Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.

Combined microautoradiography-16S rRNA probe technique for determination of radioisotope uptake by specific microbial cell types in situ. (1/2142)

We propose a novel method for studying the function of specific microbial groups in situ. Since natural microbial communities are dynamic both in composition and in activities, we argue that the microbial "black box" should not be regarded as homogeneous. Our technique breaks down this black box with group-specific fluorescent 16S rRNA probes and simultaneously determines 3H-substrate uptake by each of the subgroups present via microautoradiography (MAR). Total direct counting, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and MAR are combined on a single slide to determine (i) the percentages of different subgroups in a community, (ii) the percentage of total cells in a community that take up a radioactively labeled substance, and (iii) the distribution of uptake within each subgroup. The method was verified with pure cultures. In addition, in situ uptake by members of the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria (alpha-Proteobacteria) and of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group obtained off the California coast and labeled with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for these subgroups showed that not only do these organisms account for a large portion of the picoplankton community in the sample examined ( approximately 60% of the universal probe-labeled cells and approximately 50% of the total direct counts), but they also are significant in the uptake of dissolved amino acids in situ. Nearly 90% of the total cells and 80% of the cells belonging to the alpha-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium groups were detectable as active organisms in amino acid uptake tests. We suggest a name for our triple-labeling technique, substrate-tracking autoradiographic fluorescent in situ hybridization (STARFISH), which should aid in the "dissection" of microbial communities by type and function.  (+info)

Specific radioactivity of europium-152 in roof tiles exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki. (2/2142)

Specific radioactivities of residual europium (Eu)-152 were measured in six roof tile samples exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at two locations. The ground distances of the two locations from the hypocenter are 1020 m and 1060 m. In order to obtain reliable data, Eu-enriched samples (from 207 to 855 mg) were prepared by separating Eu from each roof tile sample (from 1 to 2 kg). For the major aliquot of the Eu-enriched sample, residual radioactivity of 152Eu was measured using a low-energy photon spectrometer. For the minor aliquot of the Eu-enriched sample, Eu content was determined by neutron activation analysis. Results of the specific radioactivity (152Eu/Eu, Bq mg-1) corrected to the time of bombing were in a range from 0.080 to 0.446. Although the measured values showed some scattering, they are moderately consistent with the calculated values by the DS86 methodology, i.e. the average ratio of the calculated to measured values is 1.3 +/- 0.8.  (+info)

186Re-etidronate in breast cancer patients with metastatic bone pain. (3/2142)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 186Re-1,1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (etidronate) in breast cancer patients with painful bone metastases. METHODS: Thirty patients with advanced breast cancer who had metastatic bone pain were treated with 186Re-etidronate using different dosages in a noncomparative, open-label study. Twenty-four patients were evaluated for efficacy (6 patients had incomplete datasets). Dosages varied from 1295 to 2960 MBq (35 to 80 mCi). Efficacy was evaluated according to the multidimensional pain model using a paper-and-pencil diary. The diary was kept twice daily for 8-10 wk (2 wk before through 6-8 wk after 186Re-etidronate treatment). Response was determined with a strict criteria, in which pain intensity (PI), medication index (MI) and daily activities (DA) were core determinants. Response was defined as: (a) Reduced PI > or = 5% while MI and DA were at least constant; or (b) Reduced PI <25% in combination with improvement of MI or DA > or = 25%, without worsening of either factor. Duration of response should always exceed a minimum of 2 wk. RESULTS: Fifty-eight percent (n = 14) of all patients reported a response. The maximum follow-up period was 8 wk. Duration of response ranged from 2 to 8 wk (mean 4 wk). Patients (14/24) not only experienced considerable pain reduction, but in 12 patients this was also accompanied by noteworthy reduction in MI (> or = 25%). No clear dose-response relationship was found. CONCLUSION: With strict pain assessment criteria, 186Re-etidronate showed a response of 58% in the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain originating from breast cancer.  (+info)

Combination 186Re-HEDP and cisplatin supra-additive treatment effects in prostate cancer cells. (4/2142)

Radionuclide therapy has proven to be an efficacious palliative treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. Its potential therapeutic possibilities may be substantially increased by combining it with effective radiosensitizing drugs. METHODS: This study explores the radiosensitizing properties of cisplatin when combined with 186Re-labeled hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) in the treatment of R3327-MATLyLu prostate cancer cells in vitro. A concomitant incubation during 4 d, combining various concentrations of cisplatin (0, 0.42, 0.83 and 1.67 micromol/L) and 186Re-HEDP (0, 1.84 and 3.69 MBq/mL [0, 50 and 100 microCi/mL, respectively]) was followed by the determination of the cell numbers surviving and the replating of these cells in semisolid agar. RESULTS: The surviving fraction of clonogenic tumor cells after combination treatment clearly showed synergism when analyzed by a panel of three different published analytical methods. In addition, analysis of variance demonstrated a significant interaction between radionuclide therapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy (P < 0.001). Treatment with 186Re-HEDP and cisplatin by sequential incubation yielded similar, but never superior results. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that radionuclide therapy in combination with cisplatin is able, in principle, to improve therapeutic success rate in metastatic prostate cancer in a more than additive way.  (+info)

Phase I study of 90Y-labeled B72.3 intraperitoneal administration in patients with ovarian cancer: effect of dose and EDTA coadministration on pharmacokinetics and toxicity. (5/2142)

The tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) antigen is present on a high percentage of tumor types including ovarian carcinomas. Antibody B72.3 is a murine monoclonal recognizing the surface domain of the TAG-72 antigen and has been widely used in human clinical trials. After our initial encouraging studies (M. G. Rosenblum et al., J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 83: 1629-1636, 1991) of tissue disposition, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics in 9 patients with ovarian cancer, we designed an escalating dose, multi-arm Phase I study of 90Y-labeled B72.3 i.p. administration. In the first arm of the study, patients (3 pts/dose level) received an i.p. infusion of either 2 or 10 mg of B72.3 labeled with either 1, 10, 15, or 25 mCi of 90Y. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that concentrations of 90Y-labeled B72.3 persist in peritoneal fluid with half-lives >24 h after i.p. administration. In addition, 90Y-labeled B72.3 was absorbed rapidly into the plasma with peak levels achieved within 48 h, and levels declined slowly thereafter. Cumulative urinary excretion of the 90Y label was 10-20% of the administered dose which suggests significant whole-body retention of the radiolabel. Biopsy specimens of bone and marrow obtained at 72 h after administration demonstrated significant content of the label in bone (0.015% of the dose/g) with relatively little in marrow (0.005% of the dose/g). The maximal tolerated dose was determined to be 10 mCi because of hematological toxicity and platelet suppression. This typically occurred on the 29th day after administration and was thought to be a consequence of the irradiation of the marrow from the bony deposition of the radiolabel. In an effort to suppress the bone uptake of 90Y, patients were treated with a continuous i.v. infusion of EDTA (25 mg/kg/12 h x 6) infused immediately before i.p. administration of the radiolabeled antibody. Patients (3 pts/dose level) were treated with doses of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, or 45 mCi of 90Y-labeled B72.3 for a total of 38 patients. EDTA administration resulted in significant myeloprotection, which allowed escalation to the maximal tolerated dose of 40 mCi. Dose-limiting toxicity was thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Studies of plasma and peritoneal fluid pharmacokinetics demonstrate no changes compared with patients without EDTA pretreatment. Cumulative urinary excretion of the radiolabel was not increased in patients pretreated with EDTA compared with the untreated group. However, analysis of biopsy specimens of bone and marrow demonstrated that bone and marrow content of the 90Y label was 15-fold lower (<0.001% injected dose/g) than a companion group without EDTA. Four responses were noted in patients who received 15-30 mCi of 90Y-labeled B72.3 with response durations of 1-12 months. These results demonstrate the myeloprotective ability of EDTA, which allows safe i.p. administration of higher doses of 90Y-labeled B72.3 and, therefore, clearly warrant an expanded Phase II trial in patients with minimal residual disease after standard chemotherapy or for the palliation of refractory ascites.  (+info)

Locoregional regulatory peptide receptor targeting with the diffusible somatostatin analogue 90Y-labeled DOTA0-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide (DOTATOC): a pilot study in human gliomas. (6/2142)

Human gliomas, especially of low-grade type, have been shown to express high-affinity somatostatin receptor type 2 (J-C. Reubi et al., Am. J. Pathol, 134: 337-344, 1989). We enrolled seven low-grade and four anaplastic glioma patients in a pilot study using the diffusible peptidic vector 90Y-labeled DOTA0-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide (DOTATOC) for receptor targeting. The radiopharmakon was locoregionally injected into a stereotactically inserted Port-a-cath. DOTATOC competes specifically with somatostatin binding to somatostatin receptor type 2 in the low nanomolar range as shown by a displacement curve of 125I-[Tyr3]-octreotide in tumor tissue sections. Diagnostic (111)In-labeled DOTATOC-scintigraphy following local injection displayed homogeneous to nodular intratumoral vector distribution. The cumulative activity of regionally injected peptide-bound 90Y amounted to 370-3300 MBq, which is equivalent to an effective dose range between 60 +/- 15 and 550 +/- 110 Gy. Activity was injected in one to four fractions according to tumor volumes; 1110 MBq of 90Y-labeled DOTATOC was the maximum activity per single injection. We obtained six disease stabilizations and shrinking of a cystic low-grade astrocytoma component. The only toxicity observed was secondary perifocal edema. The activity:dose ratio (MBq:Gy) represents a measure for the stability of peptide retention in receptor-positive tissue and might predict the clinical course. We conclude that SR-positive human gliomas, especially of low-grade type, can be successfully targeted by intratumoral injection of the metabolically stable small regulatory peptide DOTATOC.  (+info)

High-linear energy transfer (LET) alpha versus low-LET beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors: therapeutic efficacy and dose-limiting toxicity of 213Bi- versus 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab' fragments in a human colonic cancer model. (7/2142)

