The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
A radius fracture is a break in the bone that runs from the wrist to the elbow, located on the thumb-side of the forearm, which can occur at various sites such as near the wrist, middle of the bone or closer to the elbow.
Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.
A thick, fibrocartilaginous ligament at the metacarpophalageal joint.
Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)
Fracture of the lower end of the radius in which the lower fragment is displaced posteriorly.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.
The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.
Fractures of the articular surface of a bone.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.
Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.
The shaft of long bones.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UPPER EXTREMITY.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
"Dislocation is a traumatic injury wherein the normal articulation between two bones at a joint is disrupted, resulting in the complete separation of the bone ends and associated soft tissues from their usual position."
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Relating to the size of solids.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A dead body, usually a human body.
A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Breaks in bones.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by Cbfa1. (1/541)

Cbfa1, a developmentally expressed transcription factor of the runt family, was recently shown to be essential for osteoblast differentiation. We have investigated the role of Cbfa1 in endochondral bone formation using Cbfa1-deficient mice. Histology and in situ hybridization with probes for indian hedgehog (Ihh), collagen type X and osteopontin performed at E13.5, E14.5 and E17.5 demonstrated a lack of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the anlagen of the humerus and the phalanges and a delayed onset of hypertrophy in radius/ulna in Cbfa1-/- mice. Detailed analysis of Cbfa1 expression using whole mount in situ hybridization and a lacZ reporter gene reveled strong expression not only in osteoblasts but also in pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our studies identify Cbfa1 as a major positive regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Delayed osteon formation in long-bone diaphysis of an 11-year-old giant cow with dermal dysplasia. (2/541)

The transverse sections of radius diaphysis in an 11-year-old giant Holstein cow with dermal dysplasia of a collagen disorder-related skin fragility (Cow 1), probably based on increasing turnover of the dermal collagen as reported previously, were morphologically and physico-chemically investigated. Cow 1 had about one and a half times as much as the body weight of normal Holstein cows, aged 5 to 6.5 years with stabilized growth. The bone samples were compared with those of a 12-year-old Holstein cow as controls (Cow 2). It has been reported that the long-bone diaphysis of young calves and some herbivorous dinosaurs are occupied with laminar bone showing a concentric appositional formation, and that such a laminar bone is characteristically seen during the growing period of some farm animals and large dogs that show very rapid growth rates. Cow 1 had a smaller number of osteons than Cow 2 in the outer-half layer of the diaphysis, and showed an intermediate type between Cow 2 and a 1-year-old Holstein ox in the entire layers, although their bone volumes were similar among them. There were no significant differences in Ca and P concentrations and the Vickers microhardness values between the bone matrix of Cow 1 and Cow 2. The bone-collagen fibrils of Cow 1 showed uneven diameters and a disordered arrangement. Thus, there may be some relation in collagen formation between the bone matrix of Cow 1 and the dermis. From the remaining volume of laminar bone, Cow 1, aged 11 years, had probably shown growth until quite recently, so that we consider that Cow 1 became a giant animal, in the same way as some herbivorous dinosaurs.  (+info)

Mechanical function as an influence on the structure and form of bone. (3/541)

Rosette strain gauges were attached to the cranial and caudal aspects of the proximal half of the radius in eight skeletally mature female sheep; The sheep's radius has a slight cranially convex curvature. During walking it was deformed so that the cranial surface was subjected to tension aligned along the bone's lon axis, and the caudal surface to compression similarly aligned. The compressive strain on the caudal aspect of the bone was consistently larger (X 1-9) than the tensile strain on the cranial aspect. The thickness of the cortex did not reflect this difference but in younger animals the process of osteonal remodelling seemed further advanced in the cortex which was customarily subject to the larger deformation. The relevance of these findings is discussed in relation to the technique of internal fixation and to our understanding of the basis of the mechanical adaptability of bone.  (+info)

Excision of the head of the radius in rheumatoid arthritis. (4/541)

The results of excision of the head of the radius in forty-four elbows affected by rheumatoid arthritis are presented. Relief of pain was obtained in 90 per cent and an increase in the range of flexion and extension was seen in 70 per cent. Involvement of the humero-ulnar joint seen radiologically is no contra-indication to the operation; simple excision of the radial head often gives gratifying results; In our experience the relief of pain and increased range of movement have greatly reduced the need for total replacement arthroplasty.  (+info)

Tomographical description of tennis-loaded radius: reciprocal relation between bone size and volumetric BMD. (5/541)

Effects of long-term tennis loading on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and geometric properties of playing-arm radius were examined. Paired forearms of 16 tennis players (10 women) and 12 healthy controls (7 women), aged 18-24 yr, were scanned at mid and distal site by using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography. Tomographic data at midradius showed that tennis playing led to a slight decrease in cortical vBMD (-0.8% vs. nonplaying arm, P < 0. 05) and increase both in periosteal and endocoritcal bone area (+15. 2% for periosteal bone, P < 0.001; and +18.8% for endocortical bone, P < 0.001). These data suggest that, together with an increase in cortical thickness (+6.4%, P < 0.01), cortical drift toward periosteal direction resulted in improvement of mechanical characteristics of the playing-arm midradius. Enlargement of periosteal bone area was also observed at distal radius (+6.8%, P < 0.01), and the relative side-to-side difference in periosteal bone area was inversely related to that in trabecular vBMD (r = -0.53, P < 0.05). We conclude that an improvement of mechanical properties of young adult bone in response to long-term exercise is related to geometric adaptation but less to changes in vBMD.  (+info)

Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. (6/541)

Cbfa1, a transcription factor that belongs to the runt-domain gene family, plays an essential role in osteogenesis. Cbfa1-deficient mice completely lacked both intramembranous and endochondral ossification, owing to the maturational arrest of osteoblasts, indicating that Cbfa1 has a fundamental role in osteoblast differentiation. However, Cbfa1 was also expressed in chondrocytes, and its expression was increased according to the maturation of chondrocytes. Terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes expressed Cbfa1 extensively. The significant expression of Cbfa1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes was first detected at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), and its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes was most prominent at E14.5-16.5. In Cbfa1-deficient mice, whose entire skeleton was composed of cartilage, the chondrocyte differentiation was disturbed. Calcification of cartilage occurred in the restricted parts of skeletons, including tibia, fibula, radius, and ulna. Type X collagen, BMP6, and Indian hedgehog were expressed in their hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and collagenase 3 were not expressed at all, indicating that they are directly regulated by Cbfa1 in the terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes. Chondrocyte differentiation was severely disturbed in the rest of the skeleton. The expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor, Indian hedgehog, type X collagen, and BMP6 was not detected in humerus and femur, indicating that chondrocyte differentiation was blocked before prehypertrophic chondrocytes. These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Dynamic injury tolerances for long bones of the female upper extremity. (7/541)

This paper presents the dynamic injury tolerances for the female humerus and forearm derived from dynamic 3-point bending tests using 22 female cadaver upper extremities. Twelve female humeri were tested at an average strain rate of 3.7+/-1.3%/s. The strain rates were chosen to be representative of those observed during upper extremity interaction with frontal and side airbags. The average moment to failure when mass scaled for the 5th centile female was 128+/-19 Nm. Using data from the in situ strain gauges during the drop tests and geometric properties obtained from pretest CT scans, an average dynamic elastic modulus for the female humerus was found to be 24.4+/-3.9 GPa. The injury tolerance for the forearm was determined from 10 female forearms tested at an average strain rate of 3.94+/-2.0%/s. Using 3 matched forearm pairs, it was determined that the forearm is 21% stronger in the supinated position (92+/-5 Nm) versus the pronated position (75+/-7 Nm). Two distinct fracture patterns were seen for the pronated and supinated groups. In the supinated position the average difference in fracture time between the radius and ulna was a negligible 0.4+/-0.3 ms. However, the pronated tests yielded an average difference in fracture time of 3.6+/-1.2 ms, with the ulna breaking before the radius in every test. This trend implies that in the pronated position, the ulna and radius are loaded independently, while in the supinated position the ulna and radius are loaded together as a combined structure. To produce a conservative injury criterion, a total of 7 female forearms were tested in the pronated position, which resulted in the forearm injury criterion of 58+/-12 Nm when scaled for the 5th centile female. It is anticipated that these data will provide injury reference values for the female forearm during driver air bag loading, and the female humerus during side air bag loading.  (+info)

The effect of dietary calcium intake on bone mineral density in healthy adolescent girls and young women in southern Italy. (8/541)

BACKGROUND: The association between forearm bone mineral areal density (BMD) and dietary calcium, anthropometric characteristics, puberty, and physical activity was studied for the first time in 200 girls (aged 11-15 years) and 100 women (aged 20-23 years) living in Southern Italy. METHODS: The BMD was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at ultradistal (ud) and proximal (pr) radial sites and dietary calcium was evaluated using Food Frequency Questionnaires and detailed 3-day food records. RESULTS: For population samples grouped according to low and high calcium intake levels, forearm densities were quite similar among both girls and women. Independently of calcium intake, girls displayed strong correlations between ud/pr-BMD and age, bone age, weight, height and BMI. Furthermore, in girls of similar age and BMI, radial densities were substantially increased following menarche. Positive relationships between weight, BMI and both ud/pr-BMD were only evident in women with high calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that different calcium intake values do not appear to affect forearm mineral densities at the ages investigated, however puberty represents the major event in radial bone mass acquisition during adolescence.  (+info)

The radius is one of the two bones in the forearm in humans and other vertebrates. In humans, it runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. It is responsible for rotation of the forearm and articulates with the humerus at the elbow and the carpals at the wrist. Any medical condition or injury that affects the radius can impact the movement and function of the forearm and hand.

A radius fracture is a break in the bone that runs from the wrist to the elbow, located on the thumb side of the forearm. Radius fractures can occur as a result of a fall, direct blow to the forearm, or a high-energy collision such as a car accident. There are various types of radius fractures, including:

1. Distal radius fracture: A break at the end of the radius bone, near the wrist joint, which is the most common type of radius fracture.
2. Radial shaft fracture: A break in the middle portion of the radius bone.
3. Radial head and neck fractures: Breaks in the upper part of the radius bone, near the elbow joint.
4. Comminuted fracture: A complex radius fracture where the bone is broken into multiple pieces.
5. Open (compound) fracture: A radius fracture with a wound or laceration in the skin, allowing for communication between the outside environment and the fractured bone.
6. Intra-articular fracture: A radius fracture that extends into the wrist joint or elbow joint.
7. Torus (buckle) fracture: A stable fracture where one side of the bone is compressed, causing it to buckle or bend, but not break completely through.

Symptoms of a radius fracture may include pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising, deformity, limited mobility, and in some cases, numbness or tingling in the fingers. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the fracture but can range from casting to surgical intervention with implant fixation.

An ulna fracture is a break in the ulna bone, which is one of the two long bones in the forearm. The ulna is located on the pinky finger side of the forearm and functions to support the elbow joint and assist in rotation and movement of the forearm. Ulna fractures can occur at various points along the bone, including the shaft, near the wrist, or at the elbow end of the bone. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, deformity, limited mobility, and in some cases, numbness or tingling in the fingers. Treatment typically involves immobilization with a cast or splint, followed by rehabilitation exercises to restore strength and range of motion. In severe cases, surgery may be required to realign and stabilize the fractured bone.

A volar plate, also known as the palmar plate, is a strong band of tissue found in the joints of the hand (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints) that helps to provide stability and prevent hyperextension. It is located on the palmar or volar side (front side) of the joint, and it is attached to the proximal phalanx and the metacarpal bone. Injuries to the volar plate can occur due to sports accidents or falls, leading to conditions such as a volar plate injury or a gamekeeper's thumb.

Wrist injuries refer to damages or traumas affecting the structures of the wrist, including bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and cartilage. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as falls, accidents, sports-related impacts, or repetitive stress. Common types of wrist injuries include fractures (such as scaphoid fracture), sprains (like ligament tears), strains (involving muscles or tendons), dislocations, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising, limited mobility, and in severe cases, deformity or numbness. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

The wrist joint, also known as the radiocarpal joint, is a condyloid joint that connects the distal end of the radius bone in the forearm to the proximal row of carpal bones in the hand (scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones). It allows for flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation movements of the hand. The wrist joint is surrounded by a capsule and reinforced by several ligaments that provide stability and strength to the joint.

