related topics. A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease ...
Further randomized controlled trials are needed to delineate these differences more clearly." The conclusions were contrary to ... FFC). Holtorf has published a number of endocrine reviews on complex topics in peer-reviewed journals on controversial diseases ... This view is contrary to the position statements of agencies such as the Center for Disease Control and the Institute of ... Holtorf treats leptin resistance in patients with a class of medications that are typically reserved for controlling blood ...
Evidence-based policy relies on the use of science and rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify ... tobacco control policy or breastfeeding promotion policy. They may cover topics of financing and delivery of healthcare, access ... There are many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government, private sector business or ... Another issue in the rights debate is governments' use of legislation to control competition among private medical insurance ...
... systems can also be used in classroom settings to simulate randomized controlled trials (RCT) such as 'Live ... The fact that students can send responses anonymously means that sensitive topics can be included more readily than would ... "A Mock Randomized Controlled Trial With Audience Response Technology for Teaching and Learning Epidemiology" (PDF). Asia- ... the serial number of each remote control or the students identity number is entered beforehand in the control computer's ...
... a double-blind randomized controlled trial". Archives of Dermatology. 143 (3): 309-13. doi:10.1001/archderm.143.3.309. PMID ... "The EB-Green myth - Topic". 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 30 June ... From a near-zero customer base Manco eventually controlled 40% of the duct tape market in the US.[18][23] Acquired by Henkel in ... One such usage occurred in 1970 when Woodfill was working in Mission Control, when the square carbon dioxide filters from ...
Evidence from well-designed randomized control trials Level III: Evidence from well-designed control trials that are not ... To achieve this, researchers must use random and non-random samples to obtain concise information about the topic being studied ... Evidence from systematic reviews or meta-analysis of randomized control trials Level II: ... preferably the findings of randomized clinical trials. Within this context qualitative research findings are considered to have ...
According to a randomized control trial of over 1500 surgical ICU patients, controlling patients' blood glucose below 110 mg/dL ... A meta-analysis of studies on this topic could not demonstrate an advantage of tight glycemic control, while there was an ... the largest randomized control trial to date (with 6104 enrolled patients) comparing the effects of intensive glucose control ... A subsequent randomized control trial of 1200 medical ICU patients found that intensive insulin therapy significantly reduced ...
On this topic he conducted several randomized clinical trials and published books. In 2015 the Cochrane Review published an ... A further expanded analysis of the same double blinded randomized sham controlled trial (Brave Dreams) showed that venoplasty ... Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial". Journal of Endovascular Therapy. 27: 9-17. doi:10.1177/1526602819890110. ISSN 1526-6028. PMC ... "a double-blind randomized controlled trial versus sham therapy. ... "A phase II randomized clinical trial for the treatment of ...
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial;[2] RCT) is a type of scientific experiment (e.g. a clinical trial) ... Ranjith G (2005). "Interferon-α-induced depression: when a randomized trial is not a randomized controlled trial". Psychother ... Not all randomized clinical trials are randomized controlled trials (and some of them could never be, as in cases where ... "A method for assessing the quality of a randomized control trial". Controlled Clinical Trials. 2 (1): 31-49. doi:10.1016/0197- ...
A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 103 (3): 824-838. doi:10.1210/jc.2017-01186. PMID ... Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Endocrinology-Special Topics (in Turkish). 2 (2): 110-2. ISSN 1304-0529. Costanzo Giulio Moretti ... Birth control pills, which contain an estrogen and a progestin, are typically used for this purpose. Moreover, birth control ... the combination of bicalutamide with a combined birth control pill was evaluated in a phase III clinical trial for the ...
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Psychosomatic Medicine. 76 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/psy. ... Spector SA (Feb 2011). „Vitamin D and HIV: letting the sun shine in". Topics in antiviral medicine. 19 (1): 6-10. PMID 21852710 ... placebo-controlled trials examining the clinical efficacy of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis". Neuroepidemiology (Systematic ... დაარქივებულია ორიგინალიდან - ოქტომბერი 28, 2011. ციტირების თარიღი: March 25, 2009.. ...
Torgerson D (2015). "Stepped Wedge Randomized Controlled Trials". Trials. 16: 350. Retrieved 17 February 2017. "First ... In 2016, the first international conference dedicated to the topic was held at the University of York. The Gambia Hepatitis ... Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial". Trials. 15: 269. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-269. PMC 4226979. PMID 24998242. ... A stepped-wedge trial (or SWT) is a type of randomised controlled trial (or RCT), a scientific experiment which is structured ...
Stanbrook, Matthew B.; Austin, Peter C.; Redelmeier, Donald A. (6 July 2006). "Acronym-Named Randomized Trials in Medicine - ... placebo-controlled multicenter trial of combination METhotrexate and intramuscular GOld therapy in rheumatoid arthritis", " ... medical or health words that are not related to the topic of the study, such as ALIVE or RESCUE; and other English words not ... CALERIE ALMANAC PARAMOUNT trial JUPITER trial ASTEROID trial PROVE-IT TIMI 22 RECOVERY trial Lowe, Derek (18 July 2019). " ...
Between 1985 and 1998 only 54 randomized controlled trials related to emergency medical services were published, implying that ... Topics covered included the use of the Broselow tape as the best estimate for children's weight, green bananas as an effective ... One Australian study found that the primary topics covered by U.S. fellowship programs were emergency medicine systems ... and infection control practices. Following these designations, plans regarding these areas were collaboratively drawn up and ...
... and randomized controlled trials) can yield strong recommendations; weaker types (such as from case-control studies) can yield ... and includes such topics as effectiveness of technology and struggling readers. The Education Endowment Foundation was ... Typically, systematic reviews and meta-analysis rank at the top of the hierarchy while randomized controlled trials rank above ... English author Ben Goldacre advocated in 2013 for systemic change and more randomized controlled trials to assess the effects ...
... added a "publication type" term for "randomized controlled trial" in 1991 and a MESH subset "systematic review" in 2001 ... The most common topic in the database is Cancer with around 12% of all records between 1950-2016, which have risen from 6% in ... For lay users who are trying to learn about health and medicine topics, the NIH offers MedlinePlus; thus, although such users ... Lin, Jimmy; Wilbur, W John (2007-10-30). "PubMed related articles: a probabilistic topic-based model for content similarity". ...
