Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Edrophonium: A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Turbellaria: A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Accounting: System of recording financial transactions.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.United StatesPhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Caryophyllaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Ageratina: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of snakeroot is also used for POLYGALA; SANICULA; ARISTOLOCHIA and others.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Selection Bias: The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Programming, Linear: A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Housing, AnimalChoice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Great BritainDecision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Styracaceae: A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Liquidambar: A plant genus of the family HAMAMELIDACEAE. The sap is a source of storax, which should not be confused with the similar named STYRAX genus.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Polygonum cuspidatum: A plant species of the family POLYGONACEAE. Itadori tea is prepared from the root of this genus.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.

Analysis of gabapentin in serum and plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring. (1/13054)

A simple method for the determination of gabapentin (Neurontin) is described. The method uses solid-phase extraction by disk column and derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The single-step derivatization with MTBSTFA produces a t-BDMS derivative of both the carboxylic and amine moieties of the molecule. Each step of the procedure was optimized to assure reliable performance of the method. The assay limit of detection was 0.1 microg/mL with a linear range from 1.0 to 35 microg/mL. Within-run (n = 3) and between-run (n = 40) coefficients of variation were less than 8.2 and 15.9%, respectively. The method has proven reliable in routine production for more than a year, producing clean chromatography with unique ion fragments, consistent ion mass ratios, and no interferences. Statistical analysis of the gabapentin concentrations measured in 1020 random specimens over a 2-month period showed a mean concentration of 6.07 microg/mL with a standard deviation of 5.28.  (+info)

Progesterone alters biliary flow dynamics. (2/13054)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that progesterone alters sphincter of Oddi and gallbladder function and, therefore, bile flow dynamics. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although the effects of progesterone on the biliary tract have been implicated in the increased incidence of gallstones among women, the specific effects of prolonged elevation of progesterone levels, such as occurs with contraceptive progesterone implants and during pregnancy, on the sphincter of Oddi and biliary flow dynamics are still incompletely understood. METHODS: Adult female prairie dogs were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous implants containing either progesterone or inactive pellet matrix only. Hepatic bile partitioning and gallbladder emptying were determined 14 days later using 99mTc-Mebrofenin cholescintigraphy. RESULTS: Significantly less hepatic bile partitioned into the gallbladder in progesterone-treated than in control animals. The gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly reduced from 73+/-6% in controls to 59+/-3% in the progesterone-treated animals. The rate of gallbladder emptying was significantly reduced from 3.6+/-0.3%/minute to 2.9+/-0.1%/minute. CONCLUSIONS: Progesterone administered as subcutaneous implants alters partitioning of hepatic bile between gallbladder and small intestine and, therefore, gallbladder filling. Progesterone also significantly impairs gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin. The effects of progesterone on the sphincter of Oddi and the gallbladder may contribute to the greater prevalence of gallstones and biliary motility disorders among women.  (+info)

Protective effect of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in baboon sepsis is related to its antibacterial, not antiendotoxin, properties. (3/13054)

OBJECTIVE AND SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The recombinant fragment of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, rBPI21, has potent bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacteria as well as antiendotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) action. On the basis of these activities, the authors sought to discover whether rBPI21 would be protective in baboons with live Escherichia coli-induced sepsis and whether the potential protective effects of rBPI21 (together with antibiotics) would be more closely related to its antibacterial or LPS-neutralizing effects. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled subchronic laboratory study, the efficacy of rBPI21 or placebo was studied over 72 hours in chronically instrumented male baboons infused with live E. coli under antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Intravenous rBPI21 attenuated sepsis-related organ failure and increased survival significantly. Bacteremia was significantly reduced in the rBPI21 group at 2 hours after the start of the E. coli infusion, whereas circulating LPS was less affected. The in vivo formation of tumor necrosis factor was significantly suppressed by the rBPI21 treatment regimen. Microcirculation and organ function were improved. CONCLUSIONS: In baboon live E. coli sepsis, the salutary effect of rBPI21 results from a more prevalent antibacterial than antiendotoxin activity.  (+info)

Health at work in the general practice. (4/13054)

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health and high stress levels have been reported in staff working in general practice. Little is known about how practices are tackling these and other issues of health at work in the absence of an established occupational healthcare service. AIM: To establish the extent of knowledge and good practice of health at work policies for staff working in general practice. METHOD: Practice managers in 450 randomly selected general practices in England were interviewed by telephone, and the general practitioner (GP) with lead responsibility for workplace health in the same practice was surveyed by postal questionnaire. We surveyed the existence and implementation of practice policies, causes and effects of stress on practice staff, and agreement between practice managers and GPs on these issues. RESULTS: Seventy-one per cent of GPs and 76% of practice managers responded, with at least one reply from 408 (91%) practices and responses from both the practice manager and GPs from 252 (56%) practices. Seventy-nine per cent of practices had a policy on monitoring risks and hazards. The proportion of practices with other workplace health policies ranged from 21% (policy to minimize stress) to 91% (policy on staff smoking). There was a tendency for practices to have policies but not to implement them. The three causes of stress for practice staff most commonly cites by both GP and practice manager responders were 'patient demands', 'too much work', and 'patient abuse/aggression'. Sixty-five per cent of GPs felt that stress had caused mistakes in their practices. Although there was general agreement between the two groups, there was a considerable lack of agreement between responders working in the same practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed substantial neglect of workplace health issues with many practices falling foul of health and safety legislation. This report should help general practices identify issues to tackle to improve their workplace health, and the Health at Work in the NHS project to focus on areas where their targeted help will be most worthwhile.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (5/13054)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone improves reproductive performance of dairy cows with slow involution of the reproductive tract. (6/13054)

Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at calving to receive either 100 microg of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP). From 4 to 28 d PP the cows' reproductive organs were palpated weekly per rectum, and cows were subclassified within each group as undergoing slow (delayed) cervical and uterine involution (abnormal) or as normal cows. Last milk obtained after removing the milking machine was assayed for progesterone 3 times a week for 120 d PP. Fourteen of the 80 cows were removed from the experiment because of culling or various veterinary treatments of pathologic conditions that could confound analysis of the GnRH treatment effects. As expected, the treatment of normal cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the first estrous cycle PP, on services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait measured. However, in the abnormal group of cows receiving saline, first rebreeding after calving was delayed (81 vs. 67 d), fewer were pregnant by 105 d PP (23 vs. 64%), and number of days open was greater (121 vs. 87 d) compared with those receiving GnRH; all were significant (P<.05). Treated abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH given 13 to 14 d PP to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive system, but with no other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal reproductive function. Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced.  (+info)

An estimation of the requirement for folic acid in gestating sows: the metabolic utilization of folates as a criterion of measurement. (7/13054)

Sows at their second parity were randomly distributed in five groups of seven animals each to determine the dietary concentration of folic acid that optimizes the metabolic utilization of the vitamin during gestation. The groups differed by dietary supplement of folic acid: 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 ppm. Sows were fed 2.5 kg of diet each day. The response of serum folates and folate binding capacity to treatments and the excretion of urinary folates after an i.v. injection of folic acid were measured. The total daily excretion of urinary folates was corrected according to the response to one i.v. injection of saline on the day preceding the i.v. injection of folic acid. The decrease of total serum folates throughout gestation was less pronounced in the groups fed 15 and 20 ppm of dietary folic acid (supplement x period interaction, P<.06) than it was in the other three treatments. The proportion of i.v. folic acid not recovered in sow urine (injected - excreted) decreased as the amount of dietary folic acid increased to reach a minimum, which differed according to the period (supplement x period interaction, P<.02); it was 15 ppm during wk 1 of gestation and 10 ppm for the other periods studied. The unrecovered folates increased over a dietary concentration of 15 ppm. These minimum values correspond to the most appropriate feed concentration that covered the whole body utilization (tissue and cell metabolism, catabolism, and storage) of folates by the sows and could be interpreted as a reliable index of the requirement.  (+info)

Risk factors for lower airway bacterial colonization in chronic bronchitis. (8/13054)

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for lower airway bacterial colonization (LABC) in stable chronic bronchitis (CB). Forty-one outpatients with CB were enrolled in the study (age 63.8+/-9.1 yrs (mean+/-SD); forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) 62.8+/-11.2; current/former smokers 24/17). All patients had normal chest radiographs and an indication for performing fibreoptic bronchoscopy (pulmonary nodule, remote haemoptysis). The protected specimen brush (PSB) was used for bacterial sampling, and concentrations > or = 1,000 colony-forming units (cfu) x mL(-1) were considered positive for LABC. The repeatability of the procedure in CB was assessed in a random subsample of 18 subjects. A 72.2% quantitative agreement was found in the repeatability assessment of the PSB technique. Positive PSB cultures, obtained in 9 out of 41 (22%) patients, mainly yielded Haemophilus influenzae. The logistic regression model, used to determine which variables were related to colonization, showed that LABC was associated with current smoking (odds ratio (OR) 9.83, confidence interval (CI) 1.16-83.20) and low FVC (OR 0.73, CI 0.65-0.81). Age and FEV1 were not related to LABC. It was concluded that the prevalence of LABC in stable CB is high (22%), and current smoking is an important risk factor.  (+info)

Definition of random allocation in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of random allocation. What does random allocation mean? Information and translations of random allocation in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
k2 wistar male pooled rat whole blood edta k2 wistar male pooled | order k2 wistar male pooled rat whole blood edta k2 wistar male pooled | How to use: k2 wis
Solved: I would like to have my SAS statement checked (mainly the random error). I have a randomized complete block design; lambs were separated by
hi guys, im searching for a source code(written in c) for bankers algorithm simulation with RANDOM ALLOCATION. does anybody of u know where can i find this(the program should be in c-language,..no...
The following examples demonstrate how you can use the ANOVA procedure to perform analyses of variance for a one-way layout and a randomized complete block design. ...
Lot Numbers: 3263B EXP 2/1/02, 3237B EXP 3/1/02, 3238B EXP 3/1/02, 3825A EXP 6/1/01, 3826A EXP 6/1/01, 3827A EXP 6/1/01, 3828A EXP 6/1/01, 3829A EXP 7/1/01, 4190A EXP 9/1/01, 4191A EXP 9/1/01, 4192A EXP 9/1/01, 8005A EXP 2/1/01, 8006A EXP 2/1/01, and 8014A EXP 3/1/01.. MANUFACTURER ...
The present study conducted to investigate the effect of energy sources and levels on performance and breast meat amino acids profile in Cobb 500 broiler chicks. A total of 600 1-day-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks with an average weight of 39 ± 0.50 g were randomly divided into five treatments. Each treatment was further divided into four replicates. Chicks were fed a basal diet based on corn and energy level was same as Cobb 500 manual as control group, the basal diet with 3% lesser energy than control (T1), the basal diet with 6% lesser energy than control (T2), the basal diet based on corn and fat level according to Cobb 500 instruction manual (T3), the basal diet based on corn and fat with 3% upper energy (T4) for 42 days. Results showed that the best and the worst performance were for T4 and T2, respectively. Also, feed intake of chicks increased significantly in T4. Body weight gain was also significantly higher in the treated group with the basal diet based on corn and fat with 3% upper energy (T4)
A total of 216 pigs (initially 11.7 Ib and 21 d of age) was used in a 35-,1 growth trial to determine the effect of dietary L-carnitine on growth performance and tissue accretion rates for the early-weaned pig when fed a ...
