Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Ceiba: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.PanamaEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Self-Fertilization: The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Sequoia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE known for including some of the tallest trees.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Mediterranean Islands: Scattered islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The chief islands are the Balearic Islands (belong to Spain; Majorca and Minorca are among these), Corsica (belongs to France), Crete (belongs to Greece), CYPRUS (a republic), the Cyclades, Dodecanese and Ionian Islands (belong to Greece), MALTA (a republic), Sardinia and SICILY (belong to Italy). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p747)Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)BrazilWind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.Hymenaea: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain resins (RESINS, PLANT) and GLUCANS.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Clusiaceae: The mangosteen plant family (sometimes classified as Guttiferae; also known as Hypericaceae) of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes trees and shrubs with resinous, sticky sap, usually with broad-ended, oblong, leathery leaves with a strong, central vein, flowers with many stamens.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Ephedra: A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)EcuadorDisasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Zingiberales: This plant order includes 8 families, 66 genera, and about 1,800 species. These herbaceous perennials are mainly found in the wet tropics. Members include the banana family (MUSACEAE) and GINGER family (ZINGIBERACEAE).Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Annonaceae: The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)ArgentinaSeeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

Acute Chagas' disease in western Venezuela: a clinical, seroparasitologic, and epidemiologic study. (1/1038)

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected in 20% of the acute-phase patients. Asymptomatic individuals and patients with fever as the only sign of the disease made up 15% and 11.9% of the total acute cases, respectively. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that xenodiagnosis and hemoculture were the most reliable and concordant of the five parasitologic methods used; these two methods also showed the highest proportions in detecting any clinical symptomatic pattern in acute-phase patients. A similar high reliability and concordance was obtained with a direct agglutination test, an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and an ELISA as serologic tests, which also showed a higher proportion of positive detection of clinical patterns than parasitologic methods (P < 0.001). It is recommended that individuals coming from endemic areas showing mild and/or severe clinical manifestations should be suspected of being in contact or having been in contact with Trypanosoma cruzi, be referred for parasitologic and serologic evaluations to confirm the presumptive clinical diagnosis of acute Chagas' disease, and start specific treatment. The epidemiologic implications of the present findings are discussed and the use of similar methodology to evaluate other areas where Chagas' disease is endemic is suggested.  (+info)

Physiological responses of exercised-fatigued individuals exposed to wet-cold conditions. (2/1038)

Thirteen healthy and fit men [age = 27 +/- 8 (SD) yr, height = 177 +/- 5 cm, mass = 75 +/- 7 kg, body fat = 14 +/- 5%, maximal O2 consumption = 51 +/- 4 ml. kg-1. min-1] participated in an experiment designed to test their thermoregulatory response to a challenging cold exposure after 5 h of demanding mixed exercise during which only water was consumed. Subjects expended 7,314 +/- 741 kJ on cycling, rowing, and treadmill-walking machines, performed 8,403 +/- 1,401 kg. m of mechanical work during resistance exercises, and completed 120 inclined sit-ups. Subjects then assumed a seated position in a 10 degrees C air environment while wearing shorts, T-shirt, rain hat, and neoprene gloves and boots. After 30 min the subjects were showered continuously with cold water ( approximately 920 ml/min at 10 degrees C) on their backs accompanied by a 6 km/h wind for up to 4 h. Blood samples were taken from the nondominant arm every 30 min during the exposure and assayed for energy metabolites, hormones, indexes of hydration, and neurotransmitters. Counterbalanced control trials without prior exercise were also conducted. Blood insulin was higher during the control trial, whereas values of glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, cortisol, free triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were lower. Three subjects lasted the maximum duration of 4.5 h for control and fatigue trials, with final rectal temperatures of 36.43 +/- 0.21 and 36.08 +/- 0.49 degrees C, respectively. Overall, the duration of 172 +/- 68 (SD) min for the fatigue trial was not significantly different from that of the control trial (197 +/- 72 min) and, therefore, was not affected by the preexposure exercise. Although duration was positively correlated to body fatness and shivering intensity, the latter was not correlated to any physical characteristic or the fitness level of the individual.  (+info)

