Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Stapes: One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral: Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Rana ridibunda: A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.MycosesDermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Heat-Shock Proteins, Small: A family of low molecular weight heat-shock proteins that can serve as MOLECULAR CHAPERONES.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins: A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones that aid in refolding of non-native proteins. They play a protective role that increases cellular survival during times of stress.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Rana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".Vital Signs: The signs of life that may be monitored or measured, namely pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood pressure.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.KansasCartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Cartoons

Backward movements of cross-bridges by application of stretch and by binding of MgADP to skeletal muscle fibers in the rigor state as studied by x-ray diffraction. (1/1086)

The effects of the applied stretch and MgADP binding on the structure of the actomyosin cross-bridges in rabbit and/or frog skeletal muscle fibers in the rigor state have been investigated with improved resolution by x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The results showed a remarkable structural similarity between cross-bridge states induced by stretch and MgADP binding. The intensities of the 14.4- and 7.2-nm meridional reflections increased by approximately 23 and 47%, respectively, when 1 mM MgADP was added to the rigor rabbit muscle fibers in the presence of ATP-depletion backup system and an inhibitor for muscle adenylate kinase or by approximately 33 and 17%, respectively, when rigor frog muscle was stretched by approximately 4.5% of the initial muscle length. In addition, both MgADP binding and stretch induced a small but genuine intensity decrease in the region close to the meridian of the 5.9-nm layer line while retaining the intensity profile of its outer portion. No appreciable influence was observed in the intensities of the higher order meridional reflections of the 14.4-nm repeat and the other actin-based reflections as well as the equatorial reflections, indicating a lack of detachment of cross-bridges in both cases. The changes in the axial spacings of the actin-based and the 14.4-nm-based reflections were observed and associated with the tension change. These results indicate that stretch and ADP binding mediate similar structural changes, being in the correct direction to those expected for that the conformational changes are induced in the outer portion distant from the catalytic domain of attached cross-bridges. Modeling of conformational changes of the attached myosin head suggested a small but significant movement (about 10-20 degrees) in the light chain-binding domain of the head toward the M-line of the sarcomere. Both chemical (ADP binding) and mechanical (stretch) intervensions can reverse the contractile cycle by causing a backward movement of this domain of attached myosin heads in the rigor state.  (+info)

Primary structure of a visual pigment in bullfrog green rods. (2/1086)

In frog retina there are special rod photoreceptor cells ('green rods') with physiological properties similar to those of typical vertebrate rods ('red rods'). A cDNA fragment encoding the putative green rod visual pigment was isolated from a retinal cDNA library of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Its deduced amino acid sequence has more than 65% identity with those of blue-sensitive cone pigments such as chicken blue and goldfish blue. Antisera raised against its C-terminal amino acid sequence recognized green rods. It is concluded that bullfrog green rods contain a visual pigment which is closely related to the blue-sensitive cone pigments of other non-mammalian vertebrates.  (+info)

Regulation of photoreceptor phosphodiesterase catalysis by its non-catalytic cGMP-binding sites. (3/1086)

The photoreceptor 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) is the central enzyme of visual excitation in rod photoreceptors. The hydrolytic activity of PDE is precisely regulated by its inhibitory gamma subunit (Pgamma), which binds directly to the catalytic site. We examined the inhibition of frog rod outer segment PDE by endogenous Pgamma, as well as by synthetic peptides corresponding to its central and C-terminal domains, to determine whether the non-catalytic cGMP-binding sites on the catalytic alphabeta dimer of PDE allosterically regulate PDE activity. We found that the apparent binding affinity of Pgamma for PDE was 28 pM when cGMP occupied the non-catalytic sites, whereas Pgamma had an apparent affinity only 1/16 of this when the sites were empty. The elevated basal activity of PDE with empty non-catalytic sites can be decreased by the addition of nanomolar levels of cGMP, demonstrating that the high-affinity non-catalytic sites on the PDE catalytic dimer mediate this effect. No evidence for a direct allosteric effect of the non-catalytic sites on catalysis could be detected for the activated enzyme lacking bound Pgamma. The intrinsic affinity of a synthetic C-terminal (residues 63-87) Pgamma peptide to bind and to inhibit the hydrolytic activity of activated PDE was enhanced 300-fold in the presence of cGMP compared with cAMP. We conclude that the binding of cGMP to the non-catalytic sites of PDE induces an allosteric change in the structure of the catalytic domain that greatly enhances the interaction of the C-terminus of Pgamma with the catalytic domain.  (+info)