Malunited fractures refer to a type of fracture where the bones do not heal in their proper alignment or position. This can occur due to various reasons such as inadequate reduction of the fracture fragments during initial treatment, improper casting or immobilization, or failure of the patient to follow proper immobilization instructions. Malunited fractures can result in deformity, limited range of motion, and decreased functionality of the affected limb. Additional treatments such as surgery may be required to correct the malunion and restore normal function.

A Colles' fracture is a specific type of fracture in the distal end of the radius bone in the forearm, which is the larger of the two bones in the lower arm. This type of fracture occurs when the wrist is forcefully bent backward (dorsiflexion), often as a result of falling onto an outstretched hand.

In a Colles' fracture, the distal end of the radius bone breaks and is displaced downward and angulated backward, resulting in a characteristic "dinner fork" deformity. This type of fracture is more common in older individuals, particularly women with osteoporosis, but can also occur in younger people as a result of high-energy trauma.

Colles' fractures are typically treated with immobilization using a cast or splint to hold the bones in proper alignment while they heal. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the fracture, particularly if there is significant displacement or instability of the bone fragments.

Radiation scattering is a physical process in which radiation particles or waves deviate from their original direction due to interaction with matter. This phenomenon can occur through various mechanisms such as:

1. Elastic Scattering: Also known as Thomson scattering or Rayleigh scattering, it occurs when the energy of the scattered particle or wave remains unchanged after the collision. In the case of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., light), this results in a change of direction without any loss of energy.
2. Inelastic Scattering: This type of scattering involves an exchange of energy between the scattered particle and the target medium, leading to a change in both direction and energy of the scattered particle or wave. An example is Compton scattering, where high-energy photons (e.g., X-rays or gamma rays) interact with charged particles (usually electrons), resulting in a decrease in photon energy and an increase in electron kinetic energy.
3. Coherent Scattering: In this process, the scattered radiation maintains its phase relationship with the incident radiation, leading to constructive and destructive interference patterns. An example is Bragg scattering, which occurs when X-rays interact with a crystal lattice, resulting in diffraction patterns that reveal information about the crystal structure.

In medical contexts, radiation scattering can have both beneficial and harmful effects. For instance, in diagnostic imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, radiation scattering contributes to image noise and reduces contrast resolution. However, in radiation therapy for cancer treatment, controlled scattering of therapeutic radiation beams can help ensure that the tumor receives a uniform dose while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues.

Fracture fixation is a surgical procedure in orthopedic trauma surgery where a fractured bone is stabilized using various devices and techniques to promote proper healing and alignment. The goal of fracture fixation is to maintain the broken bone ends in correct anatomical position and length, allowing for adequate stability during the healing process.

There are two main types of fracture fixation:

1. Internal fixation: In this method, metal implants like plates, screws, or intramedullary rods are inserted directly into the bone to hold the fragments in place. These implants can be either removed or left in the body once healing is complete, depending on the type and location of the fracture.

2. External fixation: This technique involves placing pins or screws through the skin and into the bone above and below the fracture site. These pins are then connected to an external frame that maintains alignment and stability. External fixators are typically used when there is significant soft tissue damage, infection, or when internal fixation is not possible due to the complexity of the fracture.

The choice between internal and external fixation depends on various factors such as the type and location of the fracture, patient's age and overall health, surgeon's preference, and potential complications. Both methods aim to provide a stable environment for bone healing while minimizing the risk of malunion, nonunion, or deformity.

Bone plates are medical devices used in orthopedic surgery to stabilize and hold together fractured or broken bones during the healing process. They are typically made of surgical-grade stainless steel, titanium, or other biocompatible materials. The plate is shaped to fit the contour of the bone and is held in place with screws that are inserted through the plate and into the bone on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and alignment to the broken bones, allowing them to heal properly. Bone plates can be used to treat a variety of fractures, including those that are complex or unstable. After healing is complete, the bone plate may be left in place or removed, depending on the individual's needs and the surgeon's recommendation.

Pronation is a term used in the medical field, particularly in the study of human biomechanics and orthopedics. It refers to the normal motion that occurs in the subtalar joint of the foot, which allows the foot to adapt to various surfaces and absorb shock during walking or running.

During pronation, the arch of the foot collapses, and the heel rolls inward, causing the forefoot to rotate outward. This motion helps distribute the forces of impact evenly across the foot and lower limb, reducing stress on individual structures and providing stability during weight-bearing activities.

However, excessive pronation can lead to biomechanical issues and increase the risk of injuries such as plantar fasciitis, shin splints, and knee pain. Proper assessment and management of foot mechanics, including orthotics or physical therapy interventions, may be necessary to address excessive pronation and related conditions.

Fracture fixation, internal, is a surgical procedure where a fractured bone is fixed using metal devices such as plates, screws, or rods that are implanted inside the body. This technique helps to maintain the alignment and stability of the broken bone while it heals. The implants may be temporarily or permanently left inside the body, depending on the nature and severity of the fracture. Internal fixation allows for early mobilization and rehabilitation, which can result in a faster recovery and improved functional outcome.

An external fixator is a type of orthopedic device used in the treatment of severe fractures or deformities of bones. It consists of an external frame that is attached to the bone with pins or wires that pass through the skin and into the bone. This provides stability to the injured area while allowing for alignment and adjustment of the bone during the healing process.

External fixators are typically used in cases where traditional casting or internal fixation methods are not feasible, such as when there is extensive soft tissue damage, infection, or when a limb needs to be gradually stretched or shortened. They can also be used in reconstructive surgery for bone defects or deformities.

The external frame of the fixator is made up of bars and clamps that are adjustable, allowing for precise positioning and alignment of the bones. The pins or wires that attach to the bone are carefully inserted through small incisions in the skin, and are held in place by the clamps on the frame.

External fixators can be used for a period of several weeks to several months, depending on the severity of the injury and the individual's healing process. During this time, the patient may require regular adjustments and monitoring by an orthopedic surgeon or other medical professional. Once the bone has healed sufficiently, the external fixator can be removed in a follow-up procedure.

Carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist joint in humans and other primates. These bones are arranged in two rows, with four bones in each row. The proximal row includes the scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform bones, while the distal row includes the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones.

The carpal bones play an essential role in the function of the wrist joint by providing stability, support, and mobility. They allow for a wide range of movements, including flexion, extension, radial deviation, ulnar deviation, and circumduction. The complex structure of the carpal bones also helps to absorb shock and distribute forces evenly across the wrist during activities such as gripping or lifting objects.

Injuries to the carpal bones, such as fractures or dislocations, can be painful and may require medical treatment to ensure proper healing and prevent long-term complications. Additionally, degenerative conditions such as arthritis can affect the carpal bones, leading to pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility in the wrist joint.

Surgical casts are medical devices used to immobilize and protect injured body parts, typically fractured or broken bones, during the healing process. They are usually made of plaster or fiberglass materials that harden when wet and conform to the shape of the affected area once applied. The purpose of a surgical cast is to restrict movement and provide stability to the injured site, allowing for proper alignment and healing of the bones.

The casting process involves first aligning the broken bone fragments into their correct positions, often through manual manipulation or surgical intervention. Once aligned, the cast material is applied in layers, with each layer being allowed to dry before adding the next. This creates a rigid structure that encases and supports the injured area. The cast must be kept dry during the healing process to prevent it from becoming weakened or damaged.

Surgical casts come in various shapes and sizes depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may also include additional components such as padding, Velcro straps, or window openings to allow for regular monitoring of the skin and underlying tissue. In some cases, removable splints or functional braces may be used instead of traditional casts, providing similar support while allowing for limited movement and easier adjustments.

It is essential to follow proper care instructions when wearing a surgical cast, including elevating the injured limb, avoiding excessive weight-bearing, and monitoring for signs of complications such as swelling, numbness, or infection. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are necessary to ensure proper healing and adjust the cast if needed.

Supination is a term used in the medical field, particularly in the study of anatomy and orthopedics. It refers to the external rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces forward or upward. This motion allows for the hand to be in a position to perform actions such as lifting, holding, or throwing objects. It's also used to describe the movement of the foot when it rolls outward, which is important for normal walking and running gait. Abnormal supination can lead to issues with mobility and pain in the affected limb.

An intra-articular fracture is a type of fracture that involves the joint surface or articular cartilage of a bone. These types of fractures can occur in any joint, but they are most commonly seen in the weight-bearing joints such as the knee, ankle, and wrist.

Intra-articular fractures can be caused by high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or falls from significant heights, or by low-energy trauma, such as a simple fall in older adults with osteoporosis.

These types of fractures are often complex and may involve displacement or depression of the joint surface, which can increase the risk of developing post-traumatic arthritis. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to ensure optimal outcomes and minimize long-term complications. Treatment options for intra-articular fractures may include surgical fixation with plates, screws, or pins, as well as joint replacement in some cases.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

A comminuted fracture is a type of bone break where the bone is shattered into three or more pieces. This type of fracture typically occurs after high-energy trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a great height. Commminuted fractures can also occur in bones that are weakened by conditions like osteoporosis or cancer. Because of the severity and complexity of comminuted fractures, they often require extensive treatment, which may include surgery to realign and stabilize the bone fragments using metal screws, plates, or rods.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but neutrons are not a medical term. They are a fundamental particle in physics and chemistry. Neutrons are neutral particles found in the nucleus of an atom, alongside protons. Together, they make up the atomic nucleus, while electrons orbit around it.

Neutrons are not typically discussed in the context of medical definitions unless it's in relation to nuclear medicine, radiation therapy or other specialized medical fields that involve ionizing radiation and nuclear reactions. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gymnastics" is not a medical term. It is an athletic discipline consisting of physical exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

I'm not aware of a medical term called "bone wires." The term "wiring" is used in orthopedic surgery to describe the use of metal wire to hold bones or fractures in place during healing. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition or term related to "bone wires." It may be a colloquialism, a term used in a specific context, or a term from science fiction. If you could provide more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to give a more accurate answer.

The diaphysis refers to the shaft or middle portion of a long bone in the body. It is the part that is typically cylindrical in shape and contains the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow. The diaphysis is primarily composed of compact bone tissue, which provides strength and support for weight-bearing and movement.

In contrast to the diaphysis, the ends of long bones are called epiphyses, and they are covered with articular cartilage and contain spongy bone tissue filled with red marrow, which is responsible for producing blood cells. The area where the diaphysis meets the epiphysis is known as the metaphysis, and it contains growth plates that are responsible for the longitudinal growth of bones during development.

Fracture healing is the natural process by which a broken bone repairs itself. When a fracture occurs, the body responds by initiating a series of biological and cellular events aimed at restoring the structural integrity of the bone. This process involves the formation of a hematoma (a collection of blood) around the fracture site, followed by the activation of inflammatory cells that help to clean up debris and prepare the area for repair.

Over time, specialized cells called osteoblasts begin to lay down new bone matrix, or osteoid, along the edges of the broken bone ends. This osteoid eventually hardens into new bone tissue, forming a bridge between the fracture fragments. As this process continues, the callus (a mass of newly formed bone and connective tissue) gradually becomes stronger and more compact, eventually remodeling itself into a solid, unbroken bone.

The entire process of fracture healing can take several weeks to several months, depending on factors such as the severity of the injury, the patient's age and overall health, and the location of the fracture. In some cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote healing or ensure proper alignment of the bone fragments. This may include the use of casts, braces, or surgical implants such as plates, screws, or rods.

Diffusion, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they are evenly distributed throughout a space or solution. This passive transport mechanism does not require energy and relies solely on the random motion of particles. Diffusion is a vital process in many biological systems, including the exchange of gases in the lungs, the movement of nutrients and waste products across cell membranes, and the spread of drugs and other substances throughout tissues.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. Mathematics is not a medical term; it is a branch of science dedicated to the study of numbers, shapes, and structures. However, mathematics does have many applications in medicine, such as in modeling disease spread, analyzing medical images, or designing clinical trials. If you have any questions related to mathematics in a medical context, I'd be happy to help clarify those for you!

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

X-rays, also known as radiographs, are a type of electromagnetic radiation with higher energy and shorter wavelength than visible light. In medical imaging, X-rays are used to produce images of the body's internal structures, such as bones and organs, by passing the X-rays through the body and capturing the resulting shadows or patterns on a specialized film or digital detector.

