Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Financial support of research activities.
Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Those individuals engaged in research.
The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.
Expectation of real uncertainty on the part of the investigator regarding the comparative therapeutic merits of each arm in a trial.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. ( accessed 6/12/2009)
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.
"A systematic review of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials examining the clinical efficacy of vitamin D in ... Emerging and Evolving Topics in Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis and Treatments. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. 26 ... Bolland MJ, Grey A, Gamble GD, Reid IR (July 2014). "Vitamin D supplementation and falls: a trial sequential meta-analysis". ... not the randomized clinical trials considered to be more definitive. Until such trials are conducted, the implications of the ...
... clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, and clinical pharmacology. The work is considered one of the ... The Heart Protection Study is a large randomized controlled trial by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in the United Kingdom. ... Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact The Canon of Medicine Author: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Publication data: The Canon ... "Evaluation Of Randomized Controlled Trials On Complementary And Alternative Medicine". International Journal of Technology ...
All the randomized clinical trials of TM for the control of blood pressure published to date have important methodological ... 19 November 2015). Singh, S; Ernst, E (2009). Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial. Corgi. "Barry Beyerstein Q&A ... Evaluation of the evidence from randomized controlled trials". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 (7): 1068-84. doi ... Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that hypnosis, relaxation, and meditation techniques can reduce anxiety, ...
Randomized controlled trial Blind trial Non-blind trial Adaptive clinical trial Nonrandomized trial (quasi-experiment) ... Clinical study design is the formulation of trials and experiments, as well as observational studies in medical, clinical and ... Some of the considerations here are shared under the more general topic of design of experiments but there can be others, in ... Shiel Jr., William C. (December 21, 2018). "Randomized control trial". Medicine Net. Retrieved June 4, 2019. "Are these data ...
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Psychosomatic Medicine. 76 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/psy. ... placebo-controlled trials examining the clinical efficacy of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis". Neuroepidemiology (Systematic ... Spector SA (Feb 2011). „Vitamin D and HIV: letting the sun shine in". Topics in antiviral medicine. 19 (1): 6-10. PMID 21852710 ... a trial sequential meta-analysis" (PDF). Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol (Meta-analysis). doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70212-2. ...
Stanbrook, Matthew B.; Austin, Peter C.; Redelmeier, Donald A. (6 July 2006). "Acronym-Named Randomized Trials in Medicine - ... placebo-controlled multicenter trial of combination METhotrexate and intramuscular GOld therapy in rheumatoid arthritis", " ... medical or health words that are not related to the topic of the study, such as ALIVE or RESCUE; and other English words not ... CALERIE ALMANAC PARAMOUNT trial JUPITER trial ASTEROID trial PROVE-IT TIMI 22 RECOVERY trial Lowe, Derek (18 July 2019). " ...
Clinical trials (including randomized controlled trials) have found MCT to produce large clinically significant improvements ... In 2018-2020, a research topic in the journal Frontiers in Psychology highlighted the growing experimental, clinical, and ... A Parallel Single-Blind Randomised Trial". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 7878. Bibcode:2020NatSR..10.7878C. doi:10.1038/s41598- ... In clinical practice, MCT is most commonly used for treating anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder, generalised ...
... systems can also be used in classroom settings to simulate randomized controlled trials (RCT) such as 'Live ... the Trial', a mock RCT used to teach the concepts of clinical research. The mock trial answered the question 'Do red smarties ... The fact that students can send responses anonymously means that sensitive topics can be included more readily than would ... "A Mock Randomized Controlled Trial With Audience Response Technology for Teaching and Learning Epidemiology" (PDF). Asia- ...
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials can provide strong evidence of the clinical efficacy of ... For example, results of an early-stage clinical trial would not be appropriate in the Treatment section on a disease because ... which can be useful when outlining a topic. Systematic reviews use sophisticated methodology to address a particular clinical ... The best evidence for treatment efficacy is mainly from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).[12] Systematic ...
A second randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled clinical trial gave schizophrenia patients various doses (5, ... Clinical trials using LY-2140023 have investigated its use as a therapy when administered alone and as an adjuvant therapy used ... Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 8 (16): 1480-1. doi:10.2174/156802608786264209. PMID 19006848. Fraley ME (June 2009). " ... In September 2013, the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the impact of adjunctive LY- ...
November 2004). "An open, randomized, controlled trial of penicillin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime for patients with severe ... Animals also present with similar clinical features when compared to humans. Clinical signs can appear in 5-15 days in dogs. ... systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials". International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 4 (5): 501-10. PMC ... Haake DA, Levett PN (25 May 2015). "Leptospirosis in humans". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 387 (387): 65-97. ...
... design Central composite design Clinical trial Clinical study design Computer experiment Control variable Controlling for a ... Quasi-experimental design Randomized block design Randomized controlled trial Research design Robust parameter design Sample ... The study of the design of experiments is an important topic in metascience. A theory of statistical inference was developed by ... trials and behavioral and social science experiments. In the field of toxicology, for example, experimentation is performed on ...
Discussion topics when setting up an experimental designEdit. An experimental design or randomized clinical trial requires ... Systematic clinical trialsEdit. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims ... Statistical controlEdit. It is best that a process be in reasonable statistical control prior to conducting designed ... James Lind carried out a systematic clinical trial to compare remedies for scurvy.[1] This systematic clinical trial ...
Although according to the evidence-based medicine consensus the randomized controlled trials are the gold-standard for medical ... Reviews are an overview of one particular topic of clinical interest in order to refresh the readers' memory, to enhance an ... "Medicine in Ancient Greece". Yitschaky O, Yitschaky M, Zadik Y (May 2011). "Case report on trial: Do you, Doctor, swear to tell ... Case reports may be of value in assessing unusual medical conditions that cannot be studied in clinical trials. Currently, most ...
interferon for hepatitis B e antigen-positive hepatitis B treatment: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Liver ... developed using viral vectors and a number of pharmaceutical proteins are currently in pre-clinical and clinical trials.[241] ... Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2008;325:263-79. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-77349-8_15. PMID 18637511. ... The German Open Safety Trial. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2007;14(11):788-96. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2007.00871.x. PMID ...
