Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
An insoluble support for an ANTIGEN or ANTIBODIES that is used in AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture. Many different substances are used, among them SEPHAROSE; GLUTARALDEHYDE; copolymers of ANHYDRIDES; polyacrylamides, etc.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
A quinazoline derivative with hypnotic and sedative properties. It has been withdrawn from the market in many countries because of problems with abuse. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Chloramines are chemical compounds formed by the reaction between ammonia and chlorine, often used as disinfectants in water treatment but can also form in swimming pools, posing potential respiratory and mucous membrane irritation risks.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Thyroglobulin is a glycoprotein synthesized and secreted by thyroid follicular cells, serving as a precursor for the production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and its measurement in blood serves as a tumor marker for thyroid cancer surveillance.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.
Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.
A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Autoantibodies to gastrin in patients with pernicious anaemia--a novel antibody. (1/8213)

Autoantibodies arise when there is a breakdown in immunological tolerance. Autoantibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor are found in autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) and are associated with elevated plasma gastrin. Endogenous gastrin autoantibodies have not been described to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of autoantibodies to gastrin. Plasma from 50,000 patients, including more than 2000 with AAG, was tested. Gastrin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in whole plasma and the presence of autoantibody determined by using a control which omitted assay antibody. The quantity and affinity of gastrin autoantibodies was assessed. Three patients had autoantibodies to gastrin. All three had AAG and pernicious anaemia (PA). The antibodies were of low titre and relatively high affinity. Free circulating plasma gastrin levels were within the normal range, but total gastrin levels were elevated. This is the first description of autoantibodies to endogenous gastrin. The incidence of antibodies to gastrin is low, they are found in association with PA, and they may lead to falsely low measurements of plasma gastrin.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (2/8213)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Influences of Helicobacter pylori on serum pepsinogen concentrations in dialysis patients. (3/8213)

BACKGROUND: Patients with impaired renal function have been known to have elevated concentrations of serum pepsinogens, which are raised by Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. The present study was performed to examine the effect of H. pylori infection on serum pepsinogen concentrations in dialysis patients. METHODS: Forty nine patients on dialysis and 48 subjects with no known kidney disease were examined for upper gastroduodenal endoscopy, H. pylori infection and serum concentrations of pepsinogen I and II. The status of H. pylori infection was evaluated from results of a urease test, histology and culture of biopsy specimens of the gastric mucosa. Serum pepsinogen levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of pepsinogen I and II were elevated in the dialysis patients in comparison with those in the controls (277.4+/-24.2 vs 52.6+/-4.0 pg/ml, P<0.01 for pepsinogen I, and 30.2+/-2.9 vs 14.9+/-1.3 pg/ml, P<0.01 for pepsinogen II). In both the dialysis patients and controls, those with H. pylori infection had significantly higher concentrations of serum pepsinogen I and II and a lower ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II than those without infection. Among the controls, 15 of 25 subjects with atrophic gastritis had a pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio < or = 3.0, while only two out of 17 patients on dialysis fell into this range. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that H. pylori status should be taken into account when serum pepsinogen concentrations are evaluated in dialysis patients.  (+info)

Pregnancy detection and the effects of age, body weight, and previous reproductive performance on pregnancy status and weaning rates of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama). (4/8213)

Fallow does (n = 502) of different ages (mature, 2-yr-old, and yearling) were maintained with bucks for a 60-d breeding season to determine whether previous reproductive performance and changes in BW affect doe pregnancy rates and to compare the effectiveness of ultrasonography and serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) for the detection of pregnancy in fallow does. Ultrasonography was performed, blood samples collected, and BW recorded at buck removal (d 0) and at 30 and 90 d after buck removal. Lactational status (lactating = WET; nonlactating = DRY) were determined from farm records taken at weaning prior to each breeding season (autumn 1990 through autumn 1994). Ultrasonography and PSPB for determining pregnancy were in agreement 93% of the time. Overall pregnancy rates did not differ (P>.10) relative to age of the doe; the combined pregnancy rate was 92%. We also determined that 82.9% of does conceived early in the breeding season and that the incidence of embryonal-fetal mortality during the first 90 d after buck removal was 2.8%. In general, mature and 2-yr-old DRY does were heavier and had lower pregnancy rates than WET does. The overall weaning rate for all does was 77.9%. Loss in the number of fawns from pregnancy detection to weaning was equivalent to 14.8% for mature does, 24.7% for 2 yr old does, and 42.5% for yearling does. These data indicate that even though pregnancy rates were relatively high, further study is needed to determine the causes associated with subsequent fawn losses, particularly among yearling does. As a production tool, lactational WET/ DRY status testing was found to be an acceptable means for determining the reproductive potential of individual does within the herd. In addition, serum PSPB may be used in place of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in fallow deer as early as d 30 after buck removal.  (+info)

EGF precursor mRNA and membrane-associated EGF precursor protein in rat exorbital lacrimal gland. (5/8213)

This study was designed to demonstrate the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. EGF precursor gene transcription was demonstrated first by RT-PCR analysis of lacrimal gland RNA using a set of specific primers and second by Northern blot analysis of rat lacrimal gland mRNA. A rabbit polyclonal antibody (rEGF2) directed against rat submaxillary gland EGF was used to detect EGF-containing proteins by RIA. Results indicate that the rat lacrimal gland does not contain detectable soluble and mature EGF but that the EGF immunoreactivity is associated with the membrane-enriched fraction. Analysis of the detergent-solubilized membrane proteins by gel filtration shows that membrane-associated EGF immunoreactivity was present as a high-molecular-mass protein. Moreover, as shown by Western blot analysis, a specific anti-rat EGF precursor antibody (ppEGF1) can immunoprecipitate a 152-kDa EGF-containing protein. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time both EGF precursor gene transcription and EGF precursor protein expression in a lacrimal tissue, i.e., the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. The demonstration that EGF appears to be stored only as its full-length membrane precursor may provide important information to study the regulation of its secretory process.  (+info)

Cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans. (6/8213)

Effects of urodilatin (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1) infused over 2 h on separate study days were studied in eight normal subjects with use of a randomized, double-blind protocol. All doses decreased renal plasma flow (hippurate clearance, 13-37%) and increased fractional Li+ clearance (7-22%) and urinary Na+ excretion (by 30, 76, 136, and 99% at 5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Glomerular filtration rate did not increase significantly with any dose. The two lowest doses decreased cardiac output (7 and 16%) and stroke volume (10 and 20%) without changing mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The two highest doses elicited larger decreases in stroke volume (17 and 21%) but also decreased blood pressure (6 and 14%) and increased heart rate (15 and 38%), such that cardiac output remained unchanged. Hematocrit and plasma protein concentration increased with the three highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including urodilatin) and plasma cGMP increased dose dependently. The urinary excretion rate of albumin was elevated up to 15-fold (37 +/- 17 micrograms/min). Use of a newly developed assay revealed that baseline urinary urodilatin excretion rate was low (<10 pg/min) and that fractional excretion of urodilatin remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate, and that filtered urodilatin is almost completely removed by the renal tubules.  (+info)

cGMP-dependent and -independent inhibition of a K+ conductance by natriuretic peptides: molecular and functional studies in human proximal tubule cells. (7/8213)

In immortalized human kidney epithelial (IHKE-1) cells derived from proximal tubules, two natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR) were identified. In addition to NPR-A, which is bound by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and urodilatin (URO), a novel form of NPR-B that might be bound by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) was identified using PCR. This novel splice variant of NPR-B (NPR-Bi) was also found in human kidney. Whereas ANP, BNP, and URO increased intracellular cGMP levels in IHKE-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, CNP had no effect on cGMP levels. To determine the physiologic responses to these agonists in IHKE-1 cells, the membrane voltage (Vm) was monitored using the slow whole-cell patch-clamp technique. ANP (10 nM), BNP (10 nM), and URO (16 nM) depolarized these cells by 3 to 4 mV (n = 47, 7, and 16, respectively), an effect that could be mimicked by 0.1 mM 8-Br-cGMP (n = 15). The effects of ANP and 8-Br-cGMP were not additive (n = 4). CNP (10 nM) also depolarized these cells, by 3+/-1 mV (n = 28), despite the absence of an increase in cellular cGMP levels, indicating a cGMP-independent mechanism. In the presence of CNP, 8-Br-cGMP further depolarized Vm significantly, by 1.6+/-0.3 mV (n = 5). The depolarizations by ANP were completely abolished in the presence of Ba2+ (1 mM, n = 4) and thus can be related to inhibition of a K+ conductance in the luminal membrane of IHKE-1 cells. The depolarizations attributable to CNP were completely blocked when genistein (10 microM, n = 6), an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, was present. These findings indicate that natriuretic peptides regulate electrogenic transport processes via cGMP-dependent and -independent pathways that influence the Vm of IHKE-1 cells.  (+info)