Depolarization-induced mitochondrial Ca accumulation in sympathetic neurons: spatial and temporal characteristics. (4/1086)

Several lines of evidence suggest that neuronal mitochondria accumulate calcium when the cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is elevated to levels approaching approximately 500 nM, but the spatial, temporal, and quantitative characteristics of net mitochondrial Ca uptake during stimulus-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) elevations are not well understood. Here, we report direct measurements of depolarization-induced changes in intramitochondrial total Ca concentration ([Ca](mito)) obtained by x-ray microanalysis of rapidly frozen neurons from frog sympathetic ganglia. Unstimulated control cells exhibited undetectably low [Ca](mito), but high K(+) depolarization (50 mM, 45 sec), which elevates [Ca(2+)](i) to approximately 600 nM, increased [Ca](mito) to 13.0 +/- 1.5 mmol/kg dry weight; this increase was abolished by carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP). The elevation of [Ca](mito) was a function of both depolarization strength and duration. After repolarization, [Ca](mito) recovered to prestimulation levels with a time course that paralleled the decline in [Ca(2+)](i). Depolarization-induced increases in [Ca](mito) were spatially heterogeneous. At the level of single mitochondria, [Ca](mito) elevations depended on proximity to the plasma membrane, consistent with predictions of a diffusion model that considers radial [Ca(2+)](i) gradients that exist early during depolarization. Within individual mitochondria, Ca was concentrated in small, discrete sites, possibly reflecting a high-capacity intramitochondrial Ca storage mechanism. These findings demonstrate that in situ Ca accumulation by mitochondria, now directly identified as the structural correlate of the "FCCP-sensitive store, " is robust, reversible, graded with stimulus strength and duration, and dependent on spatial location.  (+info)

Behavioral reduction of infection risk. (5/1086)

Evolutionary biologists have long postulated that there should be fitness advantages to animals that are able to recognize and avoid conspecifics infected with contact-transmitted disease. This avoidance hypothesis is in direct conflict with much of epidemiological theory, which is founded on the assumptions that the likelihood of infection is equal among members of a population and constant over space. The inconsistency between epidemiological theory and the avoidance hypothesis has received relatively little attention because, to date, there has been no evidence that animals can recognize and reduce infection risk from conspecifics. We investigated the effects of Candida humicola, a pathogen that reduces growth rates and can cause death of tadpoles, on associations between infected and uninfected individuals. Here we demonstrate that bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles avoid infected conspecifics because proximity influences infection. This avoidance behavior is stimulated by chemical cues from infected individuals and thus does not require direct contact between individuals. Such facultative modulations of disease infection risk may have critical consequences for the population dynamics of disease organisms and their impact on host populations.  (+info)

Activation by bitter substances of a cationic channel in membrane patches excised from the bullfrog taste receptor cell. (6/1086)

