Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.ComputersRadiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Spinal NeoplasmsPalliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Osteoradionecrosis: Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Thoracic NeoplasmsPatient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Radiotherapy Setup Errors: Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Supratentorial Neoplasms: Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Nimustine: Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant: Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery. It is commonly used in the therapy of cancer.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)Vindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Abdominal NeoplasmsOligodendroglioma: A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.DeoxycytidineComputers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Karnofsky Performance Status: A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Ependymoma: Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.

*Brainlab

1998) "Introduction of the Passive Marker Neuronavigation System VectorVision", Computer-Assisted Neurosurgery (Tokyo: Springer ... Meyer, John L., "IMRT, IGRT, SBRT: Advances in the Treatment Planning and Delivery of Radiotherapy", S. Karger AG, 2007, p. 14 ... a radiotherapy system jointly created by Brainlab and Varian Medical Systems, Inc. A year later, Digital Lightbox was brought ... Brainlab expanded into the field of image-guided surgery in 1997 with the VectorVision Neuronavigation System and was the first ...

*Clinical decision support system

"Retrieval with clustering in a case-based reasoning system for radiotherapy treatment planning". Journal of Physics: Conference ... "Long-term effect of computer-assisted decision support for antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients: a prospective ' ... It has been said that "the highest level of EHR is a CDSS". Since "clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are computer ... Another example of a CDSS would be a case-based reasoning (CBR) system. A CBR system might use previous case data to help ...

*Cyberknife

The CyberKnife system is a method of delivering radiotherapy, with the intention of targeting treatment more accurately than ... a radiation oncologist must plan the delivery of the radiation using a dedicated computer program, after which the treatment ... The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery. 1 (2): 19-27. doi:10.1002/rcs.38. PMID 17518375. ... Xsight Spine Tracking System. Accuray Xsight Lung Tracking System. Accuray Schweikard, A; Shiomi, H; Adler, J (2005). " ...

*Lung cancer staging

The TNM staging system of lung cancer is: T Tumor T1a: Primary tumor is ≤2 cm in greatest dimension. T1b: Primary tumor is >2 ... The diagnosis of lung cancer is based on chest radiograph and computer tomography (CT) scans, and is confirmed by biopsy. ... However, it is often possible, with proper planning, to obtain both diagnostic and staging information with a single biopsy ... Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Lung cancer can start in various portions of the lung. From there ...

*Allan Hamilton

Hamilton invented the first device capable of using computer guidance systems to deliver very accurate, high intensity beams of ... Submitted, American J Health-System Pharmacy, 2003 Hamilton AJ, Hamilton, JF: "Horses Teach Bedside Manners, Equine Assisted ... "Motion Planning System for Minimally Invasive Surgery" Proceedings of the IEEE. International Conference and Workshops on the ... Stereotactic radiosurgery as an adjunct to surgery and external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant ...

*Hearing loss

The student views this captioning on their computer. Automated captioning systems are also becoming a popular option. In an ... "Infrared, Frequency/Digital Modulation, and Induction Hearing Loops : A comparison of assisted listening system technologies". ... radiotherapy or surgical excision of vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neuroma, though, in most cases, it is unlikely that ... If a child does qualify as being deaf or hard of hearing and receives an individualized education plan, the IEP team must ...

*Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

And with this new agreement Pakistan started construction of the resistive plate chambers required for the CMS muon system. ... In 1955, the government established a committee of scientists to prepare nuclear energy plans and build an industrial nuclear ... computer science, logic, and philosophy. As the emphasis shifted towards concerns for the national security interests, the ... Oncology and Radiotherapy National Centre for Physics International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics Pakistan has a long ...

*Radiation therapy

Treatment planning is generally performed on dedicated computers using specialized treatment planning software. Depending on ... Systems and Computers, 2012 M. Pourhomayoun; M. L. Fowler; Z. Jin. "Robustness Analysis of Sparsity Based Tumor Localization ... The effect of radiotherapy on control of cancer has been shown to be limited to the first five years after surgery, ... However, the use of assisted reproductive technologies and micromanipulation techniques might increase this risk. ...

*Radiation therapy

Treatment planning is generally performed on dedicated computers using specialized treatment planning software. Depending on ... Unsealed source radiotherapy (systemic radioisotope therapy)[edit]. Main article: Unsealed source radiotherapy ... Effects on pituitary system[edit]. Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar ... the use of assisted reproductive technologies and micromanipulation techniques might increase this risk.[27] ...

*Radiation therapy

Treatment planning is generally performed on dedicated computers using specialized treatment planning software. Depending on ... Unsealed source radiotherapy (systemic radioisotope therapy)[edit]. Main article: Unsealed source radiotherapy ... Effects on pituitary system[edit]. Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar ... the use of assisted reproductive technologies and micromanipulation techniques might increase this risk.[27] ...

*Radiation therapy

Treatment planning is generally performed on dedicated computers using specialized treatment planning software. Depending on ... Unsealed source radiotherapy (systemic radioisotope therapy)[edit]. Main article: Unsealed source radiotherapy ... Effects on pituitary system[edit]. Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar ... the use of assisted reproductive technologies and micromanipulation techniques might increase this risk.[31] ...

*University of al-Jazirah

Instructional methods Evaluation methods Educational planning of COME Instructional/evaluation methods and planning for ... 68% of students assisted in solving the families' problems (health, economic or social problems) - 88% of the families used ... Phase II: (includes semesters III, IV, V, VI & VII) Integrated study modules of the organ system of the body and certain themes ... It has four departments: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy. Department of Medical ...

*Health informatics

Researchers and the informatics team have a difficult time coordinating plans and ideas in order to design a system that is ... MGH - Laboratory of Computer Science *^ Edwin D. Reilly (2003). Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology. ... "The COACH prompting system to assist older adults with dementia through handwashing: an efficacy study". BMC Geriatrics. 8: 28 ... radiotherapy (1962), immunization (1963), and primary care (1968) emerge. Many of these solutions, even in the early 1970s were ...

*Radiation therapy

Treatment planning is generally performed on dedicated computers using specialized treatment planning software. Depending on ... Unsealed source radiotherapy (systemic radioisotope therapy)Edit. Main article: Unsealed source radiotherapy ... "A Novel Method for Tumor Localization and Tracking in Radiation Therapy". IEEE Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and ... the use of assisted reproductive technologies and micromanipulation techniques might increase this risk.[31] ...

*Health informatics

Researchers and the informatics team have a difficult time coordinating plans and ideas in order to design a system that is ... Some issues CRI faces is the ability for the statisticians and the computer system architects to work with the clinical ... Alex Mihailidis; Jennifer N. Boger; Marcelle Candido; Jesse Hoey (2008). "The COACH prompting system to assist older adults ... radiotherapy (1962), immunization (1963), and primary care (1968) emerge. Many of these solutions, even in the early 1970s were ...

*Portal:Current events/December 2012

Schools in the United States plan to drop literature classics such as To Kill a Mockingbird and The Catcher in the Rye from ... The system is expected to move northeast and affect the East Coast with high winds and heavy snowfall. (ABC News) (Reuters) (AP ... Iran rebuffs a Stuxnet-style computer worm attack on a power plant in southern Iran. Tehran accuses Israel and the United ... Pope Benedict XVI sends his first Twitter message with an assist using his personal account (Pope Benedict XVI on Twitter). ( ...