CNSdose is noted for incorporating blood-brain-barrier genetics into their tool and publishing a Randomized Controlled Trial. ... On January 27, 2021, the OECD held a Brain Capital Event on this topic. Notable speakers included Angel Gurria (OECD Secretary ... a randomized controlled trial of yoga to prevent dementia and the model of 'Convergence Psychiatry'. He maintains an advisory ... "A randomized controlled trial of Kundalini yoga in mild cognitive impairment". International Psychogeriatrics. 29 (4): 557-567 ...
A randomized controlled multiarm matched-triplet crossover trial of beer and wine". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... Lovinger, D. M., David M (1999). "5-HT3 receptors and the neural action of alcohols: An increasingly exciting topic". ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2013.. ...
A Randomized Controlled Trial". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 76 (12): 1192-98. doi:10.4065/76.12.1192. PMID 11761499. S2CID 7300728 ... teaching includes such topics as doctor-patient communication, ethics, the art of medicine,[96] and engaging in complex ... had been studied by at least one randomized controlled trial (RCT), and 23% had been assessed with a meta-analysis.[112] ... Research into alternative therapies often fails to follow proper research protocols (such as placebo-controlled trials, blind ...
Controlled experiments. *Design *control. *optimal. *Controlled trial. *Randomized. *Random assignment. *Replication. *Blocking ... However it would be rare to find so extended a report in a document whose major topic was not statistical inference. ...
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Annals of Internal Medicine. 138 (9): 697-704. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-138 ... "CDC - Lyme Disease - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". 3 August 2017. Archived from the original on 13 ... "Randomized Trial of Longer-Term Therapy for Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. 374 (13 ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). *^ "Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) 2011 case definition". U.S. Centers ...
Johnston BC, da Costa BR, Devereaux PJ, Akl EA, Busse JW (April 2008). "The use of expertise-based randomized controlled trials ... List of topics characterized as pseudoscience. *Chiropractic education. *Chiropractic schools. *Councils on Chiropractic ... an overview of randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews" (PDF). Eura Medicophys. 43 (1): 91-118. PMID 17369783.. ... a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Cephalalgia. 31 (8): 964-70. doi:10.1177/0333102411405226. PMID 21511952.. ...
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 95: 189-191. ... List of topics characterized as pseudoscience. *Long range locator. *Michel Moine. *One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge ... A randomized double-blind trial in 2012 was carried out to determine whether homeopaths were able to distinguish between ... A 1979 review by Evon Z. Vogt and Ray Hyman examined many controlled studies of dowsing for water, and found that none of them ...
... a randomized placebo-controlled 25-week outpatient trial". Pharmacopsychiatry. 30 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1055/s-2007-979474. PMID ...
... a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Br. J. Anaesth. 84 (3): 367-371. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013442. ... "An Evaluation of Several Mulch Materials on Landscape Plant Growth, Weed Control, Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture : Interim ... "The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: A systematic review of clinical trials". Pain Medicine. 12 ...
... and active training reduce the risk of contamination but that more randomized controlled trials are needed for how best to ... *^ ... Based on recommendations from The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for TB screening and testing the following ... a b *^ ...
A diet-controlled randomized trial". J Acad Nutr Diet. 115 (2): 264-271. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2014.07.021. PMC 4312726 . PMID ... The order of steps in preparing a cup of tea is a much-debated topic, and can vary widely between cultures or even individuals ... The loose tea must be individually measured for use, allowing for flexibility and flavor control at the expense of convenience ... Without careful moisture and temperature control during manufacture and packaging, growth of undesired molds and bacteria may ...
Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Cuba. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1536-44. Free ... A 2018 paper using a synthetic control method found that infant mortality increased in the first years of the Castro regime ... The Collaborative Group consisted of the Cuban Ministry of Public Health, Kourí Institute, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ...
... phase II trials - phase III trials - phase IV trials - photosensitivity - PHS - pituitary gland - placebo - placebo controlled ... radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health ... controlled trials - core - core protein - correlates of immunity/correlates of protection - creatinine - cross-resistance - ...
A Cluster Randomized Trial". JAMA Network Open. 1 (3): e180298. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0298. PMC 6324526. PMID ... humidity control, wind control, erosion control, evaporative cooling, sound and visual screening, traffic control, pollution ...
Controlled experiments. *Scientific control. *Randomized experiment. *Randomized controlled trial. *Random assignment. * ... List of statistical topics. *Kirkwood approximation. *Moment-generating function. *Quasiprobability distribution. *Riemann- ... Related to Bernoulli trials (yes/no events, with a given probability)[edit]. *Basic distributions: *Bernoulli distribution, for ... Nevertheless, in quality control one might demand that the probability of a "500 g" package containing between 490 g and 510 g ...
... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". PLOS One. 8 (2): e56803. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...856803Y. doi:10.1371/journal. ... started publishing research on the topic and also published a book "Vitamin C and the Common Cold" in 1970.[28] A revised and ... The disease was shown to be prevented by citrus fruit in an early controlled trial by a Royal Navy surgeon, James Lind, in 1747 ... The earliest publication of a controlled clinical trial appears to be from 1945.[27] Researchers continued to work on this ...
Chemotherapy has been shown in a randomized controlled trial to improve quality of life and extend survival in people with ... Scholia has a topic profile for Cholangiocarcinoma.. *American Cancer Society Detailed Guide to Bile Duct Cancer. ... and no prospective randomized controlled trials have been conducted as of March 2007. Adjuvant chemotherapy appears to be ... A phase III multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial in patients with resected pancreaticobiliary carcinoma". Cancer ...
The 29 meta-analyses reviewed an aggregate of 509 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of these, 318 RCTs reported funding ... researchers from different areas who are brought together for several days of intensive discussions about a particular topic ... conducts systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials of health care interventions and tries to disseminate the results ... They further criticized the trial methodology stating that researchers are frequently restricted from contributing to the trial ...
20-year results of a randomized trial". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 32 (8): 791-7. doi:10.1200/JCO.2013.50.6600. PMID ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Radiation Oncology. Information. *Human Health Campus The official website of the ... It may also be used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic ... Ang, K. Kian (October 1998). "Altered fractionation trials in head and neck cancer". Seminars in Radiation Oncology. 8 (4): 230 ...