The amount of X-ray radiation used is carefully controlled to minimize exposure and ensure patient safety. Different parts of the body absorb X-rays at different rates, allowing for contrast between soft tissues and denser structures like bone. This property makes X-rays an essential tool in diagnosing and monitoring a wide range of medical conditions, including fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects within the body.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

The elbow joint, also known as the cubitus joint, is a hinge joint that connects the humerus bone of the upper arm to the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion and extension movements of the forearm, as well as some degree of rotation. The main articulation occurs between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, while the radial head of the radius also contributes to the joint's stability and motion. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons surround and support the elbow joint, providing strength and protection during movement.

Biophysics is a interdisciplinary field that combines the principles and methods of physics with those of biology to study biological systems and phenomena. It involves the use of physical theories, models, and techniques to understand and explain the properties, functions, and behaviors of living organisms and their constituents, such as cells, proteins, and DNA.

Biophysics can be applied to various areas of biology, including molecular biology, cell biology, neuroscience, and physiology. It can help elucidate the mechanisms of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels, such as protein folding, ion transport, enzyme kinetics, gene expression, and signal transduction. Biophysical methods can also be used to develop diagnostic and therapeutic tools for medical applications, such as medical imaging, drug delivery, and gene therapy.

Examples of biophysical techniques include X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and computational modeling. These methods allow researchers to probe the structure, dynamics, and interactions of biological molecules and systems with high precision and resolution, providing insights into their functions and behaviors.

Ficoll is not a medical term itself, but it is a type of synthetic polymer that is often used in laboratory settings for various medical and scientific purposes. Ficoll is a high-molecular-weight coopolymer of sucrose and epichlorohydrin, which forms a highly flexible and soluble structure with unique physical properties.

In medicine and research, Ficoll is commonly used as a component in density gradient media for the separation and purification of biological cells, viruses, and other particles based on their size, density, or sedimentation rate. The most common application of Ficoll is in the preparation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from whole blood samples.

Ficoll-Paque is a commercially available density gradient medium that contains Ficoll and a high-density solution of sodium diatrizoate. When a blood sample is layered onto the Ficoll-Paque solution and centrifuged, the various cell types in the blood separate into distinct bands based on their densities. The PBMCs, which include lymphocytes, monocytes, and other immune cells, collect at the interface between the Ficoll layer and the plasma layer, allowing for easy isolation and further analysis.

Therefore, while not a medical term itself, Ficoll plays an essential role in many laboratory procedures used in medical research and diagnostics.

Viscosity is a physical property of a fluid that describes its resistance to flow. In medical terms, viscosity is often discussed in relation to bodily fluids such as blood or synovial fluid (found in joints). The unit of measurement for viscosity is the poise, although it is more commonly expressed in millipascals-second (mPa.s) in SI units. Highly viscous fluids flow more slowly than less viscous fluids. Changes in the viscosity of bodily fluids can have significant implications for health and disease; for example, increased blood viscosity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, while decreased synovial fluid viscosity can contribute to joint pain and inflammation in conditions like osteoarthritis.

Biophysical phenomena refer to the observable events and processes that occur in living organisms, which can be explained and studied using the principles and methods of physics. These phenomena can include a wide range of biological processes at various levels of organization, from molecular interactions to whole-organism behaviors. Examples of biophysical phenomena include the mechanics of muscle contraction, the electrical activity of neurons, the transport of molecules across cell membranes, and the optical properties of biological tissues. By applying physical theories and techniques to the study of living systems, biophysicists seek to better understand the fundamental principles that govern life and to develop new approaches for diagnosing and treating diseases.

Gel chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. It uses a stationary phase that consists of a gel matrix made up of cross-linked polymers, such as dextran, agarose, or polyacrylamide. The gel matrix contains pores of various sizes, which allow smaller molecules to penetrate deeper into the matrix while larger molecules are excluded.

In gel chromatography, a mixture of molecules is loaded onto the top of the gel column and eluted with a solvent that moves down the column by gravity or pressure. As the sample components move down the column, they interact with the gel matrix and get separated based on their size. Smaller molecules can enter the pores of the gel and take longer to elute, while larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute more quickly.

Gel chromatography is commonly used to separate and purify proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules based on their size and molecular weight. It is also used in the analysis of polymers, colloids, and other materials with a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine.

Forearm injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the anatomy and function of the forearm, which is the area between the elbow and wrist. This region consists of two long bones (the radius and ulna) and several muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels that enable movements such as flexion, extension, pronation, and supination of the hand and wrist.

Common forearm injuries include:

1. Fractures: Breaks in the radius or ulna bones can occur due to high-energy trauma, falls, or sports accidents. These fractures may be simple (stable) or compound (displaced), and might require immobilization, casting, or surgical intervention depending on their severity and location.

2. Sprains and Strains: Overstretching or tearing of the ligaments connecting the bones in the forearm or the muscles and tendons responsible for movement can lead to sprains and strains. These injuries often cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility.

3. Dislocations: In some cases, forceful trauma might result in the dislocation of the radioulnar joint, where the ends of the radius and ulna meet. This injury can be extremely painful and may necessitate immediate medical attention to realign the bones and stabilize the joint.

4. Tendonitis: Repetitive motions or overuse can cause inflammation and irritation of the tendons in the forearm, resulting in a condition known as tendonitis. This injury typically presents with localized pain, swelling, and stiffness that worsen with activity.

5. Nerve Injuries: Direct trauma, compression, or stretching can damage nerves in the forearm, leading to numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the hand and fingers. Common nerve injuries include radial nerve neuropathy and ulnar nerve entrapment.

6. Compartment Syndrome: Forearm compartment syndrome occurs when increased pressure within one of the forearm's fascial compartments restricts blood flow to the muscles, nerves, and tissues inside. This condition can result from trauma, bleeding, or swelling and requires immediate medical intervention to prevent permanent damage.

Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing forearm injuries and ensuring optimal recovery. Patients should consult with a healthcare professional if they experience persistent pain, swelling, stiffness, weakness, or numbness in their forearms or hands.

"Physicochemical phenomena" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, physicochemical phenomena refer to the physical and chemical interactions and processes that occur within living organisms or biological systems. These phenomena can include various properties and reactions such as pH levels, osmotic pressure, enzyme kinetics, and thermodynamics, among others.

In a broader context, physicochemical phenomena play an essential role in understanding the mechanisms of drug action, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. For instance, the solubility, permeability, and stability of drugs are all physicochemical properties that can affect their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) within the body.

Therefore, while not a medical definition per se, an understanding of physicochemical phenomena is crucial to the study and practice of pharmacology, toxicology, and other related medical fields.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

In the context of medical terminology, "solutions" refers to a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, in which one substance (the solute) is uniformly distributed within another substance (the solvent). The solvent is typically the greater component of the solution and is capable of dissolving the solute.

Solutions can be classified based on the physical state of the solvent and solute. For instance, a solution in which both the solvent and solute are liquids is called a liquid solution or simply a solution. A solid solution is one where the solvent is a solid and the solute is either a gas, liquid, or solid. Similarly, a gas solution refers to a mixture where the solvent is a gas and the solute can be a gas, liquid, or solid.

In medical applications, solutions are often used as vehicles for administering medications, such as intravenous (IV) fluids, oral rehydration solutions, eye drops, and topical creams or ointments. The composition of these solutions is carefully controlled to ensure the appropriate concentration and delivery of the active ingredients.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

Ununited fracture is a medical term used to describe a fractured bone that has failed to heal properly. This condition is also known as a nonunion fracture. In a normal healing process, the broken ends of the bone will grow together, or "unite," over time as new bone tissue forms. However, in some cases, the bones may not reconnect due to various reasons such as infection, poor blood supply, excessive motion at the fracture site, or inadequate stabilization of the fracture.

Ununited fractures can cause significant pain, swelling, and deformity in the affected area. They may also lead to a decreased range of motion, weakness, and instability in the joint near the fracture. Treatment for ununited fractures typically involves surgical intervention to promote bone healing, such as bone grafting or internal fixation with screws or plates. In some cases, electrical stimulation or ultrasound therapy may also be used to help promote bone growth and healing.

Physical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the fundamental principles and laws governing the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular and atomic levels. It combines elements of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering to study the properties, composition, structure, and transformation of matter. Key areas of focus in physical chemistry include thermodynamics, kinetics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy.

In essence, physical chemists aim to understand how and why chemical reactions occur, what drives them, and how they can be controlled or predicted. This knowledge is crucial for developing new materials, medicines, energy technologies, and other applications that benefit society.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

A closed fracture, also known as a simple fracture, is a type of bone break where the skin remains intact and there is no open wound. The bone may be broken in such a way that it does not pierce the skin, but still requires medical attention for proper diagnosis, treatment, and healing. Closed fractures can range from hairline cracks to complete breaks and can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. It is important to seek immediate medical care if a closed fracture is suspected, as improper healing can lead to long-term complications such as decreased mobility, chronic pain, or deformity.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a technique commonly used in the field of medical research and diagnostics. XRD is a form of analytical spectroscopy that uses the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction to investigate the crystallographic structure of materials. When a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal, it is scattered in specific directions and with specific intensities that are determined by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. By measuring these diffraction patterns, researchers can determine the crystal structures of various materials, including biological macromolecules such as proteins and viruses.

In the medical field, XRD is often used to study the structure of drugs and drug candidates, as well as to analyze the composition and structure of tissues and other biological samples. For example, XRD can be used to investigate the crystal structures of calcium phosphate minerals in bone tissue, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of bone formation and disease. Additionally, XRD is sometimes used in the development of new medical imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast X-ray imaging, which has the potential to improve the resolution and contrast of traditional X-ray images.

A Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) of bone is a relatively uncommon, locally aggressive tumor that can sometimes become malignant. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells which are distributed throughout the tumor tissue. These giant cells are thought to be derived from osteoclasts, which are specialized cells responsible for bone resorption.

GCTs typically affect adults in their 20s and 30s, with a slight female predominance. The most common sites of involvement include the long bones near the knee (distal femur and proximal tibia), as well as the distal radius, sacrum, and spine.

The tumor usually presents as pain and swelling in the affected area, sometimes accompanied by restricted mobility or pathological fractures due to bone weakening. The diagnosis is typically made based on imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI) and confirmed through a biopsy.

Treatment options for GCTs of bone may include intralesional curettage with or without the use of adjuvant therapies (like phenol, liquid nitrogen, or cement), radiation therapy, or surgical resection. In some cases, systemic treatments like denosumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting RANKL, may be used to control the growth and spread of the tumor. Regular follow-ups are essential to monitor for potential recurrence, which can occur in up to 50% of cases within five years after treatment.

Congenital Upper Extremity Deformities refer to physical abnormalities or malformations of the upper limb (arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand) that are present at birth. These deformities can vary greatly in severity, complexity, and impact on function and appearance. They may result from genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both during fetal development. Examples of congenital upper extremity deformities include:

1. Radial club hand: A condition where the radius bone in the forearm is underdeveloped or absent, causing the hand to turn outward and the wrist to bend inward.
2. Club foot of the arm: Also known as congenital vertical talus, this deformity affects the ankle and foot, causing them to point upwards. In the upper extremity, it can lead to limited mobility and function.
3. Polydactyly: The presence of extra fingers or toes, which can be fully formed or rudimentary.
4. Syndactyly: Fusion or webbing of fingers or toes.
5. Radial longitudinal deficiency: A spectrum of radial ray anomalies that includes radial club hand and other associated malformations.
6. Ulnar longitudinal deficiency: Underdevelopment or absence of the ulna bone, which can lead to deformities in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
7. Amniotic band syndrome: A condition where fibrous bands in the amniotic sac entangle and restrict the growth of fetal parts, including the upper limbs.
8. Cleidocranial dysplasia: A genetic disorder characterized by underdeveloped or absent collarbones, delayed closing of the skull bones, and other skeletal abnormalities, including shortened or deformed upper extremities.
9. Arthrogryposis: A group of conditions characterized by joint contractures and stiffness, which can affect any part of the body, including the upper extremities.