1. The response to bitter-tasting substances was recorded in outside-out membrane patches excised from the taste receptor cell of the bullfrog fungiform papilla. 2. Application of a bitter-tasting substance, quinine or denatonium, induced channel openings under conditions in which none of the second messenger candidates or their precursors (e.g. cyclic nucleotide, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, Ca2+, ATP and GTP) were present on either side of the membrane. The response could be recorded > 10 min after excision of the patch membrane. These data suggest that the channel was directly gated by the bitter-tasting substances. 3. No change in response was detected upon addition to the cytoplasmic side of either GDPbetaS (1 mM) or GTPgammaS (1 mM), suggesting that the G protein cascade has no direct relation to response generation. 4. The quinine-induced current was dose dependent. The lowest effective concentration was approximately 0.1 mM, and the saturating concentration was near 1 mM. The dose-response curve was fitted by the Hill equation with a K of 0.52 mM and a Hill coefficient of 3.8. 5. The single channel conductance measured in 120 mM NaCl solution was 10 pS. The channel was cation selective, and the ratio of the permeabilities for Na+, K+ and Cs+ (PNa : PK : PCs) was 1 : 0.48 : 0.39. The unitary conductance was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o); 9.2 pS in a nominally Ca2+-free solution, and 4.5 pS in 1. 8 mM [Ca2+]o. 6. The dose dependence, the ion selectivity and the dependence of the unitary conductance on [Ca2+]o were almost identical to those of the quinine-induced whole-cell current reported previously, indicating that the channel activity observed in the excised membrane is the basis of the whole-cell current. 7. The present observations suggest the new possibility that the cationic channel directly gated by bitter substances is involved in the bitter taste transduction mechanism.  (+info)

Acute effects of inhalable particles on the frog palate mucociliary epithelium. (7/1086)

This work was designed to evaluate the toxicity of inhalable particles [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) collected from the urban air in Sao Paulo, Brazil, to the mucociliary apparatus using the frog palate preparation. Seven groups of frog palates were immersed in different concentrations of PM(10) diluted in Ringer's solution during 120 min: 0 (control, n = 31); 50 (n = 10); 100 (n = 9); 500 (n = 28); 1,000 (n = 10); 5,000 (n = 11); and 10,000 microg/m(3) (n = 10). Mucociliary transport and transepithelial potential difference were determined at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min exposure. Additional groups (control and 500 microg/m(3)) were studied by means of morphometric analyses (quantification of the amount of intraepithelial and surface mucins), measurement of cilia beat frequency, and quantification of total glutathione. Mucociliary transport and transepithelial potential difference were significantly decreased at higher concentrations of PM(10) (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Exposure to PM(10) also elicited a significant decrease of total glutathione (p = 0. 003) and depletion of neutral intraepithelial mucins (p = 0.0461). These results show that PM(10) can promote significant alterations in ciliated epithelium in vitro.  (+info)

Water diffusion, T(2), and compartmentation in frog sciatic nerve. (8/1086)

A potential relationship between structural compartments in neural tissue and NMR parameters may increase the specificity of MRI in diagnosing diseases. Nevertheless, our understanding of MR of nerves and white matter is limited, particularly the influence of various water compartments on the MR signal is not known. In this study, components of the (1)H transverse relaxation decay curve in frog peripheral nerve were correlated with the diffusion characteristics of the water in the nerve. Three T(2) values were identified with nerve. Water mobility was found to be unrestricted on the timescale of 100 msec in the component of the signal with the intermediate T(2) time, suggesting some contribution from the interstitial space to this T(2) component. Restricted diffusion was observed in the component with the longest T(2) time, supporting the assignment of at least part of the spins contributing to this component to an intracellular compartment. The observed nonexponential behavior of the diffusion attenuation curves was investigated and shown to be potentially caused by the wide range of axon sizes in the nerve. Magn Reson Med 42:911-918, 1999.  (+info)