Stradling, J; Roberts, D; Wilson, A; Lovelock, F (1998). "Controlled trial of hypnotherapy for weight loss in patients with ... "UTCAT2395, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs". Retrieved 2016-03-08.. ... "Music therapy improves sleep quality in acute and chronic sleep disorders: a meta-analysis of 10 randomized studies". Centre ... who had experienced acute or chronic sleep disorders were put in a randomly controlled trial and their sleep efficiency ( ...
Some randomized control trials have shown that low-carbohydrate diets, especially very low-carbohydrate diets, perform better ... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials". American Journal of Epidemiology. 176 Suppl 7 (Suppl 7): S44-54. doi ... A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 131: 124-131. ... A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 131: 124-131. ...
"SMA CARNI-VAL trial part I: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine and valproic acid in spinal ... "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of phenylbutyrate in spinal muscular atrophy". primary. Neurology. 68 (1): ... "Randomized sequential trial of valproic acid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". primary. Annals of Neurology. 66 (2): 227-34. ... Human trials are extremely variable showing increased SMN2 levels and increased muscle strength in some trials and absolutely ...
... and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register (IRCTN identifier).[16] ... Clustering results by topics, authors, journals etc., for instance: Anne O'Tate;[36] ClusterMed;[37] ... For clinical trials, PubMed extracts trial IDs for the two largest trial registries: (NCT identifier) ... "prevention and control"[Subheading] OR ("prevention"[All Fields] AND "control"[All Fields]) OR "prevention and control"[All ...
2015). "Probiotics for the prevention of allergy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". J. ... a collection of resources on the topic of food allergies and intolerances ... a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 103 (1): ... A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Medicine (Baltimore). 95 (8): e2562. ...
... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". J Pediatr. 149 (3): 367-372. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.04.053. PMID 16939749. ... Related topics. *Gut-brain axis. *Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. *Sympathetic nervous system ... A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (Systematic review & meta- ... A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clin. Exp. Allergy (Systematic review). 47 (11): 1468- ...
Controlled experiments. *Design *control. *optimal. *Controlled trial. *Randomized. *Random assignment. *Replication. *Blocking ... A recent meta-study of scientific research on this topic indicates that from the 1980s onward the Bandwagon effect is found ... Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 2009-06-22.. *^ Silver, Nate (2008-11-02). "The Cellphone effect, continued". ... These controls are not widely used in the polling industry.[why?]. However, as it is important that questions to test the ...
Two major studies dispute the claim that open access articles lead to more citations.[156][157] A randomized controlled trial ... The emergence of open science or open research has brought to light a number of controversial and hotly-debated topics. ... Davis, P. M. (2011). "Open access, readership, citations: a randomized controlled trial of scientific journal publishing". The ... A Randomized Controlled Trial of Articles Published in APS Journals". The Physiologist. 53: 197-201. Archived from the original ...
This is why randomized controlled trials are vital in clinical research, especially ones that can be double-blinded and placebo ... How much these differences matter in experiments (such as clinical trials) is a matter of trial design and statistical rigor, ... Random assignment, blinding, and controlling are key aspects of the design of experiments, because they help ensure that the ... If the coin lands tails-up, the participant is assigned to the Control group. At the end of the experiment, the experimenter ...
Preti A, Cella M (2010). "Randomized-controlled trials in people at ultra high risk of psychosis: a review of treatment ... where thoughts unrelated to a common topic appear uncontrollably; referential ideation that is immediately corrected; and other ... A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial". Schizophrenia Research. 102 (1-3): 252. doi:10.1016/s0920-9964(08)70758-8.. ... "Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first-episode psychosis in a ...
Case-control study. *Randomized controlled trial. *Relative risk. *Statistical hypothesis testing *Analysis of variance (ANOVA) ... Econometrics lecture (topic: hypothesis testing) on YouTube by Mark Thoma. *v. *t ... we are effectively using each patient as their own control. That way the correct rejection of the null hypothesis (here: of no ... then randomly assign 50 subjects to the treatment group and 50 subjects to the control group. In this case, we have two ...
Tashkin DP, Celli B, Senn S, et al. (October 2008). "A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". N ... Handbook for Dust Control in Mining. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease ... *↑ 24.0 24.1 Weitzenblum E, Chaouat A (2009). "Cor ... Zhou Y, Wang X, Zeng X, et al. (2006). "Positive benefits of theophylline in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, ...
... randomized controlled trial (topic) · review · secondary prevention · skin care · skin decontamination · skin protection · ... randomized controlled trial (topic) · review · risk factor · sedentary lifestyle · self monitoring · systematic review · ... Randomized controlled trial (topic) · Regression discontinuity · Stress management · Study design · Work and Employment · ... Randomized controlled trial (topic) · Regulatory T lymphocyte · Research priority · Retinol deficiency · Risk assessment · ...
What is already known on this topic. *. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) devices are marketed worldwide to accelerate ... only trials with high risk of bias showed benefit. Based on randomized controlled trials at low risk of bias, we found high ... We included randomized controlled trials that compared LIPUS with a sham device or no device in patients with any type of ... Study selection Randomized controlled trials of LIPUS compared with sham device or no device in patients with any kind of ...
Topics. Econometrics. Estimation Methods. Experimental Design. Development and Growth. Programs. Economics of Aging. ... "Understanding and misunderstanding randomized controlled trials," Social Science & Medicine, . citation courtesy of ... Estimates apply to the trial sample only, sometimes a convenience sample, and usually selected; justification is required to ... randomization does not equalize everything but the treatment across treatments and controls, it does not automatically deliver ...
Related Topics. *Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Browse by Series. Browse by Authors. Stay Informed. RAND Policy ... Randomized Controlled Trials as Evidence in Legal Disputes About the Benefits of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. ...
centers for disease control and prevention centers for disease control and prevention ... best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs ...
centers for disease control and prevention centers for disease control and prevention ... best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs ...