2015). "Probiotics for the prevention of allergy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". J. ... 2016). "Synbiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". JAMA ... "Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy". N. Engl. J. Med. 372 (9): 803-13. doi:10.1056/ ... a collection of resources on the topic of food allergies and intolerances ...
"Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: Is blinding necessary?". Controlled Clinical Trials. 17 (1): 1- ... A clinical trial could therefore receive a Jadad score of between zero and five. The Jadad scale is sometimes described as a ... A researcher conducting a systematic review for example might elect to exclude all papers on the topic with a Jadad score of 3 ... Oct 1999). "Assessing the quality of randomized trials: reliability of the Jadad scale". Controlled Clinical Trials. 20 (5): ...
A 2008 study of 146 meta-analyses concluded that the results of randomized controlled trials with inadequate or unclear ... As of 2016[update], sealed envelopes were still in use in some clinical trials. Modern clinical trials often use centralized ... Third, control of selection bias pertains to the trial as a whole, and thus to all outcomes being compared, whereas control of ... regardless of the study topic, whereas blinding after allocation is not attainable in many instances, such as in trials ...
Torgerson D (2015). "Stepped Wedge Randomized Controlled Trials". Trials. 16: 350. Retrieved 17 February 2017. "First ... "Design and analysis of stepped wedge cluster randomized trials". Contemporary Clinical Trials. 28 (2): 182-91. doi:10.1016/j. ... In 2016, the first international conference dedicated to the topic was held at the University of York. The Gambia Hepatitis ... Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial". Trials. 15: 269. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-269. PMC 4226979. PMID 24998242. ...
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 136 (4): 952-961. doi:10.1016 ... A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". JAMA Pediatr. 170 (3): 236-242. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3943. PMID ... "Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy". N. Engl. J. Med. 372 (9): 803-13. doi:10.1056/ ... a collection of resources on the topic of food allergies and intolerances ...
All placebo-controlled trials failed to demonstrate efficacy. It is concluded that the most reliable clinical trials do not ... randomized trial with partial crossover". J Anxiety Disord. 15 (4): 359-66. doi:10.1016/S0887-6185(01)00069-X. PMID 11474820.. ... Few controlled prospective trials of BFRs for psychological problems and pain exist. Our analysis of the four controlled trials ... Topics in homeopathy. Reference material. *Fragmenta de viribus. *The Organon of the Healing Art ...
... gene expression or chemical compounds and clinical trial IDs. For clinical trials, PubMed extracts trial IDs for the two ... largest trial registries: (NCT identifier) and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ... Clustering results by topics, authors, journals etc., for instance: Anne O'Tate;[36] ClusterMed;[37] ... "prevention and control"[Subheading] OR ("prevention"[All Fields] AND "control"[All Fields]) OR "prevention and control"[All ...
Hirakawa T, Suzuki S, Kato K, Gotoh M, Yoshikawa Y (August 2013). "Randomized controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training ... validated health-related quality of life questionnaires can become an integral part of clinical trials in determining the trial ... The understanding of Quality of Life is recognized as an increasingly important healthcare topic because the relationship ... Used in clinical trials and population health assessments. Suitable for pharmacoeconomic analysis, benefiting healthcare ...
Thus, psychologists also rely on creative statistical methods to glean knowledge from clinical trials and population data.[180] ... Although the field makes abundant use of randomized and controlled experiments in laboratory settings, such research can only ... Flowchart of four phases (enrollment, intervention allocation, follow-up, and data analysis) of a parallel randomized trial of ... practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental ...
... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 102 (4): 837-47. doi:10.3945/ajcn ... Bolland MJ, Grey A, Gamble GD, Reid IR (July 2014). "Vitamin D supplementation and falls: a trial sequential meta-analysis". ... "Topics in Antiviral Medicine. 19 (1): 6-10. PMC 6148856. PMID 21852710.. ... A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 29 (9): 670-687. doi: ...
Randomization Randomized block design Randomized controlled trial Randomized decision rule Randomized experiment Randomized ... clinical trials) Minimum chi-square estimation Minimum distance estimation Minimum mean square error Minimum-variance unbiased ... of graphical methods List of fields of application of statistics List of stochastic processes topics Lists of statistics topics ... Climate ensemble Climograph Clinical significance Clinical study design Clinical trial Clinical utility of diagnostic tests ...
... the EXCITE randomized clinical trial". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 296 (17): 2095-104. doi:10.1001/ ... systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 347 (20): f6234. doi:10.1136 ... Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation. 20 (3): 197-209. doi:10.1310/tsr2003-197. hdl:10044/1/32069. PMID 23841967.. ... a prospective controlled trial". Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation. 10: 85. doi:10.1186/1743-0003-10-85. PMC ...
Whereas randomized clinical trials usually only inspect one variable or very few variables, rarely reflecting the full picture ... with respect to more extensive studies such as randomized control trials), allowing them to act as a kind of rapid short ... Yitschaky O, Yitschaky M, Zadik Y (May 2011). "Case report on trial: Do you, Doctor, swear to tell the truth, the whole truth ... Most case reports are on one of six topics: An unexpected association between diseases or symptoms. An unexpected event in the ...
traditional exposure therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial". Trials. 17: 60. doi:10.1186/ ... of its budget to new clinical trials of psychotherapies (medication trials are largely funded by pharmaceutical companies), ... "Mental health and behavioural conditions - Guidance and guideline topic - NICE". Archived from the original on ... psychotherapy efficacy is best evaluated by randomized controlled trials or more individualized idiographic methods.[113] ...
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic* * User-Computer Interface Grant support * R01 LM009533/LM/NLM NIH HHS/United States ... Evaluating alert fatigue over time to EHR-based clinical trial alerts: findings from a randomized controlled study J Am Med ... clinical trial alerts (CTA) can improve participant recruitment to certain clinical research studies. Despite their promise, ... systematically documented the response patterns of 178 physician users randomized to receive CTAs for an ongoing clinical trial ...
