Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Radiation ProtectionBody Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Acute Radiation Syndrome: A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced: Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Nuclear Weapons: A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Film Dosimetry: Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.UkraineHeating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Bystander Effect: The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Proctitis: INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Radiation Leukemia Virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.Deinococcus: A genus of gram-positive aerobic cocci found in the soil, that is highly resistant to radiation, especially ionizing radiation (RADIATION, IONIZING). Deinococcus radiodurans is the type species.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
In response to thermal radiation, surface temperature depends on the thermal emissivity of the material. Low-emissivity ... Multiple temperature measurements[edit]. This approach is based on three or more temperature measurements inside and outside of ... No radiation heat nearby measurements. Heat flux method[edit]. The U-value can be calculated as well by using a heat flux ... the R-value per inch also depends on the temperature of the material, usually increasing with decreasing temperature (polyso ...
Mars Global Climate Zones (based on temperature, modified by topography, albedo, actual solar radiation) ... Temperature[edit]. Measurements of Martian temperature predate the Space Age. However, early instrumentation and techniques of ... No measurable trend in global average temperature between Viking IRTM and MGS TES was visible. "Viking and MGS air temperatures ... Orbital measurements showed that this dust storm reduced the average temperature of the surface and raised the temperature of ...
... sea surface temperature, salinity, fluorescence; bottom depth; dissolved oxygen titration; solar radiation; GPS time; ...
... solar radiation; T, air temperature; Wr, root zone water supply; PET, potential evapotranspiration; vegc, total live vegetation ...
1800's many scientists studied the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation from black-body radiators at different temperatures ... All warm things give off thermal radiation, which is electromagnetic radiation. For most things on Earth this radiation is in ... He tried to develop an expression for black-body radiation expressed in terms of wavelength by assuming that radiation ... in 1895 Wien published the results of his studies into the radiation from a black body. His formula was: B. λ. (. T. ). =. 2. h ...
". "Blackbody Radiation". "Lecture notes". "Radiative Balance, Earth's Temperature, and Greenhouse Gases (lecture notes)". ... As temperature decreases, the amount of water vapor needed to reach saturation also decreases. As the temperature of a parcel ... The amount of water vapor that is needed to achieve saturation increases as the temperature increases. As the temperature of a ... It raises the surface temperature substantially above its theoretical radiative equilibrium temperature with the sun, and water ...
Neubauer, L. W.; Cramer, R. D.; Laraway, M. (1964). "Temperature control of solar radiation on roof surfaces". Transactions ... Neubauer, L. W.; Deering, R. B.; Kay, V. G. (1958). "Temperature control for houses". Journal of Home Economics. 50 (3): 175- ... Neubauer, L. W.; Cramer, R. D. (1968). "Effect of shape of building on interior air temperature". Transactions ASAE. 11 (4): ... Neubauer, L. W.; Cramer, R. D. (1966). "Solar radiation control for small exposed houses". Transactions ASAE. 9 (2): 194, 195, ...
When seen from the CPC, the incoming radiation (emitted from the infinite source at an infinite distance) subtends an angle ±θ ... limit of heating objects up to the temperature of the sun's surface.[12] ... Collecting radiation emitted by high-energy particle collisions using the fewest photomultiplier tubes.[6] ... Typical variables to be optimized at the target include the total radiant flux, the angular distribution of optical radiation, ...
Correlated color temperature[edit]. The correlated color temperature (Tcp) is the temperature of the Planckian radiator whose ... c1 = 2πhc2 is the first radiation constant. c2 = hc/k is the second radiation constant. and:. M is the black body spectral ... T is the temperature of the black body. h is Planck's constant. c is the speed of light. k is Boltzmann's constant. This will ... If these coordinates are XT, YT, ZT where T is the temperature, then the CIE chromaticity coordinates will be ...
When the temperature falls below a threshold, both the fan and compressor are shut off to mitigate further temperature drops;[ ... UV radiation from the Sun homolytically cleaves the chlorine-carbon bond, yielding a chlorine radical. These chlorine radicals ... They lowered the temperature of the thermometer bulb down to −14 °C (7 °F) while the ambient temperature was 18 °C (64 °F). ... require low temperatures (about 18 °C, 64 °F) and others, such as neonatal, relatively high temperatures (about 28 °C, 82 °F). ...