Differential perpetuation of malaria species among Amazonian Yanomami Amerindians. (3/1038)

To determine whether malaria perpetuates within isolated Amerindian villages in the Venezuelan Amazon, we surveyed malaria infection and disease among 1,311 Yanomami in three communities during a 16-month period. Plasmodium vivax was generally present in each of these small, isolated villages; asymptomatic infection was frequent, and clinical disease was most evident among children less than five years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-29.2) and among persons experiencing parasitemias > or = 1,000 parasites/mm3 of blood (OR = 45.0, 95% CI = 5.5-370.7). Plasmodium falciparum, in contrast, was less prevalent, except during an abrupt outbreak in which 72 infections resulted in symptoms in all age groups and at all levels of parasitemia, and occasionally were life-threatening. The observed endemic pattern of P. vivax infection may derive from the capacity of this pathogen to relapse, while the epidemic pattern of P. falciparum infection may reflect occasional introductions of strains carried by immigrants or residents of distant villages and the subsequent disappearance of this non-relapsing pathogen.  (+info)

Effect of chemotherapy on malaria transmission among Yanomami Amerindians: simulated consequences of placebo treatment. (4/1038)

To determine whether chemotherapy effectively reduces Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in isolated human populations, we followed two abrupt sequential outbreaks of malaria infection among Yanomami Amerindians and modeled the effect of chemotherapy and the consequences if no drug was available. A Macdonald-type mathematical model demonstrated that both outbreaks comprised a single epidemic event linked by an invisible outbreak in vector mosquitoes. The basic reproductive number, R0, from fitted values based on the treated epidemic was 2 during the initial phase of the epidemic, and waned as vector density decreased with the onset of the dry season. In the observed epidemic, 60 (45%) of 132 village residents were affected, and the treated outbreak ended after two months. Although the initial chemotherapy regimen was only marginally effective, the duration of human infectivity was reduced from an expected nine months to two weeks. In the absence of this intervention, the initial R0 value would have been 40, more than 60% of the population would have been infected, and more than 30% would have remained parasitemic until the next rainy season (about six months later). Another outbreak would then have ensued, and malaria probably would have remained endemic in this village. Our simulated placebo treatment permits us to conclude that even partially effective chemotherapeutic interventions, such as those in our study, interrupt serial transmission of P. falciparum among isolated human populations that are exposed to infection seasonally.  (+info)

Geographic information systems and the environmental risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil. (5/1038)

A geographic information system was constructed using maps of regional environmental features, Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in 30 representative municipalities, and snail distribution in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. Results indicate that population density and the duration of annual dry period are the most important determinants of prevalence of schistosomiasis in the areas selected for study. Maximum rainfall, total precipitation during three consecutive months, annual maximum or minimum temperatures, and diurnal temperature difference were not shown to be significant factors influencing S. mansoni prevalence in local populations or distribution of snail hosts. Prevalence of the disease was highest in the coastal areas of the state. Higher prevalence tended to occur in areas with latossolo soil type and transitional vegetation.  (+info)

Cyclospora cayetanensis infections in Haiti: a common occurrence in the absence of watery diarrhea. (6/1038)

Stool samples from a population-based cohort of mothers and children living in Leogane, Haiti were tested for Cyclospora cayetanensis from January 1997 through January 1998. Data on gastrointestinal symptoms were also collected. During the winter months of January to March, the infection was detected in 15-20% of the persons sampled. Most infections did not appear to be causing diarrhea and most infected persons had few oocysts detectable in concentrates of stool. The infection appears to have marked seasonality, with highest rates during the driest and coolest time of the year. It may be that in this tropical setting, high summer temperature is the critical environmental factor that influences the seasonality of infection. This study demonstrates that Cyclospora infections in Haiti are common in the general population.  (+info)

Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission I. Description of study site, general methodology, and study population. (7/1038)

A large-scale longitudinal cohort project was initiated in western Kenya in June 1992. The primary purpose of the project was to study Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a highly endemic area using a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which included epidemiology, entomology, and immunology. Between June 1992 and July 1994, pregnant women living in 15 rural villages were identified during a monthly census and 1,164 were enrolled. The women were followed-up throughout their pregnancy and they, along with their newborn infants and direct siblings of the infants' less than 15 years of age, were monitored over time. As of May 1995, 1,017 infants had been born to these women. This paper presents the design and general methodology used in this study and describes the initial experience with intense monitoring of a large population over a prolonged period.  (+info)

Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya. (8/1038)

All known Rift Valley fever virus outbreaks in East Africa from 1950 to May 1998, and probably earlier, followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. Analysis of this record and Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies, coupled with satellite normalized difference vegetation index data, shows that prediction of Rift Valley fever outbreaks may be made up to 5 months in advance of outbreaks in East Africa. Concurrent near-real-time monitoring with satellite normalized difference vegetation data may identify actual affected areas.  (+info)

  • This project was undertaken as part of the City of Ottawa's RAIN program and is a wonderful example of positive rainwater management in the Westboro area. (ecologyottawa.org)
  • A rain barrel is essentially a large tank with a spigot that sits under your home's gutter downspout to harvest rainwater from your roof. (wordpress.com)
  • Rainfall is measured using rain gauges . (wikipedia.org)
  • Rainfall :The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. (prezi.com)
  • The implementation of this new joint QC procedure is investigated, based on a comprehensive analysis of quality-sensitive parameters using the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model winds, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) rain data, and tropical buoy wind and precipitation data as reference, taking into account their spatial and temporal representation. (knmi.nl)
  • Casella is offering a fully automated dynamic calibration facility on its tipping bucket rain gauge production operation in response to demands for accurate measurement of high rainfall intensities. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity . (wikipedia.org)
  • 60 to over 100 inches during the months , October to February along the northeastern part of the region, while heavy rains occur along the southwestern part from April to August. (prezi.com)
  • The threat of heavy rain is on the way out, but heat & humidity work back in tomorrow. (wqad.com)
  • Finally, we'll begin to see a break in the heavy rain activity as early as this evening. (wqad.com)
  • A warm front sitting to the south of the Quad Cities will slowly work northward through the night, ending the threat for additional heavy rain. (wqad.com)
  • Beginning Tuesday afternoon and through much of Wednesday, a slow-moving cold front will draw up an impressive amount of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and bring back the threats for heavy rains. (wqad.com)
  • Even more concerning, areas to our north are also in line to see heavy rain. (wqad.com)
  • As per IMD prediction, Tamil Nadu and Puducherry are also likely to receive widespread, moderate rain with some isolated incidents of heavy downpour in the next three days. (covaipost.com)
  • Deputy Director General of Meteorology S Balachandran told media persons that there could be heavy rain over the next two days. (covaipost.com)
  • I have danced in the rain many times as a child and an adult, yet-really for the first time-I knew why I was dancing. (naturalflow.us)
  • All Casella tipping bucket rain gauges are WMO and BMO compliant and calibrated in full compliance with BS 7843-3.3:2005. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • So yes I'm praying for rain - 22nd October looks like a good day! (blogspot.com)
  • In the current ASCAT Wind Data Processor (AWDP), an MLE-based Quality control (QC) is adopted to filter poor-quality winds, which has proven to be effective in screening artifacts in the ASCAT winds, associated with increased sub-cell wind variability, notably under rain conditions. (knmi.nl)