A Randomized, Single Blind, Controlled Trial of Clinical Outcomes of Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane (dHACM) in Lumbar ... A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating Efficacy and Safety of Oral Nintedanib Treatment for at Least ... ASCI: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Phase II Multicenter Trial of a Monoclonal Antibody to CD20 (Rituximab) ... Please find clinical trials at HSS listed by the following topics or view the full directory. ...
Randomized controlled trials on diet and shortening of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) mostly focus on marine-derived n-3 ... Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Freitas-Simoes TM, Cofán M, Blasco MA, Soberón N, Foronda M, Serra-Mir M, Roth I, ... Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Topics. Healthy Aging. Source. ... parallel trial. A sub-set of the Barcelona site participants were randomly assigned to the walnut (n = 80) or control group (n ...
Comments should be on the topic and should not be abusive. The editorial team reserves the right to review and moderate the ... This combined mechanism of action through PKC epsilon activation gave the Company the confidence to commit to these trials in ... Neurotrope Completes Enrollment in its Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Bryostatin in ... news-releases/neurotrope-completes-enrollment-in-its-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-phase-2-clinical-trial-of- ...
A Randomized Blinded Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate Longeveron Mesenchymal Stem Cell LMSC Therapy for Treating ... SBC: ONEVAX, LLC Topic: NIAID Type Diabetes T D results from a breakdown of self tolerance that is characterized by immune cell ... result in inferior outcomes for patients The magnitude of this problem is now well appreciated from cooperative group trials ... SBC: Longeveron LLC Topic: NIA The metabolic syndrome MetS is a cluster of factors that increases the risks for cardiovascular ...
... placebo-controlled clinical trials of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. - Alan Menter, Mark Kosinski, Brian W Bresnahan, Kim ... 14964744 (Publication Type: Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Randomized Controlled Trial) ... Topics. *Adolescent. *Adult. *Aged. *Antibodies, Monoclonal (administration & dosage, therapeutic use) *Clinical Trials, Phase ... Results from three randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.. Abstract. The ...
The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in COPD patients. Thirty subjects were administered ... no statistically significant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment efficacy parameter levels either in the control ... Clinical trials to treat the underlying cause of emphysema.. *A B Cohen ... Presentations referencing similar topics. *Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD. Oct 17, 2017 ...
Clinical trials in British medicine 1858 - 1948, with special reference to the development of the randomised controlled trial. ... Randomized versus historical controls for clinical trials. Am J Med 72:233-40.. View. ... Topics. Essays. Records. Articles. ABOUT. What is a fair test?. About the Library. Building the Library. Using the Library. ... The n-of-1 randomized controlled trial: clinical usefulness. Our three-year experience. Annals of Internal Medicine 112:293-299 ...
Study Design: Randomized controlled clinical trials.. Internal Validity: Good.. Consistency: Good.. External Validity: Good.. ... the Womens Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291 (14): 1701-12, 2004. ... This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have ... confirmation of the association has been provided by randomized clinical trials using tamoxifen for breast cancer treatment and ...
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Messer K, Vaida F, Hogan C. "Robust analysis of biomarker data with informative ... missingness using a two-stage hypothesis test in an HIV treatment interruption trial: AIEDRP AIN503/ACTG A5217." Contemp Clin ... of biomarker data with informative missingness using a two-stage hypothesis test in an HIV treatment interruption trial: AIEDRP ... of biomarker data with informative missingness using a two-stage hypothesis test in an HIV treatment interruption trial: AIEDRP ...
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, et al. "The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol ... Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, et al. "The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis ... Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, et al. "The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis ... Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, et al. "The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis ...
In randomized, controlled clinical trials, the per-patient incidences of NCI-CTC. ... If you look at the one study, only one clinical trial reported about the 23 versus 10 milligram Aricept. The results were ... In randomized, controlled clinical trials, the per-patient incidences of NCI-CTC Grade 3-4 neutropenia and of febrile ... In randomized, controlled clinical trials, the per-patient incidences of NCI-CTC Grade 3-4 neutropenia and of febrile ...
In randomized, controlled clinical trials, the per-patient incidences of NCI-CTC. ... If you look at the one study, only one clinical trial reported about the 23 versus 10 milligram Aricept. The results were ... In randomized, controlled clinical trials, the per-patient incidences of NCI-CTC Grade 3-4 neutropenia and of febrile ... The also defines lanes confidential other control the you not than be Fonseca likely also need one the Vincent will then time ...
Antimitotic agents Product development Antineoplastic agents Clinical trials Corticosteroids Drug interactions Fluconazole Food ... placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in oral lichen planus.(Report) by Phytomedicine: International ... clinical+trial+of...-a0168513684,/a,. Citations: *MLA style: "A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of ... clinical+trial+of...-a0168513684. *APA style: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in ...
Subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy should be considered if usual treatments do not adequately control symptoms and in ... The search included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and reviews. Search dates: November 15, 2014 ... Effect of acupuncture in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Chin Med. ... and the MESH topics: "rhinitis, allergic, perennial/complications," "rhinitis, allergic, perennial/prevention and control," " ...
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic Public Health Interests. Clinical Trials; Data ... rationale and design of the OPTIMA trial. Controlled Clinical Trials 2003; 24(4):481-500. ... Clinical Trials as Topic; Epidemiologic Methods; Statistics as Topic; Multicenter Studies as Topic; Epidemiologic Research ... An open-label randomized clinical trial of novel therapeutic strategies for HIV-infected patients in whom antiretroviral ...
A method for assessing the quality of a randomized control trial. Controlled Clinical Trials 2: 31-49.. View. ... Topics. Essays. Records. Articles. ABOUT. What is a fair test?. About the Library. Building the Library. Using the Library. ... The controlled clinical trial: theory and practice. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1:353-367.. View. ... Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. I. Introduction and design. ...
main topic. Randomized double-blind controlled clinical trials with herbal preparations of Serenoa repens fruits in treatment ... Rösch W, Vinson B, Sassin I. A randomised clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a herbal preparation STW 5 with the ... Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: Is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials. 1996;17(1):1-12. ... STW 5 is the only HMP for which efficacy has been shown in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in functional dyspepsia ...