Treatment for congenital upper extremity deformities typically involves a combination of surgical interventions, physical therapy, bracing, or prosthetics to improve function, appearance, and quality of life.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

The scaphoid bone is one of the eight carpal bones located in the wrist, which connect the forearm bones (radius and ulna) to the hand bones (metacarpals). It is situated on the thumb side of the wrist and has a unique shape that resembles a boat or a small cashew nut. The scaphoid bone plays a crucial role in the mobility and stability of the wrist joint. Injuries to this bone, such as fractures or dislocations, are common in sports activities, falls, or accidents and may require medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jupiter" is not a medical term. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system, known for its Great Red Spot, a storm that has been raging on the planet for at least 300 years. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to help answer those!

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

A dislocation is a condition in which a bone slips out of its normal position in a joint. This can happen as a result of trauma or injury, such as a fall or direct blow to the body. Dislocations can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected area. In some cases, a dislocation may also damage surrounding tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

Dislocations are typically treated by reducing the dislocation, which means putting the bone back into its normal position. This is usually done with the help of medication to relieve pain and relaxation techniques to help the person stay still during the reduction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or if the dislocation cannot be reduced through other methods. After the dislocation has been reduced, the joint may be immobilized with a splint or sling to allow it to heal properly.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you have a dislocation. If left untreated, a dislocation can lead to further complications, such as joint instability and chronic pain.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thermodynamics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. However, the principles of thermodynamics can be applied to biological systems, including those in the human body, such as in the study of metabolism or muscle function. But in a medical context, "thermodynamics" would not be a term used independently as a diagnosis, treatment, or any medical condition.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Small angle scattering (SAS) in the context of medical physics refers to a technique used to study the structure of non-crystalline materials at the nanoscale. It is called "small angle" because the scattering angles are very small, typically less than a few degrees. This occurs when X-rays, neutrons, or electrons interact with a sample and are scattered in various directions. The intensity of the scattered radiation is measured as a function of the scattering angle, which provides information about the size, shape, and spatial distribution of the nanostructures within the sample. SAS can be used to study a wide range of biological and materials science samples, including proteins, polymers, colloids, and porous materials.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Rare earth metals, also known as rare earth elements, are a group of 17 metallic elements found in the periodic table. They include:

1. Lanthanum (La)
2. Cerium (Ce)
3. Praseodymium (Pr)
4. Neodymium (Nd)
5. Promethium (Pm)
6. Samarium (Sm)
7. Europium (Eu)
8. Gadolinium (Gd)
9. Terbium (Tb)
10. Dysprosium (Dy)
11. Holmium (Ho)
12. Erbium (Er)
13. Thulium (Tm)
14. Ytterbium (Yb)
15. Lutetium (Lu)
1

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Dextrans are a type of complex glucose polymers that are formed by the action of certain bacteria on sucrose. They are branched polysaccharides consisting of linear chains of α-1,6 linked D-glucopyranosyl units with occasional α-1,3 branches.

Dextrans have a wide range of applications in medicine and industry. In medicine, dextrans are used as plasma substitutes, volume expanders, and anticoagulants. They are also used as carriers for drugs and diagnostic agents, and in the manufacture of immunoadsorbents for the removal of toxins and pathogens from blood.

Dextrans can be derived from various bacterial sources, but the most common commercial source is Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512(F) or L. dextranicum. The molecular weight of dextrans can vary widely, ranging from a few thousand to several million Daltons, depending on the method of preparation and purification.

Dextrans are generally biocompatible and non-toxic, but they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Therefore, their use as medical products requires careful monitoring and testing for safety and efficacy.

The metacarpus is the medical term for the part of the hand located between the carpus (wrist) and the digits (fingers). It consists of five bones, known as the metacarpal bones, which are numbered 1 to 5 from the thumb side to the little finger side. Each metacarpal bone has a base, a shaft, and a head. The bases of the metacarpal bones articulate with the carpal bones to form the wrist joint, while the heads of the metacarpal bones form the knuckles at the back of the hand.

The metacarpus plays an essential role in hand function as it provides stability and support for the movement of the fingers and thumb. Injuries or conditions affecting the metacarpus can significantly impact hand function, causing pain, stiffness, weakness, or deformity.

Orthopedic manipulation is a hands-on technique that is used by healthcare professionals, such as orthopedic doctors, chiropractors, and physical therapists, to diagnose and treat muscle and joint disorders. This manual procedure involves moving the joints or soft tissues in a specific direction and amplitude with the aim of improving joint mobility, reducing pain, relieving muscle tension, and enhancing overall function.

Orthopedic manipulation can be performed on various parts of the body, including the spine, extremities, and cranial structures. It is often used as a complementary treatment alongside other therapeutic interventions, such as exercise, medication, or surgery, to manage a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions, including but not limited to:

* Back pain and stiffness
* Neck pain and stiffness
* Joint pain and inflammation
* Muscle spasms and tension
* Headaches and migraines
* Disc disorders
* Sprains and strains
* Postural dysfunctions

It is important to note that orthopedic manipulation should only be performed by trained and licensed healthcare professionals, as improper techniques can lead to injury or further damage. Patients should consult with their healthcare provider to determine if orthopedic manipulation is an appropriate treatment option for their specific condition.

A forelimb is a term used in animal anatomy to refer to the upper limbs located in the front of the body, primarily involved in movement and manipulation of the environment. In humans, this would be equivalent to the arms, while in quadrupedal animals (those that move on four legs), it includes the structures that are comparable to both the arms and legs of humans, such as the front legs of dogs or the forepaws of cats. The bones that make up a typical forelimb include the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

The Haversian system, also known as the osteon, is the basic unit of structure in compact bone. It was first described by Clopton Havers in 1691. The Haversian system consists of a central canal called the Haversian canal, which contains blood vessels and nerve fibers. Surrounding the Haversian canal are concentric lamellae, which are layers of mineralized matrix. These lamellae are composed of collagen fibrils arranged in a parallel pattern.

Lacunae, or small spaces, are located between the lamellae and contain osteocytes, which are bone cells that help maintain bone health by regulating the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the bone tissue and the bloodstream. Canaliculi, or tiny channels, connect the lacunae to one another and to the Haversian canal, allowing for the movement of fluids and the exchange of nutrients and waste products.

The Haversian system is responsible for the strength and resilience of compact bone. It allows for the distribution of mechanical stresses and strains throughout the bone tissue, helping to prevent fractures. The Haversian systems are interconnected with one another through Volkmann's canals, which are perpendicular to the Haversian canals and allow for the exchange of fluids and nutrients between adjacent Haversian systems.

Ultracentrifugation is a medical and laboratory technique used for the separation of particles of different sizes, densities, or shapes from a mixture based on their sedimentation rates. This process involves the use of a specialized piece of equipment called an ultracentrifuge, which can generate very high centrifugal forces, much greater than those produced by a regular centrifuge.

In ultracentrifugation, a sample is placed in a special tube and spun at extremely high speeds, causing the particles within the sample to separate based on their size, shape, and density. The larger or denser particles will sediment faster and accumulate at the bottom of the tube, while smaller or less dense particles will remain suspended in the solution or sediment more slowly.

Ultracentrifugation is a valuable tool in various fields, including biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It can be used to purify and concentrate viruses, subcellular organelles, membrane fractions, ribosomes, DNA, and other macromolecules from complex mixtures. The technique can also provide information about the size, shape, and density of these particles, making it a crucial method for characterizing and studying their properties.

Hand strength refers to the measure of force or power that an individual can generate using the muscles of the hand and forearm. It is often assessed through various tests, such as grip strength dynamometry, which measures the maximum force exerted by the hand when squeezing a device called a handgrip dynanometer. Hand strength is important for performing daily activities, maintaining independence, and can be indicative of overall health and well-being. Reduced hand strength may be associated with conditions such as neuromuscular disorders, arthritis, or injuries.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

I believe you are referring to "bone pins" or "bone nails" rather than "bone nails." These terms are used in the medical field to describe surgical implants made of metal or biocompatible materials that are used to stabilize and hold together fractured bones during the healing process. They can also be used in spinal fusion surgery to provide stability and promote bone growth between vertebrae.

Bone pins or nails typically have a threaded or smooth shaft, with a small diameter that allows them to be inserted into the medullary canal of long bones such as the femur or tibia. They may also have a head or eyelet on one end that allows for attachment to external fixation devices or other surgical instruments.

The use of bone pins and nails has revolutionized orthopedic surgery, allowing for faster healing times, improved stability, and better functional outcomes for patients with fractures or spinal deformities.

Ocular refraction is a medical term that refers to the bending of light as it passes through the optical media of the eye, including the cornea and lens. This process allows the eye to focus light onto the retina, creating a clear image. The refractive power of the eye is determined by the curvature and transparency of these structures.

In a normal eye, light rays are bent or refracted in such a way that they converge at a single point on the retina, producing a sharp and focused image. However, if the curvature of the cornea or lens is too steep or too flat, the light rays may not converge properly, resulting in a refractive error such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), or astigmatism.

Ocular refraction can be measured using a variety of techniques, including retinoscopy, automated refraction, and subjective refraction. These measurements are used to determine the appropriate prescription for corrective lenses such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. In some cases, ocular refractive errors may be corrected surgically through procedures such as LASIK or PRK.

The fibula is a slender bone located in the lower leg of humans and other vertebrates. It runs parallel to the larger and more robust tibia, and together they are known as the bones of the leg or the anterior tibial segment. The fibula is the lateral bone in the leg, positioned on the outside of the tibia.

In humans, the fibula extends from the knee joint proximally to the ankle joint distally. Its proximal end, called the head of the fibula, articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia and forms part of the inferior aspect of the knee joint. The narrowed portion below the head is known as the neck of the fibula.

The shaft of the fibula, also called the body of the fibula, is a long, thin structure that descends from the neck and serves primarily for muscle attachment rather than weight-bearing functions. The distal end of the fibula widens to form the lateral malleolus, which is an important bony landmark in the ankle region. The lateral malleolus articulates with the talus bone of the foot and forms part of the ankle joint.

The primary functions of the fibula include providing attachment sites for muscles that act on the lower leg, ankle, and foot, as well as contributing to the stability of the ankle joint through its articulation with the talus bone. Fractures of the fibula can occur due to various injuries, such as twisting or rotational forces applied to the ankle or direct trauma to the lateral aspect of the lower leg.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stars, Celestial" is not a medical term. The term "stars" or "celestial bodies" is used in astronomy to refer to large, luminous spheres of plasma held together by gravity. They produce light and heat from the fusion of hydrogen into helium at their cores.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

A splint is a device used to support, protect, and immobilize injured body parts, such as bones, joints, or muscles. It can be made from various materials like plastic, metal, or fiberglass. Splints are often used to keep the injured area in a stable position, reducing pain, swelling, and further damage while the injury heals. They come in different shapes and sizes, tailored to fit specific body parts and injuries. A splint can be adjustable or custom-made, depending on the patient's needs. It is essential to follow healthcare professionals' instructions for using and caring for a splint to ensure proper healing and prevent complications.

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

A lipid bilayer is a thin membrane made up of two layers of lipid molecules, primarily phospholipids. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the lipids face outwards, coming into contact with watery environments on both sides, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails point inward, away from the aqueous surroundings. This unique structure allows lipid bilayers to form a stable barrier that controls the movement of molecules and ions in and out of cells and organelles, thus playing a crucial role in maintaining cellular compartmentalization and homeostasis.

In the context of medicine, the term "elements" generally refers to the basic constituents or parts that make up a whole. These can include chemical elements, such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which are the building blocks of biological molecules like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.

However, "elements" can also refer more broadly to the fundamental components of a system or process. For example, in traditional humorism, one of the ancient medical systems, the four "elements" were considered to be black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood, which were believed to correspond to different temperaments and bodily functions.

In modern medicine, the term is less commonly used, but it may still refer to the basic components of a biological or chemical system, such as the elements of a chemical reaction or the building blocks of a cell.

In the context of medicine and physiology, permeability refers to the ability of a tissue or membrane to allow the passage of fluids, solutes, or gases. It is often used to describe the property of the capillary walls, which control the exchange of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The permeability of a membrane can be influenced by various factors, including its molecular structure, charge, and the size of the molecules attempting to pass through it. A more permeable membrane allows for easier passage of substances, while a less permeable membrane restricts the movement of substances.