... results of a randomized controlled trial applying the Solomon four-group design.". In recent years, antimicrobial resistance ( ... Topics * All Topics Biotechnology Biotech Business Biotech Products Cancer Cardiovascular Dermatology Drug Discovery ... results of a randomized controlled trial applying the Solomon four-group design.. 08:00 EDT 30th March 2019 , BioPortfolio ... results of a randomized controlled trial applying the Solomon four-group design. ...
Clinical Trials - To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on immunologic indicators in asymptomatic HIV-1 ... Home » Topics » AIDS and HIV » Research » A Pilot Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Design, Multicenter ... A Pilot Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Design, Multicenter Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Ranitidine ... More From BioPortfolio on "A Pilot Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Design, Multicenter Trial to Evaluate ...
Placebo-Controlled Trial James H. Essell, MD; Mark T. Schroeder, MD; Glenn S. Harman, MD; Ronald Halvorson, MD; Vernon Lew, RPh ... Results of a Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial Annals of Internal Medicine; 118 (3): 179-184 ... Placebo-Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. ;128:975-981. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-128-12_Part_1-199806150-00002 ... Ursodiol Prophylaxis against Hepatic Complications of Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, ...
Steroid Pretreatment of Organ Donors to Prevent Postischemic Renal Allograft Failure: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Free ... Steroid Pretreatment of Organ Donors to Prevent Postischemic Renal Allograft Failure: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Ann ... Effects of donor pretreatment with dopamine on graft function after kidney transplantation: a randomized controlled trial. ... In this multicenter randomized trial, deceased heart-beating organ donors received an intravenous infusion of saline or ...
Methods: This randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial involving 455 patients in Dallas-Fort Worth was conducted from ... Osteopathic manual treatment and ultrasound therapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Fam Med. 2013 ... The design and results of the OSTEOPATHIC Trial have been previously published.10-12 This double-blind, sham-controlled trial ... Responder Analyses From a Randomized Controlled Trial John C. Licciardone, DO, MS, MBA; Robert J. Gatchel, PhD, ABPP; Subhash ...
Time for a Relevant Randomized Controlled Trial of Vena Cava Filters Terri R. Martin, MD; A. Britton Christmas, MD; Lindsay A. ... Time for a Relevant Randomized Controlled Trial of Vena Cava Filters You will receive an email whenever this article is ... Time for a Relevant Randomized Controlled Trial of Vena Cava Filters. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, ... Time for a Relevant Randomized Controlled Trial of Vena Cava Filters. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2013;113(1):11-12. doi: 10.7556/jaoa ...
... safety of Lactuca sativa L. seeds on pregnancy-related ... Key Research Topics. Pharmacological Actions. Hypnotics and Sedatives Disease. Insomnia Substance. Lettuce ... METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a prospective randomized clinical trial, 100 pregnant women with insomnia aged 20-45 years were ... Linear regression analysis showed that, after controlling for the other variables, the average sleep score of the experimental ...
Key Research Topics. Disease. Gastroesophageal Reflux Gastroesophageal Reflux: Infant and Children Toxic Ingredients. ... Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitor ... RESULTS: Of the 216 infants screened, 162 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were randomized. Of those, 44/81 infants (54 ... STUDY DESIGN: This multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study randomized infants with persisting symptoms attributed to ...
... pregnancy outcome in hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. ... Key Research Topics. Disease. Hypertension Pregnancy Complications Pharmacological Actions. Antihypertensive Agents Therapeutic ... METHODS: Seventy-nine patients were randomized into study and control groups. The study group received the intervention in the ... RESULTS: The mean systolic BP declined by 7.43 ± 5.86 mmHg in the study group as compared to 2.50 ± 5.21 mm Hg in the control ...
A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating Efficacy and Safety of Oral Nintedanib Treatment for at Least ... ASCI: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Phase II Multicenter Trial of a Monoclonal Antibody to CD20 (Rituximab) ... A Randomized, Single Blind, Controlled Trial of Clinical Outcomes of Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane (dHACM) in Lumbar ... Randomized Control Trial of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation in Protein Deficient Patients Following Total Knee ...
A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea in ... placebo-controlled, randomized trial of children hospitalized with acute watery diarrhea in Vietnam. Children meeting the ... placebo-controlled trial in which the probiotic underwent longitudinal quality control. We found under these conditions that L ... One hundred and fifty children were randomized into each study group. The median time from the first dose of study medication ...
Multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial based on the Iron (Fe) and Atherosclerosis Study (FeAST) (VA ... Reduction of Iron Stores and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Randomized Controlled ... Patients were assigned to a control group (n = 641) or to a group undergoing reduction of iron stores by phlebotomy with ... All-cause deaths occurred in 148 patients (23%) in the control group and in 125 (20%) in the iron-reduction group (hazard ratio ...
For the waitlist control group, significant reductions in plasma CXCL12 (SDF-1α) (p = 0.003), CXCL5 (RANTES) (p = 0.05) and ... A total of 59 older adults was recruited, with 29 randomly assigned to the HT intervention and 30 to the waitlist control group ... We designed a waitlist-control randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of HT in improving mental well- ... Topic. Activity. Venue. Weekly Sessions. 14/05/2015. 1. Introduction. 1. TaRA familiarisation. 2. Group formation 7/group. 3. ...
What is known about this topic?. Research is needed to provide ways to implement randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in ... Randomized controlled trial with stepped-wedge design. • Developed based on previously conducted community focus groups, key ... Randomized controlled trial with modified crossover design. • Multicomponent, home-based intervention with 12 monthly mailed ... Henry D, Tolan P, Gorman-Smith D, Schoeny M. Alternatives to randomized control trial designs for community-based prevention ...
This is a randomized controlled trial of taxi drivers to test (1) the extent to which different types of financial incentives, ... A Randomized Controlled Trial to Motivate and Sustain Physical Activity using Financial Incentives (TAKSI). Project Overview. ...
What is already known on this topic?. Although disparities in healthy eating and physical activity exist between Asian ... Third, our randomized controlled trial did not include a no-intervention control group; the slight increases found in the ... A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of a Lay Health Worker Intervention to Increase Healthy Eating and Physical Activity ... A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of a Lay Health Worker Intervention to Increase Healthy Eating and Physical Activity ...