  • I live in Ann Arbor on a pretty small parcel and there is not much room for rain storage and infiltration…or a garden. (hrwc.org)
  • The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither menstruation nor rain are the conditions we picture on a typical day walking down the street, yet both are natural flows of life and in fact necessary for life. (naturalflow.us)
  • The rain probability as a function of SA-derived singularity exponent (SE) parameter is calculated and compared with other rain-sensitive parameters, such as the MLE. (knmi.nl)
  • Identification of rain can help to better understand the impact of geophysical effects associated with rain on scatterometer wind quality, and to develop an improved QC approach for scatterometer data processing. (knmi.nl)
  • The results indicate that the SA is effective in detecting the presence of rain in ASCAT wind vector cells (WVCs). (knmi.nl)
  • Indeed, rain and wind variability as measured by the ASCAT SE appear well correlated. (knmi.nl)
  • The performance of SA for rain detection is validated using ASCAT Level-2 data collocated with satellite radiometer rain data. (knmi.nl)
  • Moreover, SA is a complementary rain indicator to the MLE parameter, thus showing great potential for an improved scatterometer QC. (knmi.nl)
  • One such example is from Terra New York , an eco-friendly rain gear company that has some of the chicest translucent waterproof outerwear we've ever seen. (urbanabstract.online)
  • Heavy rains struck eastern India for several days in mid-April 2010. (nasa.gov)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Pedestrians run from water splashing over a sea wall in Mumbai on Monday, June 24. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - A man struggles with his umbrella during heavy rain in Mumbai on June 24. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - A rickshaw driver bikes through heavy rain in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh state, on June 24. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Boatmen navigate a fast-moving river in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh state, on June 24. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Workers pack candles at a factory in Ahmedabad, Gujarat state, on June 24. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - A stranded pilgrim carrying a child is ziplined across a river with the help of Indo-Tibetan Border Police personnel in Govindghat, India, on June 23. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Police carry a child during efforts to help stranded Indian pilgrims on June 23 after a section of road was washed away in Govindghat. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Stranded Indian pilgrims make their way up a mountain in Govindghat on June 23. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Police personnel use a rope rescue system to transport stranded pilgrims across a river in Govindghat on June 23. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Severe flooding has left more than 50,000 people stranded in northern India. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - A man bathes from a hand pump as a local resident carries her belongings to safer place on the banks of the Yamuna River in New Delhi on June 19. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - An Indian man, who was evacuated due to rising waters, searches along the banks of the Yamuna River in New Delhi on June 21. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Buses and trucks are submerged in the rising waters of the Yamuna River near the Tibetan market in New Delhi on June 19. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Shopkeepers are using boats to traverse the rising waters of the Yamuna River at the Tibetan market in New Delhi on June 19. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Men watch the rising waters of the Yamuna River from a bridge in New Delhi on June 19. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Civil Defence volunteers warn people against attempting to catch floating pumpkins, watermelons and other objects from the rising waters of the Yamuna River in New Delhi on June 19. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Evacuees hug their family members after arriving by helicopter in Dehradun, the capital of the state of Uttarakhand on June 19. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - Hindu priests move their shelters from the banks of the Ganga river as the water level rises in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh state, on June 19. (cnn.com)
  • India lashed by monsoon rains - The Kedarnath Temple (C, foreground) is pictured amid flood destruction in the holy Hindu town of Kedarnath in Uttarakhand state on June 18. (cnn.com)