"The equilibrium sensitivity of the Earth's temperature to radiation changes". Nature Geoscience. 1 (11): 735-43. Bibcode: ... The change in temperature, revealed in ice core samples, is 5 °C, while the change in solar forcing is 7.1 W/m2. The computed ... A lower figure was calculated in a 2011 Science paper by Schmittner et al., who combined temperature reconstructions of the ... Gregory, et al. (2002)[36] estimated a lower bound of 1.6 °C by estimating the change in Earth's radiation budget and comparing ...
He died in Pasadena, California.[citation needed] Fowler, W.A.; Lauritsen, C.C; Lauritsen, T. (1948). "Gamma radiation from ... Fowler, W. A. (1958). "Temperature and Density Conditions for Nucleogenesis by Fusion Processes in Stars". W. K. Kellogg ... Fowler's succeeded Charles Lauritsen as director of the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory at Caltech, and was himself later ... Radiation Laboratory. OSTI 4308210. Seeger, P. A.; Fowler, W. A.; Clayton, Donald D. (1965). "Nucleosynthesis of heavy elements ...
Radiation. *Temperature[30]. Nucleic Acid DenaturantsEdit. ChemicalEdit. Acidic nucleic acid denaturants include: *Acetic acid ... The effects of temperature on enzyme activity. Top - increasing temperature increases the rate of reaction (Q10 coefficient). ... This model describes the denaturation of DNA strands as a function of temperature. As the temperature increases, the hydrogen ... Note 2: Denaturation can occur when proteins and nucleic acids are subjected to elevated temperature or to extremes of pH, or ...
It includes temperature, humidity or radiation. Operating conditions include external electrical inputs. Component quality ... radiation, temperature, etc.). Stress and de rating analysis is intended to increase reliability by providing sufficient margin ... The end of life analysis provides the additional degradation resulting from the aging and temperature effects on the elements ... These are typically accounting for tolerances that are due to initial component tolerance, temperature tolerance, age tolerance ...
The temperature falls to 3000 kelvin. Ordinary matter particles decouple from radiation. The photons present at the time of ... 10-17 million years: The "Dark Ages" span a period during which the temperature of cosmic background radiation cooled from some ... 10 seconds: Universe dominated by photons of radiation - ordinary matter particles are coupled to light and radiation while ... The temperature is still too high for quarks to coalesce into hadrons, and the quark-gluon plasma persists (Quark epoch). The ...
Radiation is when energy leaves the cloud as light. Radiation increases as the temperature rises. To get net power from fusion ... radiation {\displaystyle P_{\text{radiation}}} , radiation losses as energy leaves as light P out {\displaystyle P_{\text{out ... Since there are no magnetic fields, fusors emit no Cyclotron radiation at slow speeds, or synchrotron radiation at high speeds ... The radiation from a fusor can (at least) be in the visible, ultraviolet and X-ray spectrum, depending on the type of fusor ...
If black holes evaporate via Hawking radiation, a solar mass black hole will evaporate (beginning once the temperature of the ... has a Hawking temperature of 62 nanokelvins.[120] This is far less than the 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic microwave ... In 1974, Hawking predicted that black holes are not entirely black but emit small amounts of thermal radiation at a temperature ... However, black holes slowly evaporate by emitting Hawking radiation. This radiation does not appear to carry any additional ...
Changes in ambient temperature and solar radiation between summer and winter. *Changes in ambient temperature during the day- ... Convection and radiation are the most important sources of heat loss. Thermal insulation is used to slow heat loss from a hot ... Conduction, convection and radiation all occur more rapidly over large thermal gradients[24] (the delta-t effect). ... Efficiency is reduced at higher temperatures.. Costs[edit]. In sunny, warm locations, where freeze protection is not necessary ...
Measuring temperatures in various parts of the body may be very difficult, and temperatures may locally vary even within a ... The body as a whole relies mostly on simple radiation of energy to the surrounding air from the skin (50% of heat lost this way ... These temperatures have been derived from cell culture and animal studies. The body keeps itself normal human body temperature ... For this technique to be effective, the temperatures must be high enough, and the temperatures must be sustained long enough, ...