This randomized controlled trial has provided strong evidence for the efficacy and safety of this topical diclofenac solution. ... Diclofenac Sodium Gel in Patients with Primary Hand Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial ... a randomized controlled trial. Arthur A.M. Bookman, Kate S.A. Williams and J. Zev Shainhouse ... a randomized controlled trial. Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study. JAMA 2000;284:1247-55. ...
The Stem Cell Trial of Recovery EnhanceMent After Stroke (STEMS) Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial (ISRCTN 16784092) ... The Stem Cell Trial of Recovery Enhancement After Stroke 2 Randomized Controlled Trial ... Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for acute ischemic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Woei-Cherng Shyu, Shinn-Zong ... Further randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. ...
Reviews on recent clinical trials. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders and it ... Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. *Rifamycins. *Rifamycins: therapeutic use. Get free article suggestions today. Mendeley ... As a result, clinical trials have focused, for the most part, on one IBS subtype. Over the past 2 decades very few agents have ...
Meta-Analysis as Topic* * Proportional Hazards Models * Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic ...
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic * Stress, Psychological* * Telomere / metabolism* Substances * Ghrelin Grant support * ...
Pregnancy Complications [prevention & control]. *Pregnancy[checkword]. *Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. *Serotonin ... We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies.Data collection and analysis: ... We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups Trials Register (27 February 2012) and reference lists of identified ...
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Messer K, Vaida F, Hogan C. "Robust analysis of biomarker data with informative ... missingness using a two-stage hypothesis test in an HIV treatment interruption trial: AIEDRP AIN503/ACTG A5217." Contemp Clin ... of biomarker data with informative missingness using a two-stage hypothesis test in an HIV treatment interruption trial: AIEDRP ... of biomarker data with informative missingness using a two-stage hypothesis test in an HIV treatment interruption trial: AIEDRP ...
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, et al. "The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol ... Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, et al. "The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis ... Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, et al. "The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis ... Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, et al. "The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis ...
  • Research is needed to provide ways to implement randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Indigenous communities using community-based participatory research (CBPR) practices and principles. (
  • Academic literature indicates a need for more integration of Indigenous and colonial research systems in the design, implementation, and evaluation of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with American Indian communities. (
  • Long-standing community-researcher relationships were critical to development, implementation, and evaluation of RCTs, although what constituted success in the 3 CBPR RCTs was diverse and dependent on the context of each trial. (
  • Intervention science highlights the need for the integration of Indigenous-based theories and knowledge systems, community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, and colonial scientific research strategies in the design, implementation, and evaluation of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with American Indian (AI) communities (1,2). (
  • Full reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled before-and-after studies of lifestyle interventions (diet, exercise, behaviour, environmental) published from 1990 onwards were eligible for inclusion in the review. (
  • Forty studies were included in the review: 39 RCTs and one controlled before-and-after study (sample size ranged from 200 to approximately 49,000 participants). (
  • 13 Reviews limited to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of peer counseling have found that lay support increases exclusive and nonexclusive breastfeeding duration. (
  • We evaluated trends in current randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating oligometastatic disease. (
  • We identified 43 RCTs trials addressing oligometastatic cancer. (
  • We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2016) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated interventions for nonnutritive sweeteners and prospective cohort studies that reported on consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners among adults and adolescents. (
  • Furthermore, the study supports that evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) does not clearly support the intended benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners for weight management, however, in interpreting the pooled analyses of RCTs, the authors failed to account for the nature of the comparator, as highlighted in a published response to this publication. (
  • Importantly, the selection criteria used for the meta-analysis of RCTs in this study led to the exclusion of several well-designed clinical trials that were included in previous thorough systematic reviews and meta-analyses. (
  • Within medicine, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the standard method for providing the evidence of effects. (
  • This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and describe RCTs investigating the effect of smartphone-based treatment in adult patients with a psychiatric diagnosis, (2) discuss methodological challenges in designing and conducting individual trials, and (3) suggest recommendations for future trials. (
  • Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion. (
  • What's at stake: The popularity of Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) in academia has led to an impressive increase in the amounts governments and international institutions spend on providing evidence from RCTs. (
  • Study selection Randomized controlled trials of LIPUS compared with sham device or no device in patients with any kind of fracture or osteotomy. (
  • Methods: In a randomized controlled, single-blinded pilot study, forty-two volunteers received SO, FO, or normal saline for two days. (
  • To identify subgroups of patients with chronic LBP who achieve medium to large treatment effects with OMT based on responder analyses involving pain and functioning outcomes from the OSTEOPAThic Health outcomes In Chronic low back pain (OSTEOPATHIC) Trial. (
  • 2-4] Small randomized controlled trials have also demonstrated significant benefits of using 90Y resin microspheres earlier in the treatment paradigm and our objective now is to investigate whether the addition of 90Y resin microspheres to current first-line standard-of-care chemotherapy could further improve the outcomes for patients with this disease. (
  • By randomly choosing the children who receive the milk, and comparing the outcomes of this "treatment group" with a "control group" (those that didn't receive milk), we can get a more accurate measure of the program's impact than if we were to simply compare the children's performance before and after they drank milk. (
  • He added: "Another, parallel approach would be to reduce the resource use in controlled trials, and to make use of modern IT based health and social records to collect information on death and severe cardiovascular outcomes, for example. (
  • The objective of this prospective, randomized study was to determine whether an advanced PCD (APCD) provides better outcomes as measured by arm edema and tissue water reductions compared to a standard PCD (SPCD) in patients with arm lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. (
  • A group of subjects are randomly assigned to treatment/intervention and control group and outcomes are measured prospectively. (
  • A randomized controlled graded exercise trial for chronic fatigue syndrome: outcomes and mechanisms of change. (