  • India, being in the tropics and receiving good spells of rain, had been a pioneer in RWH methods. (medindia.net)
  • Rain is also known or suspected on other planets, where it may be composed of methane , neon , sulfuric acid , or even iron rather than water. (wikipedia.org)
  • China's environmental watchdog warned in Beijing Friday that booming thermal power plants may worsen China's acid rain pollution if their sulfur dioxide emission is not well controlled. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • If their emissions are not well controlled, the acid rain pollution will probably worsen, " Pan said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Exhaust gas discharged by thermal power plants, which are based on coal burning, contains abundant sulfur dioxide a chemical causing acid rain. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The resulting acid rain costs annual loss of 110 billion yuan (US$13.3 billion), two or three percent of the annual Gross Domestic Production. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • You could add Acid rain to a list if you log in . (openlibrary.org)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Acid rain from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Depending on where you live, maybe you've heard of acid rain. (usgs.gov)
  • Now, acid rain is not pure acid falling from the sky, but rather it is rainfall or atmospheric moisture that has been mixed with elements and gases that have caused the moisture to become more acidic than normal. (usgs.gov)
  • But, acid rain can have a pH of about 5.0-5.5, and can even be in the 4 range in the northeastern United States, where there are a lot of industries and cars. (usgs.gov)
  • Dead or dying trees are a common sight in areas effected by acid rain like these woods in the Jezera Mountains in the Czech Republic. (usgs.gov)
  • Acid rain leaches aluminum from the soil. (usgs.gov)
  • Acid rain also removes minerals and nutrients from the soil that trees need to grow. (usgs.gov)
  • The precursors, or chemical forerunners, of acid rain formation result from both natural sources, such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) resulting from fossil fuel combustion. (usgs.gov)
  • Although acid-rain gases may originate in urban areas, they are often carried for hundreds of miles in the atmosphere by winds into rural areas. (usgs.gov)
  • The environment can generally adapt to a certain amount of acid rain. (usgs.gov)
  • But in areas, such as some of the Rocky Mountains and parts of the northwestern and southeastern United States, where limestone does not naturally occur in the soil, acid rain can harm the environment. (usgs.gov)
  • Many plants, such as evergreen trees, are damaged by acid rain and acid fog. (usgs.gov)
  • You also might notice how acid rain has eaten away the stone in some cities' buildings and stone artwork. (usgs.gov)
  • When you hear or read in the media about the effects of acid rain, you are usually told about the lakes, fish, and trees in New England and Canada. (usgs.gov)
  • In Europe, where buildings are much older and pollution levels have been ten times greater than in the United States, there is a growing awareness that pollution and acid rain are accelerating the deterioration of buildings and monuments. (usgs.gov)
  • The ecological effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in aquatic environments, such as streams, lakes, and marshes where it can be harmful to fish and other wildlife. (epa.gov)
  • Dead or dying trees are a common sight in areas effected by acid rain. (epa.gov)
  • In areas such as mountainous parts of the Northeast United States, the soil is thin and lacks the ability to adequately neutralize the acid in the rain water. (epa.gov)
  • Lakes that do not normally have a high level of acidity may temporarily experience effects of acid rain when the melting snow or downpour brings greater amounts of acidic deposition and the soil can't buffer it. (epa.gov)
  • It's not just the acidity of acid rain that can cause problems. (epa.gov)
  • Acid rain also contains nitrogen, and this can have an impact on some ecosystems. (epa.gov)
  • When acid rain and dry acidic particles fall to earth, the nitric and sulfuric acid that make the particles acidic can land on statues, buildings, and other manmade structures, and damage their surfaces. (epa.gov)
  • This brings up the question of acid rain. (bio.net)
  • Would the watering of my plants with rain water cause acid problems? (bio.net)
  • Prior to enactment of the U.S. Clean Air Act, unhindered industrial emissions were released into the air across the nation, with many of the chemicals falling back to Earth in the form of acid rain. (redorbit.com)