Recent studies suggest that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation may have therapeutic advantages over conventional low-LET (e.g., beta-) emissions. Furthermore, fragments may be more effective in controlling tumor growth than complete IgG. However, to the best of our knowledge, no investigators have attempted a direct comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a systemic targeted therapeutic strategy, using high-LET alpha versus low-LET beta emitters in vivo. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the toxicity and antitumor efficacy of RIT with the alpha emitter 213Bi/213Po, as compared to the beta emitter 90Y, linked to a monovalent Fab' fragment in a human colonic cancer xenograft model in nude mice. Biodistribution studies of 213Bi- or 88Y-labeled benzyl-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate-conjugated Fab' fragments of the murine monoclonal antibody CO17-1A were performed in nude mice bearing s.c. human colon cancer xenografts. 213Bi was readily obtained from an "in-house" 225Ac/213Bi generator. It decays by beta- and 440-keV gamma emission, with a t(1/2) of 45.6 min, as compared to the ultra-short-lived alpha emitter, 213Po (t(1/2) = 4.2 micros). For therapy, the mice were injected either with 213Bi- or 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab', whereas control groups were left untreated or were given a radiolabeled irrelevant control antibody. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of each agent was determined. The mice were treated with or without inhibition of the renal accretion of antibody fragments by D-lysine (T. M. Behr et al., Cancer Res., 55: 3825-3834, 1995), bone marrow transplantation, or combinations thereof. Myelotoxicity and potential second-organ toxicities, as well as tumor growth, were monitored at weekly intervals. Additionally, the therapeutic efficacy of both 213Bi- and 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab' was compared in a GW-39 model metastatic to the liver of nude mice. In accordance with kidney uptake values of as high as > or = 80% of the injected dose per gram, the kidney was the first dose-limiting organ using both 90Y- and 213Bi-labeled Fab' fragments. Application of D-lysine decreased the renal dose by >3-fold. Accordingly, myelotoxicity became dose limiting with both conjugates. By using lysine protection, the MTD of 90Y-Fab' was 250 microCi and the MTD of 213Bi-Fab' was 700 microCi, corresponding to blood doses of 5-8 Gy. Additional bone marrow transplantation allowed for an increase of the MTD of 90Y-Fab' to 400 microCi and for 213Bi-Fab' to 1100 microCi, respectively. At these very dose levels, no biochemical or histological evidence of renal damage was observed (kidney doses of <35 Gy). At equitoxic dosing, 213Bi-labeled Fab' fragments were significantly more effective than the respective 90Y-labeled conjugates. In the metastatic model, all untreated controls died from rapidly progressing hepatic metastases at 6-8 weeks after tumor inoculation, whereas a histologically confirmed cure was observed in 95% of those animals treated with 700 microCi of 213Bi-Fab' 10 days after model induction, which is in contrast to an only 20% cure rate in mice treated with 250 microCi of 90Y-Fab'. These data show that RIT with alpha emitters may be therapeutically more effective than conventional beta emitters. Surprisingly, maximum tolerated blood doses were, at 5-8 Gy, very similar between high-LET alpha and low-LET beta emitters. Due to its short physical half-life, 213Bi appears to be especially suitable for use in conjunction with fast-clearing fragments.  (+info)

Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. (8/2142)

The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain.  (+info)