  • A total of 311 participants residing in Germany were randomly assigned to receiving (1) a pretest, the debiasing intervention and post-test (2), a pretest, a control stimulus and post-test (3), the debiasing intervention and post-test, or (4) the post-test only. (
  • None of the studies used random assignment of participants into study and control groups. (
  • Refers to an experimental research design in which participants are randomly assigned to a treatment or a control group. (
  • Randomized controlled trials of peer counseling interventions among low-income women in the United States showed increases in breastfeeding initiation and duration, but it is doubtful that the level of support provided could be scaled up to service WIC participants nationally. (
  • Collectively, these included 305 trials with almost 340,000 participants. (
  • A sub-set of the Barcelona site participants were randomly assigned to the walnut ( n = 80) or control group ( n = 69). (
  • In an 18-month weight-loss trial, 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia were randomized to low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC + 28 g walnuts/day) diets with/without moderate physical activity. (
  • They also included a group of healthy control participants (n=175), to compare baseline characteristics between healthy patients and SLE patients. (
  • Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and trial registries up to November 2016. (
  • The most trustworthy evidence came from four trials at low risk of bias that included patients with tibia or clavicle fractures. (
  • Design, Setting, and Patients: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) compared with UC in 17 primary care clinics in 4 US cities. (
  • Patients are randomized to receive either ranitidine or matching placebo bid for 16 weeks, with follow-up every 4 weeks through week 20. (
  • This randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial involving 455 patients in Dallas-Fort Worth was conducted from 2006 to 2011. (
  • Seventy-nine patients were randomized into study and control groups. (
  • Final analysis was done on 30 patients each of study and control group. (
  • Multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial based on the Iron (Fe) and Atherosclerosis Study (FeAST) (VA Cooperative Study #410) and conducted between May 1, 1999, and April 30, 2005, within the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program and enrolling 1277 patients with symptomatic but stable PAD. (
  • Patients were assigned to a control group (n = 641) or to a group undergoing reduction of iron stores by phlebotomy with removal of defined volumes of blood at 6-month intervals (avoiding iron deficiency) (n = 636), stratified by hospital, age, and baseline smoking status, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, ratio of high-density to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and ferritin level. (
  • We conducted a randomized, blinded controlled trial involving 10 patients with acute cerebral infarction (middle cerebral artery territory as documented by the admission MRI) who presented within 7 days of onset and whose scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were between 9 and 20. (
  • 5 In one clinical trial, 12 patients who had experienced chronic strokes affecting the basal ganglia received intracerebral transplantation of neurons generated from the human NT-2 teratocarcinoma cell line. (
  • All the patients will be randomized into two groups in First Visit: 1) Control group, and 2) Counseling group. (
  • Adult (from 18 to 70 years old) patients presenting for gallstone disease surgery (symptomatic cholelithiasis, according to the Rome criteria ) confirmed by ultrasound living less than 50 km from the hospital (the day-care protocol specifies that an adult must be available to accompany the patient home and stay there overnight) were considered for entry into the trial. (
  • The purpose of pilot trial is to compare the efficacy of lifestyle intervention, metformin intervention, lifestyle combined with metformin intervention in improving assisted reproductive technology in non-polycystic ovary syndrome(pcos) patients with overweight/obesity and insulin resistance compared with conventional clinical education. (
  • To our knowledge this is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial of angiotensin II blockade in these patients," said Dr. Ibrahim. (
  • ORLANDO, Florida, June 1 /PRNewswire/ -- The time to progression of disease in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases who have exhausted all chemotherapy options can be more than doubled through the use of radioactive resin microspheres, according to the results of a prospective randomized controlled trial presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). (
  • The proportion of patients with disease control following the combination treatment was also increased significantly from 35% to 85%, respectively (p=0.001), with one patient (5%) receiving 5FU plus 90Y resin microspheres having a sufficiently large reduction in tumor size to permit potentially curative surgical resection of the remaining disease. (
  • The encouraging results of this randomized trial confirm the findings from single-arm and retrospective studies of 90Y resin microspheres that have reported median overall survivals in the order of 10 to 13 months when used alone as salvage therapy for patients with liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer who have exhausted all chemotherapy options, said Dr Hendlisz. (
  • Prospective randomized study comparing intra-arterial injection of yttrium-90 resin microspheres with protracted IV 5FU continuous infusion versus IV 5FU continuous infusion alone for patients with liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy. (
  • Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: control and treated. (
  • Researchers found 32 trials looking specifically at the effect of exercise on pain and function of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee alone. (
  • Twenty randomized controlled trials have showed that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can walk farther and function better if they exercise. (
  • In trials, exercise even lessened fatigue in patients who were having therapy for cancer. (
  • A total of 27 trials comprising 3312 patients within a range of psychiatric diagnoses were included. (
  • In addition, 1 trial used a cross-diagnostic design, 7 trials included patients with a clinical diagnosis that was subsequently assessed and validated by the researchers, and 11 trials had a sample size above 100. (
  • One hundred and thirty-two patients with VA with HCV (mean age of 54.6, 95% men, 41% ethnic minority, 83% unmarried, 72% unemployed/disabled, 48% homeless in last 5 years) were randomized to either a 6-week self-management workshop or an information-only intervention. (
  • Treatment with antiviral medications eliminates the virus in many patients, [ 10 , 11 ] but lower success rates have been found outside of clinical trials. (
  • The pedicle widths ipsilateral to caudal C7 anomalies were compared to those of contralateral and matched controls.RESULTS: A total of 157 patients were identified with extraforaminal entries, with 25 having bilateral findings. (
  • neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, today announced that it has initiated dosing in the final patient in its randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 study in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease patients. (
  • This combined mechanism of action through PKC epsilon activation gave the Company the confidence to commit to these trials in moderate to severe patients," said Dr. Susanne Wilke , PhD., the Company's Chief Executive Officer. (
  • Of the remaining 12,354 eligible patients at each practice one-half were randomly assigned to receive a vaccination reminder by SMS (intervention) and the rest received no SMS (control). (
  • 15 - 17 We conducted a large randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of using SMSs to encourage seasonal influenza vaccination among a wide range of high-risk patients at family practice clinics. (
  • Forty-nine CFS patients were randomized to a 12-week graded exercise programme or to standard medical care. (