  • Although scientists have long known acid rain can severely decrease the diversity of plant and animal communities in fresh water lakes and ponds, little is known about how microscopic bacteria respond to acidification. (redorbit.com)
  • This Concept Cartoon is designed to provoke discussion and stimulate thinking around acid rain. (rsc.org)
  • The concept of 'acid rain' could be difficult for children to grasp fully. (rsc.org)
  • When rocks are eroded by acid rain, it can take a very long time for the erosion to be noticed by us. (rsc.org)
  • Assessment for Learning Chemistry: what are the effects of acid rain? (rsc.org)
  • Students work in a small team to explore the effects of acid rain. (rsc.org)
  • There is an experimental investigation followed up with a short field work task to identify and record evidence of the effects of acid rain in their local environment. (rsc.org)
  • Show a photograph, using a data projector if available, of a building affected by acid rain. (rsc.org)
  • Explain that they are going to be working in groups of four over an extended period to find out about the effects of acid rain in the laboratory and in the local environment. (rsc.org)
  • Outline Task 1 which is to plan an investigation in the laboratory to find out how acid rain affects certain rocks and metal over a period of three weeks. (rsc.org)
  • Graphic examples of acid rain effects will illuminate the learning objectives. (rsc.org)
  • Pour a small amount of 'acid rain' into each. (rsc.org)
  • What is Acid Rain? (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Acid rain is any form of precipitation with high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Most acid rain is caused by human activities. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • After it falls to Earth, acid rain enters water systems as runoff, and sinks into the ground. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • By designing cleaner power plants, and using fewer fossil fuels, we can reduce the number of pollutants that create acid rain. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Prince William and Kate will head to the civic square next where they'll be greeted by the hardy royal enthusiasts who've waited in the torrential rain for hours to meet them. (smh.com.au)
  • Workers drain flood water in the People's Square as torrential rain hits Jinhua, East China's Zhejiang province, on June 11, 2017. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • But for the Trail Blazers, who have suddenly gone cold in averaging 96 points while falling behind the Bulls 2-1 with Game 4 Wednesday, it always seems to start raining when the forecast should be for clear skies. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The Santa Ana winds, which fed the Southern California wildfires, were expected to dissipate Wednesday but fire officials say the Santa Ana winds season has just begun and no rain is in the forecast anytime soon, the Los Angeles Times reported Wednesday. (redorbit.com)
  • Rain ended play early on Sunday and between 6-15mm of rain is forecast for Monday. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The latest forecast set up another round of likely flash flooding from rain expected throughout the day. (usatoday.com)
  • Dubai, though unblessed by monsoon, is doing its best: artificial rain-making machines shower the visitors to its beaches, and an Arctic igloo-making team has been flown in from Canada. (economist.com)
  • For example, if you simply have no way to drain water from a low spot to another location, your best option may be to build a rain garden or dry well. (familyhandyman.com)
  • If you have a low spot in your yard that tends to collect and retain water, consider building a rain garden. (familyhandyman.com)
  • A rain garden is simply an area of your yard that's designed to catch water and is filled with water-loving plants. (familyhandyman.com)
  • A rain garden doesn't have to hold water like a pond. (familyhandyman.com)
  • You can add drainage and use the rain garden to hold the excess water until it has a chance to drain away. (familyhandyman.com)
  • Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • As it flows through the soil, acidic rain water can leach aluminum from soil clay particles and then flow into streams and lakes. (epa.gov)
  • I was wondering if rain water would get rid of this problem or at the very least if I could use rain water to flush out the existing deposits. (bio.net)
  • To look at conserving the water, the water available through rain is the most common source of freely available water which is pure and abundant. (sooperarticles.com)