Mendelian randomization refers to the random allocation of alleles at the time of gamete formation. In observational epidemiology, this refers to the use of genetic variants to estimate a causal effect between a modifiable risk factor and an outcome of interest. In this review, we recall the principles of a
This package contains several utility functions related to incomplete block designs. The package contains function to generate efficient incomplete block designs with given numbers of treatments, blocks and block size. The package also contains function to generate an incomplete block design with specified concurrence matrix. There are functions to generate balanced treatment incomplete block designs and incomplete block designs for test versus control treatments comparisons with specified concurrence matrix. Package also allows performing analysis of variance of data and computing least square means of factors from experiments using a connected incomplete block design. Tests of hypothesis of treatment contrasts in incomplete block design set up is supported.. ...
Nonparametric procedures based on aligned method and placement for ordered alternatives in randomized block design - aligned method;nonparametric procedures;ordered alternatives;placement;randomized block design;
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary l-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also producesTMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of l-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma l-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary l-carnitine supplementation in mice altered ...
This experiment evaluated the impacts of supplementing a yeast-derived product (Celmanax; Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA) on productive and health responses of beef steers, and was divided into a preconditioning (days 4 to 30) and feedlot receiving phase (days 31 to 69). In all, 84 Angus × Hereford steers were weaned on day 0 (BW=245±2 kg; age=186±2 days), and maintained in a single group from days 0 to 3. On day 4, steers were allocated according to weaning BW and age to a 21-pen drylot (4 steers/pen). Pens were randomly assigned to (n=7 pens/treatment): (1) no Celmanax supplementation during the study, (2) Celmanax supplementation (14 g/steer daily; as-fed) from days 14 to 69 or (3) Celmanax supplementation (14 g/steer daily; as-fed) from days 31 to 69. Steers had free-choice access to grass-alfalfa hay, and were also offered a corn-based concentrate beginning on day 14. Celmanax was mixed daily with the concentrate. On day 30, steers were road-transported for 1500 km (24 h). ...
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Two feeding trials with 138 crossbred pigs with an average initial weight of 129 pounds were conducted to determine the effects of limit feeding on average daily gain, feed efficiency and carcass measurements. Pigs were ...
We give a unified treatment of the limit, as the size tends to infinity, of random simply generated trees, including both the well-known result in the standard case of critical Galton-Watson trees and similar but less well-known results in the other cases (i.e., when no equivalent critical Galton-Watson tree exists). There is a well-defined limit in the form of an infinite random tree in all cases; for critical Galton-Watson trees this tree is locally finite but for the other cases the random limit has exactly one node of infinite degree. The random infinite limit tree can in all cases be constructed by a modified Galton-Watson process. In the standard case of a critical Galton-Watson tree, the limit tree has an infinite spine, where the offspring distribution is size-biased. In the other cases, the spine has finite length and ends with a vertex with infinite degree. A node of infinite degree in the limit corresponds to the existence of one node with very high degree in the finite random trees; in
The big difference between the statistics on this table and a normal ANOVA is the grouping of variance terms into a Whole-plot section for the HTC factors and a subplot section for ETC factors. However, for this design, there are no Whole-Plot terms selected. In other words, there are no terms consisting of just A, B, and C that are significant. There are terms involving A, B, and C, but they are always interacting with the frosting mixture and frosting amount (G) terms and are thus part of the subplot. Thats somewhat expected, because in a split-plot design, the subplot terms (and their interactions) have more power and can be detected more easily. In fact, these subplot interactions can often make up for a lack of power for the HTC factors.. Looking at the subplot as a whole, the model has a quite significant F value (p-value of ,0.0001). Most of the terms are also significant (at the 0.05 alpha level) or needed for hierarchy. For example, the insignificant term ABE is needed for the ...
Please help me solve this problem and explain how you get to the answer. Thank you. A local dealership currently has 36 used GM, Ford, and Toyota vehicles on the lot. The following data are available: - Twenty six vehicles are.
Apparently yeast washing/rinsing is beneficial but not in the way we thought. Pouring the liquid portion off and keeping ALL of the thick slurry is what we should be aiming for. With equal distribution of live yeast throughout the various layers, we are pouring off a great deal of live yeast by trying to keep…
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Degenerate quadratically-constrained quadratic programs and l sub p-constrained l sub p-approximation problems are defined and investigates within the framework of extended geometric programming. (Author)(*QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING
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... from ischemia-reperfusion (We/R) damage. anesthetic gas monitor (Datex Capnomac Ultima Department of Instrumentarium Corp Helsinki Finland). The respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain partial pressure of carbon dioxide within physiologic limits (end-tidal carbon dioxide 35 mmHg). After exposure of the heart a 6.0 silk ligation suture was looped round the LAD for subsequent occlusion. The ligature success of the LAD was judged by a color switch at the area at risk (AAR) which was further confirmed by a QRS wave switch during electrocardiography (ECG). Ultrastructure examination Thirty minutes after reperfusion the rat hearts were removed. Two samples of new myocardial tissue (approximately 1 mm3 in size) were obtained 3 mm above the apex from your AAR of the left ventricle (LV). The tissues were fixed with 5% glutaraldehyde overnight at 4 °C washed 3 times with phosphate-buffered saline and fixed again ...
Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats at the age of eight weeks with a mean weight of 275±35 g were included in the study. Subjects were divided into four groups with eight rats in each group: group 1: controls (C), group 2: radiation-only (RT), group 3: radiation plus royal jelly 50 mg/kg (RT+RJ50) and group 4: royal jelly 50 mg/kg-only (RJ50). Radiotherapy was applied to the head and neck area by single fraction at a dose of 22 Gy. The royal jelly was given once daily for seven days. The subjects were sacrificed on the seventh day of the study. Trace elements in blood samples were measured using ICP/MS method ...
THE POTENTIAL INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF THE COMMERCIAL DIETS ON PROTEASE ACTIVITIES OF Dentex dentex LARVAE AND LIVE FOODS, Mehmet NAZ
Menu location: Analysis_Randomization_Blocks. This function randomizes n individuals into k treatments, in blocks of size m.. Randomization reduces opportunities for bias and confounding in experimental designs, and leads to treatment groups which are random samples of the population sampled, thus helping to meet assumptions of subsequent statistical analysis (Bland, 2000).. Random allocation can be made in blocks in order to keep the sizes of treatment groups similar. In order to do this you must specify a sample size that is divisible by the block size you choose. In turn you must choose a block size that is divisible by the number of treatment groups you specify.. An advantage of small block sizes is that treatment group sizes are very similar. A disadvantage of small block sizes is that it is possible to guess some allocations, thus reducing blinding in the trial. An alternative to using large block sizes is to use random sequences of block sizes, which can be done in StatsDirect by ...
S9 did not influence the MIT metabolism as the cells number were within the similar range as cells in white rabbit kratom effects negative control groups or positive control group and the RSG values were high and not much different with other groups. Interestingly in the absence of S9 MIT showed dose-dependant Kratom Withdrawal Chest […]. ...
H&E and PAS staining of a normal fundus.H&E (A) and PAS staining (B) of a normal fundus of an animal from the negative control group (original magnifica
A maximum of 56 healthy adult (male and female) subjects will participate in this study, in two stages. In Stage 1, the Single-Ascending Dose (SAD) phase of the study will have up to six cohorts with 4 subjects (3 receiving TKM-100201 and 1 receiving saline placebo) in each cohort. Additional cohorts may be enrolled if a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not established after the initial six cohorts. In Stage 2, the Multiple-Ascending Dose (MAD) portion of the study will have up to three cohorts with four subjects (3 receiving TKM-100201 and 1 receiving saline placebo) in each cohort. Additional cohorts may be enrolled if a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not established after the initial three cohorts ...
A maximum of 56 healthy adult (male and female) subjects will participate in this study, in two stages. In Stage 1, the Single-Ascending Dose (SAD) phase of the study will have up to six cohorts with 4 subjects (3 receiving TKM-100201 and 1 receiving saline placebo) in each cohort. Additional cohorts may be enrolled if a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not established after the initial six cohorts. In Stage 2, the Multiple-Ascending Dose (MAD) portion of the study will have up to three cohorts with four subjects (3 receiving TKM-100201 and 1 receiving saline placebo) in each cohort. Additional cohorts may be enrolled if a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not established after the initial three cohorts ...
Take the B D current of good medium force and give general tonic treatment (see page 95) on alternate days ten minutes passing briefly over the several parts.
At Spark Health, we tailor our supplement treatments specifically to a patients needs based on their symptoms and labs results. There is no generic or one-size-fits-all plan. This is why we strive to address and understand each patients individual picture of health to help treat.... ...
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Vol 9: Observation of linear and quadratic magnetic field-dependence of magneto-photocurrents in InAs-GaSb superlattice.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This is a Startup entry, not a running process - although it may be visible in Task Manager (CTRL+ALT+DEL) if it continues running after startup. Before ending a process via CTRL+ALT+DEL just because it is listed as an "X", please check whether its actually set to start using MSCONFIG or another tool ...
Five ruminally cannulated steers (464 ± 26 kg BW) consuming low-quality forage (5% CP; 78% NDF; DM basis) were used in an incomplete 5 × 4 Latin square with four 18-d periods to determine the influence of supplemental N source and supplementation frequency (SF) on ruminal fermentation dynamics. Treatments (TRT), arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with a negative control (CON), consisted of no supplemental CP and daily (D) or every-other-day (2D) provision of supplements in which SBM or urea was the primary source of supplemental CP. Urea supplements were provided to meet 100% of the degradable intake protein requirement while SBM supplements were provided on an isonitrogenous basis. The D TRT were provided CP at 0.04% of BW/day while 2D TRT were provided CP at 0.08% of BW every-other-day. Therefore, all supplemented TRT received an equal quantity of supplemental CP over a 2-d period. Ruminal indigestible ADF (IADF) passage rate and NH3-N increased (P , 0.04) with supplemental CP on the day all ...
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability all over the world. Ischemic stroke results from a temporary or permanent reduction of cerebral blood flow that leads to functional and structural damage in different brain regions. Despite decades of intense research, the beneficial treatment of stroke remains limited. In light of this, the search for effective means ameliorating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) is one of the major problems of experimental medicine and biology. Recently, the 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO, a key enzyme metabolizing arachidonic acid to produce leukotrienes) inhibitors have been showed to protect brain against ischemic damage in animal model of cerebral ischemia. Caffeic acid, an inhibitor of 5-LO, is a phenolic compound widely distributed in medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeic acid on global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study was carried out on 45 rats that were randomly divided into five groups:
The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal micro-flora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.9 x 10(8) cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY ...
Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broilers Fed Low-protein Diets Supplemented with Various Ratios of Threonine to Lysine - Ratio of Threonine to Lysine;Broilers;Low-protein Diets;
Abstract: The dynamics of changes in the mitochondrial respiratory function, changes in the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism and some parameters of oxidative stress in the brain tissue have been investigated under conditions of ischemia-reperfusion and administration of dihydroquercetin. Dihydroquercetin (65 mg/kg) was administered per os 1 h before modeling of ischemia-reperfusion. Studies were carried 1 h after reperfusion. It was found that administration of dihydroquercetin caused a corrective effect to impairments of the respiratory function of mitochondria, indicators of carbohydrate metabolism and parameters of oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion ...
Interpretive Summary: Transportation and translocation stresses predispose newly-received feedlot calves to infection, which may increase the metabolic demand for branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of supplemental BCAA on growth and health of newly-received feedlot steers. Our results demonstrated that BCAA supplementation may improve the adaptive immune response and efficiency of gain in newly-received feedlot calves. Technical Abstract: Supplemental branched-chain AA (BCAA) improved N balance of steers during a simulated pathogen challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental BCAA on growth and health of newly-received feedlot steers. Steers (n = 120; initial BW = 376 ± 5 kg) were blocked by BW and assigned to 12 pens and 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were no supplemental AA (CON) and rumen-protected BCAA, which was top-dressed to a receiving diet that was fed for ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Two trials were conducted to evaluate the potential benefit of supplemental LA on growth, feed conversion, and health status of neonatal pigs. For both trials, gilts were weaned at 21 d of age and treatments were administered orally for 11 d. On d 11, gilts were nonsurgically fitted with jugular cannulae. On d 12, gilts received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ug/kg) intravenously. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 30 min prior to and 180 min after LPS to monitor serum glucose, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. Trial 1 consisted of 18 gilts (6.74+/0.63 kg) allotted to 3 treatments: 1) no supplemental LA (CON, n=6); 2) LA1, 35 mg/kg BW daily (n=6); 3) LA2, 75 mg/kg BW daily (n=6). ADG (p,0.05) and average daily feed intake (p,0.05) were greater in CON pigs compared to LA1 and LA2 pigs. LA did not affect serum glucose, cortisol, TNF, % neutrophils, and % lymphocytes. LPS ...
Low-level laser therapy uses the healing power of light to provide a potential therapy alternative to medications and surgery. Heres the low-down on how laser therapy works, what it can treat, its potential risks, and how you can track down a laser therapist or a home-use laser unit in your area.
These images show a yearling heifer that died at 19 days on feed after having been treated for signs of lameness two days prior to death.
Weaned puppies and kittens under six months of age and lungworm in cats: A single dose for three consecutive days at a dose rate of 50mg/kg which is equivalent to 1ml per 2kg bodyweight.. Puppies should be treated at 2 weeks of age, 5 weeks of age and again before leaving the breeders premises. Treatment may also be required at 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age.. Thereafter, frequency of treatment can be reduced unless the pups remain in kennels where reinfestation occurs more readily.. Pregnant bitches: 1ml per 4kg bodyweight daily from day 40 of pregnancy continuously for approximately 25 days. This is equivalent to 25mg Fenbendazole/kg bodyweight daily.. Regular treatment is advisable to prevent infection of children by the larvae of ascarids of dogs and cats.. ...
This experiment compared growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers with (MI) or without (CON) access to a creep-feeder, as a manner to stimulate metabolic imprinting while nursing their dams. On day 0, 60 Angus×Hereford heifers were ranked by BW and age (140±3 kg and 68±3 days), and assigned to pairs so all ranking criteria were similar between heifers within each pair. On day 1, pairs were randomly assigned to MI (n=15) or CON (n=15). From day 1 to 51, MI pairs and their dams were allocated to 15 drylot pens where heifers had ad libitum access to a corn-based supplement through a creep-feeder. The CON pairs and their dams were maintained in an adjacent single drylot pen. From day 52 to 111, treatments were managed as a single group on a semiarid range pasture. On day 111, heifers were weaned and allocated to two pastures (one pasture/treatment), receiving hay and a corn-based concentrate until day 326. Heifer BW was recorded before and at the end of the creep-feeding ...
Improved understanding of the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms is broadening the techniques mainstream use for many ailments.
... both with random allocation and with partially random allocation. Dynamic resource allocation: consider a set of n identical ... n log ⁡ n {\displaystyle m>n\log n} , the random allocation process gives only the maximum load of m n + Θ ( m log ⁡ n n ) {\ ... The interesting case is when the bin is selected at random, or at least partially at random. When the bin for each ball is ... Kolchin, Valentin F. (1978). Random allocations. Washington: Winston [usw.] ISBN 978-0470993941. Kotz, Samuel; Johnson, Norman ...
Lotteries were fast, but clearly a random allocation of licenses left much to be desired in terms of efficiency. Neither of ... doi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.2010.00357.x. Budish, E., Che, Y.-K., Kojima, F., and Paul Milgrom (2013). "Designing Random Allocation ... Auctions offered great potential in terms of obtaining an efficient allocation of licenses and also capturing some of the value ... His work on auctions with Robert Weber introduced the concept of affiliation of random variables, to indicate systems of ...
Budish, Eric; Che, Yeon-Koo; Kojima, Fuhito; Milgrom, Paul (2013). "Designing Random Allocation Mechanisms: Theory and ... Che, Yeon-Koo; Kojima, Fuhito (2010). "Asymptotic equivalence of probabilistic serial and random priority mechanisms" (PDF). ...