Mediation of humoral catecholamine secretion by the renin-angiotensin system in hypotensive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (8/8213)

The individual contributions of, and potential interactions between, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the humoral adrenergic stress response to blood pressure regulation were examined in rainbow trout. Intravenous injection of the smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine (10 mg/kg), elicited a transient decrease in dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA) and systemic vascular resistance (RS), and significant increases in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and catecholamine concentrations. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors before papaverine treatment prevented PDA and RS recovery, had no effect on the increase in plasma catecholamines, and resulted in greater plasma Ang II concentrations. Administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril (10(-4) mol/kg), before papaverine treatment attenuated the increases in the plasma concentrations of Ang II, adrenaline, and noradrenaline by 90, 79, and 40%, respectively and also prevented PDA and RS recovery. By itself, lisinopril treatment caused a gradual and sustained decrease in PDA and RS, and reductions in basal plasma Ang II and adrenaline concentrations. Bolus injection of a catecholamine cocktail (4 nmol/kg noradrenaline plus 40 nmol/kg adrenaline) in the lisinopril+papaverine-treated trout, to supplement their circulating catecholamine concentrations and mimic those observed in fish treated only with papaverine, resulted in a temporary recovery in PDA and RS. These results indicate that the RAS and the acute humoral adrenergic response are both recruited during an acute hypotensive stress, and have important roles in the compensatory response to hypotension in rainbow trout. However, whereas the contribution of the RAS to PDA recovery is largely indirect and relies on an Ang II-mediated secretion of catecholamines, the contribution from the adrenergic system is direct and relies at least in part on plasma catecholamines.  (+info)

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Iodine isotopes are different forms of the chemical element iodine, which have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. Iodine has a total of 53 protons in its nucleus, and its stable isotope, iodine-127, has 74 neutrons, giving it a mass number of 127. However, there are also radioactive isotopes of iodine, which have different numbers of neutrons and are therefore unstable.

Radioactive isotopes of iodine emit radiation as they decay towards a stable state. For example, iodine-131 is a commonly used isotope in medical imaging and therapy, with a half-life of about 8 days. It decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays, making it useful for treating thyroid cancer and other conditions that involve overactive thyroid glands.

Other radioactive iodine isotopes include iodine-123, which has a half-life of about 13 hours and is used in medical imaging, and iodine-125, which has a half-life of about 60 days and is used in brachytherapy (a type of radiation therapy that involves placing radioactive sources directly into or near tumors).

It's important to note that exposure to radioactive iodine isotopes can be harmful, especially if it occurs through inhalation or ingestion. This is because the iodine can accumulate in the thyroid gland and cause damage over time. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling or working with radioactive iodine isotopes.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microchemistry" is not a commonly used term in medicine. It is, however, a branch of chemistry that deals with the separation, identification, and analysis of chemical substances in minute quantities. This field can be applied in various scientific disciplines, including forensic science, environmental science, and materials science.

In the medical field, you might encounter similar concepts under terms like "microanalysis" or "clinical chemistry," which refer to the identification and measurement of chemical components in body fluids (like blood or urine) for diagnostic purposes. But again, "Microchemistry" is not a standard term used in this context.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Thyroxine (T4) is a type of hormone produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of your neck. It is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, with the other being triiodothyronine (T3).

Thyroxine plays a crucial role in regulating various metabolic processes in the body, including growth, development, and energy expenditure. Specifically, T4 helps to control the rate at which your body burns calories for energy, regulates protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and influences the body's sensitivity to other hormones.

T4 is produced by combining iodine and tyrosine, an amino acid found in many foods. Once produced, T4 circulates in the bloodstream and gets converted into its active form, T3, in various tissues throughout the body. Thyroxine has a longer half-life than T3, which means it remains active in the body for a more extended period.

Abnormal levels of thyroxine can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including weight gain or loss, fatigue, mood changes, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Digoxin is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called cardiac glycosides. It is used to treat various heart conditions, such as heart failure and atrial fibrillation, by helping the heart beat stronger and more regularly. Digoxin works by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump in heart muscle cells, which leads to an increase in intracellular calcium and a strengthening of heart contractions. It is important to monitor digoxin levels closely, as too much can lead to toxicity and serious side effects.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Cortodoxone." It is possible that this term is not recognized in the field of medicine as it does not appear to be a commonly used medication, treatment, or diagnostic tool. If you have any more information about where you encountered this term or its potential meaning, I would be happy to try and provide further clarification.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition characterized by an excessive production and release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland, leading to an increased metabolic rate in various body systems. The thyroid gland, located in the front of the neck, produces two main thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating many bodily functions, including heart rate, digestion, energy levels, and mood.

In hyperthyroidism, the elevated levels of T3 and T4 can cause a wide range of symptoms, such as rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, increased appetite, tremors, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Some common causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease (toxic multinodular goiter), and thyroiditis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage the symptoms and prevent potential complications associated with this condition.

Thyroxine-binding proteins (TBPs) are specialized transport proteins in the blood that bind and carry thyroid hormones, primarily Thyroxine (T4), but also Triiodothyronine (T3) to a lesser extent. The majority of T4 and T3 in the blood are bound to these proteins, while only a small fraction (0.03% of T4 and 0.3% of T3) remains unbound or free, which is the biologically active form that can enter cells and tissues to exert its physiological effects.

There are three main types of thyroxine-binding proteins:

1. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG): This is the major thyroid hormone transport protein, synthesized in the liver and accounting for approximately 70-80% of T4 and T3 binding. TBG has a high affinity but low capacity for thyroid hormones.
2. Transthyretin (TTR), also known as prealbumin: This protein accounts for around 10-20% of T4 and T3 binding. It has a lower affinity but higher capacity for thyroid hormones compared to TBG.
3. Albumin: This is the most abundant protein in the blood and binds approximately 15-20% of T4 and a smaller fraction of T3. Although albumin has a low affinity for thyroid hormones, its high concentration allows it to contribute significantly to their transport.

The binding of thyroid hormones to these proteins helps maintain stable levels in the blood and ensures a steady supply to tissues. Additionally, TBPs protect thyroid hormones from degradation and rapid clearance by the kidneys, thereby extending their half-life in the circulation.

Hypothyroidism is a medical condition where the thyroid gland, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of your neck, does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This results in a slowing down of the body's metabolic processes, leading to various symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, muscle weakness, and depression.

The two main thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, and energy levels. In hypothyroidism, the production of these hormones is insufficient, leading to a range of symptoms that can affect multiple organ systems.

Hypothyroidism can be caused by several factors, including autoimmune disorders (such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis), surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radiation therapy for neck cancer, certain medications, and congenital defects. Hypothyroidism is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure levels of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), T3, and T4. Treatment usually involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones to replace the missing hormones and alleviate symptoms.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Gel chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. It uses a stationary phase that consists of a gel matrix made up of cross-linked polymers, such as dextran, agarose, or polyacrylamide. The gel matrix contains pores of various sizes, which allow smaller molecules to penetrate deeper into the matrix while larger molecules are excluded.

In gel chromatography, a mixture of molecules is loaded onto the top of the gel column and eluted with a solvent that moves down the column by gravity or pressure. As the sample components move down the column, they interact with the gel matrix and get separated based on their size. Smaller molecules can enter the pores of the gel and take longer to elute, while larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute more quickly.

Gel chromatography is commonly used to separate and purify proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules based on their size and molecular weight. It is also used in the analysis of polymers, colloids, and other materials with a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator synthesized by activated platelets. TXA2 has a very short half-life, quickly undergoing spontaneous conversion to the more stable TXB2.