  • The amount of water harvested depends certain factors like on the quantity of rain, the size of the surface from where the water is collected and the slope of the catchment area. (sooperarticles.com)
  • It is over such a backdrop that Rain Water Harvesting (RWH), as a method of conserving and improving water supply, has been attracting the attention of planners everywhere. (medindia.net)
  • Humans have traditionally depended on rains to recharge their ground water as well as ponds and lakes. (medindia.net)
  • Various civilizations have innovated and perfected different methods of harvesting rain water. (medindia.net)
  • Rajasthan, a rain- deficient region in the northwest, is known for its innovative tanks and ponds which are designed to conserve rain water. (medindia.net)
  • These include both public and private rain water harvesting systems. (medindia.net)
  • In houses with a functioning well or bore well, the rain water can also be used to recharge ground water, close to the well, by making deep percolation pits that hasten the absorption of water by the sand. (medindia.net)
  • But the choice of the ideal type of rain water harvesting structure depends on the type of the house and the nature of the soil and other factors. (medindia.net)
  • What Are The Benefits Of Rain Water Harvesting? (slideshare.net)
  • Tasmanian Rain made a, er, splash with the introduction of their flat water a few months back and now Cool Hunting is the first to announce their new sparkling version. (coolhunting.com)
  • Tasmanian Rain sparkling water comes in two sizes, 750ml and 375ml, and will be available at high-end restaurants, hotels and spas this November. (coolhunting.com)
  • The RBC Rain Garden at the London Wetland Centre is a living example of how to manage water successfully Author: Richard Sneesby, garden designer, author and lecturer. (issuu.com)
  • Funded by the Royal Bank of Canada, its first RBC Blue Water Project in Europe, the RBC Rain Garden opened in September 2010. (issuu.com)
  • Capturing water requires an understanding of where rain is falling so that it can be collected - mainly roofs and hard surfaces. (issuu.com)
  • A recycled shipping container has been reformed to be a garden pavilion: the roof collects rain water and channels it through a series of filtration systems. (issuu.com)
  • Peru's illegal gold mines are devastating the Amazon rain forest Small, unchecked mining operations in Peru are responsible for nearly 200 square miles of deforestation and mercury poisoning to the water. (usatoday.com)
  • This increases water vapour content in the atmosphere that condenses and falls as intense rain when the temperature cools down,' said Rajeevan. (org.in)
  • For homeowners who already have water lapping dangerously close to their homes, more rain is not welcome. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • TOKYO, July 16 (UPI) -- After enduring a destructive earthquake, people in northwest Japan Tuesday prepared for rains-triggered landslides and more aftershocks. (upi.com)
  • An official with the Japan Meteorological Agency warned that in addition to the aftershocks, some parts of Niigata Prefecture, which took the brunt of the 6.8-magnitude quake Monday, as well Nagano Prefecture to the north could see rains that could trigger landslides, the Kyodo news service reported Tuesday. (upi.com)
  • Acidity in rain is measured by collecting samples of rain and measuring its pH. (usgs.gov)
  • To find the distribution of rain acidity, weather conditions are monitored and rain samples are collected at sites all over the country. (usgs.gov)
  • In addition, the prevailing wind direction brings storms and pollution to the Northeast from the Midwest, and dust from the soil and rocks in the Northeastern United States is less likely to neutralize acidity in the rain. (usgs.gov)
  • At times, crowds of men and women under umbrellas circled in the rain-soaked open air courtyard of the mosque surrounding the shrine. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Lucknow, Jan 16 (PTI) Several places in western Uttar Pradesh and a few places in eastern Uttar Pradesh witnessed light to moderate rain on Thursday. (yahoo.com)
  • A dense fog is very likely at isolated places of western Uttar Pradesh on Friday, while rain or thundershowers are very likely at isolated places over the state on Saturday, the MeT department said. (yahoo.com)
  • That rain is usually acidic. (rsc.org)
  • Children need to understand here that the rain is only very slightly acidic, due to pollution. (rsc.org)
  • The unprecedented 944 mm rain in Mumbai on July 26, 2005 was the starting point for Rajeevan's quest. (org.in)
