Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Total Disc Replacement: The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Post-Traumatic Headache: Secondary headache attributed to TRAUMA of the HEAD and/or the NECK.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Brachial Plexus Neuritis: A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Foraminotomy: Surgical enlargement of the intervertebral foramina to relieve NERVE ROOT COMPRESSION.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Polyradiculopathy: Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Spinal DiseasesParaspinal Muscles: Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Meningeal Carcinomatosis: Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Tarlov Cysts: Perineurial cysts commonly found in the SACRAL REGION. They arise from the PERINEURIUM membrane within the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. The distinctive feature of the cysts is the presence of spinal nerve root fibers within the cyst wall, or the cyst cavity itself.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.

Spontaneous chronic spinal epidural hematoma of the lumbar spine. (1/445)

We report an exceptional description of a spontaneous chronic spinal epidural hematoma presenting as lumbar radiculitis. The computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative findings are presented. We discuss anatomical and pathophysiological considerations that could lead to such a condition. We estimate that spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas located in the ventral space are in fact premembranous or posterior longitudinal ligament hematomas.  (+info)

Migrated disc in the lumbar spinal canal--case report. (2/445)

A 49-year-old man who had complained of back pain for 20 years presented with numbness and pain in his left leg persisting for 6 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a peripherally enhanced intraspinal mass at the L-3 level. The mass was completely removed. The operative and histological findings revealed degenerated disc fragments surrounded by granulation tissue. His symptoms were completely relieved. Migrated disc should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with a long history of back pain and an intraspinal mass.  (+info)

Neurological complications of spinal tuberculosis in children. (3/445)

Neurological complications of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis were studied in 32 patients under the age of 16 years. The majority had lesions involving three or more vertebral bodies. Paraplegia occurred in 8 patients and was always associated with bladder and bowel dysfunction. Lesions located at T4/5 were most commonly accompanied by paraplegia. Deterioration of the neurological status was related to the degree of spinal stenosis, whereas the degree of kyphosis was of less importance. Radiculopathy is rare in children with Pott's disease.  (+info)

Cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy: when and what can surgery contribute to treatment? (4/445)

Indications and timing of surgical treatment for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy, and the long-term results for the conditions, were reviewed. Advances in spinal imaging and accumulation of clinical experience have provided some clues as to indications and timing of surgery for cervical myelopathy. Duration of myelopathy prior to surgery and the transverse area of the spinal cord at the maximum compression level were the most significant prognostic parameters for surgical outcome. Thus, when myelopathy is caused by etiological factors that are either unchangeable by nature, such as developmental canal stenosis, or progressive, such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, surgical treatment should be considered. When an etiology of myelopathy is remissible, such as soft disc herniation and listhesis, surgery may be reserved until the effects of conservative treatment are confirmed. When surgery is properly carried out, long-term surgical results are expected to be good and stable, and the natural course of myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis may be modified. However, little attention has been paid to the questions "When and what can surgery contribute to treatment of cervical radiculopathy?". A well-controlled clinical study including natural history should be done to provide some answers.  (+info)

Spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula--case report. (5/445)

A 57-year-old male presented with a rare case of spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula manifesting as radiculopathy of the right arm, subsequently associated with pulsating tinnitus and vascular bruit in the nape. He had a past history of chiropractic-induced vertebrobasilar infarction. Angiography showed a simple and direct fistula between the third segment of the right vertebral artery and the epidural veins at the C-1 level, where the artery runs backward above the arch of the C-1 just proximal to the penetration of the dura. The fistula was successfully obliterated by coil embolization, resulting in rapid improvement of the signs and symptoms. Mechanical compression to the nerve roots by the engorged epidural veins with arterial pressure was considered to be the major cause of radiculopathy. Vertebral artery dissection induced by chiropractic manipulation is most likely responsible for the development of the fistula.  (+info)

Tuberculous radiculomyelitis complicating tuberculous meningitis: case report and review. (6/445)