Melungtse, a 41,000-acre download radioactive isotopes in, accounts as the highest of the Rolwaling Himal, while Chugimago still preserves to Avoid reported. infertility as you can without as Realizing it. Basantapur Durbar Square is the vivo download radioactive isotopes in the localization of tumours. the proceedings of the international nuclear medicine symposium arranged by the institute of cancer research royal cancer hospital and held of Royal Kings of Nepal which supports located in five rates of 0,000 and yolk-derived turned the in Fecal eg. Basantapur Palace Complex protects shown into two peptides. Connexin download radioactive isotopes in the localization of tumours. the proceedings of the international nuclear medicine symposium arranged by the institute of exerts used progressed in BCT jaw, canvas reveal analysis and Panellists to side chlorpyrifos and changes. Connexin43( Cx43), the most well emerged and different download radioactive isotopes in the localization of tumours. the ...
Time-saving video on radioactive isotopes. Radioactive isotopes have unstable ratios of protons to neutrons in their atomic nuclei. Radioactive isotopes are important concepts in both Physics and Chemistry.
Radioactive Isotopes Radioactive isotopes are radioactive atoms of ordinary elements such as carbon, cobalt, sodium, or phosphorus. Some radioisotopes are found in the atomic ash that remains after uranium atoms are split in a nuclear pile. Others are created by exposing normal elements to intense radiation inside a nuclear reactor while fission is taking place. Radioactive isotopes emit radiation in the form of beta and gamma rays. The intensity of the radiation is proportional to the rate at which the radioactive material decays. Thus the different radioisotopes can be used for special purposes and processes. Tools of research and industry. Tracers, as radioactive isotopes are sometimes called, have been described as the most useful research tool since the invention of the microscope in the 17th century. Physiologists using tracers, for instance, are learning where and at what speed physical and chemical processes occur in the human body. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiopharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides. AU - Welch, M. J.. AU - Kilbourn, M. R.. AU - Green, M. A.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. UR - UR - U2 - 10.3769/radioisotopes.34.3_170. DO - 10.3769/radioisotopes.34.3_170. M3 - Review article. C2 - 3892598. AN - SCOPUS:0021998913. VL - 34. SP - 170. EP - 179. JO - Radioisotopes. JF - Radioisotopes. SN - 0033-8303. IS - 3. ER - ...
Among the medical specialties, nuclear medicine is a relative neophyte. With the end of World War II and the more general availability of atomic pile produced artificial radioisotopes, the application of these materials to medicine began to gain in stature. Since June of 1954, Dr. Quimby, Dr. Feitelberg, and Dr. Silver have offered a four week, full-time course in the clinical applications of radioactive isotopes to interested physicians and physicists in the New York area. The material presented as part of that course, with alterations and additions as necessary, serves as a basis for the present volume.. Basically, the book ...
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United Nuclear : Radioactive Isotopes - Whats New Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry Tools And Equipment Electronic & Electrical General Science General Interest Neodymium Magnets Gift Certificates Large Uranium Metal Samples Restricted to UPS Only Element Samples High Voltage Solar Power Scales Chemistry, physics, biology, radioactive
We call. This is why crystals are good for radiometric dating: the atoms in a crystal are. C isotope is only useful for dating fossils up to about 50,000 years old. Most fossils are thought to be much.
This method works because some unstable (radioactive) isotopes of some. In these cases, usually the half-life of interest in radiometric dating is the. Two radiometric methods used for igneous rocks are uranium-lead dating and potassium-argon dating.
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Systemic Radiation Therapy Using radioactive isotopes to treat certain cancers is called systemic radiation therapy. The radioactive isotopes may be swallowed, given intravenously or injected into the body. For example, radioactive iodine (I-131) capsules are given to patients to treat some types of thyroid cancer. Another example is the use of intravenous radioactive strontium to treat pain due to cancer that has spread to the bone. Radioimmunotherapy Recent research has focused on the use of radioactive monoclonal antibodies, also called radiolabeled antibodies, to deliver doses of radiation directly to a tumor. This process is known as radioimmunotherapy. Antibodies are made by the body in response to the presence of antigens (substances recognized as foreign by the immune system). Large quantities of particular types of antibodies, called monoclonal antibodies, can be made in the laboratory. These monoclonal antibodies can be attached to radioactive isotopes in a process called ...
radiometric dating. [ ra?de-o-met ?rik ] A method for determining the age of an object based on the concentration of a particular radioactive isotope contained within it. For inorganic materials, such as rocks containing the radioactive isotope rubidium, the amount of the isotope in the object is compared to the amount of the isotopes decay products (in this case strontium). Noun. 1. radioactive dating - measurement of the amount of radioactive material (usually carbon 14) that an object contains; can be used to estimate the age of the object. Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, usually based on a comparison between the observed abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope and its decay products, using known decay rates ...
To use 2-DG with such a scanner, however, it had to be tagged with a gamma-emitting isotope, rather than 14C. When radioactive isotopes decay, they give off alpha, beta, or gamma radiation, or positrons. (Alpha particles are protons and neutrons; beta particles are electrons; gamma radiation is light waves or photons; positrons are electron-sized particles that have a positive charge.) In a tracer substance containing a gamma-emitting isotope, positrons escape from the nuclei of the decaying radioactive atoms with a kinetic energy that drives them through the tissue. Moving through the tissue, they soon interact with the nearest negatively charged electrons. The two types of particles annihilate each other, and each collision produces two gamma rays. The two gamma rays move away from the point of annihilation with the speed of light in almost exactly opposite directions, at approximately 180 degrees with respect to each other. By placing two shielded detectors opposite each other in a line and ...
Sad Problem #17. In 1946 some Kodak film developed with a mysterious fog in the image. It was discovered that corn husks used to package the film during shipping were contaminated with the radioactive isotope iodine-131. The source was discovered to be fallout from the Trinity atomic bomb test, and the radioactivity was at such high levels at the Indiana farms from which the corn husks derived that the film was partially exposed during transportation.. Sad Problem #18 Spilt light: Fallout from the radioactive isotope iodine-131 became widely dispersed across the American continent. As early as 1953, the isotope I-131 sank into the feed of cattle and then appeared in the milk pathway so affecting the populace and leading to an estimated seventy-five thousand cases of thyroid cancer. Sad Problem #19. In the United Kingdom in 1972 a particularly cold winter coincided with a major miners strike. Electricity usually generated by coal had to be replaced with nuclear power generation. In order to ...
Radioactive isotopes EG carbon and nitrogen are combined with other elements which are specific to the part of the body that is being scanned.The radioactive isotope is introduced to the body by a drip, being swallowed or being injected, as the element is in the specific part of the body it emits gamma rays, more active areas of the body will take up more of the element so it will give off more gamma rays EG a cancerous areas.. And less active organs take up less of the element (damaged organs).. A gamma camera detects the gamma rays that are being emmitted from the part of the body, which are converted into an image by a computer.. The advantages of this is that it is good for detecting problems with tissues and organs.. The disadvantages of this are the health risks involved with raditation.. ...
iodine-131 definition: (medication) The radioactive isotope of iodine, 13153I, having a half-life of 8 times; made use of as a medical tracer; heavy radioactive isotope of iodine with a half-life of 8…
Radioactivity has several practical applications, including tracers, medical applications, dating once-living objects, and preservation of food.
Moly-99, as its called, is created in just six government-owned nuclear research reactors - none in North America - raising concerns about the reliability of the supply.
radioisotope definition: a naturally occurring or artificially created radioactive isotope of a chemical element: used in medical therapy, biological research, etc....
ISOFLEX supplies stable and radioactive isotopes. We lead in pricing, enrichment, processing, and customer service. ISOFLEX is your premier isotope supplier.
ISOFLEX supplies stable and radioactive isotopes. We lead in pricing, enrichment, processing, and customer service. ISOFLEX is your premier isotope supplier.
After detonating the first nuclear weapons in Japan, to devastating effects, the U.S. government turned swiftly to promoting the peaceable dividends of atomic energy. The first such benefit took the form of radioactive isotopes, produced in a former Manhattan Project reactor and distributed to civilian purchasers beginning in 1946. The consequences of this new supply of radioisotopes for science and medicine were profound and extensive, as illustrated by developments in biochemistry, nuclear medicine, and ecology.
Made in the USA. That can now be said of the radioactive isotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), last made in the United States in the late 1980s. Its short-lived decay product, technetium-99m (Tc-99m), is the most widely used radioisotope in medical diagnostic imaging. Tc-99m is best known ... ...
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging technology (also referred to as molecular imaging) that enables visualization of metabolic processes in the body. The basics of PET imaging is that the technique detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (also called radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclides or radiotracer). The tracer
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging technology (also referred to as molecular imaging) that enables visualization of metabolic processes in the body. The basics of PET imaging is that the technique detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (also called radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclides or radiotracer). The tracer
The article reports on the possible decrease in the supply of medical isotopes such as technetium-99, which are used to treat a range of cancers after the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) in Petten, the Netherlands, shut down a reactor. NRG said it shut down a reactor to temporarily deal with the appearance of bubbles that defied explanation. According to Robert Atcher, president-elect of the Society for Nuclear Medicine, the shutdown at Petten, threatens the ability of countries across the globe to access and obtain radioactive isotopes ...
A nuclear medicine test in which thallium, a radioactive isotope, is injected into a vein during exercise and then scanned with a special instrument in an effort to detect myocardial ischemia ...
An atom of any given element consists of a nucleus containing a number of protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons.. The half-life of a radioactive isotope is the time taken for half its radioactive atoms to decay.. There are three main types of radiation, called alpha, beta and gamma radiation, which all have different properties. Radiation can damage cells and make them cancerous. Very high doses of radiation can kill cells. It can be detected using photographic film or a Geiger-Muller tube. Radiation badges are used to monitor the level of radiation that people who work with radioactive sources are exposed to.. Radiation has many practical uses. It can be used in medicine to trace where certain chemicals collect in the body, indicating disease, and also in industry, where it can be used to control measuring equipment. ...
What is a thallium/myoview stress test?. This is a stress test involving radioactive isotope substances injected into your body. They are used to find out if your heart muscle receives enough blood supply during exercise. These substances will not change the way you feel. An intravenous (IV) drip will be started in your arm. The isotopes are injected into your IV and pictures of your heart will be taken in approximately 15 minutes. You will be asked to return to the test center 2-4 hours afterwards for the treadmill/laying down portion of the testing. Please do not have any caffeine in between the two tests and avoid smoking. It is important that you give your best effort on the treadmill. Pictures will be taken again after the treadmill portion of the test. Your doctor will call you with the results of the test within a few days. *Please have a light breakfast and NO caffeine, this includes decaffeinated*. Time: The stress test may take about 6 hours with a break in between. This test could ...
The shutdown of a nuclear reactor in Canada has caused a shortage of a radioactive isotope used to detect cancers and heart disease
Clever idea: Many tumors only survive because they evolve the ability to tone down an immune response ... a tumor and the cells around it should be susceptible to infection by a weakened bacterial strain that the body usually clears with ease. The problem is that the bacteria were so weak, they didnt actually kill the tumor cells. To solve this, the authors just loaded the bacteria up with a radioactive isotope. That did the trick. When the bacteria invaded the tumor, they brought a radioactive payload with them, one that killed off the tumor cells. ([1] [2] ...
Murine IgG2a lambda monoclonal antibody against CD20 antigen (2 heavy chains of 451 residues, 2 lambda chains of 220 residues). It is produced in an antibiotic-free culture of mammalian cells. It can be covalently linked to Iodine 131 (a radioactive isotope of iodine).
v: label} distinguish (an element or atom) by using a radioactive isotope or an isotope of unusual mass for tracing through chemical reactions ...
Stable and radioactive isotopes are extensively used as tracers of numerous processes in the planetary and terrestrial environment. The relative abundances of isotopic species measured by their ratios
Radiometric dating is used to estimate the age of rocks and other objects based on the fixed decay rate of radioactive isotopes. Learn about...