TXB2 itself does not have significant biological activity but serves as a marker for TXA2 production in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. It can be measured in blood or other bodily fluids to assess platelet activation and the status of hemostatic and inflammatory processes.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

The medical definition of 'charcoal' is referred to as activated charcoal, which is a fine, black powder made from coconut shells, wood, or other natural substances. It is used in medical situations to absorb poison or drugs in the stomach, thereby preventing their absorption into the body and reducing their toxic effects. Activated charcoal works by binding to certain chemicals and preventing them from being absorbed through the digestive tract.

Activated charcoal is generally safe for most people when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as black stools, constipation, and regurgitation of the charcoal. It should be used under medical supervision and not as a substitute for seeking immediate medical attention in case of poisoning or overdose.

It's important to note that activated charcoal is different from regular charcoal, which is not safe to consume and can contain harmful chemicals or substances.

Estriol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is produced in the placenta during pregnancy and is used as a marker for fetal growth and development. Estriol levels can be measured in the mother's urine or blood to assess fetal well-being during pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic forms of estriol are sometimes used in hormone replacement therapy to treat symptoms of menopause.

Hepatovirus is a genus of viruses in the Picornaviridae family, and it's most notably represented by the Human Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). These viruses are non-enveloped, with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. They primarily infect hepatocytes, causing liver inflammation and disease, such as hepatitis. Transmission of hepatoviruses typically occurs through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water. The virus causes an acute infection that does not usually become chronic, and recovery is usually complete within a few weeks. Immunity after infection is solid and lifelong.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, also known as prostaglandin H1A, is a stable metabolite of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). It is a type of eicosanoid, which is a signaling molecule made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins are a subclass of eicosanoids and have diverse hormone-like effects in various tissues, including smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, and modulation of inflammation.

6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha is formed by the oxidation of PGF2alpha by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), an enzyme that metabolizes prostaglandins and thromboxanes. It has been used as a biomarker for the measurement of PGF2alpha production in research settings, but it does not have any known physiological activity.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Endorphins are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the nervous system and brain. The term "endorphin" comes from "endogenous morphine," reflecting the fact that these substances are produced naturally within the body and have effects similar to opiate drugs like morphine.

Endorphins are released in response to stress or pain, but they also occur naturally during exercise, excitement, laughter, love, and orgasm. They work by interacting with the opiate receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain and promote feelings of pleasure and well-being. Endorphins also play a role in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, mood, and sleep.

In summary, endorphins are natural painkillers and mood elevators produced by the body in response to stress, pain, or enjoyable activities.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a specific protein, antibody, or antigen in a sample using the principles of antibody-antigen reactions. It is commonly used in clinical laboratories to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions such as infections, hormonal disorders, allergies, and cancer.

Immunoassays typically involve the use of labeled reagents, such as enzymes, radioisotopes, or fluorescent dyes, that bind specifically to the target molecule. The amount of label detected is proportional to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

There are several types of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Each type has its own advantages and limitations, depending on the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput required for a particular application.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin binds to receptors on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, stimulating the uptake of iodide and the synthesis and release of T4 and T3. The secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of thyrotropin, while T3 and T4 inhibit its release through a negative feedback mechanism.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Prostaglandin F (PGF) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandin F is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various tissues throughout the body, including the uterus, lungs, and kidneys.

There are two major types of prostaglandin F: PGF1α and PGF2α. These compounds play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including:

* Uterine contraction: Prostaglandin F helps to stimulate uterine contractions during labor and childbirth. It is also involved in the shedding of the uterine lining during menstruation.
* Bronchodilation: In the lungs, prostaglandin F can help to relax bronchial smooth muscle and promote bronchodilation.
* Renal function: Prostaglandin F helps to regulate blood flow and fluid balance in the kidneys.

Prostaglandin F is also used as a medication to induce labor, treat postpartum hemorrhage, and manage some types of glaucoma. It is available in various forms, including injections, tablets, and eye drops.

Beta-endorphins are naturally occurring opioid peptides that are produced in the brain and other parts of the body. They are synthesized from a larger precursor protein called proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and consist of 31 amino acids. Beta-endorphins have potent analgesic effects, which means they can reduce the perception of pain. They also play a role in regulating mood, emotions, and various physiological processes such as immune function and hormonal regulation.

Beta-endorphins bind to opioid receptors in the brain and other tissues, leading to a range of effects including pain relief, sedation, euphoria, and reduced anxiety. They are released in response to stress, physical activity, and certain physiological conditions such as pregnancy and lactation. Beta-endorphins have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of pain, addiction, and mood disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential side effects.

Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of clinical pathology and immunology. It is a method for separating and identifying proteins, particularly immunoglobulins or antibodies, in a sample. This technique combines the principles of electrophoresis, which separates proteins based on their electric charge and size, with immunological reactions, which detect specific proteins using antigen-antibody interactions.

In IEP, a protein sample is first separated by electrophoresis in an agarose or agar gel matrix on a glass slide or in a test tube. After separation, an antibody specific to the protein of interest is layered on top of the gel and allowed to diffuse towards the separated proteins. This creates a reaction between the antigen (protein) and the antibody, forming a visible precipitate at the point where they meet. The precipitate line's position and intensity can then be analyzed to identify and quantify the protein of interest.

Immunoelectrophoresis is particularly useful in diagnosing various medical conditions, such as immunodeficiency disorders, monoclonal gammopathies (like multiple myeloma), and other plasma cell dyscrasias. It can help detect abnormal protein patterns, quantify specific immunoglobulins, and identify the presence of M-proteins or Bence Jones proteins, which are indicative of monoclonal gammopathies.

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone, specifically the active form of thyroid hormone, that plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. It is produced by the thyroid gland through the iodination and coupling of the amino acid tyrosine with three atoms of iodine. T3 is more potent than its precursor, thyroxine (T4), which has four iodine atoms, as T3 binds more strongly to thyroid hormone receptors and accelerates metabolic processes at the cellular level.

In circulation, about 80% of T3 is bound to plasma proteins, while the remaining 20% is unbound or free, allowing it to enter cells and exert its biological effects. The primary functions of T3 include increasing the rate of metabolic reactions, promoting protein synthesis, enhancing sensitivity to catecholamines (e.g., adrenaline), and supporting normal brain development during fetal growth and early infancy. Imbalances in T3 levels can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, which may require clinical intervention and management.

17-Hydroxycorticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal gland. They are formed from the metabolism of cortisol, which is a hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response. 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids include compounds such as cortisone and corticosterone.

These hormones have various functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism
* Suppression of the immune system
* Modulation of the stress response
* Influence on blood pressure and electrolyte balance

Abnormal levels of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids can indicate problems with the adrenal gland or pituitary gland, which regulates adrenal function. They are often measured in urine or blood tests to help diagnose conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

A binding site on an antibody refers to the specific region on the surface of the antibody molecule that can recognize and bind to a specific antigen. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. They have two main functions: to neutralize the harmful effects of antigens and to help eliminate them from the body.

The binding site of an antibody is located at the tips of its Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody molecule. These regions contain unique amino acid sequences that determine the specificity of the antibody for a particular antigen. The binding site can recognize and bind to a specific epitope or region on the antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The binding between the antibody and antigen is highly specific and depends on non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic attractions. This interaction plays a crucial role in the immune response, as it allows the immune system to recognize and eliminate pathogens and other foreign substances from the body.

Placental lactogen is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy in humans and some other mammals. It is similar in structure to human growth hormone and prolactin, and has both growth-promoting and lactogenic (milk-producing) properties. Placental lactogen plays an important role in regulating maternal metabolism during pregnancy, promoting the growth and development of the fetus, and preparing the mother's body for lactation after birth. It helps to stimulate the growth of the mammary glands and the production of milk by increasing the availability of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the mother's bloodstream. Placental lactogen also helps to regulate the mother's insulin sensitivity, which can affect her energy levels and the growth of the fetus.

Immunosorbents are materials or substances that have the ability to bind specifically to certain components of the immune system, such as antibodies or antigens. They are often used in medical testing and treatment to selectively remove or detect specific immune components from a sample or solution. Examples of immunosorbents include protein A or G columns, which can be used to purify antibodies, and magnetic beads coated with antigens, which can be used to capture and detect specific antibodies in a sample.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Prostaglandin E (PGE) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandins are not actually hormones, but are similar to them in that they act as chemical messengers that have specific effects on certain cells.