A Randomized Clinical Trial April 16, 2018 ... Education Combined with Cognition-Targeted Motor Control ... Cleveland Clinic-Led Trial Reveals Differences in Pain-Relieving Drugs When Combined with Aspirin April 16, 2018 ... Clinical Trials and Funding. *Industry. *All News. *Education*On Demand Education*Live Courses ...
A randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Circulation. 1988;78:92-103. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.78.1.92. ... controlled trial experience is sorely lacking to inform decisions about drug use. Such trials should be the primary focus of ... 83 and none has demonstrated reduction in clinical events. In a randomized, controlled trial of enalapril for exercise ... A randomized controlled phase IIb trial of beta(1)-receptor blockade for chronic degenerative mitral regurgitation. J Am Coll ...
... controlled phase 3 clinical trial.. To begin early 2015. Study 30. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind Phase I/II ... Contemp Clinical Trials 2007;28:288-94. Int J Tuberc Lung Disease 2008 Sep;12(9):1059-64. ACTG Rad 2010 Feb;17(2):157-62. Epub ... Randomized, open-label Phase III clinical trial of ultra short-course treatment of latent TB infection among contacts of active ... Randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial assessing impact on 2-month sputum conversion rate of substitution of ...
Treatment with Sildenafil Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Prediabetes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. The Journal of Clinical ... Comments should be on the topic and should not be abusive. The editorial team reserves the right to review and moderate the ... A new study published online in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism indicates that sildenafil may delay the ... A recently published trial indicates that it may be useful in prediabetes as well. cGMP increases insulin sensitivity and this ...
AND trial[title/abstract]) OR "controlled clinical trial"[publication type] OR "Randomized Controlled Trial"[Publication Type] ... KQ 1: Randomized and non-randomized controlled clinical trials; prospective cohort studies with concurrent control groups; ... Accessed on September 8, 2016. ... KQ 2: Randomized and non-randomized controlled clinical trials; cohort studies; case-control studies; systematic reviews ...
... clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, and clinical pharmacology. The work is considered one of the ... The Heart Protection Study is a large randomized controlled trial by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in the United Kingdom. ... Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact The Canon of Medicine Author: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Publication data: The Canon ... "Evaluation Of Randomized Controlled Trials On Complementary And Alternative Medicine". International Journal of Technology ...
All the randomized clinical trials of TM for the control of blood pressure published to date have important methodological ... 19 November 2015). Singh, S; Ernst, E (2009). Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial. Corgi. "Barry Beyerstein Q&A ... Evaluation of the evidence from randomized controlled trials". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 (7): 1068-84. doi ... Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that hypnosis, relaxation, and meditation techniques can reduce anxiety, ...
  • STW 5 is the only HMP for which efficacy has been shown in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, based on its multitarget effect on numerous etiological factors. (
  • Rösch W, Vinson B, Sassin I. A randomised clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a herbal preparation STW 5 with the prokinetic drug cisapride in patients with dysmotility type of functional dyspepsia. (
  • Prospective, Randomized, Blinded Phase 2 Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Study of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Levofloxacin in Combination with Optimized Background Regimen (OBR) for the treatment of MDR-TB. (
  • Lifitegrast clinical efficacy for treatment of signs and symptoms of dry eye disease across three randomized controlled trials. (
  • OBJECTIVE Report efficacy findings from three clinical trials (one phase 2 and two phase 3 [OPUS-1, OPUS-2]) of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% for treatment of dry eye disease (DED). (
  • CHF is currently funding one of the first scientific studies exploring these topics through Grant 2323: Efficacy of Cannabidiol (CBD) for the Treatment of Canine Epilepsy . (
  • The first SIMPLE trial tackled the safety and efficacy of 5-day and 10-day remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19 symptoms and results were published in The New England Journal of Medicine on May 27. (
  • Among other things, the book is known for the discovery of contagious diseases, and the introduction of experimental medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, and clinical pharmacology. (
  • Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data, including health-related quality of life (HRQL), from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) may be used to inform clinical decision making, health policy, and reimbursement decisions [ 1 ]. (
  • Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) initiated 50 years ago provide evidence that screening mammography improves breast cancer survival for women aged 60 to 69 years (solid evidence) and women aged 50 to 59 years (fair evidence). (
  • The evidence review team searched Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) database to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), clinical controlled trials (CCTs), systematic reviews/meta-analyses, and observational studies published and indexed between January 2007 and September 2017. (
  • Although there is an abundance of observational studies suggesting an association with CVD protection, the most well-controlled randomized human trial data available show no benefit of vitamin D on CVD. (
  • Results of this trial will determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an integrated approach to prenatal mental healthcare and the use of highly accessible computer-based psychosocial assessment and CBT on maternal, infant, and family-based outcomes. (
  • This is a pilot study to determine the feasibility for a randomized controlled trial of two forms of intrauterine contraception: the Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the Copper T 380A. (
  • MR889, a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (
  • Rifapentine-containing treatment shortening regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis: A randomized, open-label, controlled phase 3 clinical trial. (
  • A qualitative systematic review of electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS, with the topic index terms: "hydrotherapy," "homes for the aged or residential facilities," and "aged. (
  • A systematic literature search in MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials was performed. (
  • Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and trial registries up to November 2016. (
  • The study entitled "A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial" is available online and was presented at the American Society for Nutrition Annual Conference, Nutrition 2018 held in Boston in June. (
  • 2018). A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial . (
  • Preliminary results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) has found that aggressive lowering of systolic blood pressure produced significant reductions in the risk of MCI, and MCI/dementia. (
  • Emerging rehabilitation approaches for people with dementia encompass a variety of techniques (e.g., task-oriented training, strategy training, individualized goal development) and training methods(e.g., errorless learning) which make the direct translation to clinical practice unwieldy without a standardized approach for evaluating client-centred outcomes, planning individualized interventions and implementing training methods [ 3 ]. (
  • This is a paper about, in JAMA, Effective Intensive Versus Standard Blood Pressure Control on Probable Dementia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (
  • So we're going to be talking about the SPRINT mine trial, so the JAMA article that came out effective intensive versus standard blood pressure control on probable dementia. (
  • Results from three randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. (
  • Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with herbal preparations: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial. (
  • We'll be tackling five broad topics to provide you with an intuitive understanding of clinical research results. (
  • A study comparing the results of single, large, randomized trials to those of meta-analyses of smaller trials published earlier on the same topics showed only fair agreement (kappa statistic = 0.35). (
  • Subset analyses of randomized studies are subject to errors inherent in multiplicity (i.e., statistically significant results to be expected as a result of random variation of measured effects in multiple subsets). (
  • Biocon said the approval is based on the results from the successful conclusion of a randomized, controlled clinical trial at multiple hospitals in Mumbai and New Delhi. (
  • For postoperative nausea and vomiting, results from 26 trials showed acupuncture-point stimulation was effective for both nausea and vomiting. (
  • For chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, results of 11 trials differed according to modality with acupressure appearing effective for first-day nausea, electroacupuncture appearing effective for first-day vomiting, and noninvasive electrostimulation appearing no more effective than placebo for any outcome. (
  • 11 ], in a large multicenter randomized controlled trial, reported no difference between the two techniques in terms of clinically significant POPF, which is in contrast with results from previous meta-analyses [ 12 - 14 ], where it was suggested that PG was a safer and more effective method of reconstruction, with lower rates of POPF and other intra-abdominal complications and shorter length of hospital stay (LOS). (
  • Inadequate or poor-quality reporting limits the valid application of PRO findings in clinical practice [ 7 - 9 ] and can limit synthesis of trial results across studies, using meta-analytic or other synthesis approaches. (
  • Preliminary results from 673 participants in the trial revealed that total white matter lesion (WML) volume increased in both treatment groups, but the increase was significantly less in the intensive treatment group. (
  • The ability of the study EBM group to critically analyze the literature was compared with that of the control (non-EBM) group on the basis of results of a multiple-choice examination. (
  • Results: The median scores for critical analysis were 41 for the control group and 64 for the study group. (
  • Many large clinical trials involve several institutions, but the results may be reported by one coordinating group. (
  • Results 26 randomized controlled trials with a median sample size of 30 (range 8-501) were included. (
  • 2010) Impact of paper filtered coffee on oxidative DNA-damage: Results of a clinical trial. (
  • Gilead announced results from the phase 3 SIMPLE trial, which found that 5-day treatment with remdesivir in hospitalized patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms and pneumonia resulted in significantly greater clinical symptom improvement versus treatment with standard of care alone, according to a press release. (
  • The favorable results for improvement in clinical status through the 10-day treatment course of remdesivir versus standard of care approached but did not reach statistical significance. (
  • Today's results showed that when treating moderate disease, a 5-day course of remdesivir led to greater clinical improvement than standard of care, adding further evidence of remdesivir's benefit to previously released study results. (
  • (
  • This makes retrieval, interpretation, comparison, and critical appraisal of these types of studies complicated for consumers of trial results, who can be practicing physicians, researchers, or policymakers. (
  • The patients presented with moderate hypercholesterolemia between 5.5 and 8.0 mmol/L. The results of the trial showed that simvastatin had a lowering effect on mortality and morbidity of patients suffering from coronary heart disease. (
  • Outcomes of the large, randomized, controlled trials were not predicted accurately by the meta-analysis 35% of the time. (
  • 2001) Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. (
  • Study Design: Case-control studies and prospective studies. (
  • Therefore, subset analyses do not represent the same strength of evidence as the overall analysis of a randomized trial as designed unless explicit prospective hypotheses are made for the analyzed subset. (
  • 9 22 23 24 Eighteen years ago, we began a prospective study of clinical and noninvasive prognostication in regurgitant valvular diseases that included measurement of loads and performance, at rest and with exercise, allowing definition of load-adjusted variables. (
  • A prospective clinical trial which ran from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical evidence that tobacco smoking increases the risk of lung cancer. (
  • During a 36-week study period, we systematically documented the response patterns of 178 physician users randomized to receive CTAs for an ongoing clinical trial. (
  • This opportunistic sub-study was conducted within the Walnuts and Healthy Aging study, a dual-centre (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University, California) parallel trial. (
  • neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, today announced that it has initiated dosing in the final patient in its randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 study in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease patients. (
  • The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in COPD patients. (
  • Study Design: Randomized controlled trials, cohort, and case-control studies. (
  • Study Design: Randomized placebo-controlled trials. (
  • The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. (
  • If you look at the one study, only one clinical trial reported about the 23 versus 10 milligram Aricept. (
  • Study subjects were randomized to receive either placebo or curcuminoids at 2000 mg/day for 7 weeks. (
  • The first topics will look at research methods and the collection of data - with a specific focus on study types. (
  • Our study was a single blind, randomized controlled trial. (
  • A 3-month study involving 117 older adults (mean age 62) with diabetes found that 75g of nuts (½ a cup) a day, as a replacement for carbohydrate foods, can improve glycemic control and blood lipids in those with type 2 diabetes. (
  • Endpoints may also be determined within study designs of varying strength, ranging from the gold standard-the randomized, double-blinded controlled clinical trial-to case series experiences from nonconsecutive patients. (
  • The randomized, double-blinded, controlled, clinical trial (1i) is the gold standard of study design. (
  • Unfortunately, most clinical trials in oncology cannot be double-blinded after treatment allocation because procedures or toxic effects often vary substantially among study allocations in ways that are obvious to both the health care professional and the patient. (
  • None of the studies used random assignment of participants into study and control groups. (
  • The objective of this study is to review what is known about the topic, what questions remain unanswered, and where the research community should be focusing. (
  • One hundred six articles, including 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials, relevant to the study topic were identified. (
  • Study selection Randomized controlled trials of LIPUS compared with sham device or no device in patients with any kind of fracture or osteotomy. (
  • Clinical Outcomes and Modes of Death in Timothy Syndrome: A Multicenter International Study of a Rare Disorder. (
  • Factors Associated with First Thrombosis in Patients Presenting with Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome in APS Alliance For Clinical Trials & International Networking (APS ACTION) Clinical Database And Repository: a retrospective study. (