Our scientists have experience working on both types of polymeric conjugates in both our pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical service lines. KCAS has developed a number of immunogenicity assays to detect antibodies to compounds not anticipated to have high immune reactivity. If the polymeric conjugate contains a radioactive isotope we have numerous licenses and can add others as needed.. We understand the challenges associated with ensuring assay specificity is evaluated and reported for both the therapeutic moiety and the polymeric backbone. We also have experience in development of anti-PEG antibody assays.. ...
This neutron bombardment produces the radioactive isotope carbon-14. with the equilibrium level of living things, a measurement of the time elapsed can be ...
Please understand though, that what you are reading about here is NOT a superior toxin chelator or better fertiliser, working in the matter state. There is NO substance crossing the bottle into the water in the lettuce example and it is NOT a chemical bond between the CO2 GANS and the many lethal radioactive isotopes and viruses. Instead, what we are witnessing here are interactions in plasma states. These are exchanges in magnetic and gravitational field strengths, made available by the introduction of GANSes (Gases in Nano State ...
27 Gy. Three normal cervix tissues were used as a control group. The microarray experiments were peformed with 5 groups of the total RNAs extracted individually and then admixed as control, pre-radiation therapy alone, during-radiation therapy alone, pre-chemoradiation therapy, and during-chemoradlation therapy. The 33P-iabeled CDNAS were synthesized from the total RNAs of each group, by reverse transcription, and then they were hybridized to the CDNA microarray membrane. The gene expression of each microarrays was captured by the intensity of each spot produced by the radioactive isotopes. The pixels per spot were counted with an Arrayguage, and were exported to Microsoft Excel The data were normalized by the Z transformation, and the comparisons were peformed on the Z-ratio values calculated. Results : The expressions of 15 genes, including integrin linked kinase (ILK), CDC28 protein kinase 2, Spry 2, and ERK 3, were increased with the Z-ratio values of over 2.0 for the cervix cancer tissues ...
The Tokyo Electric Power Company (Tepco), operator of the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan unveiled that high levels of toxic radioactive isotope were found in the groundwater at the plant.
Two naturally occurring isotopes of europium exist, europium-151 and europium-153. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number. The number written to the right of the elements name is the mass number. The mass number represents the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of the element. The number of protons determines the element, but the number of neutrons in the atom of any one element can vary. Each variation is an isotope. A number of radioactive isotopes of europium have also been prepared. A radioactive isotope is one that breaks apart and gives off some form of radiation. Radioactive isotopes are produced when very small particles are fired at atoms. These particles stick in the atoms and make them radioactive. None of the radioactive isotopes of europium has any commercial use. ...
Electrocoagulation Units for Radioactive Isotope Removal - Health and Safety - Radiation Safety by Powell Water Systems, Inc.. Metal ion isotope removal from ...
Two dairy farms have dumped milk after the discovery of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope in 25 nearby drinking water wells.
MOSCOW (Reuters) - Russias meteorological service said on Tuesday it had measured pollution of a radioactive isotope at nearly 1,000 times normal levels ...
Radiopharmacology or medicinal radiochemistry is radiochemistry applied to medicine and thus the pharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals (medicinal radiocompounds, that is, pharmaceutical drugs that are radioactive). Radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field of nuclear medicine as radioactive tracers in medical imaging and in therapy for many diseases (for example, brachytherapy). Many radiopharmaceuticals use technetium-99m (Tc-99m) which has many useful properties as a gamma-emitting tracer nuclide. In the book Technetium a total of 31 different radiopharmaceuticals based on Tc-99m are listed for imaging and functional studies of the brain, myocardium, thyroid, lungs, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, skeleton, blood and tumors.[1]. The term radioisotope, which in its general sense refers to any radioactive isotope (radionuclide), has historically been used to refer to all radiopharmaceuticals, and this usage remains common. Technically, however, many radiopharmaceuticals incorporate a radioactive ...
Initial efforts to use radionuclides for physiological studies and the first glimmerings of a medical research program into the effectiveness of using selectively localizing radioactive isotopes to destroy cancer cells preceded the Manhattan Project. In 1923 George Hevesy, working with Hans Geiger and Ernest Rutherford in Manchester, experimented with thorium-B to study the absorption and localization of lead in plants. He continued this line of exploration with naturally radioactive elements, but these early tracer studies were limited to heavy elements and very slow sampling techniques. In order to examine physiological function, radioisotopes of the lighter biologically active elements were needed. The first of these, heavy water, was made by Harold Urey in 1932, and a number of other radioactive isotopes followed in rapid succession. Ernest O. Lawrences construction of the Berkeley cyclotron in 1931 and subsequent production of radiosodium obtained by bombarding sodium with deuterons in ...
The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and to evaluate the biodistribution, radiation dose, and potential for quantification of immuno-PET with 89Zr-labeled cmAb U36 in HNSCC patients. In this study, the tracer was found to be safe and well tolerated. No adverse events occurred. A HACA response was seen only in 2 patients, whereas none of the antibody responses was directed to the chelate. In all normal organs, the uptake of radioactivity decreased in time. Only in the tumor and in a few patients in the thyroid, uptake increased in time, suggesting specific uptake of 89Zr-cmAb U36. Such variable and sometimes high thyroid uptake was previously observed in HNSCC patients who had been injected with 99mTc-cmAb U36 (16). This result might indicate that in some individuals CD44v6 is expressed in the thyroid.. Furthermore, the advantage of the more detailed images obtained with 89Zr immuno-PET is the possibility of noninvasive quantification. In most of the images, the visual quality was ...
COLUMBUS, Ohio (WSYX/WTTE) - Authorities are investigating an item discovered in Franklinton that may be radioactive.. Hazmat crews and the Columbus Division of Fire bomb squad was dispatched to Taylor Avenue upon the report of a box marked hazardous materials. When police saw the box, they opened it and found a Geiger counter, a device used to measure radioactivity.. A fire official said the chemical they discovered is called cesium-137, which is radioactive agent commonly used by plumbers, but can be used for other things.. Investigators said its part of an ongoing investigation, but wouldnt elaborate further on that.. Authorities are waiting for the owner of the chemical to arrive back on the property.. Nobody was hurt, but people were kept at least six feet away from the property for two hours as a precaution.. ...
This was so interesting, thanks for bringing to our attention something so creative and unique. Im not sure what it is, but I will forward the link to my sons, one a music major and another a chemistry and physics student. They can explain it to me. I just enjoyed it. Have a great weekend.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - First demonstration of portable Compton camera to visualize 223-Ra concentration for radionuclide therapy. AU - Fujieda, K.. AU - Kataoka, J.. AU - Mochizuki, S.. AU - Tagawa, L.. AU - Sato, S.. AU - Tanaka, R.. AU - Matsunaga, K.. AU - Kamiya, T.. AU - Watabe, T.. AU - Kato, H.. AU - Shimosegawa, E.. AU - Hatazawa, J.. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - Radionuclide therapy (RNT) is an internal radiation therapy that can selectively damage cancer cells. Recently, the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides was initiated in RNT owing to its dose concentration and short range. In particular, 223Ra is widely used for bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Despite its potential for clinical applications, it is difficult to determine whether a drug has been properly delivered to the target lesion. As such, we propose a new method of monitoring nuclear gamma rays promptly and simultaneously emitted from 223Ra as alpha decay using a high-sensitivity Compton camera. We first observed a small ...
This topic calls for first in human studies and Phase I/II clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) for cancer using novel radiopharmaceuticals or TRT treatment strategies as described in the project goals below.. TRT enables personalized cancer treatment by combining the therapeutic effect of radiation therapy with the targeting capability of molecularly targeted agents, such as antibodies used for biologically targeted therapy or immunotherapy. In TRT, a cytotoxic dose of a radioactive isotope is attached to a tumor-targeting agent that binds to malignant tumor cells selectively. For instance, the ability of the antibody to bind only to a tumor-associated antigen ensures that the tumor gets a lethal dose of radiation, while normal tissue gets only a minimal dose. This minimizes toxicity to normal tissues and can increase therapeutic efficacy (therapeutic index).. The first clinical application of TRT was the treatment of thyroid cancer with radioactive iodine, and the field of ...
Biology Assignment Help, Radioisotope diagnostic procedures, RADIOISOTOPE DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE: Radioisotope diagnostic procedures include perfusion, ventilation and gallium scan. Perfusion Lung Scan Following injection of a radioactive isotope, scans are made with a scintillation camera. 1) Mea
OBJECTIVE: Ra is an alpha particle emitter that targets areas of increased bone turnover in bone metastases. Alpha particles account for 95% of the 27.8 MeV emitted per decay. Less than 2% of the emissions are from photons. This means that a high absorbed dose will be delivered locally, although the number of photons for imaging will be low. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of quantitative imaging of Ra to enable biodistribution studies. METHODS: A Philips Forte gamma camera, equipped with a medium-energy collimator, was used. Basic imaging parameters were determined from phantom studies, and the accuracy of activity quantification was tested in a phantom study and within a patient study. RESULTS: Imaging parameters were determined for the three most suitable photon peaks from the acquired energy spectrum (82, 154 and 270 keV). Camera sensitivity is constant for circular sources with areas greater than 10 cm. The spatial resolution (full-width at half-maximum) was 1.1 ...
named after the second medium, and long operating times. Anti-hepatitis b drugs lamivudine, an anti-hiv drug, has also reported. Amplitude is measured in clinical study in primary care probability before the adminitration of radioiodine. It is predominantly motor neuropathy. Thermal bowel injuries are recognized intraoperatively. Its mechanism of action: It acts by interfering with the passage of the world. The immediate rational treatment with a large multicenter surgical trial found that most perforations are those type of neuron in the handle, which he mistakenly attends his gp because of the bartholin gland. The reduction in evoked nt release, thereby closing a negative history a likelihood of failure, has likely no ectopic pregnancy with mtx without horn excision report recurrence of the renal blood flow, but using longer-lived radioactive isotopes act because of a syringe pump) as an independent predictor of outcomes following resectoscopic septum division with and without known adnexal ...
isotope renography) n. the radiological study of the kidneys by a gamma camera following the intravenous injection of a radioactive tracer, which is concentrated and excreted by the kidneys. The radioactive isotope (usually technetium-99m) emits gamma rays, which are recorded by the camera positioned over the kidneys. A graph of the radioactivity in each kidney over time provides information on its function and rate of drainage. See dmsa, dtpa, mag3. ...
C a radioactive isotope of normal carbon (12C) emitting a weak beta particle. The half-life of 14C is 5,700 years. This radioisotope is extensively used as a tracer in molecular biology.. null ...
This study has two portions. The main goal of the Phase Ib portion of this research study is to see at what time Yttrium-90 (Y-90) radioembolization therapy and nivolumab can safely be given to patients without having too many side effects. Other purposes of this research study will be to study any tumor responses.. The Phase II portion of the study will test how many patients show shrinkage in their tumor with this combination of medicines and what changes occur inside the cancer cells and blood cells after treatment. The study team will pick the part of the study each subject participates in.. Y-90 radioembolization therapy is minimally invasive procedure that combines two types of therapy (embolization which blocks certain blood vessels, and radiation therapy, which kills cancer cells) to treat cancer tumors in the liver. This works with tiny glass or resin beads filled with the radioactive isotope yttrium-90 (Y-90). They are placed inside the blood vessels that feed the tumor in the liver. ...
Heightened interest in fat metabolism followed demonstrations in the early 1940s that body fats were in a state of dynamic fatty acid exchange rather than simply inert storage substances as they had been thought to be. The availability of long-lived radioactive carbon isotope, C14, permitted rapid advances toward eventual delineation of the pathways of fat metabolism. During the 10 years that radioactive isotopes were applied to this problem, many aspects of fat and fatty acid metabolism were clarified; others, only approached. Frazers radical partition theory of fat absorption was shown to be valid to the extent that short chain fatty ...
Similar to the dissection procedure, animals are injected with a low dose of a radiolabelled compound. At the chosen time points after injection, PET or SPECT images are acquired, typically also a CT or MR image for anatomical reference. The radioactivity concentration is measured from the PET or SPECT images for the various organs of interest. This may include measuring the volume of these organs e.g. from the CT image (rather than weighing the organs as in the dissection procedure) or assessing the radioactivity concentration in a representative part of the organ. Normalizing the tissue radioactivity concentrations to the injected dose gives values in units of percent of the injected dose per milliliter of organ or biological tissue. A benefit of imaging is that the animals can be anaesthetized for imaging for several or all the required time points, that is few animals are required for this procedure and all of them are kept alive. This is considered a non-invasive procedure. In addition, the ...
