Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Water SofteningClimate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Ceiba: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.PanamaEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Self-Fertilization: The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Sequoia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE known for including some of the tallest trees.BrazilGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Mediterranean Islands: Scattered islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The chief islands are the Balearic Islands (belong to Spain; Majorca and Minorca are among these), Corsica (belongs to France), Crete (belongs to Greece), CYPRUS (a republic), the Cyclades, Dodecanese and Ionian Islands (belong to Greece), MALTA (a republic), Sardinia and SICILY (belong to Italy). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p747)Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Hymenaea: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain resins (RESINS, PLANT) and GLUCANS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Clusiaceae: The mangosteen plant family (sometimes classified as Guttiferae; also known as Hypericaceae) of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes trees and shrubs with resinous, sticky sap, usually with broad-ended, oblong, leathery leaves with a strong, central vein, flowers with many stamens.Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Ephedra: A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.EcuadorGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Zingiberales: This plant order includes 8 families, 66 genera, and about 1,800 species. These herbaceous perennials are mainly found in the wet tropics. Members include the banana family (MUSACEAE) and GINGER family (ZINGIBERACEAE).Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Annonaceae: The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.ArgentinaNorthern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Water Pollution, RadioactiveSwimming PoolsAquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
2.rain; 3.water) Sutton 1988, p. 46. Tindale 1874, p. 246. Sutton 1988, pp. 43-44. Tindale 1946, p. 246. Barlee 1886, pp. 307- ...
Water[edit]. Several effects of surface tension can be seen with ordinary water: *Beading of rain water on a waxy surface, such ... This behavior of the water pushes the water strider upward so it can stand on the surface of the water as long as its mass is ... Surface tension allows insects (e.g. water striders), usually denser than water, to float and stride on a water surface. ... The table shows some calculated values of this effect for water at different drop sizes: P/P0 for water drops of different ...
Rain water flux from a canopy. Among the forces that govern drop formation: Plateau-Rayleigh instability, Surface tension, ... A special case of this is the formation of small droplets when water is dripping from a faucet/tap. When a segment of water ... Three examples of droplet detachment for different fluids: (left) water, (center) glycerol, (right) a solution of PEG in water ... In 1873, Plateau found experimentally that a vertically falling stream of water will break up into drops if its wavelength is ...
Rain penetration[edit]. Rain Penetration (also known as "penetrating damp"([17])) is a common form of dampness in buildings. It ... Water vapor may enter the building through supply air ducts in building slabs and circulated by warm forced air. Water vapor ... Exacerbators of Rain penetration[edit]. Where a wall suffers from one or more of the primary causes of rain penetration listed ... The first step in assessing damp is to check for standing water. Removing water with good drainage will remove any form of ...
Rainwater collection equipment. *Seawater desalination kit. *Water (typically 3 liters/person/day) ... Water in sealed containers for dry areas, or water purification tablets or household bleach in areas where water is available ... The water supplies may include bottled water, filtering kit, bottles, collapsible water containers, and chlorine bleach for ... Water, at least one gallon of water per person for each day for drinking & sanitation (should be rotated every 3 months) ...
"Indian Dams by River and State". Rain water harvesting. Retrieved 19 March 2007. Menon, Rajesh (3 October 2005). "Tremors may ... The heavy, eastward-moving rain-bearing clouds are forced to rise and in the process deposit most of their rain on the windward ... North Western Ghats montane rain forests, South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests, and South Western Ghats montane rain ... The total amount of rain does not depend on the spread of the area with areas in northern Maharashtra receiving heavy rainfall ...
"Rain Water Harvesting by Freshwater Flooded Forests".. *^ "Swamp Forest Ratargul : Amazon of Bangladesh ~ Beautiful Bangladesh" ... Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea) ...
IV - Rain Water to Wire Ropes. Spon. 1921. pp. 143-179.. *Thomssen, E. G., Ph. D. (1922). Soap-Making Manual. Free ebook at ... water-attracting) groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules ... from the water making it soluble. Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water. ... oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and ...
IV - Rain Water to Wire Ropes. Spon. 1921. pp. 143-179.. *Thomssen, E. G., Ph. D. (1922). Soap-Making Manual. Free ebook at ... Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water.. Effect of the alkali. The type of alkali metal used determines ... For example: oil/fat is insoluble in water, but when a couple of drops of dish soap are added to the mixture, the oil/fat ... The lye is dissolved in water. Then, the oils are heated, or melted if they are solid at room temperature. Once the oils are ...