  • The study will be conducted in compliance with the International Council on Harmonisation (ICH) of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use/Good Clinical Pr. (
  • Controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children. (
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases' placebo-controlled study showed that remdesivir enabled more rapid recovery and that earlier treatment improved clinical outcomes. (
  • Our SIMPLE-Severe study showed that when treating patients with severe disease, 5 days of remdesivir led to similar clinical improvements as a 10-day course," said Merdad Parsey, MD, PhD, chief medical officer, Gilead Sciences. (
  • There are four groups in this study: Group 1 had 88 participants who received either the ChAdOx vaccine or a commercial meningitis vaccine as a control and who were followed up on at Days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56. (
  • This study will examine whether a larger scale study on this topic is feasible. (
  • We set this study to review the literature systematically, to identify the proposed trial designs, and to develop a classification scheme. (
  • In each eligible article, we identified the trial designs presented and extracted the term used for labeling the design, components of patient flow (marker status of eligible participants, intervention, and comparator), study questions, and analysis plan. (
  • Clinical trials showed halfway into the study that nearly 50 percent of people receiving Pomalyst responded rapidly (as in the MM stopped progressing) and 78 percent had a median surival time of between 3-6 months. (
  • Importance: Impact Randomized trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Authors: The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. (
  • Publication data: Lancet 1994;344:1383-1389 Description: The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (also known under the abbreviation 4S) is a multicenter clinical trial that was performed in the 1990s in Scandinavia. (
  • Importance: Impact Heart Protection Study Authors: Medical Research Council Online version: Research site Description: The Heart Protection Study is a large randomized controlled trial by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in the United Kingdom. (
  • Effects of an oral MMP-9 and -12 inhibitor, AZD1236, on biomarkers in moderate/severe COPD: a randomised controlled trial. (
  • The inconsistent effects of antibiotics in different (selected) populations call for more research into clinical signs and biomarkers that help identify patients who benefit from antibiotics and patients who experience no effect, and in whom downsides of antibiotics (side effects, costs and multi-resistance) could be avoided. (
  • Our review showed that a considerable number of labels has been proposed for trial designs evaluating prognostic and predictive biomarkers which, based on patient flow elements, can be classified into five basic categories. (
  • The classification system proposed here could help clinicians and researchers in designing and interpreting trials evaluating predictive biomarkers, and could reduce confusion in labeling and reporting. (
  • Prognostic biomarkers classify patients treated with standard therapies-including no treatment, if that is standard practice-into subgroups with distinct expected clinical outcomes. (
  • Valid and definitive evidence showing the clinical use of these biomarkers can be obtained by conducting well-designed clinical trials with adequate sample size ( 1-3 ). (
  • Following the recent dramatic developments in the technologies for identifying potential novel biomarkers and the huge increase in the number of claimed biomarkers, there has also been a great expansion in the number of trial designs proposed for validation of biomarkers for treatment selection purposes. (
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that electronic health record (EHR)-based, point-of-care, clinical trial alerts (CTA) can improve participant recruitment to certain clinical research studies. (
  • Eight of the studies were interventional/randomized controlled trials, and 11 examined general mental health issues. (
  • The summary includes a brief history of milk thistle, a review of the laboratory studies and clinical trials, and a description of adverse effects associated with milk thistle use. (
  • Human clinical trials have investigated milk thistle or silymarin primarily in individuals with hepatitis or cirrhosis, although small studies have been reported about individuals with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Methods We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search, examined bibliographies and literature reviews, and consulted with international experts on informed consent in order to identify studies published from 1966 to 2010 that used quantitative methods, surveyed participants or parents of paediatric participants in actual trials, assessed comprehension and/or voluntariness, and did not involve testing particular consent interventions. (
  • 4 Studies suggest that improved glycemic control reduces microvascular complications, 1, 5-8 but the impact on cardiovascular disease risk is less clear. (
  • A variety of endpoints may be measured and reported from clinical studies in oncology. (
  • Meta-analyses of randomized studies offer a quantitative synthesis of previously conducted studies. (
  • 2 ] Therefore, meta-analyses of randomized studies are placed in the same category of strength of evidence as are randomized studies, not at a higher level. (
  • Acupuncture for nausea and vomiting: an update of clinical and experimental studies. (
  • METHODS: We applied quality criteria to three large datasets of studies included in a variety of meta-analyses covering a wide range of topics and clinical interventions consisting of 216, 165, and 100 trials. (
  • In reviewing critical appraisal on a graduate medical education level, Green 4 found only four studies in a search of databases covering 1973 through 1998 that met minimal methodologic standards (ie, a pretest-posttest controlled trial). (
  • However, highly controlled nonhuman primate studies indicate a beneficial relationship. (
  • The panel decided to limit its search to English-language studies, but included foreign studies that provide an English abstract and are randomized controlled clinical trials. (
  • This second SIMPLE trial has added significant data to the growing body of evidence from prior studies demonstrating benefit of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. (
  • Moreover, previous studies have not assessed the prognostic capacity of load-adjusted LV performance ("contractility") variables, which may be fundamentally related to clinical state. (
  • The theme this time is the tendency of antivaccine activists to demonstrate their utter cluelessness when it comes to designing clinical studies. (
  • That's why doing such a trial would be completely unethical and we have to rely on the accumulated knowledge from epidemiological studies to determine whether vaccines are causing adverse outcomes. (
  • If you would like to find active studies please search for clinical trials . (
  • Finally, why does it take so long to conduct clinical studies. (
  • A handout on this topic is available at . (
  • of a tablet makes all the difference and barely gives me any side effects. (
  • Alirocumab Reduces Total Nonfatal Cardiovascular and Fatal Events in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial. (
  • The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial compared alirocumab with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum tolerated statin treatment, after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 18,924 patients. (
  • Adults (≥18 years) with DED were randomized (1:1) to lifitegrast 5.0% or matching placebo. (
  • Key Question 1: In adults age 18 or older with type 2 diabetes mellitus, what is the comparative effectiveness of these treatment options (see Tables 1 and 2 for lists of comparisons) for the intermediate outcomes of glycemic control (in terms of HgbA1c), weight, or lipids? (