*Hybrid operating room

In summary, the key topics for planning the surgical light system include: Central location above the OR table (impossible with ... VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery) is a minimally-invasive technique to resect lung nodules that saves the patient the ... Intraoperative 3D Imaging and Computer Guidance for MIS in Spinal Trauma, University Hospital Um, Univ. Prof. Dr. Florian ... radiotherapy/ chemotherapy (curative approach) or through chemoembolization / ablation (palliative approach) A hybrid operating ...
In a randomized noninferiority trial (TARGIT-A) reported in The Lancet, Jayant S. Vaidya, PhD, and Michael Baum, MD, of University College London, and colleagues compared risk-adapted radiotherapy using single-dose targeted intraoperative radiotherapy vs fractionated external-beam radiotherapy in women with breast cancer. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy met the noninferiority margin for 5-year local recurrence among all patients and when given concurrently with lumpectomy but not when delayed until after lumpectomy (postpathology). Breast cancer mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups, but targeted intraoperative radiotherapy was associated with reduced non-breast cancer mortality.. Study Details. In this open-label, randomized trial, 3,451 women aged ≥ 45 years with invasive ductal carcinoma were randomly assigned ...
Bckground: Adjuvant radiation therapy is commonly administered following breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer patients. Hypofractionated radiotherapy can significantly reduce the waiting time for radiotherapy, working load on machines, patient visits to radiotherapy departments and medical costs. Material/Methods: Fifty-two patients with operable breast cancer (pT1-3pN0M0) who underwent breast conservation surgery in Tehran Cancer Institute during January 2011 to January 2012, were randomly assigned to undergo radiotherapy in two arms (hypofractionated radiotherapy arm with 30 patients, dose 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions; and conventional radiotherapy arm with 22 patients, dose 50 Gy in 25 fractions). W compared these two groups in terms of overall survival, locoregional control, late skin complications and ...
Experiences of high dose rate brachytherapy: Hello, I was diagnosed 2 weeks ago. I have stage T2 with Gleason of 3+4, and psa of 10. Although it seems to be contained it appears to be close to the nerves surrounding the prostate which makes nerve sparing RP unlikely to succeed. I have been...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bcl-2 and bax expression and prostate cancer outcome in men treated with radiotherapy in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 86-10. AU - Khor, Li Yan. AU - DeSilvio, Michelle. AU - Li, Rile. AU - McDonnell, Timothy J.. AU - Hammond, M. Elizabeth H. AU - Sause, William T.. AU - Pilepich, Miljenko V.. AU - Okunieff, Paul. AU - Sandler, Howard M.. AU - Pollack, Alan. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - Purpose: Bcl-2 and bax are proteins with opposing roles in apoptosis regulation; yet abnormal expression of either has been associated with failure after radiotherapy (RT). In this study we examined bcl-2 and bax expression as predictive markers in men treated with radiotherapy ± androgen deprivation on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 86-10. Experimental Design: Suitable archival diagnostic tissue was obtained from 119 (26%) patients for bcl-2 analysis and 104 (23%) patients ...
Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare disease with a relatively poor prognosis. Carbon ion radiotherapy has been shown to be effective against radiotherapy-resistant tumors owing to its excellent dose concentration and high biological effect. Our patient was a 66-year-old Japanese man with oral mucosal melanoma of his right maxillary gingiva (T4aN0M0). He received carbon ion radiotherapy at 57.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Concomitant chemotherapy (dacarbazine + nimustine + vincristine) was administered at the same time as carbon ion radiotherapy initiation. Two courses of adjuvant chemotherapy were given after carbon ion radiotherapy. Although he experienced grade 2 acute oral mucositis, his symptoms improved within a few weeks of undergoing carbon ion radiotherapy. He was ...
Increasing the power of tumour control and normal tissue complication probability modelling in radiotherapy: recent trends and current issues
TY - JOUR. T1 - Postoperative External Beam Radiotherapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. T2 - Outcomes and Morbidity With Conformal Treatment. AU - Schwartz, David L.. AU - Lobo, Mark J.. AU - Ang, K. Kian. AU - Morrison, William H.. AU - Rosenthal, David I.. AU - Ahamad, Anesa. AU - Evans, Douglas B.. AU - Clayman, Gary. AU - Sherman, Steven I.. AU - Garden, Adam S.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Purpose: To review institutional outcomes for patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer with postoperative conformal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective review of 131 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who underwent EBRT between January 1996 and December 2005. Histologic diagnoses included 104 papillary, 21 follicular, and six mixed papillary-follicular types. American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution was Stage III in 2 patients, ...
Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and ...
Thiagarajan, A., Lin, K., Lu, J.J., Tan, L.K.S., Loh, T.K.S., Goh, B.C., Lin, K., Tiong, C.E. (2006). Sequential external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy in T1 and T2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: An evaluation of long-term outcome. Laryngoscope 116 (6) : 938-943. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MLG.0000215173.14473. ...
From Higgs to the Hospital: Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling in Radiation Therapy Eric Williams Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York,…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous-integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in the treatment of early-stage left-sided breast carcinoma. AU - Singla, Rajanish. AU - King, Stephanie. AU - Albuquerque, Kevin. AU - Creech, Steve. AU - Dogan, Nesrin. PY - 2006/9. Y1 - 2006/9. N2 - We assessed the feasibility and impact of simultaneous-integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in the treatment of left breast carcinoma and compared target coverage and normal tissue doses with SIB-IMRT and 3-dimensional (3D) conformal RT using opposed tangential fields. For each of 10 patients with early-stage left-sided invasive breast carcinoma, 5 plans were generated; the first 4 were 3D conformal opposed tangential fields-2 with wedges, 2 with compensators and either photon or electron boost. A dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions was prescribed to the left breast and an additional 16 Gy in 8 fractions to the lumpectomy bed. When compared to the tangential plans, SIB-IMRT ...
Dosimetric comparison of non-coplanar three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (nc3DCRT) planning and radio biologically optimized partial arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning of unilateral brain tumours - A retrospective study
In the current study, we assessed the conventional BRT plan based on ICRU reference points and the CT-based BRT plan in patients with cervical cancer. We clearly demonstrated that tumor volume coverage was inadequate in the conventional plan compared to the CT-plan, and was inversely related with the volume of the target and the extension of tumor. With the conventional plan, the ICRU rectum and bladder point doses underestimated the actual rectum and bladder doses obtained from the CT-plan. Additionally, we demonstrated that more precise analysis of the dose received by certain volume of OARs can be accomplished by utilizing the DVHs on CT-plans, which may be of critical importance in regard to normal tissue tolerance limits.. After publication of ICRU 38 report, ICRU reference points for tumors, and reference dose points for bladder and rectum were used for defining the doses in conventional plans. But calculation of doses with these fixed reference points relative to applicators has certain ...
Ojha, Rohit P. Hematologic malignancies following external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Doctor of Public Health (Epidemiology), December 2010, 88 pp., 6 tables, 2 illustrations, references, 96 titles. The incidence of hematologic malignancies following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) among prostate cancer patients has received limited attention despite evidence that radiation has a role in leukemogenesis and myelomagenesis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of external beam radiation therapy on acute myeloid leukemia and myeloma incidence among prostate cancer patients. We utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to identify a cohort of men (n=168,612) with newly diagnosed prostate adenocarcinoma between January 1988 and December 2003. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of acute myeloid leukemia and myeloma incidence following definitive
TY - JOUR. T1 - A case of radiation retinopathy after carbon ion radiotherapy for adenoid cystic carci - I noma in the sphenoid sinus. AU - Watanabe, Koichiro. AU - Toshima, Shinji. AU - Shibata, Kiyo. AU - Hosokawa, Mio. AU - Doi, Shinichiro. AU - Noda, Hiroshi. AU - Terada, Yoshiko. AU - Hara, Kazuyuki. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Purpose: To report a case of radiation retinopathy after carbon ion radiotherapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma in the sphenoid sinus. Case: A 26-year-old female was referred to us for impaired visual acuity in the right eye. She had received carbon ion radiotherapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma in the right sphenoid sinus extending to the right cavernous sinus 19 months before. The dosis of radiation totaled 57.6 GyE. Findings: Corrected visual acuity was 0.8 right and 1.2 left. The right fundus showed a few retinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots. Fluorescein angiography ...
The Helical Tomotherapy treatment planning system uses a relatively accurate collapsed cone convolution/superposition algorithm for dose calculation and, as with other non -Monte Carlo algorithms, charged particle equilibrium is assumed in the dose calculation. For this reason we can expect inaccuracy in predicting dose distribution in the presence of significant inhomogeneities in patient geometry where this assumption is not satisfied. The dose distribution accuracy of the HT TPS was then tested in case of low density lung lesions.. Before the validation of the dose calculation algorithm in inhomogeneous media, the agreement between measured and calculated dose distributions for lung treatments was verified in a homogeneous phantom. Excellent agreement was found for point dose measurements with most of the data within ± 2%; an average percentage discrepancy equal to 0.85% (1SD = 0.5%) was estimated by considering all the points, both in PTV and in OAR regions. Good ...
The present study presents a case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (PMM) following radiation therapy for cervical cancer. A 34‑year‑old Japanese woman, without asbestos exposure, was referred to the Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center due to a cervical mass, and was diagnosed with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The serum levels of tumor markers, including SCC antigen and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) were 229.0 ng/ml and 54.4 U/ml, respectively. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), and a complete response was achieved. After 54 months, ascites was found at the rectouterine pouch, but peritoneal cytology suggested reactive mesothelial cell. After 62 months of CCRT, magnetic resonance imaging revealed masses in both the salpinges. The serum levels of SCC and CA125 were 0.9 ng/ml and 506.1 U/ml, respectively. Following this, left salpingectomy and peritoneal biopsy were performed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Patterns of relapse following radiotherapy for differentiated thyroid cancer. T2 - Implication for target volume delineation. AU - Azrif, Muhammad. AU - Slevin, Nicholas J.. AU - Sykes, Andrew J.. AU - Swindell, Ric. AU - Yap, Beng K.. PY - 2008/10. Y1 - 2008/10. N2 - Introduction: Post-operative residual disease in differentiated thyroid cancer is an indication for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) especially if there is poor radioiodine uptake by the residual disease. There are no standardized guidelines or consensus in target delineation for radiotherapy in thyroid cancer. Aims: To determine the pattern of recurrence in patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer who received adjuvant or definitive radiotherapy as well as radioiodine ablation following surgery or biopsy with a view to better defining future target volume delineation for ...
Photon Beam Dose Calculation Algorithms. Kent A. Gifford, Ph.D. Medical Physics III Spring 2010. Dose Computation Algorithms. Correction-based (Ancient!) Convolution (Pinnacle,Eclipse,…) Monte Carlo (Stochastic) Deterministic (Non-stochastic). Photon Source. Standard SSD. Patient...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-dose-rate brachytherapy using molds for lip and oral cavity tumors. AU - Unetsubo, Teruhisa. AU - Matsuzaki, Hidenobu. AU - Takemoto, Mitsuhiro. AU - Katsui, Kuniaki. AU - Hara, Marina. AU - Katayama, Norihisa. AU - Waki, Takahiro. AU - Kanazawa, Susumu. AU - Asaumi, Jun-Ichi. PY - 2015/4/8. Y1 - 2015/4/8. N2 - Background: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using the mold technique is a less invasive treatment for early lip and oral cavity cancer. However, limited reports exist regarding the feasibility of this method. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the outcome of this therapy and investigated its feasibility for lip and oral cavity tumors. Methods: Between May 2002 and December 2010, 17 patients (median age, 80.0years) with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip or oral cavity were treated by means of HDR brachytherapy using the mold technique after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Tumor sites included the buccal mucosa ...
The Scientific basis of modern radiotherapy: an international symposium to mark the achievements of John Francis Fowler ... held in the Fowler-Scott Library of the Cancer Research Campaign Gray Laboratory, Northwood, Middlesex, 30th June-2nd July 1988 ...
The Scientific basis of modern radiotherapy: an international symposium to mark the achievements of John Francis Fowler ... held in the Fowler-Scott Library of the Cancer Research Campaign Gray Laboratory, Northwood, Middlesex, 30th June-2nd July 1988 ...
Over the course of its 100-year history, the centre for radiation oncology and tumour research has become one of the worlds largest and most modern facilities for radiooncology and radiotherapy. Radiation oncology is one of the three main pillars of cancer treatment together with surgery and chemotherapy.. More than 3,500 people are treated at the centre every year by specialist doctors and nurses, on both an inpatient and outpatient basis. All modern radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of tumours are offered at Heidelberg University Hospital. The department currently has eight radiotherapy systems including two tomotherapy units (which surround the patient like a CT scan), plus a facility for intraoperative radiotherapy in the departments of surgery and gynaecology. In addition, we offer the complete spectrum of brachytherapy, in which a localised ...
External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) delivers radiation from outside the body with a machine called a linear accelerator. External Beam Radiation Therapy can be used as the only modality of treatment or in combination with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or hormonal therapy, and can also be used prior to or following surgery, depending on the diagnosis and stage of disease. Although there can be side effects that develop gradually, the treatment itself is painless and relatively rapid.
Prediction of radiobiological response is a major challenge in radiotherapy. Of several radiobiological models, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been best validated by experimental and clinical data. Clinically, the LQ model is mainly used to estimate equivalent radiotherapy schedules (e.g. calculate the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions, EQD2), but increasingly also to predict tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) using logistic models. The selection of accurate LQ parameters α, β and α/β is pivotal for a reliable estimate of radiation response. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of published values for the LQ parameters of human tumours as a guideline for radiation oncologists and radiation researchers to select appropriate radiobiological parameter values for LQ modelling in clinical radiotherapy. We performed a systematic ...