Water resistance rating. Suitability. Remarks. Water Resistant 3 atm or 30 m. Suitable for everyday use. Splash/rain resistant. ... Water-tightness and resistance at a water overpressure. The watches under test shall be immersed in water contained in a ... Also every diving watch has to be tested for water resistance or water-tightness and resistance at a water overpressure as it ... ISO 6425 testing of the water resistance or water-tightness and resistance at a water overpressure as it is officially defined ...
... spring or rain water; mix and digest twenty-four hours, let it settle, and then decant the clear brown tincture. The latter ... Aqua omnium florum or all-flower water was water distilled from cow-dung in May, when the cows ate fresh grass with meadow ... It was also known less euphemistically as aqua stercoris vaccini stillatitia (distilled water of cow dung). This was used as a ...
"Rain water harvesting by fresh water flooded forests". Scribd.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28.. ... It can be grown in rainwater harvesting ponds up to 6 m (20 ft) in water depth without losing its greenery and remaining useful ... pinnata is also a fresh water flooded forest species as it can survive total submergence in sweet water for few months ... M. pinnata tree is the pioneer tree in Ratargul fresh water flooded forest in Bangladesh and Tonlesap lake swamp forests in ...
"Rain swamps Sydney's water catchments". Smh.com.au. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010. Huffer, Julie (10 February 2010). " ... In the cool months, the rain is moderate and it would linger on for the whole day. In some days, rain may come in drizzle form ... Parts of Sydney received the heaviest amount of rain in a span of hours in decades. 94 mm (3.70 in) of rain fell in Strathfield ... "Water quality and drought". Sydney Water. Archived from the original on 20 November 2009. "Drought". Archived from the original ...
Nourishment is predominantly snow-rain. Waters are used for the irrigation. On the coasts in the upper flow of river is located ...
Add ash and rain water. Filter it and mix with colour from fermented Hom. Add calcium hydroxide and mix it again and you will ... bind it and soak in rain water in big bucket for 72 hours. You will get green colour, leave old leaf and stem and put the new ... You will get navy colour, filter it and keep the fermented water. After that, add a calcium hydroxide and mix it and filter it ... 1. Pick a cotton textile to soak in bucket with clean water. After that, dry it with sunlight. 2. Put the dry textile into the ...
Toilets and rain water available. Cobbler Hill: 10 sites with toilets and rain water close to Blowhole Beach. Can be exposed ... Stringybark: A sheltered forest setting with 16 sites, hot showers, toilets and rain water. Sites available for caravans and ... 25 sites, toilets and rain water available. Sites available for caravans and camp trailers. No powered sites available. ... A hikers' hut and rainwater tank have been erected at this site. Approaching the cove at the mouth of Deep Creek. Looking south ...
Rainwater, Mary. "Death row inmate: No justice by execution." Rapid City Journal. May 5, 2010. Retrieved on May 9, 2010. "are ... However, the town of Livingston is about 10 mi (16 km) east of Lake Livingston, which is the largest drinking-water reservoir ...
The term "water-wheel" is reserved, by definition, to wheels powered by flowing water, and should not be used for sakia wheels ... "The Persian Wheel revisited- Araghatta , Harvesting Rainwater". Rainwaterharvesting.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-05-28. Örjan ... The other difference is that a saqiya is lifting the water out of a well or a body of standing water, while the noria is placed ... Noria Water wheel Chain pump Scoop wheel Man engine "Water lifting devices". Retrieved 28 May 2016. "Qusayr 'Amra : Site ...
... techniques by Chennai Metrowater at their Anna Nagar Rain Centre, water shortages have been reduced significantly, and this has ... "Chennai Water Supply". Management of water supply during acute water scarcity in 2003 & 2004. Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply ... The city's ground water levels have been depleted to very low levels in many areas. Many residents buy their drinking water. An ... Moreover, newer projects like the Telugu Ganga canal project that brings water from water-surplus rivers like the Krishna river ...