  • Jeff : Well, I've been very interested for many years in the need to include older adults and the outcomes in clinical trials that are important to older adults like cognition, like physical function in clinical trials, in tests of therapy. (
  • Meanwhile, India has started a trial of BCG vaccine in older adults (60+) in order to check if disease severity is reduced upon infection. (
  • During the spring of 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) began planning for the development of clinical practice guidelines for VWD in response to the FY 2004 appropriations conference committee report (House Report 108-401) recommendation. (
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. (
  • The possible harms of repeated multimodal cancer screening programs were also assessed using data from the intervention arm of the randomized, controlled Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. (
  • and 3.6 million high school and middle school students now use e-cigarettes, according to U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data released late last year, NBC News reported. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • APS ACTION (Antiphospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking) International Clinical Database and Repository. (
  • Clinical trials showed that median overall survival for people getting Pomalyst was 13.7 months. (
  • As I mentioned the last time I discussed this, years ago (and sometimes even now ) antivaccinations would call for an actual randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled "vaxed versus unvaxed" clinical trial. (
  • This is the first-ever evidence-based presentation by NHLBI on this topic, and the first ever prepared in the United States. (
  • The Expert Panel members were selected to provide expertise in basic sciences, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, evidence-based medicine, and the clinical management of VWD, including specialists in hematology as well as in family medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, internal medicine, and laboratory sciences. (
  • There is good clinical evidence from more than 40 randomised controlled trials that acupuncture has some effect in preventing or attenuating nausea and vomiting. (
  • Improved reporting of PROs will enable accurate interpretation of evidence to inform patient choice, aid clinical decision making, and inform health policy. (
  • Over the last couple of decades, Ioannidis has arguably done more to reveal the shortcomings of the medical research enterprise that undergirds our treatments, revealing the weaknesses in the evidence base and how easily clinical trials can mislead, than any other researcher. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the empirical evidence for associations between a set of proposed quality criteria and estimates of effect sizes in randomized controlled trials across a variety of clinical fields and to explore variables potentially influencing the association. (
  • 2 The highest level of evidence in this system, and EBM in general, is the randomized controlled trial (RCT). (
  • The most trustworthy evidence came from four trials at low risk of bias that included patients with tibia or clavicle fractures. (
  • Due to the greater quality of the evidence, the decision was made that randomized controlled trials pertinent to the treatment portion of the model be the top priority for data abstraction. (
  • The SIMPLE trial incorporated hospitalized patients with COVID-19 showing evidence of pneumonia without reduced oxygen levels. (
  • The Drug Controller gave Biocon an restricted emergency use authorisation to try out and continue to treat Covid-19 patients and then do a phase IV trial to corroborate the findings. (
  • In a recent review of 794 trials that reported HRQL outcomes of biomedical interventions across a range of clinical areas, less than 60 % provided a rationale for the selected outcome measure or a HRQL hypothesis, 33 % did not discuss the HRQL findings within the context of other trials outcomes, and only 28 % provided information on missing HRQL data [ 10 ]. (
  • A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in oral lichen planus. (
  • A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. (
  • A double-blind comparative trial. (
  • Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind Phase I/II clinical trial assessing the safety and microbiological activity of Linezolid added to Optimized Background Therapy (OBT) for MDR TB or XDR TB. (
  • Randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial assessing impact on 2-month sputum conversion rate of substitution of moxifloxacin for isoniazid in standard intensive phase TB treatment regimen. (
  • This clinical trial is an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial comparing one dose of linaclotide to placebo. (
  • Josh Silverman , Chairman of the Company, added, "We are pleased with the investor response to our new management team and the excitement surrounding our upcoming clinical data. (
  • Finally, given the volume of available clinical data and the paucity of drugs developed solely for VHD, we will present animal or experimental data only when they importantly supplement clinical information ( Table ). (
  • Subphenotypes in acute respiratory distress syndrome: latent class analysis of data from two randomised controlled trials. (
  • Ultimately, 394 articles of randomized controlled trials were reviewed for data abstraction. (
  • These latter groups are the Phase II trial, who are being evaluated for how many in each group actually contracted the coronavirus (data not available yet! (
  • Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact The Canon of Medicine Author: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Publication data: The Canon of Medicine, 1025 Description: This fourteen-volume medical encyclopedia was the first of its kind and remained the most popular medical textbook in both Europe and the Islamic world up until the 17th century and continued to be in use as late as the 19th century. (
  • Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus Author: William Harvey Publication data: 1628 Description: The work in which Harvey explained the circulation of the blood. (
  • Targeted symptom control with immunotherapy and asthma evaluation should be considered when appropriate. (
  • The literature on the trial designs for evaluation of these markers is diverse and there is no consensus in the classification or nomenclature. (
  • Subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy should be considered if usual treatments do not adequately control symptoms and in patients with allergic asthma. (
  • Finally, a false-negative screening test may falsely reassure an individual with subsequent clinical signs or symptoms of cancer and thereby actually delay diagnosis and effective treatment. (
  • Three cancers were diagnosed because of clinical signs and symptoms. (
  • We now have 3 randomized, controlled clinical trials demonstrating that remdesivir improved clinical outcomes by several different measures. (
  • Their design often differs from the more conventional comparative clinical trials of interventions. (
  • The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated process of online psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for pregnant women compared to usual prenatal care (no formal screening or specialized care). (
  • These clinical trials are planned to evaluate biomarker-based treatment strategies. (
  • An Official American Thoracic Society/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice guideline: mechanical ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • What is/are the most important specific endpoint(s) you are comparing between the control group and the experimental group? (
  • 1 , 2 ] Meta-analyses performed by different investigators to address the same clinical issue can reach contradictory conclusions. (
  • Investigators at Colorado State University are completing a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial in dogs with uncontrolled epilepsy. (
  • Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II Investigators. (
  • 1-3 Management of type 2 diabetes is complex and involves recommendations for weight management and exercise, glycemic control using a variety of medications, and lowering co-morbid cardiovascular disease risk factors. (