Prostaglandin E is one of the most abundant prostaglandins in the body and has a variety of physiological functions. It is involved in the regulation of inflammation, pain perception, fever, and smooth muscle contraction. Prostaglandin E also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow, platelet aggregation, and gastric acid secretion.

Prostaglandin E is synthesized from arachidonic acid, which is released from cell membranes by the action of enzymes called phospholipases. Once formed, prostaglandin E binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, leading to a variety of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in changes in cell behavior.

Prostaglandin E is used medically in the treatment of several conditions, including dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), postpartum hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus (a congenital heart defect). It is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of kidney function.

"Competitive binding" is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry to describe the behavior of two or more molecules (ligands) competing for the same binding site on a target protein or receptor. In this context, "binding" refers to the physical interaction between a ligand and its target.

When a ligand binds to a receptor, it can alter the receptor's function, either activating or inhibiting it. If multiple ligands compete for the same binding site, they will compete to bind to the receptor. The ability of each ligand to bind to the receptor is influenced by its affinity for the receptor, which is a measure of how strongly and specifically the ligand binds to the receptor.

In competitive binding, if one ligand is present in high concentrations, it can prevent other ligands with lower affinity from binding to the receptor. This is because the higher-affinity ligand will have a greater probability of occupying the binding site and blocking access to the other ligands. The competition between ligands can be described mathematically using equations such as the Langmuir isotherm, which describes the relationship between the concentration of ligand and the fraction of receptors that are occupied by the ligand.

Competitive binding is an important concept in drug development, as it can be used to predict how different drugs will interact with their targets and how they may affect each other's activity. By understanding the competitive binding properties of a drug, researchers can optimize its dosage and delivery to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Prostaglandins are naturally occurring, lipid-derived hormones that play various important roles in the human body. They are produced in nearly every tissue in response to injury or infection, and they have diverse effects depending on the site of release and the type of prostaglandin. Some of their functions include:

1. Regulation of inflammation: Prostaglandins contribute to the inflammatory response by increasing vasodilation, promoting fluid accumulation, and sensitizing pain receptors, which can lead to symptoms such as redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
2. Modulation of gastrointestinal functions: Prostaglandins protect the stomach lining from acid secretion and promote mucus production, maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa. They also regulate intestinal motility and secretion.
3. Control of renal function: Prostaglandins help regulate blood flow to the kidneys, maintain sodium balance, and control renin release, which affects blood pressure and fluid balance.
4. Regulation of smooth muscle contraction: Prostaglandins can cause both relaxation and contraction of smooth muscles in various tissues, such as the uterus, bronchioles, and vascular system.
5. Modulation of platelet aggregation: Some prostaglandins inhibit platelet aggregation, preventing blood clots from forming too quickly or becoming too large.
6. Reproductive system regulation: Prostaglandins are involved in the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and labor induction by promoting uterine contractions.
7. Neurotransmission: Prostaglandins can modulate neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, affecting pain perception, mood, and cognition.

Prostaglandins exert their effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of target cells. There are several distinct types of prostaglandins (PGs), including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Each type has unique functions and acts through specific receptors. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from membrane phospholipids, by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit COX activity, reducing prostaglandin synthesis and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

"Autoanalysis" is not a term that is widely used in the medical field. However, in psychology and psychotherapy, "autoanalysis" refers to the process of self-analysis or self-examination, where an individual analyzes their own thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and experiences to gain insight into their unconscious mind and understand their motivations, conflicts, and emotional patterns.

Self-analysis can involve various techniques such as introspection, journaling, meditation, dream analysis, and reflection on past experiences. While autoanalysis can be a useful tool for personal growth and self-awareness, it is generally considered less reliable and comprehensive than professional psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, which involves a trained therapist or analyst who can provide objective feedback, interpretation, and guidance.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Beta-globulins are a group of proteins found in the beta region of a serum protein electrophoresis, which is a laboratory test used to separate and identify different types of proteins in the blood. This group includes several important proteins such as:

1. Beta-lipoproteins: These are responsible for transporting fat molecules, including cholesterol, throughout the body.
2. Transferrin: A protein that binds and transports iron in the blood.
3. Complement components: These proteins play a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation.
4. Beta-2 microglobulin: A protein involved in the functioning of the immune system, elevated levels of which can be found in various conditions such as kidney disease and autoimmune disorders.
5. Hemopexin: A protein that binds and transports heme (a component of hemoglobin) in the blood.

It is important to note that any significant increase or decrease in beta-globulins can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or an autoimmune disorder. Therefore, abnormal results should be further evaluated by a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Growth Hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone secreted by the somatotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the liver and other tissues. GH also has important metabolic functions, such as increasing glucose levels, enhancing protein synthesis, and reducing fat storage. Its secretion is regulated by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which stimulates its release, and somatostatin (SRIF), which inhibits its release. Abnormal levels of GH can lead to various medical conditions, such as dwarfism or gigantism if there are deficiencies or excesses, respectively.

Methaqualone is a sedative-hypnotic medication that was commonly used in the past for the treatment of insomnia and as a muscle relaxant. It has a chemical structure similar to that of barbiturates, but it produces somewhat different effects. Methaqualone gained popularity as a recreational drug during the 1960s and 1970s under the brand name Quaalude or "ludes" in the United States and Mandrax in the UK.

Methaqualone works by depressing the central nervous system, leading to sedative, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant effects. It can cause relaxation, drowsiness, reduced anxiety, and impaired coordination. At higher doses, it may produce a state of euphoria, altered perceptions, and dissociation from one's surroundings.

Due to its potential for addiction, abuse, and severe side effects, including death from overdose, methaqualone was made illegal in many countries during the 1980s. It is no longer used medically in most parts of the world.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Chloramines are a group of compounds that consist of chlorine combined with ammonia and nitrogen. In the context of water treatment, chloramines are often formed when ammonia is added to water that has been treated with chlorine. This process is known as chloramination and is used as a secondary disinfection method to help control microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems.

Chloramines have several advantages over chlorine alone as a disinfectant. They are more stable and persist for longer periods in the distribution system, which helps to maintain a residual disinfectant concentration throughout the system. This is important because it provides ongoing protection against microbial growth and contamination.

However, chloramines can also have some disadvantages. They may react with organic matter in the water to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which can be harmful to human health. Chloramines can also cause corrosion of pipes and other infrastructure in the distribution system, leading to leaching of metals such as lead and copper into the water.

Overall, chloramination is a widely used and effective method for disinfecting drinking water, but it must be carefully monitored and managed to ensure that it is done safely and effectively.

Epoprostenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called prostaglandins. It is a synthetic analog of a natural substance in the body called prostacyclin, which widens blood vessels and has anti-platelet effects. Epoprostenol is used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs.

Epoprostenol works by relaxing the smooth muscle in the walls of the pulmonary arteries, which reduces the resistance to blood flow and lowers the pressure within these vessels. This helps improve symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain, and can also prolong survival in people with PAH.

Epoprostenol is administered continuously through a small pump that delivers the medication directly into the bloodstream. It is a potent vasodilator, which means it can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure if not given carefully. Therefore, it is usually started in a hospital setting under close medical supervision.

Common side effects of epoprostenol include headache, flushing, jaw pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle or joint pain. More serious side effects can include bleeding, infection at the site of the catheter, and an allergic reaction to the medication.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Cyclosporins are a group of cyclic undecapeptides that have immunosuppressive properties. The most well-known and widely used cyclosporin is cyclosporine A, which is commonly used in organ transplantation to prevent rejection. It works by inhibiting the activation of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. By suppressing the activity of T-cells, cyclosporine A reduces the risk of an immune response against the transplanted organ.

Cyclosporins are also used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, where they help to reduce inflammation and prevent damage to tissues. Like all immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporins can increase the risk of infection and cancer, so they must be used with caution and under close medical supervision.

Hepatitis A is a viral infection that specifically targets the liver, causing inflammation and impaired function. This disease is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which spreads primarily through the fecal-oral route, often due to poor sanitation and hygiene. Individuals can become infected by consuming food or water contaminated with HAV or by coming into direct contact with an infected person's stool.

The symptoms of hepatitis A may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, in some cases, particularly in children under six years old, the infection may be asymptomatic.