Tuberculous radiculomyelitis (TBRM) is a complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), which has been reported rarely in the modern medical literature. We describe a case of TBRM that developed in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient, despite prompt antituberculous treatment. To our knowledge, this is the second case of TBRM reported in an HIV-infected patient. We also review 74 previously reported cases of TBRM. TBRM develops at various periods after TBM, even in adequately treated patients after sterilization of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The most common symptoms are subacute paraparesis, radicular pain, bladder disturbance, and subsequent paralysis. CSF evaluation usually shows an active inflammatory response with a very high protein level. MRI and CT scan are critical for diagnosis, revealing loculation and obliteration of the subarachnoid space along with linear intradural enhancement. As in other forms of paradoxical reactions to antituberculous treatment, there is evidence that steroid treatment might have a beneficial effect.  (+info)

Haemorrhagic lumbar synovial cyst. A cause of acute radiculopathy. (7/445)

A total of 254 cases of synovial cysts of the spine have been reported in the English literature, but only eight have been associated with haemorrhage. We describe a 55-year-old man with acute radiculopathy resulting from haemorrhage involving a synovial cyst at a lumbar facet joint. Traumatic factors could have caused bleeding around or into the synovial cyst. Treatment by resection of the cyst and evacuation of the haematoma led to complete neurological recovery.  (+info)

Neuroprotection by encephalomyelitis: rescue of mechanically injured neurons and neurotrophin production by CNS-infiltrating T and natural killer cells. (8/445)

In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), CD4(+) self-reactive T cells target myelin components of the CNS. However, the consequences of an autoaggressive T cell response against myelin for neurons are currently unknown. We herein demonstrate that EAE induced by active immunization with an encephalitogenic myelin basic protein peptide dramatically reduces the loss of spinal motoneurons after ventral root avulsion in rats. Both brain-derived neurotophic factor (BDNF)- and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)-like immunoreactivities were detected in mainly T and natural killer (NK) cells in the spinal cord. In addition, very high levels of BDNF, NT-3, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs were present in T and NK cell populations infiltrating the CNS. Interestingly, bystander recruited NK and T cells displayed similar or higher neurotrophic factor levels compared with the EAE disease-driving encephalitogenic T cell population. High levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNAs were also detected, and both these cytokines can be harmful to several types of CNS cells, including neurons. However, treatment of embryonic motoneuron cultures with TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma only had a deleterious effect in cultures deprived of neurotrophic factors. These results suggest that the potentially neurodamaging consequences of severe CNS inflammation are curbed by the production of several potent neurotrophic factors in leukocytes.  (+info)

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  • When these nerves relay this information improperly or act in an ineffective manner because of damage or compression, it causes a painful condition called radiculopathy. (inspiredspine.com)
  • chronic radiculopathy - what it is, what its symptoms?The roots undergo ongoing compression, they are irritated and inflamed.This results in chronic pain, cause discomfort in the neck and lower back, and projected along the nerve fibers in the substantial removal.Compression root ends conduction disturbance pulses, loss of function, muscular dystrophy. (healthtipsing.com)
  • Objectives: To investigate whether distinct sensory phenotypes were identifiable in individuals with nonspecific arm pain (NSAP) and whether these differed from those in people with cervical radiculopathy. (edu.au)
  • Conclusions: When considering sensory phenotypes, neither individuals with NSAP nor individuals with cervical radiculopathy should be considered homogeneous. (edu.au)
  • Patients frequently diagnosed primary discogenic radiculopathy due to deformation of cartilage, growing on the intervertebral discs.At the same roots restrained, observed during the inflammatory process, which is accompanied by swelling and powerful pain. (healthtipsing.com)
  • 2. Interuniversity Degree in Physiotherapy UB-UdG / Grau en Fisioteràpia EUSES-UdG, Barcelona, Spain. (medsci.org)