In some cases, changes in permeability can have significant consequences for health. For example, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (a specialized type of capillary that regulates the passage of substances into the brain) has been implicated in a number of neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrodynamics" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Hydrodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of fluids and the forces acting on them. It is commonly used in fields such as engineering, particularly in the design of fluid-handling systems, and in the study of phenomena like water waves and blood flow in certain scientific contexts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Corneal topography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique used to create a detailed map of the surface curvature of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. This procedure provides valuable information about the shape and condition of the cornea, helping eye care professionals assess various eye conditions such as astigmatism, keratoconus, and other corneal abnormalities. It can also be used in contact lens fitting, refractive surgery planning, and post-surgical evaluation.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

Metals and alkalis are two types of chemical species with different properties and behaviors. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Metals: In general, metals are elements that are shiny, solid (with some exceptions like mercury), good conductors of heat and electricity, and malleable (can be beaten into thin sheets) and ductile (can be drawn into wires). They tend to lose electrons easily and form positively charged ions called cations. Many metals are also reactive, meaning they can react with other elements or compounds to form new substances. Examples of metals include iron, copper, silver, gold, aluminum, and sodium.

2. Alkalis: Alkalis are basic compounds that have a pH greater than 7. They can neutralize acids and form salts. Alkalis can be soluble in water or insoluble, and they tend to react with acids to produce water and a salt. Examples of alkalis include sodium hydroxide (lye), potassium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide.

It's worth noting that not all metals are alkalis, and not all alkalis are metals. Some metals, like aluminum and zinc, can react with strong bases to form alkali solutions, but they are not themselves alkalis. Similarly, some non-metallic elements, like hydrogen and carbon, can form basic compounds, but they are not considered alkalis either.

Neutron diffraction, also known as elastic neutron scattering, is not primarily a medical term, but rather a scientific technique used in various fields including physics, chemistry, and materials science. However, it can have indirect applications in the medical field, such as in the study of biological structures using neutron scattering techniques.

Neutron diffraction is a process that occurs when a beam of neutrons interacts with a material, causing the neutrons to scatter in various directions. The scattered neutrons carry information about the structure and arrangement of atoms within the material. By analyzing the patterns of scattered neutrons, researchers can determine details about the atomic and magnetic structure of materials at the molecular level.

In the context of medical research, neutron diffraction can be used to study the structures of biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, which are crucial for understanding their functions and interactions within living organisms. This information can contribute to advancements in drug design, development, and delivery, as well as a better understanding of disease mechanisms at the molecular level.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a family of synthetic, water-soluble polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. They are commonly used in the medical field as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations due to their ability to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. PEGs can also be used as laxatives to treat constipation or as bowel cleansing agents prior to colonoscopy examinations. Additionally, some PEG-conjugated drugs have been developed for use in targeted cancer therapies.

In a medical context, PEGs are often referred to by their average molecular weight, such as PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 1500, and so on. Higher molecular weight PEGs tend to be more viscous and have longer-lasting effects in the body.

It's worth noting that while PEGs are generally considered safe for use in medical applications, some people may experience allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to these compounds. Prolonged exposure to high molecular weight PEGs has also been linked to potential adverse effects, such as decreased fertility and developmental toxicity in animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the long-term safety of PEGs in humans.

An open fracture, also known as a compound fracture, is a type of bone injury in which the bone breaks and penetrates through the skin, creating an open wound. This condition exposes the fractured bone to the external environment, increasing the risk of infection and complicating the healing process. Open fractures can result from high-energy trauma such as car accidents, falls from significant heights, or industrial incidents. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper treatment and prevention of infection.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Rheology is not a term that is specific to medicine, but rather it is a term used in the field of physics to describe the flow and deformation of matter. It specifically refers to the study of how materials flow or deform under various stresses or strains. This concept can be applied to various medical fields such as studying the flow properties of blood (hematology), understanding the movement of tissues and organs during surgical procedures, or analyzing the mechanical behavior of biological materials like bones and cartilages.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

The term "extraterrestrial environment" is not typically used in a medical context, but rather in the fields of astronomy and astrobiology. It generally refers to any physical environment outside of Earth, including the surfaces and atmospheres of other planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and interstellar space.

In a broader sense, one might use the term "extraterrestrial environment" to refer to any physical conditions that are not found naturally on Earth, such as extreme temperatures, radiation levels, or atmospheric compositions. However, this is not a standard medical definition.

It's worth noting that there may be potential health implications for humans who travel to extraterrestrial environments, as they would be exposed to new and potentially hazardous conditions. As such, space medicine is a growing field of research that aims to understand and mitigate the health risks associated with space travel.

The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. It consists of two bones, the radius and ulna, which are located side by side and run parallel to each other. The forearm is responsible for movements such as flexion, extension, supination, and pronation of the hand and wrist.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Osmosis is a physiological process in which solvent molecules move from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, through a semi-permeable membrane, with the goal of equalizing the solute concentrations on the two sides. This process occurs naturally and is essential for the functioning of cells and biological systems.

In medical terms, osmosis plays a crucial role in maintaining water balance and regulating the distribution of fluids within the body. For example, it helps to control the flow of water between the bloodstream and the tissues, and between the different fluid compartments within the body. Disruptions in osmotic balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, swelling, and electrolyte imbalances.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

Circular dichroism (CD) is a technique used in physics and chemistry to study the structure of molecules, particularly large biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. It measures the difference in absorption of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized light by a sample. This difference in absorption can provide information about the three-dimensional structure of the molecule, including its chirality or "handedness."

In more technical terms, CD is a form of spectroscopy that measures the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized light as a function of wavelength. The CD signal is measured in units of millidegrees (mdeg) and can be positive or negative, depending on the type of chromophore and its orientation within the molecule.

CD spectra can provide valuable information about the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins, as well as the conformation of nucleic acids. For example, alpha-helical proteins typically exhibit a strong positive band near 190 nm and two negative bands at around 208 nm and 222 nm, while beta-sheet proteins show a strong positive band near 195 nm and two negative bands at around 217 nm and 175 nm.

CD spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the structural changes that occur in biological molecules under different conditions, such as temperature, pH, or the presence of ligands or other molecules. It can also be used to monitor the folding and unfolding of proteins, as well as the binding of drugs or other small molecules to their targets.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but static electricity is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Static electricity is an electrical charge that builds up on the surface of objects. This occurs when there is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. It can be caused by certain conditions, such as friction, which can build up an electric charge.

While not a medical term, static electricity can have various effects in different settings, including medical ones. For instance, it can cause issues with electronic equipment used in healthcare settings. Additionally, some people may experience a shock or spark when they touch a conductive object that has been charged with static electricity. However, these occurrences are not typically considered medical conditions or issues.

Biometry, also known as biometrics, is the scientific study of measurements and statistical analysis of living organisms. In a medical context, biometry is often used to refer to the measurement and analysis of physical characteristics or features of the human body, such as height, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and other physiological variables. These measurements can be used for a variety of purposes, including diagnosis, treatment planning, monitoring disease progression, and research.

In addition to physical measurements, biometry may also refer to the use of statistical methods to analyze biological data, such as genetic information or medical images. This type of analysis can help researchers and clinicians identify patterns and trends in large datasets, and make predictions about health outcomes or treatment responses.

Overall, biometry is an important tool in modern medicine, as it allows healthcare professionals to make more informed decisions based on data and evidence.

The metacarpal bones are the long slender bones that make up the middle part of the hand, located between the carpals (wrist bones) and the phalanges (finger bones). There are five metacarpal bones in total, with one for each finger and thumb. Each bone has a base attached to the carpals, a shaft, and a head that connects to the phalanges. The metacarpal bones play a crucial role in hand function, providing stability and support during gripping and manipulation movements.

Structural models in medicine and biology are theoretical or physical representations used to explain the arrangement, organization, and relationship of various components or parts of a living organism or its systems. These models can be conceptual, graphical, mathematical, or computational and are used to understand complex biological structures and processes, such as molecular interactions, cell signaling pathways, organ system functions, and whole-body physiology. Structural models help researchers and healthcare professionals form hypotheses, design experiments, interpret data, and develop interventions for various medical conditions and diseases.

Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape. This method involves the use of a centrifuge and a density gradient medium, such as sucrose or cesium chloride, to create a stable density gradient within a column or tube.

The sample is carefully layered onto the top of the gradient and then subjected to high-speed centrifugation. During centrifugation, the particles in the sample move through the gradient based on their size, density, and shape, with heavier particles migrating faster and further than lighter ones. This results in the separation of different components of the mixture into distinct bands or zones within the gradient.

This technique is commonly used to purify and concentrate various types of biological materials, such as viruses, organelles, ribosomes, and subcellular fractions, from complex mixtures. It allows for the isolation of pure and intact particles, which can then be collected and analyzed for further study or use in downstream applications.

In summary, Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape using a centrifuge and a density gradient medium.

Solvents, in a medical context, are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing other materials, often used in the preparation of medications and solutions. They are commonly organic chemicals that can liquefy various substances, making it possible to administer them in different forms, such as oral solutions, topical creams, or injectable drugs.

However, it is essential to recognize that solvents may pose health risks if mishandled or misused, particularly when they contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Prolonged exposure to these VOCs can lead to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, neurological damage, and even cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to handle solvents with care and follow safety guidelines to minimize potential health hazards.