While hepatitis A can be unpleasant and cause serious complications, it is rarely fatal and most people recover completely within a few months. Preventive measures include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, and avoiding potentially contaminated food and water.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

Estrone is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It's one of the three major naturally occurring estrogens in women, along with estradiol and estriol. Estrone is weaker than estradiol but has a longer half-life, meaning it remains active in the body for a longer period of time.

Estrone is produced primarily in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat tissue. In postmenopausal women, when the ovaries stop producing estradiol, estrone becomes the dominant form of estrogen. It plays a role in maintaining bone density, regulating the menstrual cycle, and supporting the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics.

Like other forms of estrogen, estrone can also have effects on various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, and breast tissue. Abnormal levels of estrone, either too high or too low, can contribute to a variety of health issues, such as osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities, and increased risk of certain types of cancer.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced in the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) and in the brain. It is released into the bloodstream in response to food, particularly fatty foods, and plays several roles in the digestive process.

In the digestive system, CCK stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder, which releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats. It also inhibits the release of acid from the stomach and slows down the movement of food through the intestines.

In the brain, CCK acts as a neurotransmitter and has been shown to have effects on appetite regulation, mood, and memory. It may play a role in the feeling of fullness or satiety after eating, and may also be involved in anxiety and panic disorders.

CCK is sometimes referred to as "gallbladder-stimulating hormone" or "pancreozymin," although these terms are less commonly used than "cholecystokinin."

Clinical enzyme tests are laboratory tests that measure the amount or activity of certain enzymes in biological samples, such as blood or bodily fluids. These tests are used to help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including organ damage, infection, inflammation, and genetic disorders.

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body. Some enzymes are found primarily within specific organs or tissues, so elevated levels of these enzymes in the blood can indicate damage to those organs or tissues. For example, high levels of creatine kinase (CK) may suggest muscle damage, while increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) can indicate liver damage.

There are several types of clinical enzyme tests, including:

1. Serum enzyme tests: These measure the level of enzymes in the blood serum, which is the liquid portion of the blood after clotting. Examples include CK, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
2. Urine enzyme tests: These measure the level of enzymes in the urine. An example is N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), which can indicate kidney damage.
3. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs): These use antibodies to detect and quantify specific enzymes or proteins in a sample. They are often used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis.
4. Genetic enzyme tests: These can identify genetic mutations that cause deficiencies in specific enzymes, leading to inherited metabolic disorders like phenylketonuria (PKU) or Gaucher's disease.

It is important to note that the interpretation of clinical enzyme test results should be done by a healthcare professional, taking into account the patient's medical history, symptoms, and other diagnostic tests.

Staphylococcal Protein A (SpA) is a cell wall-associated protein found on many strains of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections. SpA has several domains that allow it to bind to various host proteins, including immunoglobulins (Igs), complement components, and fibrinogen.

The protein A's ability to bind to the Fc region of Igs, particularly IgG, enables it to inhibit phagocytosis by masking the antibodies' binding sites, thus helping the bacterium evade the host immune system. Additionally, SpA can activate complement component C1 and initiate the classical complement pathway, leading to the release of anaphylatoxins and the formation of the membrane attack complex, which can cause tissue damage.

Furthermore, SpA's binding to fibrinogen promotes bacterial adherence and colonization of host tissues, contributing to the establishment of infection. Overall, Staphylococcal Protein A is a crucial virulence factor in S. aureus infections, making it an important target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Thyroid diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function and structure of the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the base of the neck. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate many vital functions in the body, including metabolism, growth, and development.

Thyroid diseases can be classified into two main categories: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and depression. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much hormone, resulting in symptoms such as weight loss, heat intolerance, rapid heart rate, tremors, and anxiety.

Other common thyroid diseases include:

1. Goiter: an enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be caused by iodine deficiency or autoimmune disorders.
2. Thyroid nodules: abnormal growths on the thyroid gland that can be benign or malignant.
3. Thyroid cancer: a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland that requires medical treatment.
4. Hashimoto's disease: an autoimmune disorder that causes chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
5. Graves' disease: an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism and can also lead to eye problems and skin changes.

Thyroid diseases are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment options depend on the specific type and severity of the disease and may include medication, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Oxytocin is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including social bonding, childbirth, and breastfeeding. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to facilitate labor and delivery. After giving birth, oxytocin continues to be released in large amounts during breastfeeding, promoting milk letdown and contributing to the development of the maternal-infant bond.

In social contexts, oxytocin has been referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone," as it is involved in social bonding, trust, and attachment. It can be released during physical touch, such as hugging or cuddling, and may contribute to feelings of warmth and closeness between individuals.

In addition to its roles in childbirth, breastfeeding, and social bonding, oxytocin has been implicated in other physiological functions, including regulating blood pressure, reducing anxiety, and modulating pain perception.

Thyroglobulin is a protein produced and used by the thyroid gland in the production of thyroid hormones, primarily thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). It is composed of two subunits, an alpha and a beta or gamma unit, which bind iodine atoms necessary for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones. Thyroglobulin is exclusively produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.

In clinical practice, measuring thyroglobulin levels in the blood can be useful as a tumor marker for monitoring treatment and detecting recurrence of thyroid cancer, particularly in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary or follicular) who have had their thyroid gland removed. However, it is important to note that thyroglobulin is not specific to thyroid tissue and can be produced by some non-thyroidal cells under certain conditions, which may lead to false positive results in some cases.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), also known as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is a hormone that is primarily produced and secreted by the atria of the heart in response to stretching of the cardiac muscle cells due to increased blood volume. ANF plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis, blood pressure, and cardiovascular function.

The main physiological action of ANF is to promote sodium and water excretion by the kidneys, which helps lower blood volume and reduce blood pressure. ANF also relaxes vascular smooth muscle, dilates blood vessels, and inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), further contributing to its blood pressure-lowering effects.

Defects in ANF production or action have been implicated in several cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure, hypertension, and kidney disease. Therefore, ANF and its analogs are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of immunology and serology for the identification and detection of antigens or antibodies in a sample. It is a type of electrophoretic technique that involves the migration of antigens and antibodies in an electric field towards each other, resulting in the formation of a precipitin line at the point where they meet and react.

In CIEP, the antigen is placed in the gel matrix in a trough or well, while the antibody is placed in a separate trough located perpendicularly to the antigen trough. An electric current is then applied, causing both the antigens and antibodies to migrate towards each other through the gel matrix. When they meet, they form a precipitin line, which can be visualized as a white band or line in the gel.

CIEP is a rapid and sensitive technique that can be used to detect and identify specific antigens or antibodies in a sample. It is often used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and other medical conditions where the presence of specific antigens or antibodies needs to be detected.

It's important to note that CIEP has been largely replaced by more modern techniques such as ELISA and Western blotting, which offer greater sensitivity and specificity. However, it is still used in some research and diagnostic settings due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Dialysis is a medical treatment that is used to remove waste and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This life-sustaining procedure uses a specialized machine, called a dialyzer or artificial kidney, to filter the blood outside of the body and return clean, chemically balanced blood back into the body.

There are two main types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

1. Hemodialysis: In this method, a patient's blood is passed through an external filter (dialyzer) that removes waste products, toxins, and excess fluids. The cleaned blood is then returned to the body with the help of a specialized machine. Hemodialysis typically requires access to a large vein, often created by a surgical procedure called an arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft. Hemodialysis sessions usually last for about 3-5 hours and are performed three times a week in a clinical setting, such as a dialysis center or hospital.
2. Peritoneal Dialysis: This method uses the lining of the patient's own abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to clean the blood. A sterile dialysate solution is introduced into the peritoneal cavity via a permanently implanted catheter. The solution absorbs waste products and excess fluids from the blood vessels lining the peritoneum through a process called diffusion. After a dwell time, usually several hours, the used dialysate is drained out and replaced with fresh dialysate. This process is known as an exchange and is typically repeated multiple times throughout the day or night, depending on the specific type of peritoneal dialysis (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or automated peritoneal dialysis).

Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them depends on various factors, such as a patient's overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences. Dialysis is a life-saving treatment for people with end-stage kidney disease or severe kidney dysfunction, allowing them to maintain their quality of life and extend their lifespan until a kidney transplant becomes available or their kidney function improves.

Secobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of short-term insomnia and as a preoperative sedative. It works by depressing the central nervous system, producing a calming effect and helping to induce sleep. Secobarbital has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect.

