Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Radiation ProtectionTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Spinal NeoplasmsAntineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Thoracic NeoplasmsLinear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Acute Radiation Syndrome: A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Osteoradionecrosis: Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.Mice, Inbred BALB CAmifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Supratentorial Neoplasms: Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Radiotherapy Setup Errors: Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Nimustine: Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).DeoxycytidineSkull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant: Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery. It is commonly used in the therapy of cancer.Mice, Inbred C57BLBody Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
External beam radiotherapy involves a beam of radiation aimed at the affected area from outside the body. VBT is used to treat ... Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in early-stage (stage I or II) endometrial cancer. It can be delivered through vaginal ... However, the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy are controversial. Though EBRT significantly reduces the rate of relapse in the ... This is called adjuvant therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is a recent innovation, consisting of some combination of paclitaxel (or ...
Adjuvant radiotherapy follows surgical resection; this combined approach has been shown to prolong median survival up to 12 ... Whole-brain radiation may provide a median survival of 4 to 5 months, which can be further extended by months with stereotactic ... Radiotherapy is used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. The most common reasons for a patient with metastatic breast ... Radiotherapy is essential in the treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer, as it halts tumor progression quickly and ...
For malignant tumours, the surgery may be radical and usually is followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, sometimes by radiation ... There is no current role for radiotherapy. The usual treatment is surgery. The surgery for females usually is a fertility- ...
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) may be used to treat stomach cancer, often as an adjuvant to chemotherapy and/or ... Stage 1B may be treated with chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil) and radiation therapy. Stage II. Penetration to the second layer and ... Clinical researchers are exploring the benefits of giving chemotherapy before surgery to shrink the tumor, or as adjuvant ... Treatment for stomach cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. New treatment approaches such as ...
Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapyEdit. If the tumor can be removed surgically, people may receive adjuvant ... 2012). "Is adjuvant radiotherapy needed after curative resection of extrahepatic biliary tract cancers? A systematic review ... Both positive[71][72] and negative[11][73][74] results have been reported with adjuvant radiation therapy in this setting, and ... then adjuvant therapy with radiation and possibly chemotherapy is generally recommended based on the available data.[76] ...
Adjuvant radiotherapy may also be used after surgical excision for liposarcoma. Rhabdomyosarcoma is treated with surgery, ... Intermediate and high grade sarcomas are more frequently treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation ... Radiotherapy is a second alternative although not as successful. Sarcomas are given a number of different names based on the ... Additional treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, may be administered before and/or after surgery. ...
De-intensified adjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy versus standard adjuvant chemoradiotherapy post transoral minimally invasive ... Done Erythropoietin as an adjuvant treatment with (chemo) radiation therapy for head and neck cancer PMID 19588382 https://doi. ... Radiotherapy versus open surgery versus endolaryngeal surgery (with or without laser) for early laryngeal squamous cell cancer ... DoneEnteral feeding methods for nutritional management in patients with head and neck cancers being treated with radiotherapy ...
It is the most commonly reported complication in breast radiation therapy patients who receive adjuvant axillary radiotherapy ... Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of ... Radiation may be prescribed by a radiation oncologist with intent to cure ("curative") or for adjuvant therapy. It may also be ... Intraoperative radiotherapy[edit]. Main article: Intraoperative radiation therapy. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is ...
RadiationEdit. Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) may be used to treat stomach cancer, often as an adjuvant to ... Treatment for stomach cancer may include surgery,[69] chemotherapy,[12] and/or radiation therapy.[70] New treatment approaches ... radiation therapy and targeted therapy.[1][12] If treated late, palliative care may be advised.[2] Outcomes are often poor with ... Stage 1B may be treated with chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil) and radiation therapy. ...
Just as for chemotherapy, radiotherapy can be used in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting for some stages of rectal cancer. ... While a combination of radiation and chemotherapy may be useful for rectal cancer, its use in colon cancer is not routine due ... The primary difference in the approach to low stage rectal cancer is the incorporation of radiation therapy. Often, it is used ... Non-operative methods of symptomatic treatment include radiation therapy to decrease tumor size as well as pain medications. ...
"Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a ... "Safety and Efficacy Study of Trans Sodium Crocetinate (TSC) With Concomitant Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Newly ... when combined with temozolomide and radiation therapy and a clinical trial was underway as of August 2015[update]. While the ... European Organisation for Research Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour Radiation Oncology Groups, National Cancer Institute of ...
The radiotherapy suite on-site offers three types of radiation therapy: image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), stereotactic ... The Dyson Center at VBMC is affiliated with the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project and conducts clinical ... body radiotherapy (SBRT), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The Dyson Breast Center is a full service breast ... Services offered at the Mall include radiation oncology, same-day surgery, speech-language pathology, and women's imaging. The ...
... a recent long-term study does affirm that radiation combined with adjuvant chemotherapy is significantly more efficacious for ... However, it is possible that radiotherapy may prolong the overall time to progression for non-deleted tumors. ... Surgery may be followed up by chemotherapy, radiation, or a mix of both, but recent studies suggest that radiation does not ... A recent study analyzed survival based on chromosomal deletions and the effects of radiation or chemotherapy as treatment, with ...
Todoroki T, Ohara K, Kawamoto T, Koike N, Yoshida S, Kashiwagi H, Otsuka M, Fukao K (2000). "Benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy ... If the tumor can be removed surgically, patients may receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy after the operation to ... Both positive and negative results have been reported with adjuvant radiation therapy in this setting, and no prospective ... then adjuvant therapy with radiation and possibly chemotherapy is generally recommended based on the available data. The ...
Adjuvant radiotherapy has been shown to be effective in reducing the rates of recurrence and in increasing the survival of ... Hasan S, Triplet J, Li Z, Mansur D (November 2013). "The Role of Postoperative Radiation and Chemoradiation in Merkel Cell ... Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat Merkel-cell cancers. The radiotherapy fields used are usually very large so as to cover ... There was a significant benefit of adjuvant nodal therapy, but only when the SLNB was positive. Thus, SLNB is important for ...
2005). "Radiotherapy plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide for Glioblastoma". New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (10): ... Subsequent clinical research has attempted to build on the backbone of surgery followed by radiation. On average, radiotherapy ... Mason, Warren P.; Mirimanoff, René O.; Stupp, Roger (2006). "Radiotherapy with Concurrent and Adjuvant Temozolomide: A New ... However, a large clinical trial of 575 participants randomized to standard radiation versus radiation plus temozolomide ...
In 1973, she became a radiotherapy professor. Montague has been a pioneer in breast cancer research and treatment. She has been ... Montague has served on the National Breast Cancer Task Force and with the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project. "An ... the Eleanor Montague Distinguished Resident Award in Radiation Oncology, was created by the American Association for Women ... In 1959, Montague joined the radiotherapy department at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center under an American ...
For instance, radiotherapy to the brain can cause memory loss, headache, alopecia, and radiation necrosis of the brain. If the ... adjuvant either radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be used following orchidectomy. Previously, mainly radiotherapy was used, as a ... Adjuvant systemic therapy and radiotherapy are often given following surgery for many types of cancer, including colon cancer, ... For example, radiotherapy or systemic therapy is commonly given as adjuvant treatment after surgery for breast cancer. Systemic ...
The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy (irradiation) improves local control in patients with close or positive margins during ... Treatment is primarily surgical, with chemotherapy and radiation therapy sometimes used. The NCCN guideline recommends CCPDMA ...
Lipiodol is under investigation as an adjuvant and carrier for use in chemotherapy to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It ... It also is being investigated as a radiation therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma, by being loaded with an isotope of ... This property was soon recognized as an opportunity to deliver to HCC a variety of highly toxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy ...
... internal radiotherapy). Conventionally radiotherapy is given after the operation for breast cancer. Radiation can also be given ... "Herceptin (trastuzumab) Adjuvant HER2+ Breast Cancer Therapy Pivotal Studies and Efficacy Data". Herceptin.com. Archived from ... Radiation therapy can be delivered as external beam radiotherapy or as brachytherapy ( ... Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy[1]. Prognosis. Five-year survival rate ~85% (US, ...