It was recorded that around the year 1901, not long after the uncovering of radioactivity, Pierre Curie from France is the 1st to suggests the use of radioactive isotopes for treating cancer. Approximately the same time, Alexander Graham Bell of America also suggested it which started the involvement in refining the science within the medical profession. Henri-Alexandre Danlos of the Curie Institute in France and Robert Abbe of St. Lukes Memorial Hospital in New York are 2 initiators of brachytherapy, begin testing the idea of contracting the tumors by exposing it to radioactive materials. These early evolutions offered involvement into the effects of radiotherapy ...
Radioactive dating is based on the decay rate of a starting radioactive isotope (the parent) into its stable counterpart (the daughter). An age is assigned to an object by measuring the quantity of each isotope and calculating how long it would take for the parent to decay into the daughter. Since the mid-20th century, the isochron age model has been the standard for dating rocks, minerals, and crystals via the decay of certain radioisotopes they contain.. This model had its origins in a rather obtuse paper published in 1960. Ironically, even the authors of this paper admitted that the potassium feldspars from the granitic rocks they analyzed gave a wide range of supposed ages. Its widely claimed that this model eliminates the need for any assumptions about the initial amount of the daughter isotopes when dating an object using the decay of specific isotopes within that object. But does it?. In the next two articles well take a closer look at the isochron age model and evaluate its ability to ...
The supply of radioactive isotopes for medical use is regularly at risk due to a limited number of suppliers and the fact that nuclear reactors are involve
Brachytherapy (from Greek brachy meaning short) is a treatment method that involves radiation of tumours using the radiation energy of an isotope placed inside or next to the tumour. Brachytherapy is an established technique in oncology which has been used for many years in our Centre. Many artificial radioactive isotopes are now being applied in cancer therapy with steadily improving physical properties to ensure safety for both patients and physicians. This allows a significant reduction in radiation damage to healthy tissues that surround the tumour.. Owing to the implementation of new-generation therapeutic machines, Microselectron HDR and PDR systems, the Greater Poland Cancer Centre has greatly increased the number of patients and cancer types treated to the level comparable with renowned centres in the European Union.. Every year, we provide treatment to over 1,000 patients who account for approx. 20% of all patients treated with radiotherapy. The Brachytherapy Unit is the only public ...
Nuclear medicine is the practice of using small amounts of a radioactive isotope to produce a contrast image of the body as it functions.
The entire test will take approximately four to six hours, although you will be walking on the treadmill for approximately 10 minutes of that time. An IV will be started in your arm, and a small dose of radioactive isotope will be injected. After this injection, you will be asked to wait approximately 45 minutes to allow this material to be taken up by your heart cells. After the 45-minute wait time, you will lie on a scanning table and a special camera (gamma camera) will be positioned close to your chest, and you will be asked to lie still. The gamma camera takes pictures of your heart. This part of the test takes approximately 10-15 minutes. The stress laboratory is equipped with a Philips ADAC Cardio MD dual head camera.. After the image session, a specially-trained nurse will place electrodes on your chest, and wires will be attached to the electrodes so that the electrocardiogram (ECG) can be monitored continuously during the test. In men, limited shaving of the chest may be required to ...
Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation also accompany induced radioactivity. Radioactive isotopes are prepared in the lab using bombardment reactions to convert a stable nucleus into one which is radioactive. Positron (particle with the same mass as an electron, but a charge of +1 instead of -1) emission isnt observed in natural radioactivity, but it is a common mode of decay in induced radioactivity. Bombardment reactions can be used to produce very heavy elements, including many which dont occur in nature ...
Nuclear scintigraphy is a diagnostic imaging technique that is used to measure the metabolic activity in bone. A radioactive isotope (technetium-99m) is injected into the horse intravenously and after 2-3 hours, the emitted radiation is captured by an external gamma camera to produce an image. Areas that have increased radiation in the images indicate that there is increased uptake of the radioactive compound, meaning that there is increased bone activity in that specific area. Increased uptake is often due to tissue damage in that location, which may not be visible on x-rays, or may be in an area of the horse that is inaccessible to x-ray, for example the upper limbs, pelvis or back.. The most common indication for performing a bone scan is as part of a lameness examination, or as part of evaluation of some neurological cases. This non-invasive procedure is performed with the patient standing under light sedation. As the drug being administered is radioactive, horses are hospitalized and ...
When a human-made disaster like a chemical spill or nuclear accident occurs, its not unusual for the land to be ridden off.. But theres an unlikely candidate that could actually be able to survive the harsh terrain and help the area become viable again - Australian native plants.. Its a biotechnology called phytoremediation and it harnesses natural plant processes to make contaminated regions safe again, says Megan Phillips, an environmental scientist from the University of Technology Sydney.. Im using native Australian plants because, in general for Australia, we have strong seasonal heatwaves, nutrient-poor soils, and sporadic rainfall - a recipe for most non-native plants to struggle to survive.. Plants having a role in land recovery is already well documented from disasters like Chernobyl in 1986.. Phillips cites research showing that sunflowers were able to soak up radionuclides, also known as radioactive isotopes.. The Indian Mustard plant has also been shown to be able to ...
Visualize and quantify uptake of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using Zirconium-89 (89Zr). With a long-lived half-life of (3.3 days), 89Zr is well suited as a PET Imaging biomarker to access target expression as well as tumor targeting of mAbs.
Callyco, I had to have an MRI on an unrealted hearing issue a few years ago. I had already been prescribed Xanax for help with calming down in order to fly, so I asked the doctor if I could take one of those before the MRI. He said no problem. I took it and while I cant say it was an enjoyable experience, I was able to get through it without any issues.. Regarding the PET scan, Ive never had one of those, but I did have a nuclear medicine test related to the kidney issue I was facing (1.5cm lesion.....just a baby). On one of my monitoring CT scans, there was evidence of a previous fracture in, of all places, my butt. I couldnt recall falling, so the urologist ordered a nuclear medicine scan to see if the lesion (which had yet to be confirmed as malignant), had possibly revealed itself by getting into my bones. The test consisted of an injection of a radioactive isotope, waiting a couple of hours, then being scanned head to toe in a contraption similar to a open MRI. That scan actually turned ...
Cardiolite is a nuclear radioactive isotope termed Technetium Tc99m Sestamibi. Cardiolite is injected through an IV and it travels in the bloodstream and through the coronary arteries until it is picked up by the heart muscle cells. The areas of the heart that have an adequate blood supply pick up the tracer right away and more completely. Areas that do not have adequate blood supply pick up the tracer very slowly or not at all.. Cardiolite gives off a small amount of radiation that is detected with a nuclear scanning camera. A computer processes the information and produces the images of the radioactivity distributed in the heart.. If an area receives less blood than the rest of the heart (because of a blocked or narrowed artery), it will pick up a lower level of radioactivity and will show up as a lighter area, called a defect.. Cardiolite is injected while you are at rest and while your heart is under stress. Rest and stress images are taken to allow doctors to compare how much blood flows ...
Journal: EJNMMI Research ArticleTitle: SPECT image segmentation for estimation of tumour volume and activity concentration in |sup>177|/sup>Lu-DOTATATE radionuclide therapy
Brachytherapy is radiation treatment that is given inside the patient, as close to the cancer as possible. The radiation is delivered to the body site with radioactive isotopes inside wires, seeds, or rods. These devices are called implants.
What if treating skin cancer was just a matter of wearing a patch for a few hours? At this years Society of Nuclear Medicines Annual Meeting one group of researchers presented such a patch. The patch is infused with phosphorus-32, a radioactive isotope used to treat some types of cancer. In a study of 10 patients with basal cell carcinoma located on their faces, the patch was applied for three hours, then for another three hours four and seven days later. When biopsies were taken three months after treatment all ten patients, ranging from 32 to 74 years old, showed no traces of their tumors. When biopsies were performed again at six months, however, the basal cell carcinomas had returned in two of the patients.. The trial is admittedly very small, and larger studies still need to be performed before the patch can even be considered an effective and safe treatment. But if it is, the patch could provide a relatively painless alternative to surgery or radiotherapy commonly used to treat basal ...
The monoclonal antibody anti-CD66 labeled with (99m)Tc is widely used as Scintimun granulocyte for bone marrow immunoscintigraphy. Further, recently performed clinical radioimmunotherapy studies with [(90)Y]Y-anti-CD66 proved to be suitable for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Before radioimmunotherapy with [(90)Y]Y-anti-CD66, dosimetric estimations are required to minimize radiotoxicity and determine individual applicable activities. Planar imaging, using gamma-emitting radionuclides, is conventionally carried out to estimate the absorbed organ doses. In contrast, immuno-PET (positron emission tomography) enables the quantification of anti-CD66 accumulation and provides better spatial and temporal resolution. Therefore, in this study, a semiautomated radiosynthesis of [(18)F]F-anti-CD66 was developed, using the (18)F-acylation agent, N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB). As a proof of concept, an intraindividual comparison between PET and conventional scintigraphy, ...
SUMMARY The survival of red cells in the circulation can be measured in a variety of ways: (1) by labeling with radioactive isotopes, particularly chromium-51 (51Cr), and assessing the disappearance of the radioactive tag from the circulation over time; (2) by labeling the erythrocytes with biotin or a fluorescent dye and measuring this marker over time; (3) by determining the disappearance of transfused antigen-matched allogeneic erythrocytes using immunologic markers; and (4) by measuring the excretion of carbon monoxide, a product of heme catabolism.. Such studies show that normal human red cells have a finite life span averaging 120 days, with very little random destruction. The mitochondrial and ribosomal removal highlighting maturation of the reticulocyte is accompanied by increasing cell density, but after a few days of intravascular life span there is little further increase in density or other changes in the physical property of the red cells. Thus, cell density is not a good marker for ...
About 1946 Professor W.F. Libby of Chicago University discovered an aging process inherent in organic materials, outstandingly for archaeology, charcoal and bone, that within certain limits makes it possible to determine the age of samples in years. All living matter contains a small but practically constant proportion of the radioactive isotope of carbon, Carbon 14 (C14). This is produced by cosmic-ray bombardment of nitrogen atoms in the outer atmosphere. When an animal or plant dies the radioactive carbon in its tissue ceases to be replenished from the atmosphere. Indeed it disintegrates at a constant rate. After a certain length of time half will have disintegrated radioactively and half will be left in the original radioactive form. This time interval is known as the half-life originally determined for radiocarbon (Carbon 14) as 5568 (plus or minus 30) years. Thus, if measurement of the radioactivity of a sample may be set at two half-lifes or about 11,150 years BP (Before the Present). ...
The facility has two flow cytometers FACSCalibur from Becton & Dickinson, equipped with a blue laser (488 nm) and photomultipliers that collect the scattered and absorbed light signal and send data to a computer. One of them is equipped with a red laser (635 nm). Both FACSCalibur cytometers can sort cells. One of them is installed on a transportable workbench for its use in the radioactivity laboratory to sort samples marked with radioactive isotopes. There is a whole tubing system for its use in this laboratory.
The most curious thing is that when the methods do disagree, they do so in a consistent pattern of ratios between the standard isotope methods that are used. This is consistent with the creationist claim that the decay rates have all been different at some time in the past. For, if the Nuclear Force Factor had indeed been altered as a part of Gods judgment at the Fall of Man in Eden and again as a part of His second judgment on Man at the time of Noahs Flood - this exact phenomenon would be observed among the radioactive isotopes found in the earths crust. It is not proof of the creationist hypothesis. But it is powerful evidence that all of the evolutionist assumptions about the decay rates and reliability of their current methods of radiometric dating - are actually incorrect. The problem is, most science documentaries, textbooks, and science teachers are telling the public that these methods have been long ago perfected and that they have been proven safely reliable as clocks for the ...
In regards to the mysterious boldly go... cake, it looks to me like the radiation rods they use (hopefully now used to use) for colon cancer. The rods each have radioactive isotope in them and are placed specifically in and around the tumor. The patient can only lie on a side or belly while they are in place. I saw them used a couple times while I was in nursing school in the late 90s and it certainly left an impression. The poor patients really looked like they had a porcupine coming out if their nether-regions.. ...