It is available in various forms, including capsules and injectable solutions, and is typically prescribed for use on an as-needed basis rather than as a regular medication. Secobarbital can be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and withdrawal, so it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

It's important to note that Secobarbital is not commonly prescribed in modern medical practice due to its high potential for abuse and the availability of safer and more effective sleep aids.

Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes refer to a group of hormonal and related disorders that occur as remote effects of cancer. They are caused by substances (like hormones, peptides, or antibodies) produced by the tumor, which may be benign or malignant, and can affect various organs and systems in the body. These syndromes can occur before the cancer is diagnosed, making them an important consideration for early detection and treatment of the underlying malignancy.

Examples of paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes include:

1. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH): This occurs when a tumor, often small cell lung cancer, produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to excessive water retention and low sodium levels in the blood.
2. Cushing's Syndrome: Excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by a tumor, often a small cell lung cancer or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, can lead to increased cortisol levels and symptoms such as weight gain, muscle weakness, and mood changes.
3. Ectopic Production of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP): This occurs when a tumor, often a squamous cell carcinoma, produces PTHrP, leading to increased calcium levels in the blood and symptoms such as bone pain, kidney stones, and confusion.
4. Hypercalcemia of Malignancy: Excessive production of calcitriol (active vitamin D) by a tumor, often a lymphoma or myeloma, can lead to increased calcium levels in the blood and symptoms such as bone pain, kidney stones, and confusion.
5. Carcinoid Syndrome: This occurs when a neuroendocrine tumor, often in the gastrointestinal tract, produces serotonin and other substances, leading to symptoms such as flushing, diarrhea, and heart problems.

It is important to note that these syndromes can also be caused by non-cancerous conditions, so a thorough evaluation is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis.

Nortriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used in the treatment of depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are involved in regulating mood, and increasing their levels can help to alleviate symptoms of depression.

Nortriptyline is available in oral form and is typically taken two or three times a day. It may take several weeks of treatment before the full benefits of the medication are felt. Common side effects of nortriptyline include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and dizziness. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as heart rhythm problems, seizures, or increased suicidal thoughts or behavior.

Nortriptyline is generally considered to be safe and effective for the treatment of depression, but it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting nortriptyline.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are a group of hormones that are secreted by cells in the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake and digestion. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite regulation, gastric acid secretion, motility of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin secretion, and pancreatic enzyme release.

Examples of GI hormones include:

* Gastrin: Secreted by G cells in the stomach, gastrin stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.
* Ghrelin: Produced by the stomach, ghrelin is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite and food intake.
* Cholecystokinin (CCK): Secreted by I cells in the small intestine, CCK promotes digestion by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver. It also inhibits gastric emptying and reduces appetite.
* Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): Produced by K cells in the small intestine, GIP promotes insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release.
* Secretin: Released by S cells in the small intestine, secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes stomach acid in the duodenum.
* Motilin: Secreted by MO cells in the small intestine, motilin promotes gastrointestinal motility and regulates the migrating motor complex (MMC), which is responsible for cleaning out the small intestine between meals.

These hormones work together to regulate digestion and maintain homeostasis in the body. Dysregulation of GI hormones can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroparesis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diabetes.

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the release of several hormones and also has a role in slowing down digestion. It is produced by the body in various parts of the body, including the hypothalamus (a part of the brain), the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin exists in two forms: somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28, which differ in their length. Somatostatin-14 is the predominant form found in the brain, while somatostatin-28 is the major form found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin has a wide range of effects on various physiological processes, including:

* Inhibiting the release of several hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin
* Slowing down digestion by inhibiting the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and reducing blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract
* Regulating neurotransmission in the brain

Somatostatin is used clinically as a diagnostic tool for detecting certain types of tumors that overproduce growth hormone or other hormones, and it is also used as a treatment for some conditions such as acromegaly (a condition characterized by excessive growth hormone production) and gastrointestinal disorders.

"SRS-A" is an older abbreviation for "Slow-Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis," which refers to a group of molecules called "leukotrienes." Leukotrienes are mediators of inflammation and play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. They are produced by mast cells and basophils upon activation, and cause bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and mucus production.

The term "SRS-A" is not commonly used in modern medical literature, as it has been largely replaced by the more specific names of its individual components: LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These leukotrienes are now collectively referred to as the "cysteinyl leukotrienes."

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain. Its main function is to regulate the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. TRH acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of TSH, which then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)) into the bloodstream.

TRH is a tripeptide amino acid sequence with the structure of pGlu-His-Pro-NH2, and it is synthesized as a larger precursor molecule called preprothyrotropin-releasing hormone (preproTRH) in the hypothalamus. PreproTRH undergoes post-translational processing to produce TRH, which is then stored in secretory vesicles and released into the hypophyseal portal system, where it travels to the anterior pituitary gland and binds to TRH receptors on thyrotroph cells.

In addition to its role in regulating TSH release, TRH has been shown to have other physiological functions, including modulation of feeding behavior, body temperature, and neurotransmitter release. Dysregulation of the TRH-TSH axis can lead to various thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

An Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) is a type of radioimmunoassay (RIA), which is a technique used in clinical laboratories to measure the concentration of specific analytes, such as hormones, drugs, or vitamins, in biological samples. In an IRMA, the sample containing the unknown amount of the analyte is incubated with a known quantity of a labeled antibody that specifically binds to the analyte.

The labeled antibody is usually radiolabeled with a radioisotope such as iodine-125 (^125^I) or tritium (^3^H). During the incubation, the labeled antibody binds to the analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The unbound labeled antibody is then separated from the immune complex by a variety of methods such as precipitation, centrifugation, or chromatography.

The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (immune complex) is measured using a gamma counter (for ^125^I) or liquid scintillation counter (for ^3^H). The amount of radioactivity is directly proportional to the amount of analyte present in the sample. By comparing the radioactivity in the sample to a standard curve prepared with known concentrations of the analyte, the concentration of the analyte in the sample can be determined.

IRMAs are highly sensitive and specific assays that can detect very low levels of analytes in biological samples. However, they require specialized equipment and handling procedures due to the use of radioisotopes.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Beta-lipotropin (β-LPH) is a 91-amino acid polypeptide hormone that is derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC), along with other bioactive peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH), and β-endorphin. It is produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to stress or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation.

β-Lipotropin has been found to have several physiological functions, including the regulation of lipid metabolism, appetite control, and pain perception. It also exhibits opioid activity due to its ability to bind to opioid receptors in the brain, although its potency is much lower compared to other endogenous opioids like β-endorphin.

In addition to its role as a hormone, β-lipotropin has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of obesity and addiction. However, further research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and clinical efficacy.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Hydroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is produced by the body during pregnancy to support the growth and development of the fetus. Hydroxyprogesterone is used in medical treatments to help prevent preterm birth in certain high-risk pregnancies.

There are several different forms of hydroxyprogesterone that have been developed for use as medications, including:

1. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC): This is a synthetic form of progesterone that is given as an injection once a week to help prevent preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by helping to thicken the lining of the uterus and prevent contractions.
2. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone: This is a natural hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory for use as a medication. It has been studied for its potential to help prevent preterm birth, although it is not currently approved for this use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
3. 21-Hydroxyprogesterone: This is another natural hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory for use as a medication. It has been studied for its potential to help prevent preterm birth and for its ability to reduce the risk of certain complications in women with a history of premature birth.

It's important to note that hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may not be appropriate for all women. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant and have concerns about preterm birth, it's important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider.

Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), is a protein found in human plasma that binds and transports cortisol, corticosterone, and other steroid hormones. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the distribution, metabolism, and elimination of these hormones. Transcortin has a higher affinity for cortisol than corticosterone, making it the primary transporter of cortisol in the bloodstream. By binding to transcortin, cortisol is prevented from rapidly entering cells and exerting its effects, thus controlling the rate at which cortisol can interact with its target tissues.

Immunosorbent techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry to isolate or detect specific proteins, antibodies, or antigens from a complex mixture. These techniques utilize the specific binding properties of antibodies or antigens to capture and concentrate target molecules.

The most common immunosorbent technique is the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), which involves coating a solid surface with a capture antibody, allowing the sample to bind, washing away unbound material, and then detecting bound antigens or antibodies using an enzyme-conjugated detection reagent. The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric reaction that can be measured and quantified, providing a sensitive and specific assay for the target molecule.