The experiment uses bolometers for radiation detection. These bolometers are kept at a temperature of 0.27 kelvin. At this ... It was the first experiment to make large, high-fidelity images of the CMB temperature anisotropies, and is best known for the ... The 2003 flight of Boomerang resulted in extremely high signal-to-noise ratio maps of the CMB temperature anisotropy, and a ... 27 April 2000). "A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation". Nature. 404 (6781): ...
He used this to set a limit on the temperature of the microwave background radiation, from the roof of the Radiation Laboratory ... Kuhn J. R.; Libbrecht K. G.; Dicke R. H. (1988). "The surface temperature of the sun and changes in the solar constant". ... During the Second World War he worked in the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he worked ... Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". Astrophysical Journal. ...
Room Temperature Curing Epoxy Resin Compositions High Temperature Service Capability for Fiber Reinforced Structures, Adhesives ... Radiation Crosslinking of some New Ethylene Copolymers. In: Irradiation of Polymers, edited by Robert F. Gould. Advances in ... Radiation Crosslinking of some New Ethylene Copolymers. In: Irradiation of Polymers, edited by Robert F. Gould. Advances in ... High Temperature Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Waste Cellulose: Batch and Continuous Processes. Hazardous Waste Engineering ...
The temperature control kept the inside of the capsule at −8 °C (18 °F). The temperature at 52 km was recorded as 33 °C (91 °F ... The main station detected no radiation belts; relative to Earth, the measured magnetic field was 3000 times weaker, and the ... During entry into the Venusian atmosphere, the heat shield temperature rose to 11,000 °C (19,800 °F) and at one point the cabin ... The heat resistance was checked in a high-temperature vacuum system emulating the upper layers of the atmosphere. The capsule ...
Temperatures close to absolute zero can be reached only by liquefying helium, which previously has usually required a high- ... H. O. McMahon (1950). Thermal Radiation from Partially Transparent Reflecting Bodies." Journal of the Optical Society of ... "Research at Low Temperatures Simplified by a New Cryostat," ' ' The Nucleus ' ' November, 1947, p. 47. "Absolute Zero," ' ' ... Collins on the application of very low temperatures to liquefying gases. Between 1945 and 1947 the Collins Helium Cryostat was ...
Radiation: broadly conceived as habitats exposed to abnormally high radiation or of radiation outside the normal range of light ... These conditions may be extremely high or low temperature or pressure; high or low content of oxygen or carbon dioxide in the ... Includes habitats exposed to high UV and IR radiation. Without water: broadly conceived as habitats without free water whether ... though experiments have shown that tardigrades can survive the harsh vacuum and intense radiation of outer space. The ...
Cancer is a stochastic effect of radiation, meaning that the probability of occurrence increases with effective radiation dose, but the severity of the cancer is independent of dose. The speed at which cancer advances, the prognosis, the degree of pain, and every other feature of the disease are not functions of the radiation dose to which the person is exposed. This contrasts with the deterministic effects of acute radiation syndrome which increase in severity with dose above a threshold. Cancer starts with a single cell whose operation is disrupted. Normal cell operation is controlled by the chemical structure of DNA molecules, also called chromosomes. When radiation deposits enough energy in organic tissue to cause ionization, this tends to break molecular bonds, and thus alter the molecular structure of the irradiated molecules. Less ...
Spacecraft, both manned and unmanned, must cope with the high radiation environment of outerspace. Radiation emitted by the Sun and other galactic sources, and trapped in radiation "belts" is more dangerous and hundreds of times more intense than radiation sources such as medical X-rays or normal cosmic radiation usually experienced on Earth.[25] When the intensely ionizing particles found in space strike human tissue, it can result in cell damage and may eventually lead to cancer. The usual method for radiation protection is material shielding by spacecraft and equipment structures (usually aluminium), possibly augmented by polyethylene in human spaceflight where the main concern is high energy protons and cosmic ray ions. On unmanned spacecraft in high electron dose environments such as Jupiter missions, ...
Spacecraft, both manned and unmanned, must cope with the high radiation environment of outerspace. Radiation emitted by the Sun and other galactic sources, and trapped in radiation "belts" is more dangerous and hundreds of times more intense than radiation sources such as medical X-rays or normal cosmic radiation usually experienced on Earth.[24] When the intensely ionizing particles found in space strike human tissue, it can result in cell damage and may eventually lead to cancer.. The usual method for radiation protection is material shielding by spacecraft and equipment structures (usually aluminium), possibly augmented by polyethylene in human spaceflight where the main concern is high energy protons and cosmic ray ions. On unmanned spacecraft in high electron dose environments such as Jupiter missions, ...