Doctors can use brachytherapy alone or in addition to external-beam radiation therapy to provide a "boost" of radiation to a tumor while sparing surrounding normal tissue. Brachytherapy may be able to deliver higher doses of radiation to some cancers than external-beam radiation therapy while causing less damage to normal tissue.. Several brachytherapy techniques are used in cancer treatment, based on locations of cancer, dose and period of treatment. Interstitial brachytherapy uses a radiation source placed within tumor tissue, such as within a prostate tumor. Intracavitary brachytherapy uses a source placed within a surgical cavity or a body cavity, such as the chest cavity, near a tumor. Episcleral brachytherapy, which is used to treat melanoma inside the eye, uses a source that is attached to the eye.. In interstitial brachytherapy, radioactive isotopes are sealed in tiny pellets, the size of a grain of rice. These seeds are placed in the body using delivery devices, such as needles, ...
Today women ask us not only to be cured but also the preservation of their body; this is one of our most important endpoints in modern radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy-induced skin toxicity remains a major clinical problem that affects many patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy [18]. Anyway there is a growing emphasis on prevention and treatment of side effects induced by radiation therapy; this attention has derived many studies dealing about the treatments and substances that can protect healthy organs from radiation therapy side effects.. Surely the breast volume has a great impact on the incidence and the level of skin toxicity, but also the breast volume receiving dose-points equal or greater than 107% of the one prescribed has an impact in the arising of side effects. Thats because many studies aimed to find appropriate prevention methods for damages are born. These ...
Cardiovascular diseases following radiotherapy are major secondary late effects raising questions among the scientific community, especially regarding the dose-effect relationship and confounding risk factors (chemotherapy, cholesterolemia, age at treatment, blood pressure,…). Post-radiation coronary diseases are one of the main causes of cardiac morbidity. Some approximations are made when coronary doses due to radiotherapy are estimated, especially regarding the morphology. For retrospective studies with old medical records, only radiographs are usually available with sometimes some contours made with a simulator. For recent medical records, CT scans displaying the anatomy in 3D are used for radiotherapy simulation but do not allow the coronary artery visualization due to low resolution and contrast. Currently, coronary doses are barely assessed in clinical practice, and when it is done, anatomical prior ...
A study to evaluate the efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) as compared to Standard Conventional Radiotherapy Alone in the treatment of carcinoma cervix. Concomitant Weekly Cisplatin chemotherapy will be given as a routine, which is a standard of care today for early stage cervical cancers including stage IIB. The benefits of using IMRT in reducing radiation-induced toxicity are well known. Since this treatment modality has not yet been validated and studied in a randomized trial setting, the present study is being undertaken. The study arm of IMRT has the potential to reduce the toxicities by 15-20%, but is associated with labor intense procedure requiring many hospital visits before actual start of treatment ...
In patients who had undergone surgery for brain metastases, the rate of recurrence at the resected site was similar between patients who received adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy vs those who underwent adjuvant localized radiotherapy, according to a retrospective study by Hsieh et al in the journal Neurosurgery. However, localized radiotherapy was associated with a higher incidence of distant metastases.. Surgery followed by adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy is a well-established treatment for brain metastases, particularly in patients who have a limited number of brain metastases. Yet discussions continue as to whether these patients require whole-brain radiotherapy or can be treated with localized radiotherapy. Localized radiotherapy is associated with fewer side effects ...
Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment after surgery for high-grade gliomas and is usually well tolerated. Radiation toxicity in the brain is usually classified according to the timing of side effects in relation to treatment, as either acute (during radiotherapy), early delayed (within 12 weeks of radiotherapy) or late delayed (months to years after radiotherapy). We report two cases of young women who developed severe acute demyelination within 4 months of radiotherapy for glioma, one of whom had a previous history of transverse myelitis. Both improved with corticosteroids and remain in tumour remission. These cases emphasise the importance of careful discussion with patients before starting radiotherapy if there is a previous history of central nervous system demyelination or multiple ...
Types of radiation therapy include external beam radiation therapy, particle therapy, brachytherapy, radioisotope therapy and more. See below for local oncologists and other specialists in Ames that give access to radiation therapy as well as advice and content on radiation oncology and cancer treatment.
Types of radiation therapy include external beam radiation therapy, particle therapy, brachytherapy, radioisotope therapy and more. See below for local oncologists and other specialists in Essex Junction that give access to radiation therapy as well as advice and content on radiation oncology and cancer treatment.
It is well known that the electronic nose can be used to identify differences between human health and disease for a range of disorders. We present a pilot study to investigate if the electronic nose and a newer technology, FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry), can be used to identify and help inform the treatment pathway for patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy, which frequently causes gastrointestinal side-effects, severe in some. From a larger group, 23 radiotherapy patients were selected where half had the highest levels of toxicity and the others the lowest. Stool samples were obtained before and four weeks after radiotherapy and the volatiles and gases emitted analysed by both methods; these chemicals are products of fermentation caused by gut microflora. Principal component analysis of the electronic nose data and wavelet transform followed by Fisher discriminant analysis of FAIMS data ...
Radiation proctitis (and the related radiation colitis) is inflammation and damage to the lower parts of the colon after exposure to x-rays or other ionizing radiation as a part of radiation therapy. Radiation proctitis most commonly occurs after treatment for cancers such as cervical cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer. Radiation proctitis involves the lower intestine, primarily the sigmoid colon and the rectum and is part of the conditions known as pelvic radiation disease and radiation enteropathy. Radiation proctitis can occur at two times after treatment: Acute radiation proctitis - symptoms occur in the first few weeks after therapy. These symptoms include diarrhea and the urgent need to defecate, often with pain while doing so (tenesmus). Acute radiation proctitis usually resolves without treatment after several months, but symptoms may improve with butyrate enemas. This acute phase is due to direct damage of the lining (epithelium) of the colon. Chronic radiation proctitis - is a ...
This volume collects a series of lectures presented at the tenth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2007 and dedicated to radiotherapy and brachytherapy. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of radiotherapy in general, including external radiotherapy (often called teletherapy) as well as internal radiotherapy (called brachytherapy). Radiotherapy strategy and dose management as well as the decisive role of digital imaging in the associated clinical practice are developed in several articles. Grouped under the discipline of Conformal Radiotherapy (CRT), numerous modern techniques, from Multi-Leaf Collimators (MLC) to Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT), are explained in detail. The importance of treatment planning based upon patient data ...
Radiotherapy is a type of treatment that uses pulses of radiation to destroy cancer cells. There are a number of ways it can be used to treat people with lung cancer.. An intensive course of radiotherapy, known as radical radiotherapy, can be used to try to cure non-small-cell lung cancer if the person isnt healthy enough for surgery. For very small tumours, a special type of radiotherapy called stereotactic radiotherapy may be used instead of surgery.. Radiotherapy can also be used to control the symptoms and slow the spread of cancer when a cure isnt possible (this is known as palliative radiotherapy).. A type of radiotherapy known as prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is also sometimes used during the treatment of small-cell lung ...
Polls show that the public do not recognise radiotherapy as a modern form of cancer therapy, and many would describe it as frightening. Yet radiotherapy is one of the most effective cancer treatments available, and a staggering array of new developments should allow radiotherapy to become increasingly personalised to individual cancer patients.. Major advances, such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), proton therapy, Cyberknife technology and research combining radiotherapy with MRI imaging, viral therapy, and chemotherapy, promise to revolutionise radiotherapy in the future.. Leading experts in radiotherapy came to the SMC discuss things such as:. ...
Results Out of the 12 patients in the study, 6 did not receive radiotherapy either because they elected for subsequent radical surgery (3 patients) or were unfit for further treatment and underwent close follow-up (3 patients).. In the radiotherapy group, 2 patients had pre-op Long-Course Chemo-radiotherapy (LCCRT) with a good partial response, 2 were included in the national TEM and Radiotherapy in Early Rectal cancer (TREC) trial and had pre-op Short Course radiotherapy (SCRT) and 2 had adjuvant LCCRT + Papillon contact radiotherapy following TEM.. Median follow-up was 20 months. Patients not undergoing radial surgery had 3 monthly MR and sigmoidoscopy for 1 year and 6 monthly MR and sigmoidoscopy for a further 2 years.. In the no-radiotherapy group, 1 of the 3 patients ...
There is a wide variation of risk estimates for second cancer in the literature. Lifetime breast cancer induction risk for a breast exposed to 1 Gy is approximately 5% if irradiated at the age of , 35, , 3% at the age of 35-45, and much less at an older age [10]. For a phantom case study [21] the incremental risk of secondary cancer was calculated for the tangential whole breast technique with wedge compensators based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report 116 [20] as 0.34% which is likely to be undetectable compared to the observed frequency of contralateral breast cancer of about 7% at 10 years and 10% at 15 years [28, 29]. The causes of contralateral breast cancer amongst breast cancer patients given radiotherapy are less obvious. A large study by Kirova et al. did not show an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer for those receiving radiotherapy [30]. Obedian reported no significant difference ...
January 25, 2013 - The study finds that in several countries in Western Europe there are too few radiotherapy machines to ensure that cancer patients in need of radiotherapy receive treatment. For instance, in Italy around 16 percent of need is unmet, in Portugal 19 percent, Austria 20 percent and the UK and Germany 21 percent. However, the authors caution that these apparent gaps in treatment supply may be compensated by more efficient organization of radiotherapy provision.. Led by Eduardo Rosenblatt from the International Atomic Energy Agency in Austria, the researchers analyzed data from the Directory of Radiotherapy Centers (DIRAC) database, a global registry of radiotherapy facilities, to compare the need for radiotherapy equipment with existing supply based on the number of inhabitants and cancer ...
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of more extensive radiotherapy and of adjuvant combination chemotherapy on long-term outcome of early-stage Hodgkins disease. METHODS: In a collaborative worldwide systematic overview, individual patient data were centrally reviewed on 1,974 patients in eight randomized trials of more versus less extensive radiotherapy and on 1,688 patients in 13 trials of radiotherapy plus chemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone. Crude mortality data on 226 patients in two other trials of chemotherapy were also reviewed. RESULTS: More extensive radiotherapy reduced the risk of treatment failure (resistant or recurrent disease) at 10 years by more than one third (31.3% v 43.4% failures; P | .00001), but there was no apparent improvement in overall 10-year survival (77.1 % v 77.0% alive). The addition of ...
Post-operative radiotherapy is internationally accepted as standard practice in the management of high-risk endometrial cancer1. Whilst it has no proven impact on overall survival it significantly increases local control.. Conventional radiotherapy techniques (3-dimensional) utilise a 3 or 4 field beam arrangement to target the pelvis in order to treat those areas at risk of recurrence: the vagina, the parametrium and the pelvic lymph nodes. However, when using such a technique it is not possible to avoid irradiating sensitive normal tissues such as the bowel and bladder.. Toxicity data from international randomised control trials in endometrial cancer report significantly more haematological, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and cutaneous toxicites (all grades) in those who received pelvic irradiation compared to those who did not2,3. These trials delivered radiotherapy using 2 or 3-dimensional techniques.. ...
[email protected] College Park, Maryland -- April 3, 2009 -- Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiotherapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head, head or neck. It is also safer -- especially for young children -- because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life.. What does the scientific evidence show about proton therapy? With the rapid proliferation of proton facilities in the United States, what will current and future practitioners of proton radiotherapy need to know? Now a panel of researchers, clinicians, and public health experts will debate the promise and perils of proton radiotherapy -- a 70-year-old idea that bridges medicine and particle physics. ...
Between 1991 and 1996, 268 patients were entered onto the study. Two hundred forty-three patients were assessable (127 RT + CT patients and 116 RT patients). Progression-free and overall survival are significantly improved in the patients receiving CT. The hazard ratios for progression-free survival and overall survival in the RT only arm versus the RT + CT arm are 2.01 (P =.003) and 1.96 (P =. 007), respectively. The projected progression-free survivals at 4 years is 63% with RT and 80% with RT + CT. The projected overall survival rate at 4 years is 71% with RT and 81% with RT + CT. Grades 3 and 4 hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity were more frequent in the RT + CT group. Conclusion: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radical radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. AU - Yorozu, Atsunori. AU - Toya, Kazuhito. AU - Fukada, Junichi. AU - Dokiya, Takushi. PY - 2004/6. Y1 - 2004/6. N2 - We took a routine conservative approach for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. This retrospective study analyzes the outcome of treatment with this policy. Between 1993 and 2002, 36 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma received radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy at our institution. Doses ranged from 60 Gy to 72 Gy given to the involved fields. Fourteen patients received CDDP and 5FU, either inductive or concurrent with radiotherapy. The overall five-year survival was 38% and the two-year local control rate was 69%. The local control rate was dependent on the size of primary tumor. Two-year local control rates were 60% with radiotherapy alone and 88% with ...
Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor ...
Potential role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of tumors of the maxillary sinus. Purpose: To assess 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D- CRT) and intensity-modulated. radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques to see whether doses to critical structures could be reduced while maintaining planning target volume (PTV) coverage in patients receiving conventional radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the maxillary sinus because of the risk of radiation-induced complications, particularly visual loss. Methods and Materials: Six patients who had recently received conventional RT for carcinoma of the maxillary sinus were studied. Conventional RT, 3D-CRT, and step-and-shoot IMRT plans were prepared using the same 2-field arrangement. The effect of reducing the number of segments in the IMRT beams was investigated. Results: 3D-CRT and IMRT reduced the ...