Other immunosorbent techniques include Radioimmunoassay (RIA), Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), and Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA). These methods have wide-ranging applications in research, diagnostics, and drug development.

steps in radioimmunoassay technique Radioimmunoassay at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "Radioimmunoassay". Ontology Search. Smith, John (2006). "Solution radioimmunoassay of proteins and peptides". Current Protocols ... A radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an immunoassay that uses radiolabeled molecules in a stepwise formation of immune complexes. A RIA ... A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is an example of radioimmunoassay. It is used to detect the causative allergen for an allergy ...
Panneerselvam C, Caldarella J, Horecker BL (1988). "A radioimmunoassay for parathymosin". J. Immunol. Methods. 104 (1-2): 131-6 ...
Determinations were via radioimmunoassay. Levels of sex hormones and SHBG during pregnancy in women. The dashed vertical lines ... Determinations were via radioimmunoassay. Levels of progesterone and estrogen rise continually throughout pregnancy, ...
182-. ISBN 978-0-323-16027-8. Bernard Jaffe (2 December 2012). Methods of Hormone Radioimmunoassay. Elsevier Science. pp. 196 ... Bernard Jaffe (2 December 2012). Methods of Hormone Radioimmunoassay. Elsevier Science. pp. 196-. ISBN 978-0-323-16126-8. " ...
Purification, characterization, and radioimmunoassay". J. Biol. Chem. 261 (34): 16264-9. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)66710-9. ...
Yalow RS, Glick SM, Roth J, Berson SA (November 1964). "Radioimmunoassay of human plasma ACTH". The Journal of Clinical ...
It used radioimmunoassay for the determinations, with no mention of chromatographic separation. Estradiol levels following an ... Assays were performed using radioimmunoassay. Source was Wiemeyer et al. (1986). Estradiol and prolactin levels after the most ... Assays were performed using radioimmunoassay. Source was Recio et al. (1986). Estradiol levels after a single intramuscular ... Assays were performed using radioimmunoassay. Source was Garza-Flores et al. (1989). Simplified curves of estradiol levels ...
One of Buster's earliest research studies focused on steroid hormone radioimmunoassay (RIA). He reported an RIA for the ... Buster JE, Abraham GE: Radioimmunoassay of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Analyt Lett 5:543:551, 1972. Buster JE, ... Buster, John E.; Abraham, Guy E. (5 December 2006). "Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate". Analytical ... "Comparison Between Four Radioimmunoassays for Plasma Estriol". Analytical Letters. 7 (2): 119-123. doi:10.1080/ ...
Roberts, R.; Sobel, B. E.; Parker, C. W. (1976-11-19). "Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): ... "Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes". Science. 194 (4267): 855-857. doi:10.1126/science.982049. ISSN 0036-8075. ...
Assays were performed using radioimmunoassay. Source was Shaw et al. (1975). Estradiol levels after single intramuscular ... Assays were performed using radioimmunoassay with chromatographic separation. Source was Oriowo et al. (1980). Estradiol levels ...
125I is frequently used in radioimmunoassays because of its relatively long half-life (59 days) and ability to be detected with ... Gilby ED, Jeffcoate SL, Edwards R (July 1973). "125-Iodine tracers for steroid radioimmunoassay". The Journal of Endocrinology ...
Leon, S.A.; Green, A.; Yaros, M.J.; Shapiro, B. (December 1975). "Radioimmunoassay for nanogram quantities of DNA". Journal of ... Leon and his collaborators developed a radioimmunoassay for measuring nanogram quantities of nucleic acids in serum. This ...
B.K.Follett, C.G. Scanes & F.J. Cunningham (1972). A radioimmunoassay for avian luteinizing hormone. J. Endicronol. 52: 359-378 ... His work included the development of the first radioimmunoassay to measure bird luteinizing hormone (LH) in collaboration with ...
E1S using radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been reported to be 0.96 ± 0.11 ng/mL in men, 0.96 ± 0.17 ng/mL during the follicular ... convenient radioimmunoassay of estrone sulfate". Clin. Chem. 44 (2): 244-9. doi:10.1093/clinchem/44.2.244. PMID 9474019. Cowie ... measured by a direct radioimmunoassay, and fate of exogenously injected estrone sulfate". Horm Res. 27 (2): 61-8. doi:10.1159/ ...
Fujii Y, Teranishi M, Nakada K, Yamazaki M, Kishida S, Miyabo S (September 1988). "Radioimmunoassay of 2-methoxyestriol in ...
This led to the development of the first radioimmunoassay for detecting glucagon, described by Roger Unger's group in 1959. A ... Lundqvist, Gudmar; Edwards, John; Wide, Leif (January 1976). "A Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay for Pancreatic Glucagon". Upsala ... when a specific radioimmunoassay was developed. Cortisol Diabetes mellitus Glucagon-like peptide-1 Glucagon-like peptide-2 ...
Beginning in the 1950s Rosalyn Sussman Yalow and Solomon Berson conducted research into radioimmunoassay. Their laboaratory at ... Collaborated with Solomon Berson to develop radioimmunoassay. Solomon Berson - Collaborated with Rosalyn Sussman Yalow to ... develop radioimmunoassay. Nicholas J. Cifarelli - Nephrology. Later pioneered the first Bioethics Advisory Committee in the ...
Kundu N, Grant M (June 1976). "Radioimmunoassay of 15alpha-hydroxyestriol (estetrol) in pregnancy serum". Steroids. 27 (6): 785 ...
1981). "Methadone: radioimmunoassay and pharmacokinetics in the rat". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. ...
"Determination of tiamenidine in biological specimens by radioimmunoassay". Arzneimittel-Forschung. 31 (3): 419-24. PMID 7194666 ...
Estradiol 17β, estrone, FSH and LH were measured in serum by radioimmunoassay before and after application of the hormone and ... Assays were performed using radioimmunoassay with chromatographic separation. Sources were Geppert (1975) and Leyendecker et al ... Assays were performed using radioimmunoassay with chromatographic separation. Sources were Geppert (1975) and Leyendecker et al ...
Dinarello CA, Renfer L, Wolff SM (1977). "Human leukocytic pyrogen: purification and development of a radioimmunoassay". ...
Sensitive radioimmunoassay techniques were developed for diagnostic and medical use. Natural radioisotopes were used as tracers ...
... and vaccinia antisera by radioimmunoassay" (PDF). Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 5 (5): 613-623. PMC 2366687. PMID ...
The measurement of AGA is done with ELISA or radioimmunoassay. Such tests measure the level of AGA relative to a standard, such ...
John H, Cammann K, Schlegel W (June 1998). "Development and review of radioimmunoassay of 12-S-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid". ...
John, H; Cammann, K; Schlegel, W (1998). "Development and review of radioimmunoassay of 12-S-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid". ...
Radioimmunoassay was first described in a scientific paper by Rosalyn Sussman Yalow and Solomon Berson published in 1960. As ... In radioimmunoassay, the radioactivity provides the signal, which indicates whether a specific antigen or antibody is present ... Before the development of the ELISA, the only option for conducting an immunoassay was radioimmunoassay, a technique using ... A suitable alternative to radioimmunoassay would substitute a nonradioactive signal in place of the radioactive signal. When ...
Matsukura, A.; Nakazawa, Y.; Hama, S. (November 1989). "[A shortened method for the assay with Centocor radioimmunoassay kit ...
Negoro N, Kanayama Y, Takeda T, Koda S, Inoue T (July 1986). "A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of nRNP immune ...
steps in radioimmunoassay technique Radioimmunoassay at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "Radioimmunoassay". Ontology Search. Smith, John (2006). "Solution radioimmunoassay of proteins and peptides". Current Protocols ... A radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an immunoassay that uses radiolabeled molecules in a stepwise formation of immune complexes. A RIA ... A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is an example of radioimmunoassay. It is used to detect the causative allergen for an allergy ...
Radioimmunoassay and Related Procedures in Medicine 1982 (Vienna, 21-25 June 1982). ×. ... Radioimmunoassay and Related Procedures in Medicine 1982 (Vienna, 21-25 June 1982) ... INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radioimmunoassay and Related Procedures in Medicine 1982 (Vienna, 21-25 June 1982), ...