As an adjuvant treatment, use of chemotherapy as an alternative to radiation therapy in the treatment of seminoma is increasing ... is proving to be a successful adjuvant treatment, with recurrence rates in the same ranges as those of radiotherapy. The ... radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is performed by urologists; radiation therapy is administered by radiation ... Radiation may be used to treat stage II seminoma cancers, or as adjuvant (preventative) therapy in the case of stage I ...
Radiotherapy is not often used in HCC because the liver is not tolerant to radiation. Although with modern technology it is ... Radiotherapy may be used in the adjuvant setting or for palliative treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Removing the tumor by ... Feng, M; Ben-Josef, E (October 2011). "Radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma". Seminars in radiation oncology. 21 (4 ... Dual treatments of radiotherapy plus chemoembolization, local chemotherapy, systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy drugs may ...
Radiation therapy is given as external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis and brachytherapy (internal radiation). Women treated ... may be treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy, hysterectomy (which then usually requires adjuvant ... In addition, chemotherapy can be used to treat cervical cancer, and has been found to be more effective than radiation alone. ... Einhorn, N; Tropé, C; Ridderheim, M; Boman, K; Sorbe, B; Cavallin-Ståhl, E (2003). "A systematic overview of radiation therapy ...
Radiation therapy is a primary treatment option for patients in whom surgery is not feasible and is an adjuvant therapy for ... Radiotherapy, given as external beam radiotherapy or as brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy), can also be used to treat ... Radiotherapy Adjuvant therapy may be considered in those with high-risk SCC even in the absence of evidence for local ... radiation therapy, poor immune system function, previous basal cell carcinoma, and HPV infection. Risk from UV radiation is ...
It is the most commonly reported complication in breast radiation therapy patients who receive adjuvant axillary radiotherapy ... Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of ... Radiation may be prescribed by a radiation oncologist with intent to cure ("curative") or for adjuvant therapy. It may also be ... Intraoperative radiotherapy[edit]. Main article: Intraoperative radiation therapy. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is ...
Historic trials suggested significant toxicity with adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) after radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive ... Adjuvant Radiotherapy Use by US Radiation Oncologists After Radical Cystectomy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer March 9, 2017 ... Historic trials suggested significant toxicity with adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) after radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive ... In total, 277 radiation oncologists completed our survey. Nearly half (46%) have used ART for MIBC at least once in the past. ...
The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of postoperative whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to stereotactic ... Adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy versus observation after radiosurgery or surgical resection of one to three cerebral ... Consequently, adjuvant treatment regimens such as whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and/or stereotactic radiation therapy ( ... Intracranial control and radiographic changes with adjuvant radiation therapy for resected brain metastases: whole brain ...
Of these, 46 received adjuvant RT and 113 did not. The RT group generally received 45-50 Gy to the whole pelvis, then a boost ... to the prostate bed (total dose of 55-65 Gy). In the RP group, 62% received neoadjuvant/adjuvant androgen deprivation vs 17% in ... alone or RP plus adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Between 1970 and 1983, 159 patients underwent RP for newly diagnosed ... Adjuvant and salvage radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Radiother Oncol 2001; 59 ...
Clear evidence for using adjuvant ADT when much higher radiation doses are delivered is thus lacking. ... Combined brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy for high-risk prostate ... None of our present patients received adjuvant ADT. ADT consisted of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist alone or in ... This dose is much higher than the 81 Gy (associated BED of 154 Gy2) commonly prescribed for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. ...
Eye-sparing surgery with adjuvant RT can achieve satisfactory results in patients with T1-T2 lacrimal gland carcinoma. Disease ... Adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy to current treatment strategies might be a suitable choice for this ... examined data from patients with lacrimal gland cancer who had received eye-preserving surgical treatment followed by adjuvant ... Eye-preserving surgery, as opposed to exenteration, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), has recently been reported to ...
... radiation; surgery; survival ... of radical prostatectomy with adjuvant radiotherapy versus ... Clinical guidelines support multimodal approaches, which include radical prostatectomy (RP) followed by radiotherapy (XRT) and ... radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation therapy for men with advanced prostate cancer.. Jang TL1,2, Patel N1,2, Faiena I1,2, ...