Some surplus allocation methods select a random vote sample. Sometimes, ballots of one elected candidate are manually mixed. In ... For example, a prior winner X could receive 20 transfers from second round winner Y. Then select 20 at random from the 220 for ... Reallocation ballots are drawn at random from all of the candidate's votes. This method is more likely than Hare to be ... Reallocation ballots are drawn at random from those transferred. In a manual count of paper ballots, this is the easiest method ...
Biased Random Sampling bases its job allocation on the network represented by a directed graph. For each execution node in this ... In-degree will decrease during job execution while out-degree will increase after job allocation. Active Clustering is a self- ... "Active Clustering and Random Sampling Walk predictably perform better as the number of processing nodes is increased" while ...
Her dissertation, supervised by Michael B. Woodroofe, was Two Treatment Comparison with Random Allocation Rule. Heckman's ...
Random allocation in real trials is complex, but conceptually the process is like tossing a coin. After randomization, the two ... For example, a block size of 6 and an allocation ratio of 2:1 would lead to random assignment of 4 subjects to one group and 2 ... First is choosing a randomization procedure to generate an unpredictable sequence of allocations; this may be a simple random ... Adequate allocation concealment should defeat patients and investigators from discovering treatment allocation once a study is ...
"Random Quantum Allocation: A New Approach to Waiting Time Distributions for M/M/N Processor Sharing Queues". Aachen: Springer: ...
The risks associated with random allocation (such as having a serious imbalance in a key characteristic between a treatment ... Random assignment is the process of assigning individuals at random to groups or to different groups in an experiment, so that ... Trudy Dehue (December 1997). "Deception, Efficiency, and Random Groups: Psychology and the Gradual Origination of the Random ... The random assignment of individuals to groups (or conditions within a group) distinguishes a rigorous, "true" experiment from ...
... in the same context in which arguments for the random allocation of treatments to study items are made. Here the experimenter ... By standardizing, we get a random variable: Z. =. X. ¯. −. μ. σ. /. n. =. X. ¯. −. μ. 0.5. {\displaystyle Z={\frac {{\bar {X ... Consider an additional random variable Y which may or may not be statistically dependent on the random sample X. Then (u(X), v( ... determined by the pair of random variables u(X) and v(X), with the property: Pr. θ. ,. φ. (. u. (. X. ). ,. θ. ,. v. (. X. ). ) ...
Random Projections and Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Weka. Weka is a popular data mining package for Java including WordVectors ... Generalized vector space model Latent semantic analysis Term Discrimination Rocchio Classification Random Indexing The ...
A true experiment with random allocation of subjects to conditions allows researchers to make strong inferences about causal ... Quasi-experimental design refers especially to situations precluding random assignment to different conditions. Researchers can ... probability of being explained by random variation. Statistical surveys are used in psychology for measuring attitudes and ... techniques are used to distinguish unique results of the experiment from the null hypothesis that variations result from random ...
Entry into the race can also be obtained through a random allocation lottery or through the Ironman's charitable eBay auction. ...
... a random ballot will occur to determine ticket allocation. Internazionale v Atlético Madrid "Massimo Busacca to referee UEFA ...
Glynn, R. J.; Ridker, P. M; Goldhaber, S. Z.; Zee, R. Y.L.; Buring, J. E. (2007). "Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E ...
Entry into the championship race could also be obtained through a random allocation lottery or through the Ironman's charitable ...
Kappa's baseline agreement is the agreement that would be expected due to random allocation, given the quantities specified by ... Thus, Kappa = 0 when the observed allocation is apparently random, regardless of the quantity disagreement as constrained by ... The disagreement is due to allocation because quantities are identical. Kappa is -0.07. Here, reporting quantity and allocation ... So the expected probability that both would say yes at random is: p Yes = a + b a + b + c + d ⋅ a + c a + b + c + d = 0.5 ∗ 0.6 ...
... but with an additional preliminary random allocation procedure executed by a computer. For instance, assume for year 2009 the ...
"An Approach to Service Allocation in the Internet". IETF. p. 12. Retrieved 2011-05-27 ... Random early detection (RED), also known as random early discard or random early drop is a queueing discipline for a network ... Main article: Robust random early detection. Robust random early detection (RRED) algorithm was proposed to improve the TCP ... Main article: Weighted random early detection. In weighted RED you can have different probabilities for different priorities ( ...
... most commonly used in project management for time allocation and to analyse random variables. Critical path drag is a project ...
This same article goes on to point out the varying degree of assistance from state-to-state creates a random allocation of ... This inequitable allocation leads to the successful integration of some refugees while others are left behind. The purpose of ...
... with siblings also falling prey to the random house allocation. Once drafted, each student remains with the house throughout ...
They were renumbered from the LNWR's random allocation based on vacant numbers, to a solid block sequence 7550-7841, and given ...
Entry into the championship race could also be obtained through a random allocation lottery, through Ironman's Legacy program, ...
Provided care is taken to achieve reasonable balance in the random allocation of communities, towns or districts to the waves, ...
... which postulates that the formation of axons and dendrites effectively minimizes resource allocation while maintaining maximal ...
... for bankers algorithm simulation with RANDOM ALLOCATION. does anybody of u know where can i find this(the program should be in ... Source code for bankers algorithm with RANDOM ALLOCATION in C LANGUAGE.. hi guys,. im searching for a source code(written in c ... printf(Allocation:\n); print2d(Allocation);. printf(Need:\n); print2d(Need);. return safe(Finish,Available,Work. ,Allocatio ... for bankers algorithm simulation with RANDOM ALLOCATION. does anybody of u know where can i find this(the program should be in ...