Rainwater storage to deal with more frequent flooding rainfall - Changing to water permeable pavements, adding water-buffering ... Rainwater storage. For example, according to the International Water Management Institute, using small planting basins to ' ... Falling water tables and the resulting increase in the energy needed to pump water will make the practice of irrigation more ... Other strategies will be needed to make the most efficient use of water resources. For example, the International Water ...
"Recent rain eases Byrock water crises". ABC News. August 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2012. Bourke Shire Council Bourke Township and ... Water is then gravity fed to dwellings. When the ground tank runs dry, emergency water cartage from Bourke is provided by road ... Byrock relies on rainfall for its non potable water supply that is channeled into a large ground tank, settled and then pumped ... Butcher shop, Byrock Water tower, Byrock Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Cobar (Urban Centre/Locality)". ...
People depended on rain for water. They had no electricity. Landslides hit frequently. Among the Mansaka, an indigenous ... After about four hours on rough waters, the boat sank, drowning over 200 passengers in the waters off Surigao, including ... The RGS Sisters and some other religious and priests were on board the M/V Doña Cassandra when it sank in shark-infested waters ... The hamlets, under the strict control of the military, had no running water, no toilets, and no bathrooms. Epidemics broke out ...
History of Alstead, Cheshire County, New Hampshire Alstead Historical Society (2006). Too Much Water, Too Much Rain. ... who wrote and printed a book called Too Much Water, Too Much Rain, chronicling the disaster and its aftermath. Langdon Road in ... A turbine water mill at East Alstead is probably the last of its type anywhere in the region. Shedd-Porter Memorial Library, ... Heavy rain in Cheshire County caused the Cold River and its tributaries to swell, washing away homes, cars and 4 miles of Route ...
I wish rain water was beer!" - Robert Bolt (A Man for All Seasons) "What event is more awfully important to an English Colony ... However, hopped beer was opposed by some, e.g. Ale is made of malte and water; and they the which do put any other thynge to ... Water-known as "liquor"-is an important ingredient in brewing, and larger breweries often draw supplies from their own wells. ... Much of the open land within and around the town is protected from chemical treatment to help preserve this water quality. The ...
Rain gutters collected water they rationed. ... The fish cabins ... are the legacy of a thriving industry that worked Charlotte ... Harbor waters before World War II. Fishermen netted fish by hand and stored their catch in the fish companies' ice houses, ...
When groomed properly, the Irish Terrier coat will protect the dog from rain and cold. A properly cared-for Irish Terrier does ... Irish Water Spaniel. *Irish Wolfhound. *Kerry Beagle. *Kerry Blue Terrier. *Soft-coated Wheaten Terrier ...
Acid rain, Effect of water quality on, Environmental aspects of Acid rain, Fishes, Freshwater fishes, Lake ecology, Lakes, ... Acid rain by Steven A. Heiskary; 2 editions; Subjects: ... Acid rain, Effect of water quality on, Environmental aspects of ... Acid rain, Fishes, Freshwater fishes, Lake ecology, Lakes, Measurement, Water quality ... You could add Acid rain to a list if you log in. ... Are you sure you want to remove Acid rain from your list? ...
Acid rain directly affects the chemical and pH balances in ground water. The excess aluminum created by acid rain makes aquatic ... Acid rain damages leaves as it falls. Acid rain runoff from the trees and forest floors infiltrates the forests water supplies ... Acid Rain Effects. Acid rain is rain that contains nitric and sulfuric acid. Snow and fog can also contain nitric and sulfuric ... Acid rain is dangerous to humans. The same sulphate and nitrate particles that directly affect the soil and water pH balances ...
There was a more effect of acid rain water in 0% and 8% as is basic Acid rain may cause the increase in breathing problems of ... forest fires and even lightning bolts are some of the causes of acid rain. ACID RAIN Acid Rain Acid rain is defined by Kumar as ... Dec 17, 2018 · Rain that has a higher hydrogen ion concentration than about 10-5 M is referred as acid rain. Essay on Acid Rain ... The control of air pollution will result in reduction of acid rain formation. The Meaning and Creation of Acid Rain. Acid Rain ...