Purpose: Although intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is known to be a method that can reduce local recurrence in locally advanced colorectal cancer, it is not widely used. The aim of this study was to report our experience with IORT for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: From 1991 to 1994, nine patients with locally advanced rectal cancer received IORT. External beam radiotherapy was given postoperatively in five patients and preoperatively in three. Seven patients received chemotherapy. IORT was done with 6-MeV or 9-MeV electrons, and 12 Gy was irradiated at the tumor bed. The median follow-up period was 84 months (range, 15 to 208 months). Results: The median age of patients was 51 years (range, 42 to 73 years). All patients had advanced clinical T-stage (cT3/4)cancer. The overall and the disease-free survival rates were 66.7% and 66.7% at 5 years, respectively. One patient developed a local recurrence near the anastomosis site, ...
During external beam radiation therapy, a beam (or multiple beams) of radiation is directed through the skin to the cancer and the immediate surrounding area to destroy the tumor and any nearby cancer cells.
Post-radiation fractures after radiotherapy are prevalent in specific anatomic locations, such as the pelvis following urologic or gynecologic cancer treatment,...
CRAWLEY, U.K., April 29, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Hospitals in London and Dorset have acquired the final two of ten advanced Varian Medical Systems (NYSE: VAR [1]) radiotherapy treatment machines offered as part of an innovative government program to roll out the most modern cancer treatments for patients in the UKs public hospitals. North Middlesex University Hospital and Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust have ordered TrueBeam™ medical linear accelerators via an NHS Supply Chain initiative aimed at stimulating replacements of older treatment machines with state-of-the-art systems.. For North Middlesex University Hospital, the TrueBeam ordered earlier this year replaces an older radiotherapy machine and will enable the hospital to introduce advanced radiotherapy techniques such as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), stereotactic body ...
Modern radiotherapy machines can now deliver highly targeted radiotherapy treatment. However, the use of high precision radiotherapy techniques is extremely demanding in terms of hours spent, from the physician who defines the tumour target and healthy tissues, to the physicist who has to calculate a plan of optimum beam angles and trajectories for the treatment, and the radiographer, who must ensure that the treatment is delivered accurately to the target every day during a six or seven week course of radiotherapy. Accel-RT is an innovative partnership between oncologists, physicists and computer scientists at the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford. Over the next three years the collaborators will develop software tools and processes that will speed up the process of planning of radiotherapy. Once ...
Objectives: The main aims of study were to compare toxicity profile of IMRT with conventional Radiotherapy (2D RT) in head and neck cancer. Methods: The Study was a prospective one in which we included Eligible patients known case of head and neck cancer like oral cavity, nasopharaynx, oropharaynx, and hypopharyanx to received either definitive chemoradiation alone or adjuvant. Eligible patients in conventional group randomized to receive radiotherapy with parallel opposed lateral fields and one direct anterior lower neck. In IMRT group patients received either 7 fields or 5 fields or parotid sparing radiation. Patients Toxicity pattern (grades of mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, odynophagia) of both groups was noted down. Toxicity of Radio-Therapy (RT) developing within 90 days and more than 90 days from the beginning of RT assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and European Organization for the Research and ...
75 years of tradition. The MediClin Robert Janker Clinic is a renowned clinic offering diagnostic radiology and neuroradiology as well as radiotherapy, and in particular high-precision radiotherapy, for the treatment of benign and malignant tumours. We use the latest medical procedures such as stereotactic radiotherapy and brachytherapy, providing our patients with the full spectrum of radiooncological treatment methods using ultramodern equipment.. Centre for high-precision radiotherapy. At the heart of the Radio-Oncological Department is a high-precision radiotherapy system that is available in only a handful of clinics in Germany. This pinpoint-precision machine represents the optimum solution for destroying the actual tumour whilst protecting as much of the surrounding tissue as possible. It even compensates for the ...
The Cancer Research UK study found that two different approaches to giving radiotherapy controlled the disease and had a low risk of severe side effects.. This part of the BC2001 radiotherapy study, led by researchers at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, and the University of Birmingham, compared giving radiotherapy to the whole bladder with targeted radiotherapy focused on the tumour.. Both types of treatment prevented the tumour from returning for over 60 per cent of patients for at least two years. And for many whose disease returned, it was not aggressive and only needed local treatment.. After five years of follow-up the survival rates were around 40 per cent for both radiotherapy approaches, a figure comparable to patients who have surgery to remove their bladder. In addition, patients receiving either type of ...
Patients who were treated with either definitive or postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy for HNC with moderate to severe levels of patient reported fatigue, at 6 or more weeks after completing all planned cancer therapy. Patients who rated their fatigue level at 5 or greater on a 0 to 10 scale during any follow-up clinic visits at MD Anderson ...
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Background: Radiation is implicated in the induction of second malignancies in children with bilateral retinoblastoma. There is a need to determine whether this risk can be justified by good visual outcome when external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is used as a salvage treatment.. Aim: To study the effectiveness of EBRT as a salvage treatment after failed primary chemotherapy and focal treatment in bilateral retinoblastoma.. Methods: This is a retrospective observational case series. The outcome measures after EBRT are: rate of eye preservation, rate of tumour control, visual potential, visual acuity, and radiation-induced side-effects.. Results: Thirty-six eyes (22 patients) were included. The median follow-up after EBRT was 40 months (19-165 months). Thirty-two eyes received lens-sparing radiotherapy and 4 received whole-eye radiation. The rate of eye preservation was 83.3% (30/36 eyes). Twenty-four eyes (66.6%) were controlled by EBRT and ...
January 31, 2011 - An oncology systems provider has launched The Year of Radiotherapy, an initiative to raise awareness of radiotherapy as a cost-effective, cutting-edge treatment that can help cure cancer. Oncology Systems Limited (OSL) launched the program in response to data from Cancer Research UK.. According to figures published by Cancer Research UK, only one in 10 people know that radiotherapy helps cure 40 percent of cancer patients. A report from the national charity estimates that only 38 percent of cancer patients in England are getting radiotherapy, although research shows that up to 50 percent might benefit. "We need to dispel the myths about radiotherapy and associated side effects and make people more aware of the benefits of the latest treatments," said Julie Mead, clinical director of OSL. ...
This technology provides a method for monitoring cellular death in radiotherapy patients using low-frequency ultrasound. It combines conventional frequency (5-10 MHz) ultrasound with new software to detect responses to radiotherapy in breast cancer tissues.. ...
Vaginal stenosis can occur as a result of treatment for pelvic malignancies. Women receiving pelvic radiation therapy using a vaginal dilator 5-7 times
Request for buying: Global Radiotherapy Market - Industry Trends and Forecast to 2024. Table of Contents:. 1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1. OVERVIEW OF THE GLOBAL RADIOTHERAPY MARKET. 1.2. MARKET SEGMENTATION & COVERAGE. 1.2.1. CURRENCY AND PRICING. 1.2.2. LIMITATION. 1.2.3. STAKEHOLDERS. 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. 2.1. KEY TAKEAWAYS. 2.2. ARRIVING AT THE GLOBAL RADIOTHERAPY MARKET SIZE. 2.2.1. MARKET CRACKDOWN APPROACH. 2.2.2. COMPANY REVENUE AND MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS. 2.2.3. DATA TRIANGULATION. 2.2.4. KEY DATA POINTS FROM PRIMARY SOURCES. 2.2.5. PRODUCT PIPELINE ANALYSIS. 2.2.6. PORTERS FIVE FORCES MATRIX. 2.3. GLOBAL RADIOTHERAPY MARKET: RESEARCH SNAPSHOT. 2.4. ASSUMPTIONS. 3. MARKET OVERVIEW. 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. 4.1. OVERVIEW. 4.2. GLOBAL RADIOTHERAPY MARKET: KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS. 4.3. MARKET OVERVIEW. 4.3.1. DRIVERS. 4.3.2. RESTRAINTS. 4.3.3. ...
The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) and gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is unclear, with conflicting results from nonrandomized studies. We reported a meta-analysis to determine the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CNKI databases were searched to identify clinical trials of postoperative ART versus no radiotherapy for EHCC and GBC. The obtained data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 and Stata 14.0 statistical software. Differences between two groups were estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 21 clinical trials involving 1465 EHCC and GBC patients were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed the following: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was higher in the ART group than in the no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiation-related new primary solid cancers in the childhood cancer survivor study. T2 - Comparative radiation dose response and modification of treatment effects. AU - Inskip, Peter D.. AU - Sigurdson, Alice J.. AU - Veiga, Lene. AU - Bhatti, Parveen. AU - Ronckers, Cécile. AU - Rajaraman, Preetha. AU - Boukheris, Houda. AU - Stovall, Marilyn. AU - Smith, Susan. AU - Hammond, Sue. AU - Henderson, Tara O.. AU - Watt, Tanya C.. AU - Mertens, Ann C.. AU - Leisenring, Wendy. AU - Stratton, Kayla. AU - Whitton, John. AU - Donaldson, Sarah S.. AU - Armstrong, Gregory T.. AU - Robison, Leslie L.. AU - Neglia, Joseph P.. PY - 2016/3/15. Y1 - 2016/3/15. N2 - Objectives The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose-response ...
Health, ...COLLEGE PARK MD (June 24 2010) -- A meeting in Miami this week will ...Surgery radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the three main treatme...The meeting Safety in Radiation Therapy -- A Call to Action takes ... Radiation therapy provides safe and effective treatment of cancer and...,Miami,meeting,on,radiation,therapy,targets,patient,safety,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The purpose of this study is to compare the toxicity of two new radiation schedules for the treatment of prostate cancer. Patients will be randomized to receive 5 treatments delivered every other day over 11 days, or once per week over 29 days. Both of these schedules are shorter than the standard treatment which is usually 39 treatments over 8 weeks ...
Methods: We reviewed 76 patients with pT2-3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical recurrence at the following three timings: ultra-early salvage radiotherapy (n = 20) delivered before meeting a current definition of biochemical recurrence (two consecutive prostate-specific antigen [PSA] values ≥0.2 ng/mL); early salvage radiotherapy (n = 40) delivered after meeting the definition but before PSA reached 0.5 ng/mL; and delayed salvage radiotherapy (n = 16) delivered after PSA reached 0.5 ng/mL. The primary endpoint was failure of salvage radiotherapy, defined as a PSA value ≥0.2 ng/mL. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively ...
Radiotherapy could function as immunosuppressive agent for allotransplantation due to the ability of ionizing radiation to cause cell death, the technique could be applied to irradiate total body, bone marrow and/or lymphoid tissues of the recipient who receive an allograft as an immunosuppressant to improve the success rate of transplantation. From the past to the present, the radiation techniques in allotransplantation process have been continuously studied and developed across preclinical and clinical settings, in order to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. Currently, total lymphoid irradiation by fractionation and total body irradiation with low dose are most frequently used radiotherapy techniques in allotransplantation process. The advanced radiotherapy techniques such as total marrow and/or lymphoid irradiation by volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) or helical tomotherapy (HT) have gained interests. These ...
Treatment of Premature ovarian failure refers to a loss of normal function of your ovaries before the age of 40. If your ovaries fail, they dont produce normal amounts of the hormone estrogen - which can lead to infertility and other problems. Premature ovarian failure affects about 1 percent of U.S. women, Premature ovarian failure is sometimes referred to as premature menopause, but the two conditions are not exactly the same: Women with premature menopause stop having periods, while women with premature ovarian failure may have sporadic periods for years - and may even become pregnant, Restoring estrogen levels in women with premature ovarian failure helps prevent some complications, such as osteoporosis, but infertility is difficult to treat. Women having problems conceiving a child may choose to explore other means of expanding their families, Premature Menopause, Premature Menopause Causes, Premature Menopause Symptom, Premature Menopause Treatment, Premature Menopause Signs, Early Pre Menopause,
Boron neutron capture therapy, or BNCT, is a two-part therapy that enhances the effect of radiation on cancer cells while minimizing the effect on nearby healthy cells.. Inadvertant damage to non-cancerous tissue is a major side effect of conventional radiation therapies, especially in the treatment of brain tumors. Conventional radiation therapy also requires several bouts of treatment, an inconvenience for many patients.. BNCT avoids these pitfalls by using radiation from BNLs medical reactor and a drug containing the element boron. Called BPA for boronophenylalanine, the drug is injected into the patient and travels through the bloodstream, concentrating preferentially in tumor tissue.. By itself BPA is harmless, but when exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor, the boron atoms capture neutrons, creating secondary effects that kill cells in the immediate vicinity.. Clinical trials of BNCT have been under way at BNL since 1994. Other locations in the U.S. are conducting related ...
We report on 2 cases of hypothyroidism presenting clinical symptoms that occurred after radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck and on the results of estimating thyroid function in patients with head and neck cancer who received radiotherapy.. The first patient underwent total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer without sacrificing the thyroid gland and partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Radiotherapy of the neck was carried out postoperatively.. Two years later, the patient developed chest pain; pericardial effusion was detected, leading to a diagnosis of myxedema caused by hypothyroidism. The second patient received radiotherapy alone for laryngeal cancer. Two months later, low serum sodium concentration and anemia were detected in this patient.. The cause of these changes was subsequently found to be hypothyroidism. Based on our experience with these 2 cases, we ...
Background Modified fractionation radiotherapy (RT), delivering multiple fractions per day or shortening the overall treatment time, improves overall survival for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients over conventional fractionation RT (CRT). However, its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Objective: To examine and compare the cost-effectiveness of different modified RT schemes and CRT in the curative treatment of unresected NSCLC patients.. Methods A probabilistic Markov model was developed based on individual patient data from the Meta-Analysis of Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer (MAR-LC) with 10 randomized trials (N = 2000). Costs (Dutch healthcare perspective), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and net monetary benefits (NMB) were compared between 2 accelerated RT schemes (very accelerated (VART) and moderately accelerated (MART)), 2 hyperfractionated RT schemes (using an identical total treatment dose as CRT (HRTI) and higher total ...