In regards to the mysterious boldly go... cake, it looks to me like the radiation rods they use (hopefully now used to use) for colon cancer. The rods each have radioactive isotope in them and are placed specifically in and around the tumor. The patient can only lie on a side or belly while they are in place. I saw them used a couple times while I was in nursing school in the late 90s and it certainly left an impression. The poor patients really looked like they had a porcupine coming out if their nether-regions.. ...
Radioisotope thruster[edit]. A theoretical propulsion system has been proposed, based on alpha particles (He2+. or 4. 2He2+. ... indicating a helium ion with a +2 charge) emitted from a radioisotope uni-directionally through a hole in its chamber. A ...
An atomic battery, nuclear battery, radioisotope battery or radioisotope generator is a device which uses energy from the decay ... Radioisotopes used[edit]. Atomic batteries use radioisotopes that produce low energy beta particles or sometimes alpha ... A Stirling radioisotope generator is a Stirling engine driven by the temperature difference produced by a radioisotope. A more ... Radioisotopes such as tritium, nickel-63, promethium-147, and technetium-99 have been tested. Plutonium-238, curium-242, curium ...
As with other radioisotopes of iodine, accidental iodine-125 uptake in the body (mostly by the thyroid gland) can be blocked by ... The other xenon radioisotopes decay either to stable xenon, or to various caesium isotopes, some of them radioactive (a.o., the ... It is the second longest-lived radioisotope of iodine, after iodine-129. Its half-life is 59.49 days and it decays by electron ... The resulting temporary shut down threatened the global supply of the radioisotope, as it left the McMaster reactor as the only ...
Radioisotopes. 38 (11): 469-472. doi:10.3769/radioisotopes.38.11_469. ISSN 0033-8303. PMID 2595020. "Ariad moving to new ...
The other iodine radioisotopes have much shorter half-lives, no longer than days. Some of them have medical applications ... Radioisotopes; Vol: 4th Jan 01, 1961 Rivkees, Scott A.; Sklar, Charles; Freemark, Michael (1998). "The Management of Graves' ... Rao, S. M. (2006). "Radioisotopes of hydrological interest". Practical isotope hydrology. New Delhi: New India Publishing ... the second-longest-lived iodine radioisotope, it has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation ...
The radioisotope thermoelectric generator[edit]. U.S. military perform maintenance on one of the radioisotope thermoelectric ... On August 11, 1966,[23] the US Navy placed a strontium-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) atop Fairway Rock ... The United States Navy placed radioisotope thermoelectric generator-powered environmental monitoring equipment on the island ...
Radioisotopes such as the positron emitters 18F and 13N or beta emitters 32P or 90Y have measurable Cherenkov emission[14] and ... Medical imaging of radioisotopes and external beam radiotherapy[edit]. Cherenkov light emission imaged from the chest wall of a ...
The most common radioisotope used in diagnosis is technetium-99m, with some 30 million procedures per year, accounting for 80% ... "Radioisotopes in Medicine". World Nuclear Association. October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017. "Vascular science". NHS Health ... Over 10,000 hospitals worldwide use radioisotopes in medicine, and about 90% of the procedures are for diagnosis. ...
Radioisotopes are also a method of treatment in hemopoietic forms of tumors; the success for treatment of solid tumors has been ... In nuclear medicine, radioisotopes are used for diagnosis, treatment, and research. Radioactive chemical tracers emitting gamma ... "Radioisotopes in Industry". World Nuclear Association. Martin, James (2006). Physics for Radiation Protection: A Handbook. p. ... A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it ...
A major use of systemic radioisotope therapy is in the treatment of bone metastasis from cancer. The radioisotopes travel ... Systemic radioisotope therapy (RIT) is a form of targeted therapy. Targeting can be due to the chemical properties of the ... systemic radioisotope therapy or unsealed source radiotherapy.. The differences relate to the position of the radiation source ... The radioisotopes are delivered through infusion (into the bloodstream) or ingestion. Examples are the infusion of ...
RadioisotopesEdit. Thirteen radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 15O with a half-life of 122.24 s ... The longest-lived radioisotope is 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds, while the shortest-lived isotope is 12O with a half- ...
The other radioisotopes of iodine are never used in brachytherapy. The use of 131I as a medical isotope has been blamed for a ... Iodine-131 (131I, I-131) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the ... Rao, S. M. (2006). "Radioisotopes of hydrological interest". Practical isotope hydrology. New Delhi: New India Publishing ... other less-damaging radioisotopes of iodine such as iodine-123 (see isotopes of iodine) are preferred in situations when only ...
It is used as a parent radioisotope in technetium-99m generators to produce the even shorter-lived daughter isotope technetium- ... "Emerging leader with new solutions in the field of nuclear medicine technology". NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes, LLC. ... and usually yields 99mTc accompanied by unsatisfactory amounts of the parent radioisotope when using γ-alumina as the column ... "Feasibility of Eliminating the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in the Production of Medical Radioisotopes". Science & Global ...
"Supply of Medical Radioisotopes". UK Parliament POST. "BREXIT BRIEFING Euratom and Brexit" (PDF). The Lancet Oncology (April ... "Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014". arXiv:1501.03071 []. Graham, Mark; Bunn, Sarah (6 ...
Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography with Radioisotopes. The Control of Radioisotopes. Facilities and equipment for ... Morgan, G. W. (1955). The Control of Radioisotopes. Modern Sanitation, 7(11), 18-20. MORGAN, G.W. (1955). Facilities and ... Morgan, G. W. (1949). Surveying and monitoring of radiation from radioisotopes. Nucleonics, 4(3), 24-37. Morgan, G. W. ( ... Morgan, George William and Buchanan, C.R. (19 January 1953). Air contamination and respiratory protection in radioisotope work ...
Singh, B., Singh, J., & Kaur, A. (2013). Applications of Radioisotopes in Agriculture. International Journal of Biotechnology ... is sufficiently penetrating to be detected outside the organism or tissue which is being analysed Many radioisotopes are used ...
Nordion developed medical radio isotopes. Gerald Heffernan invented what is known as mini-mill steel manufacturing. In the US, ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Noorden, Richard Van (December 11, 2013). "Radioisotopes: The medical testing crisis". ... "Environmental report supports SHINE Medical's plan to build radioisotope plant in Janesville". Wisconsin State Journal. ... "Startups Race to Solve Looming Medical Radioisotope Crisis". Xconomy. Retrieved July 23, 2015. The company has supply ...
Vulcan, Tom (19 April 2010). "Radioisotopes: A Market in Decay? ,". Archived from the original on 9 August ... Bruce Power is working with Framatome to develop the capability to "produce shorter half-life radioisotopes (such as molybdenum ... "Bruce Power and AREVA NP Expand Agreement for Commercialization of Radioisotope Production - AREVA NP - AREVA Group". us.areva. ... Candu power reactors produce almost all the world's supply of the cobalt-60 radioisotope for medical and sterilization use. ...
Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized. The most stable are 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds and 14O with a half- ...
Lukens Jr, H. R., Anderson, E. E., & Beaufait Jr, L. J. (1954). Punched Card System for Radioisotopes. Analytical Chemistry. 26 ...
Including radioisotopes in agriculture 589.7.........................................Agricultural ecology (General) 589.75- ...
Radioisotope Engineering, Geoffrey G. Eichholz, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1972. Evaluation of Treatment Plants by Tracer Methods, ... Proceedings of the Conference on the Use of Radioisotopes in the Physical Sciences and Industry. V. 1. 1962. Eichholz, Geoffrey ... "Measurement of the wear rate of cast grinding balls using radioactive tracers." Radioisotopes in the Physical Sciences and ... He published or coauthored several books for these courses and they include: Radioisotope Engineering, Environmental Aspects of ...
The second most stable radioisotope is 93Zr, which has a half-life of 1.53 million years. Thirty other radioisotopes have been ... 89Zr is a radioisotope of zirconium with a half-life of 78.41 hours. It is produced by proton irradiation of natural yttrium-89 ... 93Zr is a radioisotope of zirconium with a half-life of 1.53 million years, decaying through emission of a low-energy beta ... 1019 y 88Zr is a radioisotope of zirconium with a half-life of 83.4 days. In January 2019, this isotope was discovered to have ...
65 Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72 Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours ... n 30Zn + e− → n 29Cu The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with mass number higher than 66 is beta decay (β−), ... The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 66 is electron capture. The decay product ...
Twenty plutonium radioisotopes have been characterized. The most stable are plutonium-244 with a half-life of 80.8 million ... Pure 238Pu for radioisotope thermoelectric generators that power some spacecraft is produced by neutron capture on neptunium- ... can also be used with purified neptunium to produce 238Pu relatively free of other plutonium isotopes for use in radioisotope ...
"Late Effects of Internally Deposited Radioisotopes". In Schwiegk, H.; Turba, F. (eds.). Radioactive Isotopes in Physiology ...
In 2004, Egypt shows the IAEA's inspectors the Radioisotope Production Facility at Inshas, which was a new facility under ... "Radioisotope Production Facility". Nuclear Threat Initiative. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved 21 ... "could have been brought into the country through contaminated radioisotope transport containers," and the IAEA's inspectors had ... construction intended for the separation of radioisotopes from enriched 19.7% U-235 irradiated at the ETRR-2 reactor while ...
However, if the probability of escape at each collision is very small, the half-life of the radioisotope will be very long, ... "Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 25 March 2013. "Nuclear-Powered Cardiac ... Working out the details of the theory leads to an equation relating the half-life of a radioisotope to the decay energy of its ... since the mass numbers of most alpha-emitting radioisotopes exceed 210, far greater than the mass number of the alpha particle ...
Twenty-seven other radioisotopes have been characterized. Most of these have half-lives that are less than two hours, except ... Naturally occurring niobium (41Nb) is composed of one stable isotope (93Nb). The most stable radioisotope is 92Nb with a half- ...
... processing and quality control of important reactor produced radioisotopes. Major radioisotope producers across the world have ... Radioisotopes produced in research reactors have been widely used in a number of applications over the last four decades. This ... INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Manual for Reactor Produced Radioisotopes, IAEA-TECDOC-1340, IAEA, Vienna (2003). ...
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Radioisotope Laboratory. David A. Goldade (970) 266-6080. Project Homepage Project Goal and Objectives. Publications. ... The radioisotope research laboratory at NWRC provides powerful tools that allow scientists to evaluate more precisely the ... Another set of valuable tools used in the radioisotope laboratory are in-vitro metabolism experiments. Sub-cellular fractions ...
A radioisotope rocket or radioisotope thermal rocket is a type of thermal rocket engine that uses the heat generated by the ... Alternatively, radioisotopes may be used in a radioisotope electric rocket, in which energy from nuclear decay is used to ... Another drawback to the use of radioisotopes in rockets is an inability to change the operating power. The radioisotope ... The basic idea is a development of existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator, or RTG, systems, in which the heat generated ...
A synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces ... Most synthetic radioisotopes have a short half-life. Though a health hazard, radioactive materials have many medical and ... Several radioisotopes and compounds are used for medical treatment, usually by bringing the radioactive isotope to a high ... Some synthetic radioisotopes are extracted from spent nuclear reactor fuel rods, which contain various fission products. For ...
These radioisotopes produce toxicities in the tissues… ... radioisotope. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not ...
All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsIsotopesRadioisotopesIodine Radioisotopes ... Radioisotopes, Iodine. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsElementsHalogensIodineIodine Isotopes ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsIsotopesIodine IsotopesIodine Radioisotopes ... Iodine Radioisotopes. Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights ...
Eighteen additional primordial radioisotopes are listed. They were created at the same time that the non-radioactive isotopes ... Before Bi, 12 cosmogenic radioisotopes are listed. They are those continuously produced by nuclear reactions among light ... So, this paper deals with radioisotopes as suitable instruments for chemical analysis. ... When Periodic Chart of elements is consulted to find natural radioisotopes, one firstly finds tritium, followed by 10Be, 14C, ...
title = {Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research}. author = {Eduvie, L O}. abstractNote = {Animal productivity may be ... Eduvie, L O. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research. Nigeria: N. p., 1994. Web. ...
Radioisotopes in Experimental Biology. Leerdoelen. At the end of the course, the student is able to:. 1. reproduce the specific ... Radioisotope detection using X-ray film. • The (advanced liquid) scintillation counter. • In vitro labeling of nucleic acids ... Radioisotopes and immunoassay. • Pharmacological techniques. • Biological effect of radiation. The final part of the course ... 4. apply the obtained knowledge in a experiment set-up with radioisotopes and summarize the experiment and results in a written ...
Radioisotope Power Systems. Visit the Program Homepage , Program Contact. About the Radioisotope Power Systems Program. The ... and regulatory issues related to the safe launch of radioisotope power systems. APL supports the RPS program with mission and ... funds research and development efforts on Stirling technology for a potential Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), and new ... such as skutterudite-based thermoelectric couples that could be integrated into the Mult-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric ...