Sulfur dioxide combines with water in the air and sunlight to form a weak sulfuric acid that gives acid rain its bitter taste. ... What Is Acid Rain?. Acid rain is created when rain mixes with pollution in the air. Pollution fills the air with an invisible ... Acid rain is a type of acid deposition, which can appear in many forms. Wet deposition is rain, sleet, snow, or fog that has ... Acid rain can fall hundreds of miles from the nearest factory smokestacks. In cities, acid rain can cause damage and decay of ...
... explained - Water cycle diagram - Steps of water cycle - Learn more about water cycle ... Water in nature can takes various forms and states that contribute to the water cycle - ... Flash water cycle: animated flash water cycle that explains vapor, clouds, rain and water storage.. Earthguide - water cycle ... Water. Water on Earth. Changes of state in the nature: the water cycle. Water in human body. Test for water. Properties of ...
Acid rain stains and etches granite and corrodes metals like bronze. Acid rain damages structures such as the Taj Mahal and ... Acid rain dissolves limestone, marble, cement and sandstone. ... air pollution on materials and structures come from acid rain. ... How Does Rain Become Acidic?. Water dissolves more substances than any other known material. Pure water only stays pure until ... Normal rain generally ranges from about 6.5 to about 5.6 on the pH scale. Acid rain, however, measures below 5.5. Acid rain has ...
Harvesting the rain, an idea as old as desert living, is making a comeback of sorts in a low-tech solution for todays modern ... Harvesting monsoon rain water in Flagstaff. Harvesting the rain, an idea as old as desert living, is making a comeback of sorts ...
Acid Rain The USGS has been at the forefront of studying the impacts of acid rain for decades. How does acid rain form? What ... Water Use Information by Topic Water is everywhere, which is fortunate for all of humanity, as water is essential for life. ... Acidity in rain is measured by collecting samples of rain and measuring its pH. To find the distribution of rain acidity, ... Water-Quality Data for the Nation. The USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) contains extensive water-quality data for ...
I was wondering if rain water would get rid of this problem or at the very least if I could use rain water to flush out the ... This brings up the question of acid rain. Would the watering of my plants with rain water cause acid problems? *Previous ... rain water. plant lover glenn1964 at hotmail.com Tue Feb 23 17:43:45 EST 1999 *Previous message: Anyone know of any WEB sites ... I live an an area that has a hard water. ...
Tucsons push to use rainwater to meet landscaping needs could serve as a model for dry regions throughout the nation, Arizona ... If all of Tucsons rainwater could be collected, it would amount to about 75 percent of the water delivered to homes and ... Such a system reduces outdoor water use, the largest drain on Tucsons water supply, said Brad Lancaster, author of the book " ... "You cant catch it all, but this is an important water source we should be thinking about in our planning," Riley said. ...
The Martian gullies that many scientists believe were carved by liquid water might have been formed by wind and landslides ...
Water-Resistant Rain Jacket at J.Cew and see the entire selection of Girls Outerwear Jackets. Free Shipping Available. ... With a jacket as awesome as this cute, colorful one, shell never want the rain to go away. (OK, maybe thats an overstatement ...
Debra Knapke Why should you create a rain garden? Debra will explain the purpose of this garden type and how to make it work ... Water, Water Everywhere: Rain Gardens. 1:30pm , $15 , Debra Knapke Why should you create a rain garden? Debra will explain the ... 2020-04-18T13:30:00-0400 2020-04-18T15:00:00-0400 Water, Water Everywhere: Rain Gardens 4140 County Road 15, Marengo, OH, 43334 ...
Water is the most important element for life on earth. But due to its abundant nature it is wasted and not thought of its ... To look at conserving the water, the water available through rain is the most common source of freely available water which is ... Rain Water Harvesting Water is the most important element for life on earth. But due to its abundant nature it is wasted and ... Defining rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting and storing the rainwater under the ground for ...
... rainwater harvesting could offer a way out. Water is precious and we must save every valuable drop. ... Water crisis is beginning to haunt many parts of the world, ... the rain water can also be used to recharge ground water, close ... Water, the Hub of Life. Water is its mater and matrix, mother and medium. Water is the most extraordinary substance! ... It is over such a backdrop that Rain Water Harvesting (RWH), as a method of conserving and improving water supply, has been ...