Bend radius Filling radius in Riemannian geometry Radius of convergence Radius of convexity Radius of curvature Radius of ... The inner radius of a ring, tube or other hollow object is the radius of its cavity. For regular polygons, the radius is the ... In classical geometry, a radius (PL: radii or radiuses) of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to ... The radius of a circle with area A is r = A π . {\displaystyle r={\sqrt {\frac {A}{\pi }}}.} The radius of the circle that ...
... is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy relative to the Sun. The solar radius is ... Astronomical unit Earth radius Jupiter radius List of largest known stars Orders of magnitude (length) Solar luminosity Solar ... is approximately 10 times the average radius of Jupiter, 109 times the radius of the Earth, and 1/215th of an astronomical unit ... was adopted to help astronomers avoid confusion when quoting stellar radii in units of the Sun's radius, even when future ...
The Molière radius is useful in experimental particle physics in the design of calorimeters: a smaller Molière radius means ... By definition, it is the radius of a cylinder containing on average 90% of the shower's energy deposition. Two Molière radii ... The Molière radius is a characteristic constant of a material giving the scale of the transverse dimension of the fully ... The Molière radius is named after German physicist Paul Friederich Gaspard Gert Molière (1909-64). LYSO crystals: 2.07 cm Lead ...
... at AllMusic Alberto Radius discography at Discogs Alberto Radius discography at MusicBrainz Alberto Radius at ... Radius died in San Colombano al Lambro on 16 February 2023, at the age of 80. 1972 - Radius (Numero Uno, ZSLN 55153) 1976 - Che ... Born in Rome, Radius started performing in the late 1950s as a guitarist in the local band White Booster. After experiences ... In the second half of the 1980s Radius formed the group Cantautores with whom he released two albums and served as live band in ...
The Stokes radius or Stokes-Einstein radius of a solute is the radius of a hard sphere that diffuses at the same rate as that ... Stokes radius is sometimes used synonymously with effective hydrated radius in solution. Hydrodynamic radius, RH, can refer to ... The Stokes radii of sediment, soil, and aerosol particles are considered in ecological measurements and models. They likewise ... Stokes radii are often determined experimentally by gel-permeation or gel-filtration chromatography. They are useful in ...
Inside the Vainshtein radius r V = l P ( m P 3 M m G 4 ) 1 5 {\displaystyle r_{V}=l_{\text{P}}\left({\frac {m_{\text{P}}^{3}M}{ ...
Radius. WorldCat Identities List of published works by Radius. (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... The standard author abbreviation Radius is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. ADB:Radius ... Justus Wilhelm Martin Radius (14 November 1797, in Leipzig - 7 March 1884, in Leipzig) was a German pathologist and ... In 1887 a new building for the Leipzig Conservatory was constructed by way of a donation from Radius. In 1910, the Radiusstraße ...
"Radius (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 11 August 2021. Radius at IMDb Radius at AllMovie Radius at The ... Radius is a 2017 Canadian science fiction thriller film directed and written by Caroline Labrèche and Steeve Léonard. It stars ... Radius premiered at the Fantasia International Film Festival on 17 July 2017. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the ... Robinson, Tasha (3 December 2017). "Radius' directors explain the problem with making a corpse out of potatoes". The Verge. ...
In 2010, the state of Illinois also launched an antitrust investigation into the use of radius clauses by Lollapalooza. Radius ... A radius clause is a form of non-compete clause used in the live music industry, in which a tour promoter stipulates that a ... The use of radius clauses has been considered controversial by some venue owners-especially those who own small-market venues ... "NXNE, CMW Remove Radius Clause While 'Why NXNE Sucks' Panel Rages". Billboard. Retrieved 24 June 2014. "Task Force Assembled to ...
Current and past investments include: Use "month day, year" format for publication dates "Radius Ventures." "Radius Ventures". ... Radius Ventures is a venture capital firm located in New York that invests in expansion-stage health and life sciences ... Founded in 1997 by Jordan S. Davis and Daniel C. Lubin, Radius has raised in excess of $200 million in three funds and has ... Radius invests in leading-edge, growth equity and expansion-stage health and life sciences companies. ...
The minimum bend radius is the radius below which an object such as a cable should not be bent. The minimum bend radius is of ... This radius is the radius below which the strain gauge will malfunction. For metal tubing, bend radius is to the centerline of ... Bend radius, which is measured to the inside curvature, is the minimum radius one can bend a pipe, tube, sheet, cable or hose ... The minimum bending radius will vary with different cable designs. The manufacturer should specify the minimum radius to which ...
... , LLC was formed in 2014 by Rick Smith and Mitch Free, and in 2017, Fast Radius, LLC merged with Fast Radius, Inc. ... "Fast Radius to open 3D Printing factory, Singapore". 3D Fab Print. Retrieved 19 August 2020. "Fast Radius Raises $48M to Expand ... In July 2019, Fast Radius CEO Lou Rassey was named to Crain's Chicago Tech 50 List. In October 2019, Fast Radius won the 2019 ... Fast Radius, Inc. was co-founded by Lou Rassey, Pat McCusker, Bill King, and John Nanry in a partnership with the shipping and ...
... is a different type of development, most of Dilworth's single-family homes. This development will be one of the ... Radius Dilworth is a two-tower apartment development under construction in the Dilworth neighborhood of Charlotte, North ... Media related to Radius Dilworth at Wikimedia Commons (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... 235M Radius Dilworth project with apartments, retail". Charlotte Business Journal. Retrieved 25 September 2022. Howard, J.L. ( ...
The Einstein radius is the radius of an Einstein ring, and is a characteristic angle for gravitational lensing in general, as ... For a dense cluster with mass Mc ≈ 10×1015 M☉ at a distance of 1 Gigaparsec (1 Gpc) this radius could be as large as 100 arcsec ... In the following derivation of the Einstein radius, we will assume that all of mass M of the lensing galaxy L is concentrated ... When θE is expressed in radians, and the lensing source is sufficiently far away, the Einstein Radius, denoted RE, is given by ...
Holman co-produced Radius song "Just Say" fall of 2010 and the song was released November 2010. Summer 2011, Radius began ... Radius went on a tour through Canada with multi-platinum recording artist Everclear in April 2010. September 2010 Radius began ... In November 2009, Radius song "My World" was nominated for best rock song at the Hollywood Music Awards. That same month, "My ... Radius is an alternative rock band from Los Angeles, California that has been compared to Coldplay, U2, Snow Patrol, & ...
... at the International Paralympic Committee Louis Radius at IPC.InfostradaSports.com (archived) Louis Radius at ... "Louis Radius". paralympic.org. International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 8 January 2020. "Paralympiques-2016: Louis Radius ... Équipe de France (in French) Louis Radius at France Paralympique (in French) Louis Radius on Instagram v t e v t e (CS1 French- ... Louis Radius (born 9 December 1979 in Suresnes) is a French Paralympic athlete. He represented France at the 2016 Summer ...
A radius gauge, also known as a fillet gauge, is a tool used to measure the radius of an object. Radius gauges require a bright ... Every leaf has a different radius, for example with radius intervals of 0.25 mm or 0.5 mm. The material of the leaves is ... Each gauge is one of two types; either internal or external, which are used to check the radius of inner and outer surfaces, ... Thread pitch gauge Spherometer, an instrument for the precise measurement of radiuses Frane 1994, p. 128. Frane 1994, p. 281. ...
Mathematically, the turning radius would be half of the turning diameter. The curb-to-curb turning radius, which considers the ... Vehicle Turning Radius explanation + visuals Grounds Maintenance Magazine Article about Zero Radius Lawn Mowers (CS1 German- ... the radius of a circle is half the diameter, so the correct turning radius in this example would be 11.6 m/2 = 5.8 m. However, ... In this case, the turning radius depends on the true airspeed v t {\displaystyle v_{t}} (in knots) as: t u r n i n g r a d i u ...
In its first 12 month of shipments, Radius achieved US$1-million per-month sales. The second Radius product was the Radius ... the Radius System 100 and the Radius 81/110. In its final strategic direction, Radius licensed the brand name "SuperMac" to ... The first Radius product was the Radius Full Page Display, one of the first large screens available for any personal computer. ... Radius QuickColor. Radius Inc. July 1989. Retrieved 28 December 2021. Udell, Jon (May 1990). "Macintosh CAD Comes of Age". Byte ...
The injectivity radius of compact manifold gives a lower bound on filling radius. Namely, F i l l R a d M ≥ I n j R a d M 2 ( ... The filling radius of a simple loop C in the plane is defined as the largest radius, R > 0, of a circle that fits inside C: F i ... the filling radius is a sixth of the systole in these cases. The filling radius of the Riemannian circle of length 2π, i.e. the ... The filling radius is at most a third of the diameter (Katz, 1983). The filling radius of real projective space with a metric ...
From the expression of the critical radius, as the Gibbs volume energy increases, the critical radius will decrease and hence, ... The critical radius of a system can be determined from its Gibbs free energy. Δ G T = Δ G V + Δ G S {\displaystyle \Delta G_{T ... The nanoparticle radius is small, the surface term prevails the volume term Δ G S > Δ G V {\displaystyle \Delta G_{S}>\Delta G ... Critical radius is the minimum particle size from which an aggregate is thermodynamically stable. In other words, it is the ...
"Full circle: Radius Books celebrates its artists". Retrieved 2016-08-18. "Darius Himes, Publisher- Radius Books". 25 June 2008 ... Radius Books has been recognized with multiple design and publishing awards. From 2010-2015, Radius was selected eight times ... and Memphis College of Art are a few of Radius Books' donation recipients. Radius Books published 4 titles in their first year ... Radius Books is a non-profit art book publishing company, with a focus on photography, fine art and monographs, located in ...
Harris, Craig (24 February 1999). "Blast Radius". IGN. Ziff Davis. Retrieved 8 October 2020. "Blast Radius". Next Generation. ... Blast Radius at MobyGames v t e (Use dmy dates from August 2014, Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Blast Radius is a space combat simulator video game developed and published by Psygnosis for the PlayStation in 1998-1999. ... "Blast Radius". Game Informer. No. 71. FuncoLand. March 1999. p. 56. Archived from the original on 16 January 2001. Retrieved 19 ...
... , common name the shuttle mitre, is a species of small sea snail, marine gastropod mollusk in the family ... Vexillum radius (Reeve, 1845). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 24 April 2010. Reeve, L. A. (1844-1845). ...
The rms charge radius is a measure of the size of an atomic nucleus, particularly the proton distribution. The proton radius is ... For the proton, the two radii are the same. The first estimate of a nuclear charge radius was made by Hans Geiger and Ernest ... The problem of defining a radius for the atomic nucleus has some similarity to that of defining a radius for the entire atom; ... rather than the charge radius itself, for a particle. The best known particle with a negative squared charge radius is the ...
Radius of curvature, the reciprocal of the curvature in differential geometry Minimum railway curve radius, the shortest ... radius for the centerline of railway tracks This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Curve radius. If ...
The simplest example is that the conformal radius of the disk of radius r viewed from its center is also r, shown by the ... The conformal radius of D from z is then defined as r a d ( z , D ) := 1 f ′ ( z ) . {\displaystyle \mathrm {rad} (z,D):={\frac ... In mathematics, the conformal radius is a way to measure the size of a simply connected planar domain D viewed from a point z ... That it is a good measure of radius is shown by the following immediate consequence of the Schwarz lemma and the Koebe 1/4 ...
Four widely used definitions of atomic radius are: Van der Waals radius, ionic radius, metallic radius and covalent radius. ... may be used to define the Van der Waals radius indirectly. Ionic radius: the nominal radius of the ions of an element in a ... should equal the sum of their covalent radii. Metallic radius: the nominal radius of atoms of an element when joined to other ... should equal the sum of their ionic radii. Covalent radius: the nominal radius of the atoms of an element when covalently bound ...
"Radius Prawiro Meninggal Dunia", Liputan 6, 26 May 2005 (Indonesian) Profil di tokohindonesia.com (Indonesian) "Radius Prawiro ... Radius died 26 May 2005 as a result of heart disease. Known as Minister of Trade until March 1978 Prawiro, Radius (1998), ... Radius became a member of the President's Economic Experts Team, and served as Head of the Governing Committee of the World ... Radius was both a photographer and a motorcycle enthusiast. His love of motorcycles originated while he was studying in the ...
You must configure the IBM MFA AZFSIDR1 settings if you want to use RSA SecurID RADIUS. ... The RADIUS client uses the same shared secret when communicating with the RADIUS primary server or RADIUS replica servers.. ... Configure RSA SecurID RADIUS. You must configure the IBM® MFA AZFSIDR1 settings if you want to use RSA SecurID RADIUS. ... The shared secret (case-sensitive password) that is used by the RSA RADIUS server to recognize the IBM MFA RADIUS client. ...
Bend radius Filling radius in Riemannian geometry Radius of convergence Radius of convexity Radius of curvature Radius of ... The inner radius of a ring, tube or other hollow object is the radius of its cavity. For regular polygons, the radius is the ... In classical geometry, a radius (PL: radii or radiuses) of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to ... The radius of a circle with area A is r = A π . {\displaystyle r={\sqrt {\frac {A}{\pi }}}.} The radius of the circle that ...
radius_put_vendor_addr - Attaches a vendor specific IP address attribute. *radius_put_vendor_attr - Attaches a vendor specific ... radius_put_vendor_int - Attaches a vendor specific integer attribute. *radius_put_vendor_string - Attaches a vendor specific ... radius_config - Causes the library to read the given configuration file. *radius_create_request - Create accounting or ... radius_get_tagged_attr_data - Extracts the data from a tagged attribute ...