If radiation treatment has been recommended as part of your cancer treatment plan, consider Central Maryland Radiation Oncology. Here, the University of Maryland Medical Center and Johns Hopkins Medicine have partnered to offer the most advanced radiation cancer treatment available in a convenient, community location.. We offer patients with all stages and types of cancer the latest options in radiation treatment, from external beam radiation therapies such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to brachytherapy for prostate cancer, where tiny radioactive seeds are placed internally to kill cancer cells.. Most importantly, our patients have access to the same national clinical trials offered by our two major academic medical centers, but without the need to travel to the downtown campus locations.. Patients referred to Central Maryland Radiation Oncology are seen quickly, often within two to ...
The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of alternate week concurrent 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, and cisplatin with radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients received 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea and cisplatin with radiotherapy on an alternate week basis. Chemoradiotherapy was given day 1-5, and no therapy given day 6-14 for each 14 day cycle. Chemotherapy doses were as follows: hydroxyurea 1 mg every 12 h starting day 0, 5-fluorouracil 800 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days starting day 1, and cisplatin 20 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days every other cycle. A radiation dose of 6000 cGy was prescribed. Acute toxicities were monitored and therapy modified for hematologic toxicity. Nine patients enrolled, however eight were evaluable; one patient expired prior to therapy. The median radiation dose delivered was 5540 cGy. Sixty-three percent required a chemotherapy dose ...
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the effect of dose per fraction in prostate cancer. Hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) is a method that optimizes the fractions of radiotherapy, designed to increase daily fraction dose by delivering total dose in a shorter period of time. Several clinical data have suggested that the radiotherapeutic treatment of prostate cancer improves with hypofractionation (higher dose per fraction with an abbreviated general course of radiotherapy) [8,9]. The conventional fractionation scheme employing 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions is based on the premise that tumors are usually less sensitive to dose/daily low relative to normal tissues delayed response. The α/β ratio is a measure of the response fractionation low proportions associated with normal tissues that respond later. The unusual aspect of this radiobiology relates to high atypical prostate cancer ...
Jul 8, 2010. TARGIT delivers local breast cancer control. Recently published results demonstrate that targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT), which involves only selective irradiation of the breast, is equally effective in preventing local breast cancer recurrence as conventional whole-breast radiotherapy (Lancet doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60837-9).. http://medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/43137. ...
And Many Others……. Get a PDF Sample of Radiation Therapy Devices Market Research Report at: http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10440027. After the basic information, the Radiation Therapy Devices Market report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Radiation Therapy Devices Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Following are Major Table of Content of Radiation Therapy Devices Industry:. • Radiation Therapy Devices Market Competition by Manufacturers. • Radiation Therapy Devices Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2017-2022). • Radiation Therapy Devices Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2017-2022). • Radiation Therapy Devices Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type. • Radiation Therapy Devices Market Analysis by Application. • Radiation Therapy Devices Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis. • Radiation Therapy Devices ...
OncoLink, the Webs first cancer resource,provides comprehensive information on coping with cancer, cancer treatments, cancer research advances, continuing medical education, cancer prevention, and clinical trials
Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the effects of various patient characteristics and radiation therapy treatment variables on outcomes in advanced-stage retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 41 eyes of 30 patients treated with external beam radiation therapy between June 1, 1992, and March 31, 2012, with a median follow-up time of 133 months (11 years). Outcome measures included overall survival, progression-free survival, local control, eye preservation rate, and toxicity. Results: Over 90% of the eyes were stage V. Definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was delivered in 43.9% of eyes, adjuvant EBRT in 22% of eyes, and second-line/salvage EBRT in 34.1% of eyes. A relative lens sparing (RLS) technique was used in 68.3% of eyes and modified lens sparing (MLS) in 24.4% of eyes. Three eyes were treated with other techniques. Doses ≥45 Gy were used in 68.3% of eyes. Chemotherapy was a component of treatment in 53.7% of eyes. The 10-year overall ...
Dr. Grigsby has done a masterful job of summarizing current information on the use of radiation in the management of patients with endometrial carcinoma. In the summary, he offers clear recommendations as to the appropriate management of various subsets of patients-recommendations that are based, at least to some extent, on the data reviewed. Such decision-making based on often incomplete information is necessary in the absence of appropriately designed randomized trials addressing the specific clinical situation. It is important, however, to understand clearly what we actually know and what we deduce from bits and pieces of data. 1
Purpose: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive cancers, and the current protocol of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy was initiated to improve survival while limiting toxicities. Methods and Materials: All patients with ATC from 1991 to 2002 were accrued and received megavoltage radiotherapy from-the mastoid processes to the carina up to 60 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.8 and 2 Gy, 6 hours apart. Results: Thirty-one patients were accrued with a median age of 69 years, and 55% were women. Debulking was performed in 26%, and total thyroidectomy, in 6%, whereas 68% received radical radiotherapy alone. Local control data were available for 27 patients: 22% had a complete response, 26% had a partial response, 15% showed progressive disease, and 37% showed static disease. Median overall survival for all 31 patients was 70 days (95% confidence interval, 40-99). There was no ...
Radiation enteropathy or radiation enteritis is a syndrome that may develop following abdominal or pelvic radiation therapy for cancer. Many affected people are cancer survivors who had treatment for cervical cancer or prostate cancer; it has also been termed pelvic radiation disease with radiation proctitis being one of the principal features. People who have been treated with radiotherapy for pelvic and other abdominal cancers frequently develop gastrointestinal symptoms. These include: rectal bleeding diarrhea and steatorrhea other defecation disorders including fecal urgency and incontinence. nutritional deficiencies and weight loss abdominal pain and bloating nausea, vomiting and fatigue Gastrointestinal symptoms are often found together with those in other systems including genitourinary disorders and sexual dysfunction. The burden of symptoms substantially impairs the patients quality of life. Nausea, vomiting, fatigue and diarrhea may happen early ...
Background and aim: Many patients with cancer experience emesis (nausea and vomiting) during radiotherapy. The overall aim of this thesis was to improve the situation for patients with risk for emesis during radiotherapy, by evaluating emesis in patients receiving verum (genuine) acupuncture, sham (simulated) acupuncture or standard care during radiotherapy.. Methods: In study I, a cross-sectional sample (n=368) treated with radiotherapy over various fields answered a study-specific questionnaire. In study II, 80 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive needling with verum acupuncture or non-penetrating telescopic sham needles by one of four physiotherapists. In study III, 215 patients were randomly allocated to verum (n=109) or non-penetrating telescopic sham (n=106) acupuncture during their entire radiotherapy period over abdominal or ...
Accuray Incorporated, developer and manufacturer of the CyberKnife® System, announced that published data from two multicenter studies using differing protocols provide consistent results and reinforce the use of the CyberKnife system for the effective management of low-and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The studies are the largest conducted to date evaluating stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with localized prostate cancer.. Highlights of the multicenter studies included prostate SBRT administered by the system resulted in the following disease-free survival rates:. 97% - 100% for low-risk patients. - Superior to the 92% - 94% from conventional radiation therapy historic data. - Equivalent to low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy without the inconvenience and risk associated with invasive seed and catheter implants. 88% - 97% for intermediate-risk patients. - Equal to or higher than the 85% - 90% ...
Radiotherapy of early breast cancer in scleroderma patients: our experience with four cases and a short review of the literature George Kyrgias1,2, Kiki Theodorou3,4, Anna Zygogianni1, Konstantinos Tsanadis2, Stefanos Zervoudis5, John Tzitzikas6, Michael Koukourakis71Academic Radiotherapy, University of Thessaly, Medical School, Greece; 2Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospital of Larissa, Greece; 3Academic Medical Physics, University of Thessaly, Medical School, Greece; 4Medical Physics Department, University Hospital of Larissa, 5Breast Unit, REA Hospital, Athens, Greece; 6Radiation Oncology Department, AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Greece; 7Radiotherapy-Oncology Department, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: Connective vascular diseases (CVD), including scleroderma, are reported to represent for some researchers a relative contraindication and for others absolute ...
Meningioma is a primary central nervous tumour (CNS) affecting mostly adults. Skull base meningiomas cause morbidity (and occasionally mortality) by compressing adjacent critical organs, and the aim of treatment is to optimise and preserve CNS function. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for meningioma, with doses of 50-54Gy in conventional fractionation schedules resulting in long-term local control rates of 80-90%. However, local recurrence is unacceptably high in aggressive histological subtypes (WHO G2 and G3), and these patients have a poor outcome following standard dose regimens. In recent years Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) has been developed, and can deliver highly conformal dose distributions with sharp dose gradients, making dose escalation a possibility for many tumours, including those located in the skull base. The aim of this thesis was to address two issues pertaining to the role of ...
The search for the optimal choice of treatment time, dose and fractionation regimen is one of the major challenges in radiation therapy. Several aspects of the radiation response of tumours and normal tissues give different indications of how the parameters defining a fractionation schedule should be altered relative to each other which often results in contradictory conclusions. For example, the increased sensitivity to fractionation in late-reacting as opposed to early-reacting tissues indicates that a large number of fractions is beneficial, while the issue of accelerated repopulation of tumour cells starting at about three weeks into a radiotherapy treatment would suggest as short overall treatment time as possible. Another tumour-to-normal tissue differential relevant to the sensitivity as well as the fractionation and overall treatment time is the issue of tumour hypoxia and reoxygenation.. The tumour oxygenation is one of the most influential factors impacting on the ...
Introduction. Surgery is the primary treatment for stage 1 endometrial cancer, and radiotherapy can be used as adjuvant treatment. Medical literature has not defined the best adjuvant treatment for stage 1A endometrial cancer, histological grades 1 and 21. Teletherapy is advocated by some authors, high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) by others, and also low dose rate brachytherapy (LDRB) has been described2-7. There are also authors who question the use of any adjuvant radiotherapy8,9. A meta-analysis evaluated the benefit of adjuvant teletherapy in cancer of endometrium stage I. With four randomized controlled trials included, 1,770 patients were analyzed, with 870 in the treatment group and 900 in the control group. There was a reduction of 72% in the risk of loco-regional recurrence, p , 0.00001, with NNT (number needed to treat) of 16.7 to prevent a recurrence. There was no difference between the rates of distant recurrence, overall ...
Radiotherapy (RT) is an image-intensive specialty in medicine that utilizes radiation for treatment of cancer. Similar to x-ray beam treatment, proton therapy (PT) utilizes high energy particle proton beam to kill cancer cells at the target region. Due to the physical properties of the proton beam, PT delivers dose with higher accuracy than conventional radiotherapy with x-ray beams and no exit dose. In PT, patient data are scattered in different systems within the oncology department which hinders the research on many topics such as whether PT with higher dose or different delivery schedules is more beneficial to reducing toxicity of prostate cancer patients. This research aims to introduce a data mining method and a treatment plan navigator utilizing the infrastructure and data repository of a PT electronic patient record (ePR) system that can ultimately help to minimize radiation toxicity in prostate ...
Secondary malignancies are infrequent sequelae of pituitary radiotherapy. The goal of the present case study is to analyze clinical features of a selected group of cases to define the special characte
In The study of "Soy isoflavones sensitize cancer cells to radiotherapy" by Hillman GG, Singh-Gupta V., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Soy isoflavones could be an effective complementary treatment given that they inhibit the survival signaling pathways of various cancer cells through altered activation of APE1/Ref-1, NF-κB, and HIF-1α, which are genes essential for tumor cell survival, tumor growth, and angiogenesis, thus making such cells more sensitive to radiotherapy. Studies in which soy isoflavones were given in conjunction with radiotherapy to prostate cancer patients suggest that soy isoflavones might also mitigate the adverse effects of radiation on normal tissues, probably by acting as antioxidants. These observations open new avenues for exploiting soy isoflavones as supplements to conventional therapies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypothyroidism After Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients. AU - Wu, Yuan Hua. AU - Wang, Hung Ming. AU - Chen, Hellen Hi Wen. AU - Lin, Chien Yu. AU - Chen, Eric Yen Chao. AU - Fan, Kang Hsing. AU - Huang, Shiang Fu. AU - Chen, I. How. AU - Liao, Chun Ta. AU - Cheng, Ann Joy. AU - Chang, Joseph Tung Chieh. PY - 2010/3/15. Y1 - 2010/3/15. N2 - Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term incidence and possible predictive factors for posttreatment hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Four hundred and eight sequential NPC patients who had received regular annual thyroid hormone surveys prospectively after radiotherapy were included in this study. Median patient age was 47.3 years, and 286 patients were male. Thyroid function was prospectively evaluated by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and ...
More than half of all people with cancer are treated with radiation therapy. Get the facts on radiation therapy, including what it is, what to expect, and how to cope with side effects.
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1. Milyen t pus gy gyszer az Algoflex Rapid s milyen betegs gek eset n alkalmazhat ?A gy gyszer neve: Algoflex Rapid Mini 200 mg, illetve Algoflex Rapid 400 m