  • This combined mechanism of action through PKC epsilon activation gave the Company the confidence to commit to these trials in moderate to severe patients," said Dr. Susanne Wilke , PhD., the Company's Chief Executive Officer. (
  • Across all measures, the proportion of patients that improved on both statistical and clinical criteria for meaningful improvement was at least twofold greater among efalizumab -treated patients than in placebo-treated patients. (
  • The rarity of the diagnosis of homozygous C and beta thalassemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies showed the necessity of studying clinical and hematologic aspects of the cases of this mutation in homozygosis carriers and the interaction with beta thalassemia in the anemias clinic of the Regional Blood Center in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. (
  • Patients were aged between 20-70 and their pain severity scale was 3-10 according to visual analogue scale of pain (VAS).They were randomly assigned in two groups of case (true laser) and control (sham laser). (
  • The health ministry has also recommended tocilizumab in its national clinical guidelines, which say the drug may be considered for patients with moderate disease and progressively increasing oxygen requirements and for mechanically ventilated patients who are not improving despite use of steroids. (
  • The SIMPLE trial found the 5-day remdesivir treatment arm to be 65% more likely to have clinical improvement compared with standard of care alone in patients with moderate COVID-19. (
  • The multi-center, open-label, randomized, phase 3 SIMPLE trial found that patients in the 5-day remdesivir treatment arm were 65% more likely to have clinical improvement at day 11 compared with patients receiving standard of care. (
  • In randomized, controlled clinical trials, the per-patient incidences of NCI-CTC Grade 3-4 neutropenia and of febrile neutropenia were higher in patients receiving trastuzumab products in combination with myelosuppressive chemotherapy as compared to those who received chemotherapy alone. (
  • The incidence of septic death was similar among patients who received trastuzumab and those who did not Sales of electronic-cigarettes could be halted if companies don't stop marketing the devices to youth, U.S. Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Dr. Scott Gottlieb warned. (
  • It's also worth noting in those figures that there were a couple of patients who started out with high antibody titers to the coronavirus - as the paper notes, there was not time to check everyone as the trial was enrolling, so they picked up some people who are already had the infection. (
  • The primary endpoint of the trial is the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) and the secondary endpoints are the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scale (NPI). (
  • Analysis of clinical features and early warning indicators of death from severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. (
  • To understand clinical features of confirmed cases from severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and to explore the early warning index of SFTS death. (
  • Conditional power calculations suggested a less than 2% chance that the curcuminoids group would have a significantly better outcome as compared with the placebo group if the trial were continued to completion. (
  • Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. (
  • Bibliographic search was carried out using LILACS and MEDLINE databases in reference to publications of clinical trials in the last 10 years. (
  • A unique search strategy was used for each of the three topics. (
  • Randomized, Phase II clinical trial assessing the antimicrobial activity and safety of substitution of rifapentine for rifampin in standard intensive phase TB treatment regimen. (
  • Randomized, open-label Phase III clinical trial of ultra short-course treatment of latent TB infection among contacts of active cases, using a 3-month once-weekly regimen of isoniazid and rifapentine, compared to standard 9-month daily therapy with isoniazid. (
  • Treatment with Sildenafil Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Prediabetes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. (
  • Dr. Barbara Alving, Acting Director of the NHLBI, gave the charge to the Expert Panel to examine the current science in the area of VWD and to come to consensus regarding clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and management of this most common inherited bleeding disorder. (
  • Identifying the optimal pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options (refer to the Pharmacologic Therapies for Pain Control section of this summary for more information), including referrals to specialists, if needed. (
  • The risk for treatment failure is significantly reduced in both inpatients and outpatients when all trials (1957 to 2012) are included but not when the analysis for outpatients is restricted to currently used antibiotics. (
  • Associations indicated that low-quality trials tended to overestimate treatment effects. (
  • Remember: Clinical equipoise means that there must be genuine uncertainty over which group in a clinical trial is receiving the superior treatment, and there is no doubt that leaving one group of children unvaccinated leaves them susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases and thus does them harm. (
  • 2 6 10 11 13 14 25 This finding has prognostic importance, 2 6 10 11 13 14 although its optimal application in clinical prognostication remains unclear. (
  • We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Methodology Register, and MathSciNet up to January 2013 for articles describing these trial designs. (
  • Likewise in 2014, the use of metoclopramide (MCP) and domperidone in functional GI disorders (FGID) was restricted, consequently leaving a therapeutic gap in clinical practice. (
  • The Office of Prevention, Education, and Control (OPEC) of the NHLBI coordinated the Panel. (
  • Physical activity for the elderly person is able to provide beneficial organic effects, including general well-being, preservation of independence, prevention of diseases, control of special situations (stress and obesity, for example), and a decrease in chronic pain ( 4 ) . (
  • True laser group received 12 sessions of laser (160 mw) and control group took 12 sessions of sham laser (the same laser instrument in off status). (
  • If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. (
  • This exploratory research finding should be confirmed in trials with adequate statistical power. (
  • 1-3 Multiple clinical guidelines and health-related organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding up to (or around) 6 months, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, 4 the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5 the World Health Organization, 6,7 and others. (
  • Clinical practice guidelines for assessment and management of iron deficiency. (
  • Quantitative Assessment of the Resistance Profile of Clinical Samples and the Relative Predictive Ability of a Resistance Index. (
  • Predictive factors for pain control (e.g., psychological distress). (
  • We applied laser to articular space of vertebral column, adjacent paravertebral points, pain radiating areas and tender points and also pain-controlling acupuncture points. (
  • A sub-set of the Barcelona site participants were randomly assigned to the walnut ( n = 80) or control group ( n = 69). (
  • Objective Some researchers claim that the quality of informed consent of clinical research participants in developing countries is worse than in developed countries. (
  • and (2) participants in developing countries appear to be less likely than those in developed countries to say they can refuse participation in or withdraw from a trial, and are more likely to worry about the consequences of refusal or withdrawal. (
  • Scientists at a medical school or large hospital, for example, might be better equipped to conduct complex experiments or have more experience with the topic. (
  • does not conduct or endorse clinical trials. (
  • The number of citations found by topic area is provided in Appendix I.A.2 . (