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Random Allocation Recurrence Vagotomy - methods Vagotomy, Proximal Gastric - methods PubMed ID. 7090398 View in PubMed ... Random Allocation Reproducibility of Results Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt Sequence Analysis, DNA Valine - genetics Abstract ... Random Allocation Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt Sex Factors Smoking Treatment Outcome Tuberculin - drug effects - physiology ... Random Allocation Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt Risk factors Snoring - epidemiology - etiology Sweden - epidemiology Weight ...
Random channel allocation scheme in HIPERLAN/2. PrintEmailTwitter Facebook LinkedIn ... A mobile terminal(MT), when it has messages to send in the uplink channel, may use contention slots, called random access ... In this paper, we propose a new RCH allocation scheme using the splitting algorithm, which dynamically adjusts the number of ... access delay and delay jitter compared with previously proposed RCH allocation schemes. ...
Cai H, Xia J, Xu D, Gao D, Yan Y. A generic minimization random allocation and blinding system on web. J Biomed Inform 2006 Dec ... Methods: We developed a Web-based random allocation system, MinimRan, that applies Pocock-Simon (for trials with 2 or more arms ... Kenjo Y, Antoku Y, Akazawa K, Hanada E, Kinukawa N, Nose Y. An easily customized, random allocation system using the ... Hagino A, Hamada C, Yoshimura I, Ohashi Y, Sakamoto J, Nakazato H. Statistical comparison of random allocation methods in ...
Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E Supplementation on the Occurrence of Venous Thromboembolism. Report From the Womens ... Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E Supplementation on the Occurrence of Venous Thromboembolism. Report From the Womens ... Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E Supplementation on the Occurrence of Venous Thromboembolism. Report From the Womens ... Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E Supplementation on the Occurrence of Venous Thromboembolism. Report From the Womens ...
Effects of random allocation to vitamin E supplementation on the occurrence of venous thromboembolism: report from the Womens ... Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E Supplementation on the Occurrence of Venous ... Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E Supplementation on the Occurrence of Venous ... Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E Supplementation on the Occurrence of Venous ...
Journal of Medical Internet Research - International Scientific Journal for Medical Research, Information and Communication on the Internet
I just finished reading the 2007 edition of A Random Walk Down Wall Street by Burton Malkiel. I had read the 1996 version, and ... Asset Allocation guidelines from Random Walk Down Wall St. I just finished reading the 2007 edition of A Random Walk Down Wall ... The overall asset allocations seem more or less the same except that Bond allocation is reduced by the amount recommended for ... International allocation is adjusted to include Emerging Markets.. There is less slice & dice advice in the stock allocation ...
Newest random-allocation questions feed Subscribe to RSS Newest random-allocation questions feed To subscribe to this RSS feed ... How to get a uniformly distributed portfolio allocation vector? [duplicate]. Imagine we have a portfolio allocation vector $(x_ ... Systematic allocation of treatment: is there a chance of biasing a design?. When we speak of the benefits of randomization, we ... Gibbs sampling allocations for time dependent observations from this model. I observe $N$ observations $\{x_{1,t_1}, \dots, x_{ ...
A heuristic for network project scheduling with random activity durations depending on the resource allocation ...
Random allocation II Published November 26, 2009. * Endgames Headaches in children Published November 26, 2009 ...
Random Allocation Software enables users to control different attributes of the random allocation sequence and produce ... The main objective of the Random Allocation Software project was to enhance the users control over different aspects of ... A formatted random list generated by this program can be used directly (without further formatting) by the coordinator of the ...
Method of random allocation. Treatment was randomly allocated centrally with a computer based, stratified block randomisation ... A member of the study team, who was blinded to treatment allocation, obtained any data needed to confirm a clinical event from ... All outcomes were reviewed blind to treatment allocation. All cardiovascular and cancer outcomes and 10% of fractures were ... Within each stratum there was equal probability of allocation to any of the treatment arms. ...
Random Allocation. The teacher is given 5 settings that determine how the random allocation will work. ... Remove current allocations: Checking this box means that any manual allocations that have been set in the Manual Allocation ... As with manual random allocation, you can specify the number of reviews, whether or not students need to have submitted ... Manual Allocation. Here,a teacher can manually choose which students review whose work. A student can review work even if they ...
Random Allocation Resource Information The concept Random Allocation represents the subject, aboutness, idea or notion of ... Random Allocation,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof= ... Random Allocation,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof= ... The Resource Random Allocation Label Random Allocation. Focus * Random Allocation 2 Items that share the Concept Random ...
Random allocation. The included teeth will be allocated in two parallels arms: Experimental group - HVGIC restoration, e ... After allocation and treatment in one of the groups, with mean of 1 month per participant, these will be followed up for 24 ... Allocation concealment mechanism. The generated sequence will be distributed in numbered sequentially opaque sealed envelopes, ... Nevertheless, to minimize this situation, the allocation of the treatments will be only performer after the selective caries ...
The CODES simulation framework builds upon the ROSS parallel discrete event simulation engine to provide high-performance simulation utilities and models for building scalable distributed systems simulations. http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/
Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Chichester ; New York : Wiley, c1992Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: W 50 92CH] (1). ...
Random Assignment, Allocation, and Blinding. We used SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina) to generate a single block of ... The randomized allocation key was not shared with investigators until after all data were collected, entered, and cleaned and ... Allocation concealment for the 2 blinded pill groups was accomplished by using identical coated tablets and plastic pill ... For the two thirds of the sample who would see a clinician, a second, smaller envelope that directed allocation to a standard ...