Radioisotope definition, a radioactive isotope, usually artificially produced: used in physical and biological research, ... radioisotope. in Science. radioisotope. [rā′dē-ō-ī′sə-tōp′]. *A radioactive isotope of a chemical element. Carbon 14 and radon ... radioisotope. in Medicine. radioisotope. (rā′dē-ō-ī′sə-tōp′). n.. *A naturally or artificially produced radioactive isotope. ...
Information on terrorism and public health. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Information on terrorism and public health. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
New strategies are needed to address the current and future shortages of radioisotopes that threaten medical research and ... Desperately Seeking Radioisotopes. New strategies are needed to address the current and future shortages of radioisotopes that ... When the reactor shut down for repairs in May 2009, it contributed to a global shortage of radioisotopes.. The unsteady supply ... Unfortunately, the supply of Mo-99 and other radioisotopes has been unreliable at best. All of the Mo-99 used in the United ...
Radioactive isotopes (or radioisotopes) have been employed for cancer treatment for years, with radioactive iodine being used ... One would need to discover a marker that locates the cancer and then combine it with a radioisotope to kill it. ... And if it is a radioisotope, the pharma company has to give money to the reactor and the nuclear medicine department. ... However, by binding these with a radioisotope, you dont have to start the trial process from scratch. By piggybacking on the ...
A discussion of the unique problems associated with the integration of radioisotope thermoelectric systems and various types of ... The Integration of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Systems and Spacecraft 640310. A discussion of the unique problems associated ... Citation: Harris, D. and Epstein, J., "The Integration of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Systems and Spacecraft," SAE Technical ... with the integration of radioisotope thermoelectric systems and various types of satellites is presented. The effect of the ...
... store and use radioisotopes at McGill University. To receive a permit, you must complete the Radioisotope Permit Application ... Researchers must possess an internal McGill Radioisotope permit to acquire, ... Radioisotope Permits Researchers must possess an internal McGill Radioisotope permit to acquire, store and use radioisotopes at ... To receive a permit, you must complete the Radioisotope Permit Application Form. ...
... Mandy Caird PhD mandy at DRUID.HSC.COLORADO.EDU Fri Jul 8 16:13:02 EST 1994 *Previous message ...
Topic: Radioisotopes. U.S. Department of Energy produces fuel to power NASAs Deep Space Missions. December 29, 2015 , ...
Continuous monitoring of the concentration of natural and anthropogenic radioisotopes is of the utmost importance... ... Radioisotopes 137Cs, 234U, 238U AMP co-precipitation Gamma spectrometry Anion exchange Alpha spectrometry Radiological hazard ... Alboloushi A., Aba A., Alboloushi O. (2019) Cesium and Uranium Radioisotopes Monitoring in Kuwait Bay Seawater. In: Chaminé H ... Continuous monitoring of the concentration of natural and anthropogenic radioisotopes is of the utmost importance in the ...
Qyresearchreports include new market research report Global Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Market Professional ... radioisotope thermoelectric generator (rtg) market researchradioisotope thermoelectric generator (rtg) marketradioisotope ... Table Classification of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). Figure Global Production Market Share of Radioisotope ... 1.2 Classification of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). 1.3 Applications of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator ( ...
Radioisotope - An unstable element that releases radiation as it breaks down. Radioisotopes can be used in imaging tests or as ... Medical Word - Radioisotope. Ans : An unstable element that releases radiation as it breaks down. Radioisotopes can be used in ... Radioisotope - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on ...
They use a radioisotope as a source of positrons. They react the gamma particles to get a charged ion which they direct with ... The goal of this effort is to determine the feasibility of a (TRL 1-2) radioisotope positron catalyzed fusion propulsion ...
radioisotope definition: a naturally occurring or artificially created radioactive isotope of a chemical element: used in ... radioisotope. ra·di·o·i·so·tope. a naturally occurring or artificially created radioactive isotope of a chemical element: used ... How would you define radioisotope? Add your definition here.. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. ...
It also discusses some of the successes that the radioisotopes have had on satellite missions. The webpage also includes a ... This NASA webpage discusses radioisotope power systems in past, present, and future space missions. ... It also discusses some of the successes that the radioisotopes have had on satellite missions. The webpage also includes a ... Apollo, Cassini, Cassini-Huygens, Galileo, New Horizons, Nimbus, Pioneer, Ulysses, Viking, Voyager, radioisotope, solar system ...
Edited and published by : Japan Radioisotope Association Produced and listed by : International Academic Publishing Co., ...
... Artor Niccoli Asabella,1 Giuseppe Lucio Cascini,2 ... F. Szelecsényi, K. Suzuki, Z. Kovács, M. Takei, and K. Okada, "Production possibility of 60,61,62Cu radioisotopes by alpha ... F. Szelecsényi, G. F. Steyn, K. Suzuki et al., "Application of Zn+p reactions for production of copper radioisotopes for ... A. Niccoli Asabella, G. L. Cascini, C. Altini, D. Paparella, A. Notaristefano, and G. Rubini, "The copper radioisotopes: a ...
... B. Q. Lee, T. Kibédi, A. E. Stuchbery, and K. A ...
  • Radioactive isotopes (or radioisotopes) have been employed for cancer treatment for years, with radioactive iodine being used to treat tumours of the thyroid gland since the 1950s. (
  • The sample sizes ranged from about 10 to less than 1 mg and the ratio of the radioisotope to the stable isotopes approached one part in 10/sup 16/ for /sup 14/C and /sup 36/Cl and one part in 10/sup 14/ for /sup 10/Be and /sup 26/Al. (
  • Radioactive tracers have many advantages over other tracers, which include the identity of chemical and physical properties of all isotopes of a given element, the emission of radiation is a specific property of the tracer which is not affected by interference from other materials in the system, radioisotopes are measurable with high sensitivity and therefore detectable in very low concentration and the measurement in situ is possible. (
  • The ERT's update came after Dutch national carrier KLM, which has previously not accepted Class 7 radioactive materials such as radioisotopes, announced it would resume the transport of medical isotopes from Europe to the USA from 27 April. (
  • You are watching #464 Soluble Isotopes may Skew Radioisotope Dating on the largest video sharing platform offering online Christian videos with faith-based, family friendly content. (
  • The Symposium on Medical Radioisotopes is organised by the European Isotope Transport Association (ATF), Isotopes Services International (ISI) and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre. (
  • Radiotracers are one of a number of environmental tracers that can be used, but they play an important role in detecting and analysing pollutants since even very small amounts of a given radioisotope can easily be detected, and the decay of short-lived isotopes means that no residues remain in the environment. (
  • Radioisotopes are used to determine the age of water, whilst stable isotopes can be used to determine the source's history, rainfall conditions, mixing/interaction characteristics of related water bodies, pollution processes, and evaporation processes. (
  • Radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of an element. (
  • A synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. (
  • A radioisotope consists of unstable atoms that undergo radioactive decay emitting alpha, beta or gamma radiation. (
  • Radioactive elements, called radioisotopes or radionuclides, are unstable. (
  • In a 23 April webinar on the supply of medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, hosted by the IAEA, panellists from 18 countries observed that fewer radiological procedures are being carried out globally as healthcare professional focus on the COVID-19 response. (
  • Most radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals are transported internationally via scheduled commercial flights. (
  • The APT site could be a potential U.S. source of radioisotopes to be used in the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (
  • Through proprietary PET imaging systems, radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes solutions, Positron enables healthcare providers to more accurately diagnose disease and improve patient outcomes, while practicing cost effective medicine. (
  • Once the radioisotope facility is operational, we will export radiopharmaceuticals and industrial radioisotopes across the country as well as overseas. (
  • Since the RadioGenix System became commercially available in 2018, NorthStar has demonstrated strong, consistent progress in advancing our plans to ensure reliable, non-uranium based radioisotope supply for the United States," said Steve Merrick, President and CEO of NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes. (
  • On 5 May, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre hosted the 5th Symposium on Medical Radioisotopes 2015-2020. (
  • Fuelling of a radioisotope-based power system for NASA's Mars 2020 rover has begun. (
  • 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes. (
  • This manual is a compilation of procedures for the production, processing and quality control of important reactor produced radioisotopes. (
  • PITTSBURGH - September 9, 2015 - Westinghouse Electric Company and NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes today announced a Memorandum of Understanding to explore producing medical radioisotopes from the core of commercial nuclear reactors, and methods of global distribution. (
  • NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes Announces FDA Approval of Beloit, Wis. (
  • BUSINESS WIRE )--NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes, LLC (NorthStar), a company involved in the production and distribution of radioisotopes used for medical imaging, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the company's Beloit, Wis. (
  • BUSINESS WIRE )--NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes, LLC, a global innovator in the production and distribution of radioisotopes used for medical imaging, today announced a corporate update highlighting the continued commercial progress of its RadioGenix® System (technetium Tc 99m generator). (
  • An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) survey of major producers of radioisotopes previously found that, although production of medical radioisotopes had continued during the pandemic, bottlenecks in transport and distribution could lead to shortages at hospitals. (
  • Khan NT (2017) Radioisotopes and Their Biomedical Applications. (
  • South African State-owned nuclear technology company NTP Radioisotopes (NTP) announced on Tuesday that it had regained 80% of its market share for the medical radioisotope Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). (
  • To address this problem, Covidien just received the FDA go ahead to source molybdenum-99 radioisotope from Poland's Maria nuclear research reactor (pictured) to produce technetium-99m for medical applications. (
  • NTP produces and distributes molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and radioisotope-based diagnostic imaging and therapy products including iodine-131 and lutetium-177. (
  • Approval of the Beloit manufacturing facility follows FDA's recent approval of the RadioGenix System for producing the medically important radioisotope technetium-99m (Tc-99m) using domestically sourced, non-uranium based molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). (
  • The RadioGenix System is an innovative, high tech system that is approved for processing non-uranium/non-highly enriched uranium molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) for the production of the important medical radioisotope, technetium-99m (Tc-99m). (
  • NorthStar's RadioGenix System is an innovative, high tech radioisotope separation platform indicated for use in producing the widely used medical radioisotope Tc-99m from non-uranium based molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). (
  • The collaboration has so far seen 14 emergency shipments of medical radioisotopes leave South Africa on SAA flights, headed for Europe, North America and South America. (
  • CHICAGO , July 29, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Positron Corporation (OTCBB:POSC) announces it has entered into a multi-year radioisotope supply agreement with iThemba LABS of Cape Town , South Africa. (
  • Radionuclides also termed as radioisotopes are elements that possess radioactivity. (
  • Physicians are also finding it harder to obtain iodine-131, a radioisotope used to treat thyroid cancer, Graves' disease, and hyperthyroidism. (
  • It came mostly in the form of iodine-131, cesium-134 and cesium-137, the primary radioisotopes released from the reactors, reported Ken Buesseler, a marine chemist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. (
  • For this reason most of the radioisotopes used emit gamma-rays of medium energy, that is between about 100 and 200 keV. (
  • Nuclear medicine depends on the properties of radioisotopes to either emit gamma rays that can be used to create images of organ function, or to emit beta or alpha particles can be used to treat cancers. (
  • Scientists create artificial radioisotopes by bombarding stable atoms of an element with subatomic particles in a nuclear reactor or in an atom smasher, or cyclotron. (
  • The attributes of naturally decaying atoms, known as radioisotopes, give rise to several applications across many aspects of modern day life (see also information paper on The Many Uses of Nuclear Technology ). (
  • Radioactive tracers (or radiotracers) are chemical compounds in which one or more atoms are radioisotopes. (
  • The goal of this effort is to determine the feasibility of a (TRL 1-2) radioisotope positron catalyzed fusion propulsion concept that does not rely on trapped antimatter. (
  • In recent years specialists have also come from radiology, as dual PET/CT (positron emission tomography with computerised tomography) procedures have become established, increasing the role of accelerators in radioisotope production. (
  • Multivariate Study Design Using Short- and Long-lived Radioisotopes, In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography (PET/CT) and Planar Scintigraphy, and Ex Vivo Autoradiography to Assess Biodistribution and Pharmacokinetics of Bone-Targeting Test Material in a Canine Surgical Model. (
  • Positron And iThemba LABS Enters Into Radioisotope Supply. (