... women with p53-overexpressing stage III breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy ... Vaccine Therapy With Either Neoadjuvant or Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Treating Women With p53- ... and to see how well they work in treating women who are receiving neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiation ... Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. Giving vaccine therapy before and/or after chemotherapy and ...
RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; REGRESSION ANALYSIS; SARCOMAS; SURGERY. ... Purpose: To study the impact of dose fractionation of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) on local recurrence (LR) and the relation ... Title: Patterns of Local Recurrence and Dose Fractionation of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in 462 Patients With Soft Tissue ... Journal Article: Patterns of Local Recurrence and Dose Fractionation of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in 462 Patients With Soft ...
Radiation: 45 Gy / 25 fractions pelvic radiotherapy using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) followed by 11 Gy / 2 ... Radiation: 45 Gy/25 fractions Arm A 45 Gy/25 fractions pelvic radiotherapy using 3D planned technique followed by 11Gy/2 ... Radiation: 45 Gy/25 fractions Arm A 45 Gy/25 fractions pelvic radiotherapy using 3D planned technique followed by 11Gy/2 ... Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a newer but established radiotherapy technique in many tumour sites that allows ...
How Radiation Therapy Works [Internet]. Breastcancer.org. 2016 [cited 20 September 2016]. Available from: http://www. ... Exercise as it relates to Disease/The Benefits of Resistance Training in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiotherapy ... This study involved 160 patients with breast cancer in stages 0-III during adjuvant radiotherapy. Participants were randomised ... Randomized, controlled trial of resistance training in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy: results on ...
Because the type of radiation used is not very penetrating, the dose falls of very rapidly with depth and is only around half ... In all cases Sr90 beta radiotherapy was applied as adjuvant treatment. In seventeen cases (17/20, 85%) Sr90 radiotherapy was ... No such complications were noted with adjuvant Sr90 radiotherapy.. Sr90 radiotherapy appears to be safer and more effective in ... Adjuvant therapy includes cryotherapy [4], topical mitomycin C [5], brachytherapy [6-8], proton beam radiotherapy [9], or ...
Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy: AUA/ASTRO guideline. Fairfax (VA): American Society for Radiation ... Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy: ASTRO/AUA guideline.. American Society for Radiation Oncology. ... Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy: ASTRO/AUA guideline. ▲ American Society for Radiation Oncology ...
To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SFRT) for patients with pituitary macroadenoma ... Radiation optic neuropathy after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly: report of two cases. Radiother Oncol. 2003, 68 ... Adjuvant or radical fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with pituitary functional and nonfunctional ... Patients treated with radiation did not show significant cognition scores when compared to those treated with surgery only, ...
ASTRO/AUA Guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiotherapy after prostatectomy in patients with and ... ASTRO/AUA Guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiotherapy after prostatectomy in patients with and ... The purpose of this clinical guideline on Adjuvant and Salvage Radiotherapy after Prostatectomy: ... The purpose of this clinical guideline on Adjuvant and Salvage Radiotherapy after Prostatectomy: ...
local radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in children with newly diagnosed,. high-risk CNS embryonal tumors (Phase I ... At 6 weeks after completion of radiotherapy, patients are assigned to arm II for. adjuvant/maintenance chemotherapy. (Arm I ... An Intergroup Pilot Study of Concurrent Carboplatin, Vincristine and Radiotherapy Followed by Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients ... An Intergroup Pilot Study of Concurrent Carboplatin, Vincristine and Radiotherapy Followed by Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients ...
It is not yet known whether radiation therapy after surgery is effective in ... Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. ... Arm I: Patients undergo radiotherapy 5 days a week for 3 or 5 ... in situ of the breast receiving adjuvant tamoxifen or anastrozole and treated with. adjuvant radiotherapy vs observation alone. ... Planning to receive adjuvant tamoxifen or anastrozole for 5 years. - Eligible patients may receive adjuvant endocrine therapy ...
... the complication is different depending on the sequence and method of breast reconstruction and Radiotherapy (RT). The aim of ...