Random allocation of subjects[edit]. Hopkins WG (2010) Assigning Subjects to Groups in a Controlled Trial. Sportscience 14, 7- ... how random allocation to groups occurred, how participants and researchers were blinded to interventions... all those kinds of ...
... this paper studies the redundancy allocation problems to a fuzzy random parallel-series system. Two fuzzy random redundancy ... this paper studies the redundancy allocation problems to a fuzzy random parallel-series system. Two fuzzy random redundancy ... this paper studies the redundancy allocation problems to a fuzzy random parallel-series system. Two fuzzy random redundancy ... this paper studies the redundancy allocation problems to a fuzzy random parallel-series system. Two fuzzy random redundancy ...
Random Allocation Software enables users to control different attributes of the random allocation sequence and produce ... The main objective of the Random Allocation Software project was to enhance the users control over different aspects of ... A formatted random list generated by this program can be used directly (without further formatting) by the coordinator of the ... Random allocation software for parallel group randomized trials. Access & Citations. * 28k Article Accesses. ...
Random allocation. Participants had an equal probability of assignment to the groups. The randomization code was created by an ... investigator not involved in assessment of outcome measures or analysis of the study, using a computer generated random list. ...
The principle of random allocation is to avoid bias in the way the experiment is carried out and to limit the effects of ... Random Allocation. Randomly allocating participants to independent variable conditions means that all participants should have ...
  • "...a [single] search term or set of terms (such as 'randomi?ation' or 'random allocation' for RCTs) that select studies that are at the most advanced stages of testing for clinical application" ( Wilczynski et al 1995, p436 ). (ubc.ca)
  • We generalize the scope of random allocation mechanisms, in which the mechanism first identifies a feasible "expected allocation" and then implements it by randomizing over nearby feasible integer allocations. (stanford.edu)
  • We show that if some of the feasibility constraints can be treated as goals rather than hard constraints then, subject to weak conditions that we identify, any expected allocation that satisfies all the constraints and goals can be implemented by randomizing among nearby integer allocations that satisfy all the hard constraints exactly and the goals approximately. (stanford.edu)
  • We expect the system to facilitate the translation of the 3 validated random allocation methods into broad, efficient clinical research practice. (jmir.org)
  • Methods Twenty healthy male volunteers (mean age 34.7 y) were randomized (random allocation) to receive either 300 mg theophylline daily or placebo 5 days prior, during ascent, and during a stay at 4,559 m altitude. (wiley.com)
  • Although the report of the streptomycin trial is rightly iconic, the attention it has attracted has led many historians to overlook earlier evidence relevant to the evolution of unbiased prospective allocation of patients to treatment comparison groups. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • In fact, for half a century before the MRC trial and Fisher's writings, some medical practitioners wishing to evaluate the effects of treatments had used alternate allocation to assemble similar groups of patients, and so ensure that like would be compared with like. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • In a random-allocation, graded dose-response study, 180 healthy patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery received a single bolus of norepinephrine in one of six different doses ranging from 4 to 12 µg or phenylephrine in one of six different doses ranging from 60 to 200 µg to treat the first episode of hypotension. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • A random sample group containing 2662 patients over 14 years of age was observed over a continuous period of a year. (nih.gov)
  • patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation, but the study team was masked to the data analysis. (uptodate.com)
  • length, 10 mm) were placed in the maxillary arches of these patients with random allocation of the 2 types to the left and the right sides in a 1:1 ratio. (nih.gov)
  • A new treatment is given to a number of patients chosen at random, while others receive the current standard care. (innovationmanagement.se)
  • By defining ex post utilities as goals, we are able to improve the ex post properties of several classic assignment mechanisms, such as the random serial dictatorship. (stanford.edu)
  • 9. The method of claim 3, wherein the random edit process comprises a module selected from the group of modules consisting of a masking module, a displacement in time module, a chaos engine module, an XOR module, an overwrite module, an expand module, a remove module, a control plane module, and an address plane module. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • After concealed random allocation, there was no baseline difference between groups. (apta.org)
  • Effects of Random Allocation to Vitamin E Supplementation on the Occurrence of Venous Thromboembolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • Continuous data were expressed as weighted mean differences and analyzed with a random-effects model. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A mobile terminal(MT), when it has messages to send in the uplink channel, may use contention slots, called random access channels (RCHs), to send the resource request messages. (ubc.ca)
  • Dynamic resource allocation: consider a set of n identical computers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to subjective judgment, imprecise human knowledge and perception in capturing statistical data, the real data of lifetimes in many systems are both random and fuzzy in nature. (elsevier.com)
  • and integrating the validated source data with the memory cell locations using a random edit process that is a masking, a displacement-in-time, a chaos engine, an XOR, an overwrite, an expand, a remove, a control plane, or an address plane module. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 of generating a one-way function and thereby producing a random-value stream further comprises the step of decoupling the random-value stream from the original memory cell locations and data values thereby producing a non-deterministic random-value stream. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2, wherein the step of decoupling the random-value stream from the original memory cell locations and data values comprises using a random edit process to provide decoupling. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 4, wherein the additional quantity of random data includes compressed data. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 4, wherein the step of integrating the validated source data with the plurality of memory cell locations further includes processing the validated source data with an edit stream using a random edit process. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The concept Random Allocation represents the subject, aboutness, idea or notion of resources found in University of Missouri-St. Louis Libraries . (umsl.edu)
  • For m=n, after a sufficiently long time, with high probability the maximum load is similar to the finite version, both with random allocation and with partially random allocation. (wikipedia.org)