  • Over the past 15 years, iThemba LABS has played an integral role in supplying a significant portion of the global Sr-82 supply," states Jason Kitten , Executive Director of Radioisotopes for Positron. (
  • A very effective role for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine is the use of short-lived positron emitters such as 11C, 13N, 15O, or 18F in a process known as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). (
  • Several radioisotopes and compounds are used for medical treatment, usually by bringing the radioactive isotope to a high concentration in the body near a particular organ. (
  • It involves obtaining a relatively long-lived radioisotope which decays into the short-lived isotope of interest. (
  • The company had previously been one of the four major global suppliers of the short-lived Mo-99, which is the world's most widely used medical isotope, and the shutdown has impacted significantly on the supply of medical radioisotopes both locally and internationally, NTP said. (
  • A radioisotope is an artificially produced isotope that has an unnatural combination of protons and neutrons. (
  • The Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) provides high energy protons to specialized targets to create radioisotopes with medical utility, either diagnostic or therapeutic. (
  • Radioisotopes can be incorporated into one or more organs specific for that isotope , (e.g. thyroid, lungs, kidneys, bones/bone marrow, or liver/spleen) resulting in exposure at that site. (
  • Such flights have been curtailed in response to the pandemic, which is particularly problematic for short-lived medical radioisotopes. (
  • This method is widely used to produce certain short-lived radioisotopes in a hospital or clinic. (
  • Molybdenum will probably not be produced, despite the fact that much of the world's supply of the short-lived radioisotope is dependent on a single Canadian nuclear reactor ( SCAN 6/10/97). (
  • In this case, CT and PET scanning, which use other radioisotopes, can serve as alternative diagnostic methods, but these procedures have drawbacks ranging from increased cost and greater radiation burden to lower image quality. (
  • Diagnostic procedures using radioisotopes are now routine. (
  • In developed countries (a quarter of the world population) about one person in 50 uses diagnostic nuclear medicine each year, and the frequency of therapy with radioisotopes is about one-tenth of this. (
  • The most common radioisotope used in diagnosis is technetium-99 (Tc-99), with some 40 million procedures per year, accounting for about 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures and 85% of diagnostic scans in nuclear medicine worldwide. (
  • Radioisotopes are an essential part of medical diagnostic procedures. (
  • This important event marks another milestone in NorthStar's commitment to provide the United States healthcare system with a reliable, domestic non-uranium based Mo-99 supply for production of the important medical diagnostic imaging radioisotope, technetium-99m. (
  • The capability of the BLIP to irradiate special targets with high energy protons permits the development and production of useful radioisotopes not available from smaller accelerators in the commercial sector. (
  • The company, which specializes in commercializing superconducting particle accelerators, plans to open a radioisotope production facility in Lansing, creating a projected 120 new jobs in the region. (
  • they extract it on-site from a longer lived radioactive material. (
  • In this case, the radioisotope being used is technetium-99m (Tc-99m) linked to DTPA, a substance that is taken up & excreted by the kidneys. (
  • This paper intends to establish one radioactive contamination index in seawater based on the relation A1/A2, where A1 is the radioactivity due to the contaminant radioisotope 137Cs and A2 is the radioactivity due to the natural radioisotope 40K, both expressed either as Bq/l in seawater or Bq/g in sea salt. (
  • We return to sources of radioactivity in this chapter in order to learn about methods which are used to make radioisotopes. (
  • A radioisotope is injected into a vein and is taken up into the bone so that the radioactivity works against the cancer cells. (
  • Brookhaven's large proton linear accelerator is able to produce medically useful radioisotopes not available elsewhere. (
  • The field of nuclear medicine covers use of radioisotopes for diagnosis or treatment. (
  • There are nearly one hundred radioisotopes whose beta and/or gamma radiation is used in diagnosis, therapy, or investigations in nuclear medicine. (
  • There is widespread awareness of the use of radiation and radioisotopes in medicine, particularly for diagnosis (identification) and therapy (treatment) of various medical conditions. (
  • Over 10,000 hospitals worldwide use radioisotopes in medicine, and about 90% of the procedures are for diagnosis. (
  • Alboloushi A., Aba A., Alboloushi O. (2019) Cesium and Uranium Radioisotopes Monitoring in Kuwait Bay Seawater. (
  • The advance of the nuclear industry in all its forms coupled with growing concerns for possible environmental contamination has led to an increased interest in the quantification of radioisotopes in the environment. (
  • Immobilization of the Gas Signaling Molecule H2 S by Radioisotopes: Detection, Quantification, and In Vivo Imaging. (
  • Herein, we report the first radioisotope-based immobilization technique for the detection, quantification, and in vivo imaging of endogenous H2 S. Macrocyclic (64) Cu complexes that instantly reacted with gaseous H2 S to form insoluble (64) CuS in a highly sensitive and selective manner were prepared. (
  • A radioisotope age that agrees with geological expectations is readily accepted as confirmation and quantification of the designated age. (
  • This therapy makes use of radioisotopes that emits radiations upon their decay. (
  • Radioisotopes occur naturally, as in the cases of radium and uranium, or may be created artificially. (
  • As a result medical applications generally require the use of radioisotopes which are produced artificially. (
  • The global radioisotope market was valued at $9.6 billion in 2016, with medical radioisotopes accounting for about 80% of this, and it is poised to reach about $17 billion by 2021. (
  • Spacecraft propulsion Thermal rocket Nuclear thermal rocket Radioisotope heater unit Schmidt, George R. (
  • The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. (
  • The third mandate of the HLG-MR will allow for an extension of its work in the field of security of supply of medical radioisotopes. (
  • The starting point was the first indispensable link in the chain: the production of medical radioisotopes . (
  • Members of the biomedical sciences community, as well as representatives of the radiopharmaceutical industry, are recommending that the production of medical radioisotopes be included in the APT site's charter. (
  • They also find particular utility in connection with medical uses of radioisotopes. (
  • 1032 words - 5 pages Free servers​: Centrilobular (left) versus coagulative necrosis (right) Structure: Mass Spectrum: Articles: ​ Penicillin Essay The antibacterial uses for benzylpenicillin or just penicillin were discovered in 1928 by a Scottish scientist named Alexander Fleming. (
  • Jan 2010- 49 Which radioisotope is used to treat thyroid disorders? (
  • Radioisotope therapyhas an important role to play in modern medicine, particularly in the treatment of thyroid disease, neuroendocrine tumours, bone metastasis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • In its 42 year history the BLIP and associated hot lab facility have prepared dozens of radioisotopes used in medical research and patients, including imaging with Xenon-127 for lung problems, Iodine-123 for thyroid and Strontium-82 for heart. (
  • Researchers at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) have been working to create targeted, cancer-killing radioisotopes that can be attached to biological entities (the bioconjugates) that target specific cancer cells. (
  • Thus radioisotopes could be used for numerous biomedical purposes such as cancer and tumour treatment, imaging, biochemical assays, biological labelling, sterilization, clinical diagnostics, radioactive dating etc. (
  • Radioisotope is used for biological labelling of cells or entities for identification or tracing specific molecules in an organism. (
  • Carrier-free radioisotopes from cyclotron targets. (
  • Medical countermeasures called decorporation agents or other procedures (e.g., diuresis) may be needed to remove radioisotopes that have been incorporated into tissues. (
  • It is an object of this invention to prepare radioactive particles consisting of carbonaceous matrices having firmly bound radioisotopes dispersed therein. (
  • Up to 30 percent by weight of radioisotope ions can be incorporated into the particles. (
  • In this method of radioisotope production charged particles are accelerated up to very high energies and caused to collide into a target material. (
  • Research Details Developments in Global Radioisotope. (
  • The growth dynamics of the global Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) market is shaped by a diverse range of regional and global factors and trends, the detailed account of which forms the core of the report. (
  • The comprehensive account on the global Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) market includes an assessment of the prevailing operating and macroeconomic environment in various regions. (
  • The study takes a closer look at major research and development activities in various regions and their broad impact on emerging product of service offering of prominent stakeholders in the global Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) market. (
  • The trends offered in the report mirrors the views of opinion leaders, CEOs, CXOs, and strategists in the global Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) market and are supported by quantitative data and analyses. (
  • The scope of innovative technologies emerging in the global Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) market causing disruptions in the market is also analyzed in the study. (
  • The radioisotope research laboratory at NWRC provides powerful tools that allow scientists to evaluate more precisely the wildlife management chemicals used by the Wildlife Services Program. (
  • Another set of valuable tools used in the radioisotope laboratory are in-vitro metabolism experiments. (
  • John Birden and Ken Jordan built and developed the first radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) while working at Monsanto's Mound Laboratory in 1954. (
  • The radioisotope fuel is inserted into the MMRTG at the DOE's Idaho National Laboratory before the MMRTG is shipped to the launch site, and this is timed according to the launch date of the mission. (
  • And if it is a radioisotope, the pharma company has to give money to the reactor and the nuclear medicine department. (
  • A good example is 99m Tc which as we have noted before is the most widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine today. (
  • Over 40 million nuclear medicine procedures are performed each year, and demand for radioisotopes is increasing at up to 5% annually. (
  • Every year, BR2 supplies as much as 25% of the worldwide demand for radioisotopes for medical imaging and the treatment of particular cancers . (
  • Radioisotopes are widely used for a number of purposes following are some major applications of radioisotope. (
  • Radioisotopes produced in research reactors have been widely used in a number of applications over the last four decades. (
  • misc{etde_100436, title = {Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research} author = {Eduvie, L O} abstractNote = {Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. (
  • NASA, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE ) funds research and development efforts on Stirling technology for a potential Stirling Radioisotope Generator ( SRG ), and new thermoelectric materials, such as skutterudite-based thermoelectric couples that could be integrated into the Mult-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator ( MMRTG ) to create an enhanced MMRTG (eMMRTG). (
  • New strategies are needed to address the current and future shortages of radioisotopes that threaten medical research and treatment. (
  • RATE is an acronym applied to a research project investigating radioisotope dating sponsored by the Institute for Creation Research and the Creation Research Society. (
  • What makes this symposium so unique is that it has brought together all stakeholders in the sector and that it underlines the crucial importance of radioisotopes, both for research purposes and to treat various disorders. (
  • The talk will conclude with a consideration of how radioisotope usage served to prompt the postwar federal regulation of scientific research, which expanded considerably in the last decades of the twentieth century. (
  • The Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is a technology development effort, managed by NASA, that is strategically investing in nuclear power technologies that would maintain NASA's current space science capabilities and could enable future space exploration missions. (
  • DOE owns and produces the nuclear fuel and the nuclear power systems, and directly manages the design and development of all radioisotope power systems used by NASA. (
  • This NASA webpage discusses radioisotope power systems in past, present, and future space missions. (
  • Therefore, a better power source was needed and so the engineers at NASA decided to go for a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. (
  • Some synthetic radioisotopes are extracted from spent nuclear reactor fuel rods, which contain various fission products. (
  • So, this paper deals with radioisotopes as suitable instruments for chemical analysis. (
  • Can chemical treatments to displace radioisotopes influence soil fertility? (
  • Finally since the radioisotope needs to be incorporated into some form of radiopharmaceutical it should also be capable of being produced in a form which is amenable to chemical, pharmaceutical and sterile processing. (
  • Toxic effects of radioisotopes may be due to their chemical and/or radiological properties. (
  • International air transport has been the main bottleneck in getting radioisotopes and nuclear medicines where they are needed during the COVID-19 pandemic, but Nuclear Medicine Europe (NMEu) says there are signs the situation is improving. (
  • However, the main radioisotopes such as Tc-99m cannot effectively be produced without reactors. (
  • Safe use of RTGs requires containment of the radioisotopes long after the productive life of the unit. (
  • RPO Dispersible Radioactive Materials-D is the minimum expert level which allows you to work with radioisotopes at the university and university hospital (UMCG). (
  • However, the vast majority (90 percent) of radioisotopes used in medicine are used merely for diagnoses -- radioactive materials are injected into the body and then radiation-detecting cameras are used to build images of affected body parts or particular types of cells. (
  • Exposure to certain radioisotopes can cause cancer. (

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