The process of rainwater harvesting is one of the easiest methods that helps to reduce water consumption. It is an energy ... What Are The Benefits Of Rain Water Harvesting? * 1. What Are The Benefits Of Rain Water Harvesting? The process of rainwater ... 7. To get reliable rain water harvesting services, contact - OBrien Water Services Coppeen, Enniskeane, Co.Cork , Ireland ... The process of rainwater harvesting is one of the easiest methods that helps to reduce water consumption. It is an energy ...
... splash with the introduction of their flat water a few months back and now Cool Hunting is the first to announce their new ... Tasmanian Rain made a, er, splash with the introduction of their flat water a few months back and now Cool Hunting is the first ... Tasmanian Rain sparkling water comes in two sizes, 750ml and 375ml, and will be available at high-end restaurants, hotels and ... To Tasmanian Rains credit, theyre doing their part to cut down on their environmental impact. Bottled in 100% recyclable ...
The New York Times analyzed the results of more than 19 million drinking water tests. ... The 35-year-old federal law regulating tap water is so out of date that the water Americans drink can pose what scientists say ... Toxic Water: A series about the worsening pollution in American waters and regulators response. *E-Mail ... Examine whether contaminants in your water supply met two standards: the legal limits established by the Safe Drinking Water ...
Trying to capture rain drops. ,a href=http://www.elucubracionesdeamaranta.blogspot.com rel=noreferrer nofollow, ...
We have been reading a lot of about cruisers collecting rain water and we have a few questions. Keep in mind we are still a few ... My preference is for a water tank to collect the rainwater, then run collected water thru a water maker. Those things not only ... in my rain water is 27 - the TDS in the mineral water that my wife buys is 72. And she pays for for her water than I pay for ... that the water quality varied with how much rain they had had. After a really heavy rain the water was not particularly clean- ...
Reduction in water consumption due to collected rainwater. * Reduction in water consumption due to avoided purges (reduced ... Installing a rainwater filtration system next to the basin of clarified water used for the cooling tower would allow the power ... In order to deal with these water scarcity risks, a rainwater harvesting system was installed at the Combined Cycle Gas Turbine ... The solution was to install the rainwater filtration system (Figure 3) beside the basin of clarified water used as make-up of ...
Columbia Sportswear recently unveiled a new line of rain gear that is designed to be completely impervious to water. The ... Unlike other waterproof rain gear on the market, Columbias OutDry Extreme jackets are impervious to water, but also completely ... Columbia Sportswear recently unveiled a new line of rain gear that is designed to be completely impervious to water. The ... The internal layer is made up of a nylon liner that helps to wick water away from your skin. The two layers ultimately work ...
Raingardens, Rain Garden, Rainwater Harvesting, Rainwater Catchment, Renewable Water, Renewables News DFW, Dallas Fort Worth ... A rain garden requires an area where water can collect and infiltrate. Then simply adjusting the landscape so that water drains ... Rainwater Harvesting Renewable Energy Solar Electric Solar Hot Water Wind Energy Glossary ... Solar Hot Water Solar Pool Heating Rainwater Wind DFW Green Building e-Letter DFW Renewable Energy e-Letter DFW Sustainable ...
Collected rainwater can be used to do other things besides watering the garden. Use it to water your lawn, do laundry, fill ... Rainwater can reduce the reliance on city water and save resources, especially as water ordinances and restrictions tighten and ... Rainwater. Two things my girls have enjoyed doing this Spring: playing in the rain and helping me start the garden. The perfect ... It is also a great way to teach your children water conservation-and youll enjoy the lower water bills! ...
Water and light-filled condoms that resemble oversized droplets hang from the ceiling in Spanish studio Luz Interruptus Rain ... Luz Interruptus fills 3,000 condoms with water to create giant raindrops. Share:. ... The Rain Interactive piece was created for the Waterman Arts Centre in London, as part of the Totally Thames festival, and was ... "We wanted to highlight the vital need of water and how abhorrent it is to privatise it and trade it for the profit of just a ...
  • These events release sulfur and nitrogen compounds into the air while also providing particulates (smoke, ash and dust) for water vapor to clump around. (sciencing.com)
  • This lowers the pH of the rain from 7 to about 5, depending on the concentration of carbonic acid. (sciencing.com)
  • Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late The damages of forests by acid rain such as the case of Eastern Europe caught my attention, and I had to find the cause of acid rain that leads to mass destruction of forest. (rat-der-kuenste.de)
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