  • O.K. I didn't mean immediately, but the fall rains which will undoubtedly come will find themselves only descending where they should instead of flowing wherever they want to go. (seattlepi.com)
  • Commonly called rain birds these birds move in family groups and have a range of very distinctive calls which, if heard, are a pretty sure indicator that rain will fall within a couple of days. (cambridgeincolour.com)
  • Thy fate is the common fate of all, Into each life some rain must fall, Some days must be dark and dreary. (wikiquote.org)
  • If the rain is making it difficult to see, pull over, and wait out the storm, ideally in a place away from trees that could fall onto the car or guardrails that conduct electricity, says Julie Lee, former director of the AARP Driver Safety program. (aarp.org)
  • The threat of more rain also extended eastward along the Gulf Coast. (usatoday.com)
  • Portions of the south-central U.S. have been inundated with flooding rain, large hail and continuous lightning this week, and the threat is not yet over," AccuWeather Meteorologist Brandon Buckingham said . (usatoday.com)
  • For example, when it rains a lot, i.e. like during a thunderstorm, it comes cascading down off the roof and drowns the second floor balcony and reeks havoc for the flowers in the garden below. (seattlepi.com)
  • Have you noticed that the rain stopped the instant I had a roof above me? (wikiquote.org)
  • A roof collapsed from the rain over one of the classrooms," Porter said. (insurancejournal.com)
  • Set against the backdrop of Catania, in the shadow of the smouldering volcano of Etna, Blood Rain is a riveting tale of violence and murder, which reveals Aurelio Zen at his most desperate and driven. (faber.co.uk)
  • Set against the backdrop of Catania, in the shadow of the smouldering volcano of Etna, Blood Rain is a riveting tale of violence and murder, which reveals Aurelio Zen at his most desperate and driven.If you enjoyed the Inspector Zen Mystery series you may also like The Last Sherlock Holmes Story, another crime novel by Michael Dibdin. (faber.co.uk)
  • Blood Rain , the seventh Zen novel, was published in 1999. (faber.co.uk)
  • Oh, I'll keep my window open, I really hope you come in, with the silver rain. (lyricsfreak.com)
  • Now I'm sitting in my empty bed, all alone, Watching my room flood with Silver rain, oh I guess I'll just let the. (lyricsfreak.com)
  • Silver rain, oh I guess I'll just let the. (lyricsfreak.com)
  • In mid- to late April 2010, torrential rains and violent winds downed electric lines, damaged homes, uprooted trees, and displaced some 150,000 people in the eastern Indian state of Assam, according to news reports. (nasa.gov)
  • Tropical Depression 12, which might become Tropical Storm Henri before it makes landfall later today, could drop 3 to 5 inches of rain in areas where the lakes are already full and the ground is saturated, the National Hurricane Center in Miami said. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • For just as the rain and the snow pour down from heaven And do not return there until they saturate the earth, making it produce and sprout, Giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater, So my word that goes out of my mouth will be. (wikiquote.org)
  • He was born Jeong Ji-hoon 27 years ago, but his stage name, Rain, is perfect: He's like a force of nature as he bustles into a suite at the Ritz-Carlton earlier this week, winding up a North American press tour for his new movie, "Ninja Assassin," and on his way to perform a concert in Hong Kong. (sfgate.com)
  • Muslim pilgrims were forced to take shelter in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, on Wednesday as the opening of the annual hajj was hit by the heaviest rains in years and fears of swine flu. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Wang Shuaiguo, the founder of Rain Classroom, share d his insights 'In less than two years we have reached more near three million users covering nearly the 100% of Chinese universities. (prnewswire.com)
  • I (first came) to San Francisco four years ago for a commercial shoot at Golden Gate Bridge ," Rain said. (sfgate.com)
  • Much has been written about rain gardens over the past 15 years or so. (issuu.com)
  • In the emotional true story of an unexpected new beginning in the face of unimaginable loss, Lacey Chabert ("Party of Five," "Mean Girls") and Warren Christie ("Alphas," "Happy Town") star in the Hallmark Movie Channel Original World Premiere "The Color of Rain," premiering Saturday, May 31 (9p.m. (youtube.com)
  • Researchers believe that the alien world possibly rains glass sideways. (bing.com)
  • The outside world can be a dangerous place for a bee, especially when it rains. (cbc.ca)