John E. Tomaszewski | Faculty | About Us | Perelman School of Medicine | Perelman School of Medicine at the University of...John E. Tomaszewski | Faculty | About Us | Perelman School of Medicine | Perelman School of Medicine at the University of...

Computer-assisted targeted therapy (CATT) for prostate radiotherapy planning by fusion of CT and MRI. SPIE Medical Imaging 7625 ... Evaluation of effects of JPEG2000 compression on a computer-aided detection system for prostate cancer on digitized ... implications for Adjuvant Radiotherapy. BJU INT. 105(10): 1377-1380, May 2010.. Monaco, JP, Tomaszewski, JE, Feldman, Md, ...
more infohttp://www.med.upenn.edu/apps/faculty/index.php/g275/p10402

James M. Slater, Pioneer of Proton Therapy, Dies at 89 | Adventist WorldJames M. Slater, Pioneer of Proton Therapy, Dies at 89 | Adventist World

There he pioneered computer-assisted radiotherapy planning, developing CT-based treatment. He introduced the first such system ... The equipment, including the accelerator and the proton guidance system, weighed 400 tons and produced up to 250 million ... to begin planning the LLUMC Proton Treatment Center, which would result in the construction of the most expensive piece of ...
more infohttps://www.adventistworld.org/james-m-slater-pioneer-of-proton-therapy-dies-at-89/

A dosimetric comparison of real-time adaptive and non-adaptive radiotherapy: A multi-institutional study encompassing robotic,...A dosimetric comparison of real-time adaptive and non-adaptive radiotherapy: A multi-institutional study encompassing robotic,...

Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Movement. Robotics. Computer Systems. Male. Research team. Radiotherapy Physics ... A study of real-time adaptive radiotherapy systems was performed to test the hypothesis that, across delivery systems and ... motion traces and planning protocols to create a lung and a prostate plan. For each motion trace, the plan was delivered twice ... for all systems with adaptation for lung and prostate.The investigated systems all accounted for realistic tumor motion ...
more infohttps://repository.icr.ac.uk/handle/internal/85

The rotating biplanar linac-magnetic resonance imaging system.  - PubMed - NCBIThe rotating biplanar linac-magnetic resonance imaging system. - PubMed - NCBI

Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation. *Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/instrumentation*. LinkOut - more ... The rotating biplanar linac-magnetic resonance imaging system.. Fallone BG1.. Author information. 1. Cross Cancer Institute, ... The functioning whole-body system (0.6-T MR and 6-MV linac) has been installed in an existing clinical vault without removing ... We have successfully built linac-magnetic resonance imaging (MR) systems based on a linac waveguide placed between open MR ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24931093

Motion Compensation in Robotic Radiosurgery | SpringerLinkMotion Compensation in Robotic Radiosurgery | SpringerLink

This chapter describes the principles of motion compensation in radiotherapy with a focus on robotic radiosurgery, starting ... Computer-assisted preoperative planning, interactive surgery, and frameless stereotaxy, pp. 112-131. Williams and Wilkins (1992 ... Development of a fourdimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled X-ray head. International Journal of ... International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 1(2), 19-27 (2005). DOI 10.1002/rcs.38 CrossRefGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-1912-9_2

Brainlab - WikipediaBrainlab - Wikipedia

1998) "Introduction of the Passive Marker Neuronavigation System VectorVision", Computer-Assisted Neurosurgery (Tokyo: Springer ... Meyer, John L., "IMRT, IGRT, SBRT: Advances in the Treatment Planning and Delivery of Radiotherapy", S. Karger AG, 2007, p. 14 ... a radiotherapy system jointly created by Brainlab and Varian Medical Systems, Inc. A year later, Digital Lightbox was brought ... Brainlab expanded into the field of image-guided surgery in 1997 with the VectorVision Neuronavigation System and was the first ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainlab

Medical Imaging 2015: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling | (2015) | Publications | SpieMedical Imaging 2015: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling | (2015) | Publications | Spie

The precise annotation of vessel is desired in computer-assisted systems to help surgeons identify each vessel branch. A method ... These CT examinations were for initial radiotherapy planning, and re-planning for a treatment course where the tumor underwent ... This paper presents a prototype of a computer-based multimodal IGI system that strives to fill this need. The system combines a ... One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive ...
more infohttp://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Volume/9415

Patent WO1996032059A1 - Magnetic field digitizer for stereotactic surgery - Google PatentsPatent WO1996032059A1 - Magnetic field digitizer for stereotactic surgery - Google Patents

The frame of reference through which this system operates is coordinate referenced to the coordinates of a composite image ... referencing between the CT or MRI scans and a stereotactic referencing system which uses an electromagnetically driven system ... with the physical position of the patient is performed by first synchronizing two coordinate systems, which can be performed in ... formed from a CT, MRI, or other system which are arranged and may be generated in two- or three-dimensional fashion in response ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/WO1996032059A1?cl=en

Patent EP0825830A1 - Magnetic field digitizer for stereotactic surgery - Google PatentsPatent EP0825830A1 - Magnetic field digitizer for stereotactic surgery - Google Patents

The frame of reference through which this system operates is coordinate referenced to the coordinates of a composite image ... referencing between the CT or MRI scans and a stereotactic referencing system which uses an electromagnetically driven system ... with the physical position of the patient is performed by first synchronizing two coordinate systems, which can be performed in ... formed from a CT, MRI, or other system which are arranged and may be generated in two- or three-dimensional fashion in response ...
more infohttp://www.google.co.uk/patents/EP0825830A1?cl=en

Browse Faculty Research Interests | Page 7 | Office of Cooperative ResearchBrowse Faculty Research Interests | Page 7 | Office of Cooperative Research

Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted; X-Rays; Photons; Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated ... Research interests Diagnosis; Neoplasms; Nervous System Diseases; Health Care Zhe Chen *Professor of Therapeutic Radiology ... Research interests Brachytherapy; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Electrons; Gamma Rays; Radiotherapy; ...
more infohttps://ocr.yale.edu/browse-faculty?page=6

Information-and-communication technology Market Research Reports - Absolute Markets InsightsInformation-and-communication technology Market Research Reports - Absolute Markets Insights

Computer Assisted Surgery {[Training, Planning, Rehearsal and Delivery] Neurosurgery, Laparoscopic, Simulators, Other}, ... Emergency Management Market By Systems Emergency/Mass Notification System, Surveillance System, Traffic Management System, ... Radiotherapy, Dentistry, Mental Health, Psychological Therapy and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Phobias, Telehealth, ... Hotel Operation Management System, Integrated Security System, Hotel Building Automation System, Guest Service Management ...
more infohttps://www.absolutemarketsinsights.com/categories/information-and-communication_technology

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

radiotherapy planning, computer-assisted - methods (26) 26 Filter by. Remove filter. cardiac & cardiovascular systems (25) 25 ... image interpretation, computer-assisted - methods (31) 31 Filter by. Remove filter. image processing, computer-assisted (30) 30 ... TUMOR-TRACKING RADIOTHERAPY , INSPIRATION BREATH-HOLD , IMAGE-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY , CARBON ION RADIOTHERAPY , RADIOLOGY, ... Computer-Assisted - methods , Middle Aged , Male , Algorithms , Sensitivity and Specificity , Adult , Female , Liver Neoplasms ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:breath-hold%20challenge

ZRT - Center for Radiopharmaceutical Tumor Research - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, HZDRZRT - Center for Radiopharmaceutical Tumor Research - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, HZDR

Computer-assisted tumor detection and characterization. The development of computer-based methods for image refinement and ... The central monitoring system offers additional security. Individual ventilation and special cleaning and feeding procedures ... an interdisciplinary research facility of the HZDR together with the Clinics of Nuclear Medicine and of Radiotherapy and ... prerequisite for nuclear physicians to assess the size and location of tumors in order to develop an individual treatment plan ...
more infohttp://www.hzdr.de/db/Cms?pNid=897

Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case: Medicine & Healthcare Book Chapter | IGI GlobalCombining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case: Medicine & Healthcare Book Chapter | IGI Global

Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case: 10.4018/978-1-60566-314-2.ch013: Patient anatomy, ... Treatment Planning System (TPS): A computer based system used to simulate, calculate and optimize the radiotherapy treatment of ... Soft tissue simulation used extensively in computer assisted surgery planning or training is an example. Tissue is modeled as a ... A case study of Treatment Planning System (TPS) in the stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) based on the proposed structure is ...
more infohttps://www.igi-global.com/chapter/combining-geometry-image-biomedical-systems/19596

131I-L19SIP Radioimmunotherapy Combined With Radiochemotherapy in Patients With Locally-advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer ...131I-L19SIP Radioimmunotherapy Combined With Radiochemotherapy in Patients With Locally-advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer ...

Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-assisted. Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation ... Technical note: Real-time image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of a rigid target for a prototype fixed beam radiotherapy system. ... Fixed beam radiotherapy systems utilize couch movement and rotation instead of gantry rotation in order to simplify linear ... Radical Radiotherapy by External Beam Radiation Versus Radical Radiotherapy With Temporary Iridium Implant Plus External Beam ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/64886/131I-L19SIP-Radioimmunotherapy-Combined-With-Radiochemotherapy-in-Patients-With-Locally-advanced-Non.html

Computer assisted medical diagnostics > By comparison of patient data to other data >  Patents - Class:...Computer assisted medical diagnostics > By comparison of patient data to other data > Patents - Class:...

Couch positioning system for radiotherapy, treatment plan unit, and couch positioning unit. Oct. 30, 2012. ... Name: Surgery > Computer assisted medical diagnostics > By comparison of patient data to other data. Description: Collection of ... System and method for graphically configuring leads. Oct. 29, 2013. 8556810. System and method for evaluating a patient status ... System and method for graphically configuring leads. Aug. 24, 2010. 7783342. System and method for inferring disease similarity ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/class/128/923.html

Canon Medical Systems Europe B.V.Canon Medical Systems Europe B.V.

Radiation Treatment Planning. Radiotherapy treatment planning relies on transversal CT images. They form a basis for treatment ... based on computerassisted 3D therapy planning and unconventional use… ... CT assisted dynamic perfusion imaging (perfusion CT, PCT) has evolved in recent years with the introduction of the multi-slice ... Toshiba America Medical Systems, Inc. introduces two advanced multi-detector CT systems, the Aquilion Premium edition and the ...
more infohttps://healthcare-in-europe.com/en/manufacturers/canon-medical-systems-europe-b-v.html

BJJ News Issue 6 by BoneandJoint - issuuBJJ News Issue 6 by BoneandJoint - issuu

... and for those computer navigation systems can assist both who did have surgery, 62% had an operation in pre-operative planning ... Patients are frequently immunosuppressed and their condition is often further compromised by the addition of radiotherapy. ... The 3D system guides the surgeon in the operating theatre on the basis of the plan d e t e r m i n e d p re - o p e r a t i ve ... Computer Assisted Navigation in Musculoskeletal Oncology. Orthop Trauma 2014;28:294-302. 5. Jeys L, Grimer R. Carter S, et al. ...
more infohttps://www.issuu.com/boneandjoint/docs/bjj_news_issue_6_no_crop_marks

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Complex radius shaft malunion: osteotomy with computer-assisted planning. Andreas Schweizer, Philipp Fürnstahl, Matthias ... Characterization of Complex Systems Using the Design of Experiments Approach: Transient Protein Expression in Tobacco as a Case ... Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) distinguishes itself by necessitating more rigid patient immobilization, accounting for ... The computer-assisted operation planning facilitated the quantification of combined axial and angular malunions which were ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/19826878/complex-radius-shaft-malunion-osteotomy-with-computer-assisted

The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research: Implications for Decision Makers in HealthcareThe International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research: Implications for Decision Makers in Healthcare

Robotic surgery: robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. * Image-guided radiotherapy: Calypso 4D system; Cyberknife ... Diagnostic imaging: computer-assisted breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); upright MRI. * Genetic diagnostics: oncotype ... and formularies can be a differentiating factor between plans, which may attract or discourage people from joining a plan. ... and improved Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System and Current Procedural Terminology coding systems and coding accuracy.. ...
more infohttp://www.ahdbonline.com/issues/2008/july-august-2008-vol-1-no-6/326-article-326

Program Members > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of...Program Members > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of...

Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted; Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated; X-Rays ... Director, Central Nervous System Radiotherapy Program. *Office 203.200.2634. *Appt203.200.2000 ... Biophysics; Cell Hypoxia; DNA Damage; Heavy Ion Radiotherapy; Lung Neoplasms; Physics; Prostatic Neoplasms; Radiation Oncology ... Brachytherapy; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Electrons; Gamma Rays; Photons; Radiotherapy; ...
more infohttp://yalecancercenter.org/research/programs/radio/people/

Kasvaimet )|( Tuumorit )|( Neoplasmat )|( Neoplasma NAS )|( Kasvain )|( Syöpä )|( Tuumori )|( Neoplasma )|( Neoplasmata )|(...Kasvaimet )|( Tuumorit )|( Neoplasmat )|( Neoplasma NAS )|( Kasvain )|( Syöpä )|( Tuumori )|( Neoplasma )|( Neoplasmata )|(...

Cancer, Neoplasms, Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted, Radiation Oncology, Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted, ... Carcinogenesis, Systems biology., Molecular Biology., Neoplasms, Systems Biology., Systems biology, Molecular Biology, ... Gastrointestinal system, Cancer, Oncology, Digestive System Neoplasms, Medicine, sähkökirjat. Blanke, Charles D;Rödel, Claus; ... Cancer systems biology, bioinformatics and medicine : research and clinical applications. ...
more infohttps://www.terkko.helsinki.fi/-/-/search/0/cancer/

Clinical decision support system - WikipediaClinical decision support system - Wikipedia

"Retrieval with clustering in a case-based reasoning system for radiotherapy treatment planning". Journal of Physics: Conference ... "Long-term effect of computer-assisted decision support for antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients: a prospective ... It has been said that "the highest level of EHR is a CDSS". Since "clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are computer ... Another example of a CDSS would be a case-based reasoning (CBR) system. A CBR system might use previous case data to help ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_decision_support_system

US20130048883A1 - Systems and methods for preventing unsafe medical treatment 
        - Google PatentsUS20130048883A1 - Systems and methods for preventing unsafe medical treatment - Google Patents

A treatment safety device is operable by a computer-based treatment safety module to prevent, by at least one of an operational ... Computer assisted radiation therapy machine US6799068B1 (en) * 1999-02-19. 2004-09-28. Gesellschaft Fuer Schwerionenforschung ... Support apparatus for radiotherapy measurement system US20140358114A1 (en) * 2012-02-02. 2014-12-04. Brainlab Ag. Method for ... The transfer of the selected plan to the TMS 40 and then TDD control 16 and TDD 12 via the RADONC systems network 34 is a ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20130048883

US20090326364A1 - MRI compatible robot with calibration phantom and phantom 
        - Google PatentsUS20090326364A1 - MRI compatible robot with calibration phantom and phantom - Google Patents