  • To test the susceptibility of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to amphibian chytridiomycosis, groups of captive bred, recently metamorphosed bullfrogs were inoculated with zoospores of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, and assayed for clinical and pathological signs of infection. (columbia.edu)
  • By demonstrating that R. catesbeiana is likely to be an efficient carrier of this pathogen, our experimental data add weight to the hypothesis that this host species is important in the spread of chytridiomycosis, particularly by commercial activities. (columbia.edu)
  • The effects of activin A and follistatin on the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) from dispersed pituitary cells of the bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana were studied. (elsevier.com)
  • The names "frog" and "toad" are used throughout this issue in order to use popular names for two generalized groups, but other than the Rana/Bufo stereotypes mentioned above, the names do not apply well, and in some cases are not only misleading, but also both names may be applied to the same species. (emporia.edu)
  • 1996. Helminth communities in the Northern Spring Peeper, Pseudacris c. crucifer Wied and the Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica Le Conte from Southeastern Wisconsin. (lamar.edu)
  • Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phylogenetics, zoogeography , and the role of dispersal and vicariance in the evolution of the Rana catesbeiana (Anura: ranidae) species group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This subspecies avoids brackish marsh areas because its preferred prey , the California red-legged frog ( Rana draytonii ), cannot survive in saline water . (wikipedia.org)
  • It was concluded that galectin-1 from R. catesbeiana oocytes possesses different and rare glycan-binding properties from typical members in galectin family. (eurekaselect.com)
  • RC-RNase is a pyrimidine-guanine sequence-specific ribonuclease and a sialic-acid-binding lectin purified from Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) oocytes. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • By using known AMP characteristics and common ¬AMP properties, we developed a high throughput bioinformatics approach predicated on the use of R. catesbeiana genome resources. (uvic.ca)
  • By demonstrating that R. catesbeiana is likely to be an efficient carrier of this pathogen, our experimental data add weight to the hypothesis that this host species is important in the spread of chytridiomycosis, particularly by commercial activities. (columbia.edu)
  • The effects of activin A and follistatin on the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) from dispersed pituitary cells of the bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana were studied. (elsevier.com)
  • 001), with salamanders and semi-aquatic snakes encountered with greater frequency than expected in the food plots, Rana and Eumeces in the forest plots, and Scincella lateralis and Storeria dekayi in the oil plots (Table 4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Detaint M, Coïc C (2006) La grenouille taureau Rana catesbeiana dans le sud-ouest de la France. (springer.com)
  • Seasonal changes in the cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia and temperature in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the bactericidal agent, triclosan, induces changes in the thyroid hormone-mediated process of metamorphosis of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana and alters the expression profile of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta, basic transcription element binding protein ( BTEB ) and proliferating nuclear cell antigen ( PCNA ) gene transcripts. (xenbase.org)
  • I will start off by saying that any net will catch frogs as long as the webbing is We will be catching two types of frogs, The Bullfrog (Rana Catesbeiana) and the. (gas-turbina.com)
  • They, along with the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) are one of two aquatic frogs in Rhode Island because they are never far from the water, except during hibernation. (capeannvernalpondteam.org)
  • A large aquatic frog commonly confused with the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). (capeannvernalpondteam.org)
  • The Ohio State Frog: the American Bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana) Adopted in 2010. (warrenswcd.com)
  • Many years ago, the American Bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana) was introduced by farmers on Vancouver Island. (marylakeconnections.ca)
  • That's right, a bullfrog, For decades, researchers have used the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana , as a model for studying the physiology and biomechanics of skeletal muscles. (nih.gov)
  • The record for longest jump by an American bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) recorded in a scientific paper is a little over 4 feet. (frogsaregreen.org)
  • Ranatuerin-1C (SMLSVLKNLGKVGLGLVACKINKQC), ranalexin-1Ca (FLGGLMKAFPALICAVTKKC), ranalexin-1Cb (FLGGLMKAFPAIICAVTKKC), ranatuerin-2Ca (GLFLDTLKGAAKDVAGKLLEGLKCKIAGC KP), and ranatuerin-2Cb (GLFLDTLKGLAGKLLQGLKCIKAGCKP), are members of three previously characterized families of antimicrobial peptides, first identified in the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. (elsevier.com)
  • Meantime, because it finally started raining after a very dry spring, their larger, truly aquatic cousins the bullfrogs ( Rana catesbeiana ) slipped out the back on a storm the other night, as if I hadn't made them feel at home. (awaytogarden.com)