radius_close(resource $radius_handle. ): bool. Не нужно вызывать эту функцию, потому что php освобождает все ресурсы в конце ...
Demonstrates a conduit bending radius error situation when attempting to edit the radius via the Options Bar or Temporary ...
... radius(obj) returns the radius of obj . If obj is a regular... ... geom3d radius compute the radius of a given object Calling ... Sequence Parameters Description Examples Calling Sequence radius( obj ) Parameters obj - geometric object Description If obj is ... If obj is a dual of an archimedean solid, radius(obj) returns the radius of the in-sphere which touches all the faces. ... If obj is a regular polyhedron or an archimedean solid, radius(obj) returns the radius of the circum-sphere which passes ...
Esta guía describe cómo configurar y resolver problemas RADIUS cuando el servidor RADIUS está en un VRF. ... RADIUS: User-Name [1] 7 "cisco" Aug 1 13:35:51.799: RADIUS: Class [25] 35 Aug 1 13:35:51.799: RADIUS: 43 41 43 53 3A 6A 65 64 ... RADIUS: User-Password [2] 18 * Aug 1 13:39:28.575: RADIUS: User-Name [1] 7 "cisco" Aug 1 13:39:28.575: RADIUS: NAS-IP-Address [ ... RADIUS: User-Password [2] 18 * Aug 1 13:35:51.791: RADIUS: User-Name [1] 7 "cisco" Aug 1 13:35:51.791: RADIUS: NAS-IP-Address [ ...
Vice President of Customer Experience, Radius Bank. Why Radius Bank chose Oracle?. Radius Bank considered other technology ... Radius Bank goes branchless with Oracle Cloud. Radius Banks digital banking platform runs on Oracle, helping them anticipate ... Radius needed to replace its legacy on-premise customer management software, which didnt do enough to help Radius staff truly ... Radius Bank, which manages $1.3 billion in assets, supports clients across the United States as a digital bank, offering online ...
PECL radius: https://github.com/gblanchard/pecl-radius.. Three new functions have ... radius_salt_encrypt_attr(resource radius_handle, string attr). This function salt- ... This PECL provides full support for RADIUS authentication (RFC 2865) and RADIUS accounting (RFC 2866), works on Unix and on ... Radius client library. Maintainers. Michael Bretterklieber , michael at bretterklieber dot com , (lead) [wishlist] [details]. ...
In trading on Tuesday, shares of Radius Global Infrastructure Inc (Symbol: RADI) entered into oversold territory, hitting an ...
You can set a single radius to make circular corners, or two radii to make elliptical corners. ... The border-radius CSS property rounds the corners of an element's outer border edge. ... border-radius: inherit; border-radius: initial; border-radius: revert; border-radius: revert-layer; border-radius: unset; ... border-bottom-left-radius. , border-start-start-radius. , border-start-end-radius. , border-end-start-radius. , border-end-end- ...
If the number of retries reaches this limit, the RADIUS server is marked as dead, and the MX Series router begins to send ... Configure a limit to the number of times the MX Series router can resend a request to the RADIUS server when no response from ... requests to other RADIUS servers in the network element. ... edit access radius servers name. ] Description. Configure a ... retry (RADIUS Server). Syntax. retry attempts. ; Hierarchy Level. [ ...
This PECL provides full support for RADIUS authentication (RFC 2865) and RADIUS accounting (RFC 2866), works on Unix and on ... Radius client library. Maintainers. Michael Bretterklieber , michael at bretterklieber dot com , (lead) [wishlist] [details]. ... Top Level :: Authentication :: radius :: 1.2.6 radius 1.2.6 Package Information. Summary. ... Fixed a crash when calling radius_server_secret() with no servers configured.. (Adam) ...
border-bottom-left-radius. , border-bottom-right-radius. , border-top-left-radius. and border-top-right-radius. , but the ... radius border-start-start-radius border-style border-top border-top-color border-top-left-radius border-top-right-radius border ... border-start-end-radius: 50px;. }. #example2 {. background-color: lightblue;. border-start-end-radius: 50px 20px;. }. #example3 ... border-start-end-radius. property defines the radius of the corner between the block-start and the inline-end sides of the ...
... syndrome is characterized by the absence of a bone called the radius in each forearm and a shortage (deficiency) of blood cells ... Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by the absence of a bone called the radius in each forearm and a ... The radius, which is the bone on the thumb side of the forearm, is almost always missing in both arms. The other bone in the ... Thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome: a clinical genetic study. J Med Genet. 2002 Dec;39(12):876-81. doi: 10.1136/jmg.39.12. ...
img1 { border-radius: 10px; } .img2 { border-radius: 50px 3px; } .img3 { border-radius: 50%; } ! ... border-radius: 10px; }\\n.img2 { border-radius: 50px 3px; }\\n.img3 { border-radius: 50%; }\,\js\:\\,\html_pre_processor ... border-radius\,\description\:\http://www.webcreatorbox.com/tech/css-tips-2/\,\slug_hash\:\KevAq\,\head\:\\,\ ...
The VariAx 2 Distal Radius Locking System including the XXL Volar Distal Radius Plates is intended for internal fixation of ... small bone fractures, primarily including distal radius fractures. ... VariAx 2 Distal Radius. Plating System. The VariAx 2 Distal Radius Locking System including the XXL Volar Distal Radius Plates ... is intended for internal fixation of small bone fractures, primarily including distal radius fractures. ...
toshiba satellite radius 11. Posted inNews. Next-gen Toshiba Satellite Radius 11 2-in-1 laptop to have Cortana hardware. by ... Toshiba Satellite Radius 11 convertible laptop hits the FCC. by Brad Linder. 10/03/2014. 1 Comment on Toshiba Satellite Radius ... Toshiba Satellite Radius 11 is a Yoga-style convertible laptop. by Brad Linder. 09/03/2014. 10/03/2014. Comments Off on Toshiba ... Toshiba Satellite Radius 11 convertible notebook launches Oct 26th for $330. by Brad Linder. 10/21/2014. 5 Comments on Toshiba ...
Quackit: border-bottom-right-radius property. Search Engine Links (for more information). *Bing "CSS border-bottom-right-radius ... Syntax Notes for "border-bottom-right-radius". *The two length or percentage values of the "border-bottom-right-radius" ... Percentages for the horizontal radius are relative to the width of the border box. Percentages for the vertical radius are ... CanIEmail.com: Search "border-bottom-right-radius" (email client compatibility information). *MDN: border-bottom-right-radius ...
Radius DVD-R OPTODISCR004 DVD Media compatibility and comments. ... Radius DVD-R 4.7GB OPTODISCR004 4x Plays on 9 DVD Players. ... Media text is DVD-R 4X/4.7GB/120min radius DVD R R 4.7.. Works fine on jWIN JD-VD503. Works fine on RJTech RJ-1500DVX. ... White DVD-R 4X/4.7GB/120min radius DVD R R 4.7 UPC/EAN Code:. 9718100004 11 user comments. Showing 1 to 11 comments. - ... www.radius.co.jp RDR470-025-204A. Additional information:. Price: $1 Date purchased: February 2004 Burnt with Pioneer DVR-106 ...
The border-radius page in our CSS3 Preview section has been updated to reflect the latest version of the Backgrounds & Borders ... Jeffrey Gilbert: I guess this is only for Chrome, which has problems with clipping and border-radius. Setting a border will ... border-radius give us a better live,and your blog give me a new knownlege ... What about the KHTML (Konqueror)? khtml-border-radius, or does knoquerer now also support the non-prefixed version?? ...
Id: radius_authentication.inc,v 1.2 2002/01/20 11:52:59 mavetju Exp $ // // radius authentication v1.0 by Edwin Groothuis ([ ... Some radius servers // listen on port 1812, some on 1645. if ($radiusport==0) $radiusport=getservbyname("radius","udp"); $nasIP ... If you want to use this script, fill in the configuration in // radius_authentication.conf and call the function // RADIUS_ ... radius-port: $radiusport,br,radius-host: $radiushost,br,username: $username,br,suffix: $suffix,hr,n"; $RA=pack(" ...
Womens Radius Quilt Vest is rated 4.1 out of 5 by 15. ...
I have data from a pendulum and I am using it to work out the radius of the pendulum. I have acceleration in the x and y ... Suggested for: Divide by Zero Error: Solving Pendulum Radius B 1 divided by infinity equals zero (always?) ... I have data from a pendulum and I am using it to work out the radius of the pendulum. I have acceleration in the x and y ... In summary, the speaker is using data from a pendulum to calculate its radius, but encounters a problem with large peaks in the ...
... we establish a coefficient inequality for sense-preserving harmonic functions to compute the bounds for the radius of ... This motivated several authors to determine various radii constants associated with the analytic functions having prescribed ... univalence, radius of full starlikeness/convexity of order ,svg xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http://www.w3 ... is the radius of parabolic starlikeness of the given functions.(ii). satisfies the inequality in where is the real root in of ...
Free Stuff Fridays (Radius International) This weeks Free Stuff Friday is sponsored by Radius International. They are giving ... www.challies.com/giveaways/free-stuff-fridays-radius-international-12/,Free Stuff Fridays (Radius International),/a,,/ ... The winner will receive two free tickets to The Radius Conference being held June 28-29, 2023, at Grace Community Church, Sun ... John MacArthur, Costi Hinn, Ian Hamilton, Wayne Chen, Brooks Buser, Chad Vegas, and others from the Radius … Continue reading ...
Adding RADIUS authentication to your WLAN is easy with the right gear. ... On Select RADIUS , RADIUS Group: Click Add, Group Name = RADIUSGroupDoug, set 2.4GHz and 5.0GHz RADIUS Primary = RADIUS-Doug, ... On RADIUS , Internal RADIUS Server: Click Add, Name = RADIUS-Doug; Shared Secret = Test1 ; Termination-Action = Reauthenication ... RADIUS Settings: On RADIUS Settings screen, set RADIUS Server for both radios to Internal. Click Apply. ...
Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a rare condition in which thrombocytopenia is associated with bilateral radial ... encoded search term (Thrombocytopenia-Absent Radius Syndrome) and Thrombocytopenia-Absent Radius Syndrome What to Read Next on ... Thrombocytopenia-Absent Radius Syndrome. Updated: Mar 07, 2019 * Author: John K Wu, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC; Chief Editor: Hassan M ... Thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome: a clinical genetic study. J Med Genet. 2002 Dec. 39(12):876-81. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [ ...
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  • The VariAx 2 Distal Radius Locking System including the XXL Volar Distal Radius Plates is intended for internal fixation of small bone fractures, primarily including distal radius fractures. (stryker.com)
  • We investigated the patterns of opioid prescription after distal radius fracture and the effect of pre- and post-fracture factors on the risk for prolonged use. (lu.se)
  • Using modified Poisson regression, we calculated adjusted risk ratios for the following exposures: previous opioid use, mental illness, consultation for pain, surgery for distal radius fracture and occupational/ physical therapy after fracture. (lu.se)
  • CONCLUSION: Considering history of mental illness and previous opioid use while promoting rehabilitation can be important to prevent prolonged opioid use after distal radius fracture. (lu.se)
  • Distal radius fractures usually result from a fall on an outstretched hand. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Clinical manifestations may include dorsal angulation or displacement of the distal radius (silver fork or dinner fork deformity) in addition to pain, swelling, and tenderness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Distal radius fractures are usually visible on anteroposterior and lateral x-rays. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Finger traps can be used to help with closed reduction of the distal radius. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Traction helps distract the distal fragment to lengthen the radius. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Adjuvant Arthroscopy Does Not Improve the Functional Outcome of Volar Locking Plate for Distal Radius Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (bvsalud.org)
  • To evaluate the outcomes of adding arthroscopy to osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures (DRF) with volar locking plate (VLP), by Patient -Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) 1 year after surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • This PECL provides full support for RADIUS authentication (RFC 2865) and RADIUS accounting (RFC 2866), works on Unix and on Windows. (php.net)
  • The AZFSIDR1 authentication factor users the PKCS#11 token to encrypt the shared secret before it is stored in RACF®, and to generate random authenticators for use inside the RADIUS packet. (ibm.com)
  • The network administrator may configure a RADIUS client with or without an RSA Authentication Agent for each z/OS system or LPAR that is running the IBM MFA services started task. (ibm.com)
  • Id: radius_authentication.inc,v 1.2 2002/01/20 11:52:59 mavetju Exp $ // // radius authentication v1.0 by Edwin Groothuis ( [email protected] ) // // If you didn't get this file via http://www.mavetju.org, please // check for the availability of newer versions. (phpbuilder.com)
  • If you want to use this script, fill in the configuration in // radius_authentication.conf and call the function // RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION() with the username and password // provided by the user. (phpbuilder.com)
  • RADIUS provides an extra measure of security in a wireless LAN by requiring user-based authentication. (smallnetbuilder.com)
  • Most operating systems support WLAN RADIUS authentication. (smallnetbuilder.com)
  • Steel-Belted Radius supports proxy RADIUS, including forwarding proxy RADIUS requests to other RADIUS servers, acting as a target server processing requests from other RADIUS servers, and passing account information to a target server-either the one performing the authentication or an alternative. (adtmag.com)
  • If the number of retries reaches this limit, the RADIUS server is marked as dead, and the MX Series router begins to send requests to other RADIUS servers in the network element. (juniper.net)
  • Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a rare condition in which thrombocytopenia is associated with bilateral radial aplasia. (medscape.com)
  • Infant with thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Complex inheritance pattern resembling autosomal recessive inheritance involving a microdeletion in thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • The border-radius page in our CSS3 Preview section has been updated to reflect the latest version of the Backgrounds & Borders specification and the latest browser support. (css3.info)
  • The page now offers a more comprehensive and easy to follow guide/tutorial, including cross-browser examples, which should enable any designer (whether novice or expert) to get to grips with border-radius in a matter of minutes. (css3.info)
  • There is no border radius style for IE8 and below. (css3.info)