A61B34/10-Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations * A61B2034/107-Visualisation of planned ... System, employing three-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging, for assisting in guiding and placing medical instruments ... Incorporating Internal Anatomy In Clinical Radiotherapy Setups US6035228A (en) 2000-03-07. Frameless stereotactic arm apparatus ... Computer Motion, Inc.. Automated endoscope system for optimal positioning JPH09266892A (en) 1996-04-01. 1997-10-14. Jeol Ltd. ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20090326364
  • Every cancer patient can rely on the expertise and competence of all team members of the COG/Urology to receive the best possible therapy for his or her disease, whether surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The goal of this SBIR contract topic is to provide support for the development of targeted agents, including small molecules and biologics, to prevent or treat cachexia related to cancer and/or cancer therapy, including chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. (sbir.gov)
  • Given the complexity and high variability of abdominal organs, the identification of distinct computational challenges for integrative models of organs and abnormalities are essential for understanding anatomy and disease, evaluating treatment, and planning intervention. (miccai.org)
  • Treatment planning was performed on computed tomography (CT) images before and after the placement of the IRS and with a V-IRS. (cdc.gov)
  • In late 2008, he joined the APIS team (Analyis of irregular Processes, Images and Signal, applications to biology and medicine) at INRIA Saclay-Île-de-France (the French national research institute in computer science and automation) where he was investigating the use of evolutionary algorithms in tomography for nuclear medicine. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • evolutionary computing medical imaging computer graphics virtual environment haptics computer vision X-ray simulation tomography reconstruction (e.g. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • The first Brainlab product was a mouse-controlled, menu-driven surgical planning and navigation software introduced in 1990 at the University of Vienna. (wikipedia.org)
  • and an imaging scan display system (53,57,55) having an input connected to receive said output position signal from said electromagnetic position indicating means and adapted to display a scan image associated with the position of said reference position in said surgical field. (google.ca)
  • 2. The stereotactic surgical device recited in claim 1 wherein said reference position is positionally variable and said imaging scan display system (53,57,55) displays a scan image associated with each new position of said reference position. (google.ca)
  • 5. The stereotactic surgical device recited in claim 4 wherein said electromagnetic receiver (23) further comprises a stylus means for probing tissue and having a first end connected to said electromagnetic receiver (23) and a second end as a reference end, and wherein said computer (53) is programmed to account for said reference end as the electromagnetic receiver (23) 's reference point. (google.ca)
  • The DTI-data obtained were processed using a FDA approved surgical navigation system program which uses a straightforward fiber-tracking approach known as fiber assignment by continuous tracking (FACT). (jove.com)
  • DaVinci canvas: a telerobotic surgical system with integrated, robot-assisted, laparoscopic ultrasound capability. (elsevier.com)
  • Development and evaluation of a "trackerless" surgical planning and guidance system based on 3D Slicer. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Computer applications resulting in the creation of a powerful surgical navigation system called frameless stereotaxy. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • During the operation, the computer then monitors the surgical instruments, allowing the surgeon to be very precise. (cancervic.org.au)
  • Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. (frontiersin.org)
  • A systems medicine approach could be applied, including biological, medical, and surgical aspects, by integrating all available anatomical and functional information of the individual patient. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prediction of recurrence in early stage non-small cell lung cancer using computer extracted nuclear features from digital H&E images. (case.edu)
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) - We provide state-of-the-art radiosurgery for brain, spine and other body sites using the GammaKnife Perfexion and Linac systems. (rutgers.edu)
  • It is useful to predict planned dosimetry and determine the eligibility of a liver cancer patient for SBRT treatment using knowledge based planning (KBP). (springer.com)
  • In this study, 21 liver SBRT cases were selected, which were initially treated using coplanar VMAT plans. (springer.com)
  • In addition to evaluating plan quality, KBP is useful to automatically determine the patient eligibility for liver SBRT and quantify the dosimetric gains from non-coplanar 4π plans. (springer.com)
  • Navigation systems have the potential to facilitate intraoperative orientation and recognition of anatomical structures. (springer.com)
  • Four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT), in which the accuracy of localization is improved - not only in space but also in time - in comparison to 3DRT, is required in IGRT. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The development of computer-based methods for image refinement and evaluation is part of an optimal tumor diagnosis for the individual patient. (hzdr.de)
  • An example of how a clinical decision support system might be used by a clinician is a specific type of CDSS, a DDSS (diagnosis decision support systems). (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors use these systems at point of care to help them as they are dealing with a patient, with the timing of use being either pre-diagnosis, during diagnosis, or post diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Pre-diagnosis CDSS systems are used to help the physician prepare the diagnoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-diagnosis CDSS systems are used to mine data to derive connections between patients and their past medical history and clinical research to predict future events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer-Aided Diagnosis. (buchfreund.de)
  • Image fusion technology has successfully contributed to various fields such as medical diagnosis and navigation, surveillance systems, remote sensing, digital cameras, military applications, computer vision, etc. (intechopen.com)
  • We solicit original and review papers that address innovative research and development in the following four growing fields: virtual colonoscopy, computer-aided diagnosis, abdominal intervention, and computational anatomy. (miccai.org)
  • Care is well-coordinated among team members, who meet throughout the week to discuss diagnosis and treatment planning for specific patients. (emersonhospital.org)
  • Guided bronchoscopy results using airway-tree phantoms and human cases demonstrate the efficacy of the system. (spie.org)
  • The functioning whole-body system (0.6-T MR and 6-MV linac) has been installed in an existing clinical vault without removing the walls or the ceiling and without the need of a helium exhaust vent. (nih.gov)
  • As part of the translation of theoretical findings into clinical practice, the HZDR is also responsible for providing scientific support for clinical studies, for example for individualized, patient-specific radiotherapy. (hzdr.de)
  • The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) is the one organization that tries to assist decision makers in healthcare through the application and promotion of pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research-the scientific discipline that evaluates the effect of healthcare interventions on patient well-being, including clinical outcomes, economic outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes. (ahdbonline.com)
  • A clinical decision support system (CDSS) is a health information technology system that is designed to provide physicians and other health professionals with clinical decision support (CDS), that is, assistance with clinical decision-making tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decision support systems significantly improved clinical practice in 68% of trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinical decision support system has been defined as an "active knowledge systems, which use two or more items of patient data to generate case-specific advice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies that a CDSS is simply a decision support system that is focused on using knowledge management in such a way so as to achieve clinical advice for patient care based on multiple items of patient data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linear accelerators and treatment planning are enormously more complex than 20 years ago,' said Dr. Howard I. Amols, chief of clinical physics at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. (google.com)
  • Our clinical partners in the radiotherapy department at klinikum Rechts der Isar and Seattle University Hospital have collected and annotated large dataset on the study of soft-tissue sarcomas. (tum.de)
  • This method is suitable for clinical implementation and may improve the overall accuracy of targeted radiotherapy. (springer.com)
  • ImaGINe-S was awarded 2nd place in the Eurographics 2009 Medical Prize "for its innovative use of computer graphics in a complex system that is already far advanced towards clinical use" (see here for a YouTube video to learn more about the simulator ). (bangor.ac.uk)
  • This talk covers the deep learning techniques that we use to obtain state of the art accuracy in this domain, as well as the requirements and challenges faced when developing a deep learning system for use in clinical practice. (midl.amsterdam)
  • BA/MA/IDP: Computer-aided survival, grading prediction and segmentation of soft tissue sarcomas in MRI. (tum.de)
  • The system must first segment the soft-tissue sarcoma, followed by a grading prediction of the aggressiveness of the tumor and the disease survival or progression. (tum.de)
  • Computer-aided survival, grading prediction and segmentation of soft tissue sarcomas in MRI. (tum.de)
  • A. Zizzari, Methods on tumor recognition and planning target prediction for the radiotherapy of cancer [Ph.D. thesis] , Electronics Department, University of Magdeburg, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • It is unknown how treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP) and adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or both (termed MaxRP) compares with treatment with EBRT. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A Concentric Tube Robot System for Rigid Bronchoscopy: A Feasibility Study on Central Airway Obstruction Removal. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Brachytherapy versus external beam radiotherapy boost for prostate cancer: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized trials. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Evaluation of effects of JPEG2000 compression on a computer-aided detection system for prostate cancer on digitized histopathology. (upenn.edu)
  • The evaluation of the radiological changes in localised or locally advanced prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy and external beam radiotherapy using multi-parametric MRI (mu. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Brachytherapy boost after external beam radiotherapy for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer is presented as an attractive technique in numerous retrospective and prospective studies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A dosimetric comparison of real-time adaptive and non-adaptive radiotherapy: A multi-institutional study encompassing robotic, gimbaled, multileaf collimator and couch tracking. (icr.ac.uk)
  • 3% for all systems with adaptation for lung and prostate.The investigated systems all accounted for realistic tumor motion accurately and performed to a similar high standard, with real-time adaptation significantly outperforming non-adaptive delivery methods. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Technical note: Real-time image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of a rigid target for a prototype fixed beam radiotherapy system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since the start of the modern era of brachytherapy which was marked by the use of pre-planned ultrasound-guided transperineal seed delivery as proposed and developed by Holm, in which images are acquired and seed locations determined by hand days before the implant procedure in the operating room ( 6 ), techniques have evolved toward adaptive quasi-real-time planning and seed delivery in the operating room ( 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Zichun Zhong , Jing Hua, "Kernel-Based Adaptive Sampling for Image Reconstruction and Meshing," in Computer-Aided Geometric Design (GMP 2016 Special Issue) , Vol. 43, pp. 68-81, 2016. (wayne.edu)
  • Hai Jin, Xun Wang, Zichun Zhong , Jing Hua, "Robust 3D Face Modeling and Reconstruction from Frontal and Side Images," in Computer-Aided Geometric Design Vol. 50, pp. 1 - 13, 2017. (wayne.edu)
  • Jiaxi Hu, Hajar Hamidian, Zichun Zhong , Jing Hua, "Visualization of Shape Deformations by Variation of Geometric Spectrum," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG) (IEEE SciVis 2016 Special Issue) Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 721 - 730, 2017. (wayne.edu)
  • The porcine model is similar to humans for respiratory esophageal motion and can thus help to develop navigation systems with compensation for soft tissue deformation. (springer.com)
  • If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with cancer or a blood disorder, your Aspirus medical provider will work with you to develop the best individualized treatment plan for you. (aspirus.org)
  • Application of real-time tumor-tracking and gated radiotherapy system for unresectable pancreatic cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Endocrine Neoplasia provides the research and specialized care required when cancer affects the endocrine system. (mdanderson.org)
  • For children with cancer, CT is used to assist in treatment planning and to monitor cancer progression and response to treatment. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Systems, methods, devices, and other techniques for placing and rendering virtual objects in three-dimensional environments. (patents.com)
  • The present disclosure is directed toward systems and methods that facilitate scanning an object (e.g., a three-dimensional object) having custom mesh lines. (patents.com)
  • In this work, we present a comparative analysis of our optical flow based technique for colonoscopy tracking, in relation to current state of the art methods, in terms of tracking accuracy, system stability, and computational efficiency. (spie.org)
  • the FOE-constrained egomotion estimation was compared with collinear, 2 image deformation 10 and image derivative 4 based egomotion estimation methods, to understand the stability of our tracking system. (spie.org)
  • Systems biology is characterized by the application of computational models and methods to a biological question, focusing on entire biological systems and the complex interactions therein. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1986, the Loma Linda University and Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) Boards of Trustees approved Slater's request to work with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) to begin planning the LLUMC Proton Treatment Center, which would result in the construction of the most expensive piece of medical equipment that had ever been built. (adventistworld.org)
  • D'Souza, W.D., McAvoy, T.J.: An analysis of the treatment couch and control system dynamics for respiration-induced motion compensation. (springer.com)
  • medical physicists and oncologists would then review the recommended treatment plan to determine its viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • A treatment safety device is operable by a computer-based treatment safety module to prevent, by at least one of an operational interlock and a warning indicator, a medical treatment unless the treatment safety module determines that predetermined treatment verification criteria are met. (google.com)
  • The resulting treatment plans were used to calculate the TCP before and after placement of an IRS. (cdc.gov)
  • The third task is related to the medical image segmentation to automate the treatment planning. (tum.de)
  • They will talk with you about the stage and extent of your illness, explain treatment options, and decide with you on a personalized plan of care. (aspirus.org)
  • A joint IAEA/AAPM international working group has developed a Code of Practice (CoP) for the dosimetry of small static fields used in external megavoltage photon beam radiotherapy, published by the IA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The13thInternationalConferenceonMedicalImageComputingandComputer- Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2010, was held in Beijing, China from 20-24 September,2010.ThevenuewastheChinaNationalConventionCenter(CNCC), China'slargestandnewestconferencecenterwith excellentfacilities andaprime location in the heart of the Olympic Green, adjacent to characteristic constr- tions like the Bird's Nest (National Stadium) and the Water Cube (National Aquatics Center). (buchfreund.de)
  • MICCAI is the foremost international scienti?c event in the ?eld of medical image computing and computer-assisted interventions. (buchfreund.de)
  • MICCAI 2012, the 15th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, will be held from 1st to 5th October 2012 at the Acropolis Convention and Exhibition Centre in Nice, France. (miccai.org)
  • C. Hogea, C. Davatzikos, and G. Biros, "Modeling glioma growth and mass effect in 3D MR images of the brain," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervenion (MICCAI '07) , vol. 4791, pp. 642-650, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • For the preoperative planning, a computer simulation was developed that allows the quantification of the malunion by comparing the 3-d surface model of the impaired bone with the contralateral anatomy. (jove.com)
  • The frame of reference through which this system operates is coordinate referenced to the coordinates of a composite image formed from a CT, MRI, or other system which are arranged and may be generated in two- or three-dimensional fashion in response to the position of a pointer (25) as they are referenced to the orientation of a patient (31) during an operation. (google.ca)
  • Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case. (igi-global.com)
  • The structure is a dynamic multidimensional data holder to host several modalities and/or Meta data like fused image sets, extracted features (volumetric, surfaces, edges) providing a universal coordinate system used for calculations and geometric processes. (igi-global.com)
  • CONCLUSION: The standard 2-dimensional/3-dimensional image registration tool available on the Varian Edge radiosurgery device, a state-of-the-art system, is helpful for robust and accurate target positioning for image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery. (henryford.com)
  • In motion-compensated image-guided radiotherapy, accurate tracking of the target region is required. (springer.com)
  • collection on the' System' fact and As the' Advanced' l. content on the History that is' Environment Variables' which should exist a image with original Retrieved data and their bids. (4-buescher.de)
  • An image data manipulation system is described in which users located remotely from an image data storage library may participate in a collaborative image data rendering and evaluation session. (google.co.uk)
  • The system includes the exchange of state parameters between the client computer of a user controlling the image rendering, the session driver, and a server computer which relays updated state parameters to other client computers participating in a session. (google.co.uk)
  • 2. The system of claim 1 wherein at least one of the receiving stations transmits a request for processed image data through the telecommunications network and wherein the image processing server transmits processed image data to the receiving station through the telecommunications network in response to the request. (google.co.uk)
  • 3. The system of claim 1 wherein the image processing server transmits processed imaged data to at least one receiving station upon the completion of the processing of image data. (google.co.uk)
  • Here, we propose an image-based system for technician-free bronchoscopy guidance that relies on two features. (spie.org)
  • The image slices are displayed on a computer monitor for viewing or printed as a film. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Fixed beam radiotherapy systems utilize couch movement and rotation instead of gantry rotation in order to simplify linear accelerator design. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Because movement during the scan can cause inaccurate images, the technologist instructs the patient via an intercom system to hold their breath and not move during the x rays. (healthofchildren.com)