  • A new randomized controlled trial out of Egypt reports that vitamin D can reduce the incidence of flare-ups in patients with SLE. (
  • Dr Anna Abou-Raya, MD, PhD, and colleagues of the University of Alexandria in Egypt recently published results from a randomized controlled trial in which 267 SLE patients were randomized to receive 2,000 IU/day (n=178) vitamin D3 or a placebo (n=89) for 1 year. (
  • To start, mean 25(OH)D status at baseline for all patients with SLE was 19.8 ng/ml compared to 28.7 ng/ml in healthy controls. (
  • They call for larger trials to establish optimal vitamin D dosage for SLE patients. (
  • Abou-Raya A, Abou-Raya S, Helmii M. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory and hemostatic markers and disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosis: A randomized placebo-controlled trail. (
  • One recent study illustrates an example of such an intervention in which primary care patients with depression and poorly controlled diabetes, poorly controlled coronary artery disease, or both, received care management of multiple conditions at once. (
  • Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). (
  • Context: Improving the quality of mental health care requires moving clinical interventions from controlled research settings into real-world practice settings. (
  • Those randomized to such interventions in the hospital were more likely to be discharged to go home, and to spend less time in the hospital over all - and at a lower cost. (
  • A 2013 meta-analysis of meta-analyses (that's how much data we have) combined and analyzed the results from 16 reviews of randomized controlled trials of drug and exercise interventions in reducing mortality. (
  • A comparative study of ranitidine and quince (Cydonia oblonga mill) sauce on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in pregnancy: a randomised, open-label, active-controlled clinical trial. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of EN alone and ranitidine plus EN as SUP. (
  • The ability of the study EBM group to critically analyze the literature was compared with that of the control (non-EBM) group on the basis of results of a multiple-choice examination. (
  • Results: The median scores for critical analysis were 41 for the control group and 64 for the study group. (
  • STUDY DESIGN: This multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study randomized infants with persisting symptoms attributed to GERD to treatment with lansoprazole or placebo for 4 weeks. (
  • A randomized control trial to study the effect of integrated yoga on pregnancy outcome in hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. (
  • The mean systolic BP declined by 7.43 ± 5.86 mmHg in the study group as compared to 2.50 ± 5.21 mm Hg in the control group (p value 0.002). (
  • The mean diastolic BP prior to delivery was 88.00 ± 3.71 mmHg in the study group and 92.20 ± 5.02 mmHg in the control group (p = 0.001). (
  • One hundred and fifty children were randomized into each study group. (
  • The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. (
  • DOLCE Study: Day-care versus Overnight-stay Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy randomized, controlled trial. (
  • Evaluating alert fatigue over time to EHR-based clinical trial alerts: findings from a randomized controlled study. (
  • This study of an alert within an electronic medical record designed to encourage participation in a clinical trial is relevant for CDSS designers, as it quantifies the degree of alert fatigue. (
  • In 2014, the last year of the study, 13 new trials were introduced. (
  • This opportunistic sub-study was conducted within the Walnuts and Healthy Aging study, a dual-centre (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University, California) parallel trial. (
  • A meta-analysis is a statistical study that combines data from several clinical trials. (
  • One of the possible limitations of this study would be that currently most of the randomized trials have studied effect of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer and multiple myeloma and there are very limited studies on other forms of cancer. (
  • Study Design: Randomized controlled trials, cohort, and case-control studies. (
  • Study Design: Randomized placebo-controlled trials. (
  • Study Design: Case-control studies and prospective studies. (
  • Study Design: Many epidemiologic trials. (
  • However, in some cases other study designs (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional, case studies, etc.) can also provide information useful for clinical decision-making. (
  • If you look at the one study, only one clinical trial reported about the 23 versus 10 milligram Aricept. (
  • Given the dearth of evaluation studies on this type of workplace intervention, the team also set up a randomized controlled study on the program's effectiveness. (
  • This isn't a conclusion based simply on some cohort or case-control studies. (
  • However, the lack of randomized, placebo-controlled trials, or even large cohort studies, in addition to the inherent limitations of the reviewed observational studies with small statistical power, precluded safe conclusions. (
  • A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of adults with uncomplicated, acute rhinosinusitis were recruited from 10 community practices in Missouri between November 1, 2006, and May 1, 2009. (
  • Translating preclinical findings to humans, the investigators administered BCG, a generic vaccine, in a proof-of-principle, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adults with long-term type 1 diabetes (mean, 15.3 years) at one clinical center in North America. (
  • We searched the following databases up to the April 2017: Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase (from 1974). (
  • Online databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) will be systematically searched. (
  • Finding, interpreting, and applying information from individual randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews and meta-analyses to your clinical practice is a crucial part of evidence-based practice. (
  • Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on efficacy and safety of Lactuca sativa L. seeds on pregnancy-related insomnia. (
  • Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole in infants with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. (
  • We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of children hospitalized with acute watery diarrhea in Vietnam. (
  • This was a large double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which the probiotic underwent longitudinal quality control. (
  • In a prospective randomized clinical trial, 100 pregnant women with insomnia aged 20-45 years were assigned to receive capsules containing 1000 mg of lettuce seed or a placebo daily for two weeks. (
  • Results 26 randomized controlled trials with a median sample size of 30 (range 8-501) were included. (
  • Tackling the outcome bias related to the effectiveness of antibiotics against the common cold: results of a randomized controlled trial applying the Solomon four-group design. (
  • RESULTS: Of the 216 infants screened, 162 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were randomized. (
  • Select a Healthy People 2020 topic area to narrow your results. (
  • RESULTS FROM A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW (¿Es efectivo el entrenamiento en Neurofeedback para el tratamiento del TDAH? (
  • The overall results of 23 randomized controlled trials showed that exercise most likely improves the symptoms of depression. (
  • 2 The highest level of evidence in this system, and EBM in general, is the randomized controlled trial (RCT). (
  • We experimentally rule out left-bunching by randomizing wages for an identical task on Amazon Mechanical Turk, and fail to find evidence of any discontinuity in the labor supply function as predicted by workers' left-digit bias despite a considerable degree of monopsony. (
  • Tara Haelle ( @TaraHaelle ) is AHCJ's medical studies core topic leader , guiding journalists through the jargon-filled shorthand of science and research and enabling them to translate the evidence into accurate information. (
  • In the case of flossing's benefits, the supposedly weak evidence cited by the Associated Press was the absence of support in the form of definitive randomized controlled trials , the so-called gold standard for scientific research," he writes. (