Lack of adjuvant RT may be a proxy for inadequate access to care and poor cancer surveillance after treatment. ... Adjuvant radiation following BCS was underused in this sample of poor breast cancer patients. ... without radiotherapy (RT) have a greater risk of recurrence and mortality compared to those receiving BCS plus RT. However, ... Conclusions: Adjuvant radiation following BCS was underused in this sample of poor breast cancer patients. Lack of adjuvant RT ...
ASTRO/AUA Guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiotherapy after prostatectomy in patients with and ... The purpose of this clinical guideline on Adjuvant and Salvage Radiotherapy after Prostatectomy: ... Patients receiving radiation (either ART or SRT) are further randomized to three treatment arms: radiation alone, radiation ... Home Guidelines Clinical Guidelines Prostate Cancer: Adjuvant & Salvage Radiotherapy Guideline Adjuvant and Salvage ...
... and salvage radiotherapy (SRT) are two common concepts to enhance biochemical relapse free survival (BCRFS) in patients with ... Source: Radiation Oncology - November 11, 2019. Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marco M. E. Vogel, Kerstin A. Kessel, ... Adjuvant versus early salvage radiotherapy: outcome of patients with prostate cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy ... Adjuvant (ART) and salvage radiotherapy (SRT) are two common concepts to enhance biochemical relapse free survival (BCRFS) in ...
There are a few reports in the literature reporting RRD triggered by quinolones administration after external beam radiation ... Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is a rare phenomenon. ... Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Respiratory Tract Infections / drug ... Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy*, surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / radiotherapy*, surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ofloxacin ... Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is a rare phenomenon. There are a few reports in the literature reporting RRD triggered by ...
Advances in technology have expanded the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The goal of this study was to ... Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation ... Radiotherapy, Intensity-modulated. CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved ... RATIONALE: Specialized radiation therapy that delivers a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor may kill more tumor cells ...
Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy * Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery * Chemotherapy, Adjuvant * Cyclophosphamide * ... Radiation therapy has been shown to be useful for the management of TNBC. Radiation therapy of the chest wall after mastectomy ... Current Strategy for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Appropriate Combination of Surgery, Radiation, and Chemotherapy Breast ...
Most experiments combining the two modalities were conducted with single fractions of radiotherapy. However, there is at least ... Radiation as an immunological adjuvant: current evidence on dose and fractionation.. Demaria S1, Formenti SC. ... Ionizing radiation to a cancer site has the ability to convert the irradiated tumor in an immunogenic hub. However, radiation ... Translation of the partnership of radiation and immunotherapy to the clinic requires a careful consideration of the radiation ...
2005) Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 352(10):987-996. ... Ionizing Radiation Treatment and Clonogenic Survival Analysis.. Cells seeded at defined cell densities according to radiation ... 2010) E2F1 and E2F2 have opposite effects on radiation-induced p53-independent apoptosis in Drosophila. Dev Biol 346(1):80-89. ... radiation resistance. The prognosis for glioblastoma, the most common malignant intrinsic brain tumor in adults, remains poor ...
  • Dr. Abigail T. Berman is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Radiation Oncology. (upenn.edu)
  • Fuller is a research associate in radiation medicine at OHSU, and a resident in the Department of Radiation Oncology and trainee in Human Imaging/Radiobiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. (eurekalert.org)
  • multivariate regression p = 0.009), but not in those treated without radiotherapy, suggesting that low PSMD9 expression was associated with relative tumour radio-sensitivity. (nih.gov)
  • Radiation therapy is commonly applied to the tumour. (bionity.com)
  • The radiation fields may also include the draining lymph nodes if they are clinically or radiologically involved with tumour, or if there is thought to be a risk of subclinical malignant spread. (bionity.com)
  • Medical Xpress)-French researchers have developed a new radiation technique that appears to target tumour cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed, according to a new study in mice. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Then they said they would like at attack the tumour with 6 weeks of radiation and 3 years of tamador, which is the same medication your husband is taking. (cancer.org)
  • In this study, we investigate the use of multifunctional smart radiotherapy biomaterials (SRBs) loaded with immunoadjuvants for boosting the abscopal effect of local radiotherapy (RT). (frontiersin.org)