  • Sandeep, Safari/Chrome (webkit) version 5 now support border-radius without the -webkit- prefix. (css3.info)
  • Jeffrey Gilbert: I guess this is only for Chrome, which has problems with clipping and border-radius. (css3.info)
  • Attaches an IP address vendor specific attribute to the current RADIUS request. (php.net)
  • TAR syndrome is unusual among similar malformations in that affected individuals have thumbs, while people with other conditions involving an absent radius typically do not. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 1969, TAR was defined as a syndrome and further classified as the association of hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and absent radii. (medscape.com)
  • Thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome: studies on serum thrombopoietin levels and megakaryopoiesis in vitro. (medscape.com)
  • Absence of mutations in the HoxA10, HoxA11 and HoxD11 nucleotide coding sequences in thrombocytopenia with absent radius syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Albers CA, Newbury-Ecob R, Ouwehand WH, Ghevaert C. New insights into the genetic basis of TAR (thrombocytopenia-absent radii) syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • This property sets the radii of a quarter ellipse that defines the shape of the bottom-right corner of the outer border edge. (htmlvalidator.com)
  • The two length or percentage values of the "border-bottom-right-radius" property define the radii of a quarter ellipse that defines the shape of the corner of the outer border edge, with the first value being the horizontal radius and the second the vertical radius . (htmlvalidator.com)
  • LUCENE-6780] GeoPointDistanceQuery doesn't work with a large radius? (apache.org)
  • GeoPointDistanceQuery doesn't work with a large radius? (apache.org)
  • The distance from the pole is called the radial coordinate or radius, and the angle is the angular coordinate, polar angle, or azimuth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This provides full 360° signal acquisition as well as avoidance of blind angles as there will be a sensor head at a receiving angle to transponders at all times, regardless of the vessels relative position to the RADius transponder. (kongsberg.com)
  • You must configure the IBM® MFA AZFSIDR1 settings if you want to use RSA SecurID RADIUS. (ibm.com)
  • Configured a PKCS#11 token as described in Configuring a PKCS#11 token before you configure IBM MFA for RSA SecurID RADIUS. (ibm.com)
  • Configure a limit to the number of times the MX Series router can resend a request to the RADIUS server when no response from the RADIUS server is received. (juniper.net)
  • This How-To will show you how to configure RADIUS in an Edimax Pro access point in both standalone and controller modes. (smallnetbuilder.com)
  • Before you begin to configure a RADIUS client, make sure that you have configured the interface and IP address that you want to receive RADIUS requests on the MX Series router. (juniper.net)
  • Configure the name of the RADIUS client. (juniper.net)
  • Configure a shared secret to be used by the MX Series router and the RADIUS client for accounting. (juniper.net)
  • Configure the duration, in seconds, that the RADIUS response messages (sent for request messages) are stored in the MX Series router response cache before they time out. (juniper.net)
  • The arms and forearms are shortened, with radial deviation of both hands because of the absence of bilateral radii. (medscape.com)
  • property defines the radius of the corner between the block-start and the inline-end sides of the element. (w3schools.com)
  • Some have proposed that the association of seemingly disparate skeletal and hematologic abnormalities is related to the simultaneous development of the heart, the radii, and the megakaryocytes at 6-8 weeks' gestation. (medscape.com)
  • Configured the RSA SecurID RADIUS server to accept communications from each z/OS system or LPAR that is running the IBM MFA services started task. (ibm.com)
  • Enter the fully qualified hostname or IP address for the primary RSA SecurID RADIUS server. (ibm.com)
  • The port number of the primary RSA SecurID RADIUS server. (ibm.com)
  • The amount of time the connection between IBM MFA and the RADIUS server can remain inactive before the session is timed out. (ibm.com)
  • The shared secret (case-sensitive password) that is used by the RSA RADIUS server to recognize the IBM MFA RADIUS client. (ibm.com)
  • The RADIUS client uses the same shared secret when communicating with the RADIUS primary server or RADIUS replica servers. (ibm.com)
  • Verify that the RSA SecurID RADIUS server accepts communications from each z/OS system or LPAR that is running the IBM MFA services started task. (ibm.com)
  • Use a radius server to authenticate your users. (phpbuilder.com)
  • However, Edimax has built a RADIUS server into its Pro line of access points [ reviewed ], bringing higher security within reach for even small to mid-sized wireless networks. (smallnetbuilder.com)
  • RADIUS Settings: On RADIUS Settings screen, set RADIUS Server for both radios to Internal . (smallnetbuilder.com)
  • You can also use the internal RADIUS server in Controller Mode. (smallnetbuilder.com)
  • You specify an MX Series router RADIUS client for each gateway GPRS support node (GGSN), Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW), or broadband network gateway (BNG) that sends IP-based subscriber session requests and identifies the MX Series router as a RADIUS server. (juniper.net)
  • Funk Software yesterday announced its Steel-Belted Radius, a RADIUS/AAA server that centrally manages network access, will now run SuSE Enterprise Server 9 and Red Hat (Enterprise and Advanced Server 3) versions of Linux. (adtmag.com)
  • RADIUS is an IETF security management protocol that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial-in users and authorize their access to a requested system or service. (adtmag.com)
  • By default, the delegated-ipv6-prefix attribute is used for subscriber creation when both the delegated-ipv6-prefix and framed-ipv6-prefix attributes are in the RADIUS accounting request. (juniper.net)
  • Among specific stocks on the move are automaker Ford Motor Company (NYSE:F) , drug developer Radius Health Inc (NASDAQ:RDUS) , and defense stock Lockheed Martin Corporation (NYSE:LMT) . (schaeffersresearch.com)
  • The inradius of a geometric figure is usually the radius of the largest circle or sphere contained in it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radius of the circle with perimeter (circumference) C is r = C 2 π {\displaystyle r={\frac {C}{2\pi }}} For many geometric figures, the radius has a well-defined relationship with other measures of the figure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specify the IP address from which the RADIUS client sends the RADIUS requests. (juniper.net)
  • In classical geometry, a radius (PL: radii or radiuses) of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length. (wikipedia.org)
  • If an object does not have a center, the term may refer to its circumradius, the radius of its circumscribed circle or circumscribed sphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • If obj is a regular polyhedron or an archimedean solid, radius(obj) returns the radius of the circum-sphere which passes through all the vertices. (maplesoft.com)
  • If obj is a dual of an archimedean solid, radius(obj) returns the radius of the in-sphere which touches all the faces. (maplesoft.com)
  • The distance from the axis may be called the radial distance or radius, while the angular coordinate is sometimes referred to as the angular position or as the azimuth. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are used to hold the digits in traction while the radius (if angulated) is reduced. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The radius, which is the bone on the thumb side of the forearm, is almost always missing in both arms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the force of the impact is great, the radius may be impacted, shortening the bone. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bend radius Filling radius in Riemannian geometry Radius of convergence Radius of convexity Radius of curvature Radius of gyration Semidiameter The plural of radius can be either radii (from the Latin plural) or the conventional English plural radiuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9369 adult patients with a radius fracture diagnosed 2015-2018 were followed for one year after fracture. (lu.se)
  • Thrombopoietin in patients with congenital thrombocytopenia and absent radii: elevated serum levels, normal receptor expression, but defective reactivity to thrombopoietin. (medscape.com)
  • The winner will receive two free tickets to The Radius Conference being held June 28-29, 2023, at Grace Community Church, Sun Valley, CA. This event will be live in person or available as a live stream. (challies.com)
  • Drawing on a sample of cross-country survey data from 112 countries that participated in the 2004-2022 European Values/World Values Study, we use advanced multileveling techniques to disentangle individual and contextual associations between generalized trust, the radius of trust, and SRH. (lu.se)
  • The first value is the horizontal radius and the second value is the vertical radius. (htmlvalidator.com)
  • Percentages for the horizontal radius are relative to the width of the border box. (htmlvalidator.com)
  • Radius Bank , which manages $1.3 billion in assets, supports clients across the United States as a digital bank, offering online financial services to consumers and small businesses. (oracle.com)
  • RADIUS Group: Click Add, Group Name = RADIUSGroupDoug , set 2.4GHz and 5.0GHz RADIUS Primary = RADIUS-Doug , check the box next to user1 . (smallnetbuilder.com)
  • Some radius servers // listen on port 1812, some on 1645. (phpbuilder.com)
  • Specify the MX Series router interface and IPv4 address that receive RADIUS requests from the GGSN, PGW, or BNG. (juniper.net)
  • Motivated by this problem, various radii problems associated with analytic as well as harmonic functions having prescribed coefficient bounds have been studied and we present a brief review of the research on this topic. (hindawi.com)
  • Radius customers also can now access a self-service, searchable knowledge base, an automated email response form, and a digital assistant chatbot named Rae. (oracle.com)
  • Steel-Belted Radius 5.05 allows administrators to centrally manage users connecting through VPN, WLAN and 802.1x, controlling their access to the network regardless of how they enter it. (adtmag.com)
  • When a new connection is made, Steel-Belted Radius provides information to the network access device, such as what IP address to use, session time-limit information or which type of tunnel to set up. (adtmag.com)
  • Optional) Specify that the framed-ip-address is used for subscriber creation when both the framed-route and framed-ip-address attributes are in the RADIUS accounting request from the RADIUS client. (juniper.net)
  • Optional) Specify that the framed-ipv6-prefix is used for subscriber creation when both the delegated-ipv6-prefix and framed-ipv6-prefix attributes are in the RADIUS accounting request from the RADIUS client. (juniper.net)
  • Uma requisição deve ser criada por meio de radius_create_request() antes que esta função possa ser chamada. (php.net)
  • Special appointments outside the six-mile radius are considered upon request. (who.int)
  • Wunderman-owned digital agency Blast Radius has made some moves in its New York office, mainly hiring Darryl Braunmiller as general manager as well as Rapp alum Sam Henning as client partner on its Novartis business, which consists of eight different brands. (adweek.com)
  • This is Braunmiller's second go-around at Blast Radius, where here he initially worked in the mid-aughts as client director. (adweek.com)
  • During his career, he also worked as an account director at Critical Mass, which speaking of just nabbed Blast Radius senior client director Wade Murray to serve as its VP, client partner. (adweek.com)
  • Enable the RADIUS client for a specific TDF gateway. (juniper.net)
  • RADius is designed for multiple users leveraging the same transponders simultaneously. (kongsberg.com)
  • Configuration data for RSA SecurID RADIUS is stored in the RACF database. (ibm.com)
  • Consult your RADIUS documentation for configuration information. (ibm.com)
  • Prior to entering the RADIUS configs, I defaulted all devices and used the Edimax configuration Wizard to get the Edimax Pro network up and running. (smallnetbuilder.com)
  • Steve LeVine Entertainment & Public Relations , Disco Donnie Presents and Evening Entertainment group bring Phoenix native Zach Sciacca, bettern known as Z-Trip, to Axis Radius for REPUBLIC on Saturday, February 2. (arizonafoothillsmagazine.com)
  • Image showing periodicity of covalent radius for group 18 chemical elements. (webelements.com)
  • A narrow radius of trust is, by contrast, indicative of contexts where high levels of generalized trust coincide with low levels of out-group trust but high levels of in-group trust. (lu.se)
  • The radius r of a regular polygon with n sides of length s is given by r = Rn s, where R n = 1 / ( 2 sin ⁡ π n ) . {\displaystyle R_{n}=1\left/\left(2\sin {\frac {\pi }{n}}\right)\right. (wikipedia.org)
  • When two atoms of the same kind are bonded through a single bond in a neutral molecule, then one half of the bond length is referred to as the covalent radius. (webelements.com)
  • They are giving away a conference package that includes: 2 tickets, a Radius pullover, and 4 books. (challies.com)
  • In countries where the radius of trust is narrow, general trust usually includes only well-known people such as relatives and neighbors, but not strangers. (lu.se)
  • In summary, the speaker is using data from a pendulum to calculate its radius, but encounters a problem with large peaks in the graph due to dividing by zero at the pendulum's extremes. (physicsforums.com)
  • This motivated several authors to determine various radii constants associated with the analytic functions having prescribed coefficient bounds. (hindawi.com)
  • If s = 1 then these values are also the radii of the corresponding regular polygons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radius and the azimuth are together called the polar coordinates, as they correspond to a two-dimensional polar coordinate system in the plane through the point, parallel to the reference plane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a spherical coordinate system, the radius describes the distance of a point from a fixed origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • RADius is developed for applications in need for a robust and reliable relative positioning system. (kongsberg.com)
  • RADius can be deployed as an omni directional system utilising four sensor heads, which can be placed on suitable locations on the vessel dependent on the construction and operation. (kongsberg.com)
  • Ichizo Yotsuya "Some radii of a solid associated with polyharmonic equations," Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Proc. (projecteuclid.org)