Radioimmunoassay of Leukocyte (Alpha) Interferon and Its Application to Some Clinical Conditions. J. Bernier, A. Reuter, Y. ... Radioimmunoassay of Leukocyte (Alpha) Interferon and Its Application to Some Clinical Conditions ... Radioimmunoassay of Leukocyte (Alpha) Interferon and Its Application to Some Clinical Conditions ... Radioimmunoassay of Leukocyte (Alpha) Interferon and Its Application to Some Clinical Conditions ...
17-Hydroxyprogesterone Radioimmunoassay Test (15 suppliers). Identification. A 17-hydroxyprogesterone test system is a device ...
Zhu, X.; Desiderio, D.M. 1993: Radioimmunoassay of methionine enkephalin, substance P, and beta-endorphin in bovine pituitary ... Radioimmunoassay of brain peptides: evaluation of a methodology for the assay of beta-endorphin and enkephalin. Rossier, J.; ... Development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for beta-endorphin-related peptides Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 112(3): 313 ... assay of beta endorphin beta lipotropin and other neuropeptides by high pressure liquid chromatography with radioimmunoassay ...
Durch Modifikation eines handelsüblichen Testkits für die Messung von DHEA im Serum stellen wir einen Radioimmunoassay für die ... Through modification of a commercial testkit for Dhea in serum we present a radioimmunoassay for Dhea in saliva. The modified ... Dehydroepiandrosteron; Radioimmunoassay; Speichel. dehydroepiandrosterone; radioimmunoassay; saliva. Release Date:. 2004/04/16 ... Ein Radioimmunoassay (RIA) für die Messung von Dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA) im Speichel. A radioimmoassay (Ria) for measurement ...
Synthetic Pathways to Tuftsin and Radioimmunoassay. In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1983 ; Vol. 419, No. 1. pp ... Synthetic Pathways to Tuftsin and Radioimmunoassay. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1983 Dec;419(1):12-22. doi: ... Synthetic Pathways to Tuftsin and Radioimmunoassay. PHILIP GOTTLIEB, YITZHAK STABINSKY, VERA ZAKUTH, ZVI SPIRER, MATI FRIDKIN* ... Synthetic Pathways to Tuftsin and Radioimmunoassay. / GOTTLIEB, PHILIP; STABINSKY, YITZHAK; ZAKUTH, VERA et al. In: Annals of ...
Optimization of the Radioimmunoassays for Measuring Fentanyl and Alfentanil in Human Serum Jürgen Schüttler, M.D.; Jürgen ... Jürgen Schüttler, Paul F. White; Optimization of the Radioimmunoassays for Measuring Fentanyl and Alfentanil in Human Serum. ...
Radioimmunoassay Market Global Industry Challenges, Research, Segmentation 2026. According to the latest report by Future ... The FMIs latest report on the Radioimmunoassay market gives a detailed analysis on the impact of COVID-19 with an incisive ... What are the recent technological advancement in the Radioimmunoassay market?. *What are key trends and opportunities that will ... The report offers extensive data sets validating key trends impacting growth in the Radioimmunoassay market. It offers insights ...
Steiner, J. M., Wilson, B. G., & Williams, D. A. (2004). Development and analytical validation of a radioimmunoassay for the ... Steiner, Jörg M. ; Wilson, Ben G. ; Williams, David A. / Development and analytical validation of a radioimmunoassay for the ... Steiner, JM, Wilson, BG & Williams, DA 2004, Development and analytical validation of a radioimmunoassay for the measurement ... A radioimmunoassay was established and analytically validated by determination of sensitivity, dilutional parallelism, spiking ...
... standardization and metabolite recognition for 25-hydroxyvitamin D when comparing the DiaSorin radioimmunoassay and the Nichols ... standardization and metabolite recognition for 25-hydroxyvitamin D when comparing the DiaSorin radioimmunoassay and the Nichols ...
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Service-Creative Proteomics is staffed by specialists who are dedicated and highly skilled in protein ... Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Service. What is RIA?. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a sensitive and quantitative method used to measure the ...
Corticosterone radioimmunoassay. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured using an in-house RIA (Al-Dujaili et al., 1981) ... 1981) The development and application of a direct radioimmunoassay for corticosterone. Steroids 37:157-176. ...
... radioimmunoassay. Methods: The SD radioimmunoassay using 125I-chimeric monoclonal antibody (cMAb) U36 and 125I-cMAb cetuximab ... radioimmunoassay. Methods: The SD radioimmunoassay using 125I-chimeric monoclonal antibody (cMAb) U36 and 125I-cMAb cetuximab ... radioimmunoassay. Methods: The SD radioimmunoassay using 125I-chimeric monoclonal antibody (cMAb) U36 and 125I-cMAb cetuximab ... radioimmunoassay. Methods: The SD radioimmunoassay using 125I-chimeric monoclonal antibody (cMAb) U36 and 125I-cMAb cetuximab ...
Automated Radioimmunoassay Immunoassay Analyzer Market Growth By Types( Benchtop, Floor-standing ), By Application( Hospitals, ... This Automated Radioimmunoassay Immunoassay Analyzer market report holds answers to some important questions like: • What is ... The Global Automated Radioimmunoassay Immunoassay Analyzer market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the ... The Automated Radioimmunoassay Immunoassay Analyzer market is segmented on the basis of Types, Applications, Key Companies, ...
Determination of Follicle Stimulating Hormone by Radioimmunoassay Technique. Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH ...
Radioimmunoassay * Reference Values * Reflex / physiology* * Sensory Receptor Cells / physiology * Sensory Receptor Cells / ...
... chromogranin A level by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and ...
Radioimmunoassay for Measles Antibodies. SDS and 0.1M urea, and electrophoresed in 12 cm 0.176 SDS, O.5M urea, and 55% ... Sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay method for detection of certain viral antibodies in sera and cerebrospinal fluids. ... Sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay method for detection of certain viral antibodies in sera and cerebrospinal fluids.. ... Radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in human infectious mononucleosis serum specimens.. ...
Detection of antibodies to the basic protein of human myelin by radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence. / Lennon, V. A.; ... Detection of antibodies to the basic protein of human myelin by radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence. Journal of Immunology ... Detection of antibodies to the basic protein of human myelin by radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence. In: Journal of ... Detection of antibodies to the basic protein of human myelin by radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence.. ...
Triiodothyronine; T3 radioimmunoassay; Toxic nodular goiter - T3; Thyroiditis - T3; Thyrotoxicosis - T3; Graves disease - T3 ...
radioimmunoassay, total triiodothyronine 510(k) Number. K780292. Device Name. TRIA-PEG RIA DIAG. KIT. ...
Radioimmunoassay. Ventricular ANP and BNP concentrations were measured by our specific radioimmunoassays (RIAs) reported ...
Currently, radioimmunoassays and fluoroimmunoassays are available that can be completed in 3-4 hours. A dipstick ELISA that can ... Currently, 4 main hCG assays are used: (1) radioimmunoassay, (2) immunoradiometric assay, (3) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ...
Plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin were analyzed in duplicates using a double-antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Linco, St. ... radioimmunoassay; RQ, relative quantification; RT-PCR, real-time polymerase chain reaction; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. ...
In: Handbook of Radioimmunoassay (Abraham, G, ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1977, Chapter 4. ... rather than the inverse relationship measured by most radioimmunoassays (RIAs). ...
TABLE 31 LIST OF COMPOUNDS ANALYZED BY RADIOIMMUNOASSAYS. TABLE 32 RADIOIMMUNOASSAYS MARKET, BY REGION, 2020-2027 (USD MILLION) ... radioimmunoassays, and other immunoassays based on the immunoassay. The chemiluminescence immunoassays segment is projected to ...
Viral particles and faint immunologic reactivity with variola antibody; negative radioimmunoassay result for smallpox (23). ...
VGKC complex antibodies were detected by a radioimmunoassay which uses 125I-αDTX (Perkin Elmer, USA) to label VGKC complexes ... In other respects, the radioimmunoassays were identical. To see if results were confounded by antibodies binding the 125I-αDTX ... there was no evidence of surface binding in the 16 sera from figure 2A with the highest Kv1 antibody radioimmunoassay values ( ... 1 and was used to label these channels in the radioimmunoassay which first identified VGKC complex autoantibodies in patients ...

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