  • So little RCT evidence exists "because the kind of long-term randomized controlled trial needed to evaluate flossing properly is hardly, if ever, conducted - because such studies are hard to implement. (
  • Contrary to the collective evidence from well-designed human trials showing that low calorie sweeteners' use in place of sugar can help in energy reduction and weight control, this systematic review by Azad et al. (
  • A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials is planned which would comprehensively summarize the current evidence of effect of bisphosphonates on cancer recurrence. (
  • In general, the highest level of evidence that can inform clinical practice comes from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews or meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. (
  • Parallel, blocked randomized trial, performed between February 2006 and November 2008, with computer-generated randomization and centralized allocation. (
  • The objective of this trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of a topical diclofenac solution in relieving the symptoms of primary osteoarthritis of the knee. (
  • OBJECTIVE In a randomized controlled trial, we could demonstrate clinical efficacy of neurofeedback (NF) training for children with ADHD (Gevensleben et al. (
  • This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. (
  • There were no differences between the intervention and control groups with regard to attitude and evaluation of the scenario. (
  • The authors propose solutions to reinvigorate industry investment in cardiovascular research including targeted drug development and evaluation in defined patient populations, and simplifying large randomised trials. (
  • The focus was on trial design, method, and reporting. (
  • Only trials having sufficient information on diagnosis and acceptable diagnostic procedures, having a smartphone as a central part of treatment, and using an RCT design were included. (
  • We conducted a randomized controlled trial of short message service (SMS) reminders for influenza vaccination. (
  • We designed a waitlist-control randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of HT in improving mental well-being and modulating biomarker levels. (
  • The effectiveness of integrated health information technologies across the phases of medication management: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. (
  • Future comparative cost and effectiveness studies with control of confounding are nevertheless needed to evaluate the impact of chiropractic care with or without usual medical care in these settings. (
  • This rationale is the same reason that it would be unethical to conduct a large-scale, long-term randomized controlled trial comparing vaccination according to the CDC childhood vaccine schedule with non-vaccination. (
  • We have developed ever more robust systems to conduct such trials, and are now faced with a total cost that seems prohibitive for some of the novel developments. (
  • and 3.6 million high school and middle school students now use e-cigarettes, according to U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data released late last year, NBC News reported. (
  • Randomized controlled trials on diet and shortening of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) mostly focus on marine-derived n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). (
  • Children meeting the inclusion criteria (acute watery diarrhea) were randomized to receive either 2 daily oral doses of 2 × 10 8 CFUs of a local probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus or placebo for 5 days as an adjunct to standard of care. (
  • Subjects who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomized to four groups: lifestyle intervention group, metformin intervention group, lifestyle combined with metformin intervention group, and routine clinical education group. (
  • Indeed, it is unlikely to be deemed ethical to randomly assign a group of people not to floss their teeth for a sufficiently long enough time to assess the benefits of the practice, Holmes writes, because "it's considered unethical to run randomized controlled trials without genuine uncertainty among experts regarding what works. (
  • The authors point out that the randomised controlled trial has transformed the practice of medicine and particularly of cardiovascular medicine. (
  • Treatment of osteoarthritis with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: a randomized controlled trial. (
  • Linear regression analysis showed that, after controlling for the other variables, the average sleep score of the experimental group was significantly lower than for the placebo group (p = 0.03). (
  • A total of 59 older adults was recruited, with 29 randomly assigned to the HT intervention and 30 to the waitlist control group. (
  • For the waitlist control group, significant reductions in plasma CXCL12 (SDF-1α) ( p = 0.003), CXCL5 (RANTES) ( p = 0.05) and BDNF ( p = 0.003) were observed. (
  • Although at 12 months there was no difference between the 2 groups in cerebral uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in the ischemic core, uptake in the area surrounding the core was significantly improved in the G-CSF group compared with the control group. (
  • The control group (n = 98) continued its regular mathematics program. (
  • We investigated whether inclusion of walnuts (15% of energy) in the diet for 2 years would maintain LTL in cognitively healthy elders (63-79 years old) compared to a control group (habitual diet, abstaining from walnuts). (
  • We assessed LTL at baseline and at 2 years and we conducted repeated-measures ANCOVA with 2 factors: time (baseline, 2 years) and group (control, walnut) and their interaction. (
  • Log-binomial regression models were used to calculate the relative risk (RR) of vaccination between the intervention and control group. (
  • At the end of treatment the exercise group rated themselves as significantly more improved and less fatigued than the control group. (
  • The intervention group (n = 76) underwent cognitive training twice a week for 45 minutes, and the control group (n = 71) attended day care as usual. (
  • After 12 months of therapy, the vitamin D group's mean 25(OH)D level increased to 37.8 ng/ml, compared to no change in the placebo group.In this randomized controlled trial, vitamin D levels, SLE disease activity, and markers of inflammation were all measured before and after treatment. (
  • Subjects were randomized to an APCD (Flexitouch system, HCPCS E0652) or SPCD (Bio Compression 2004, HCPCS E0651) used for home treatment 1 h/day for 12 weeks. (
  • Six subjects were randomly assigned to BCG or placebo and compared to self, healthy paired controls (n = 6), or reference subjects with (n = 57) or without (n = 16) type 1 diabetes, depending on the outcome measure. (
  • For example, and contrary to many claims in the applied literature, randomization does not equalize everything but the treatment across treatments and controls, it does not automatically deliver a precise estimate of the average treatment effect (ATE), and it does not relieve us of the need to think about (observed or unobserved) confounders. (
  • The authors of the review concluded that diet alone and with the addition of exercise and/or behaviour therapy demonstrated significant weight loss and improvement in metabolic syndrome and diabetes compared with no treatment control for at least two years. (
  • A statistical review of controlled trials of imipramine and placebo in the treatment of depressive illnesses. (
  • Endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis: evidences from randomized controlled trials and actual indications. (
  • The number of new trials examining treatment of oligometastatic disease has risen since 2011, signifying a paradigm shift in the local treatment of oligometastatic disease. (
  • Amoxicillin for acute rhinosinusitis: a randomized controlled trial. (
  • In reviewing critical appraisal on a graduate medical education level, Green 4 found only four studies in a search of databases covering 1973 through 1998 that met minimal methodologic standards (ie, a pretest-posttest controlled trial). (
  • Search the NCJRS Abstracts Database for resources on this topic. (
  • You can also search Pub Med for more abstracts on this, or any other health topic. (