The potential acute and chronic health effects of space radiation, as with other ionizing radiation exposures, involve both direct damage to DNA, indirect effects due to generation of reactive oxygen species, and changes to the biochemistry of cells and tissues, which can alter gene transcription and the tissue microenvironment along with producing DNA mutations. Acute (or early radiation) effects result from high radiation doses, and these are most likely to occur after solar particle events (SPEs).[24] Likely chronic effects of space radiation exposure include both stochastic events such as radiation carcinogenesis[25] and deterministic degenerative tissue effects. To date, however, the only pathology associated with space radiation exposure is a higher risk for ...
... may be indicated because of pregnancy complications, intercurrent diseases or routine prenatal care. Options for medical imaging in pregnancy include the following: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without MRI contrast agents as well as obstetric ultrasonography are not associated with any risk for the mother or the fetus, and are the imaging techniques of choice for pregnant women. Gadolinium contrast use in pregnancy is without known adverse perinatal or neonatal effects, but the evidence is scarce. Therefore, it is recommended that gadolinium contrast in MRI should be limited, and should only be used when it significantly improves diagnostic performance and is expected to improve fetal or maternal outcome. Projectional radiography, X-ray computed tomography and nuclear medicine result some degree of ionizing radiation exposure, but have with a few exceptions much lower radiation doses than what are associated with fetal harm. They ...
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced type of high-precision radiation that is the next generation of 3DCRT.[55] IMRT also improves the ability to conform the treatment volume to concave tumor shapes,[5] for example when the tumor is wrapped around a vulnerable structure such as the spinal cord or a major organ or blood vessel.[56] Computer-controlled x-ray accelerators distribute precise radiation doses to malignant tumors or specific areas within the tumor. The pattern of radiation delivery is determined using highly tailored computing applications to perform optimization and treatment simulation (Treatment Planning). The radiation dose is consistent with the 3-D shape of the tumor by controlling, or modulating, the radiation beam's intensity. The ...
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced type of high-precision radiation that is the next generation of 3DCRT.[55] IMRT also improves the ability to conform the treatment volume to concave tumor shapes,[5] for example when the tumor is wrapped around a vulnerable structure such as the spinal cord or a major organ or blood vessel.[56] Computer-controlled x-ray accelerators distribute precise radiation doses to malignant tumors or specific areas within the tumor. The pattern of radiation delivery is determined using highly tailored computing applications to perform optimization and treatment simulation (Treatment Planning). The radiation dose is consistent with the 3-D shape of the tumor by controlling, or modulating, the radiation beam's intensity. The ...
was created late 2016 to investigate the potential of the technology, to test and validate research hypotheses and to promote the use of validated measurement methods. The CBCT scanner is mounted on a C-arm in the IR suite, which offers real time imaging with a stationary patient. This eliminates the time needed to transfer a patient from the angiography suite to a conventional computed tomography scanner and facilitates a broad spectrum of applications of CBCT during IR procedures. The clinical applications of CBCT in IR include treatment planning, device or implant positioning and assessment, intra-procedural localization, and assessment of procedure endpoints. CBCT is useful as a primary and supplemental form of imaging. It is an excellent adjunct to DSA and fluoroscopy for soft tissue and vascular visibility during complex procedures. The use of CBCT before fluoroscopy potentially reduces patient radiation exposure. Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: CBCT ...
... resembles areolar connective tissue, but the only fibers in its matrix are reticular fibers, which form a delicate network along which fibroblasts called reticular cells lie scattered. Although reticular fibers are widely distributed in the body, reticular tissue is limited to certain sites. It forms a labyrinth-like stroma (literally, "bed or "mattress"), or internal framework, that can support many free blood cells (largely lymphocytes) in lymph nodes, the spleen, and red bone marrow. ...
Infections caused by exposure to ionizing radiation can be extremely dangerous, and are of public and government concern. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the susceptibility of organisms to systemic infection increased following exposure to ionizing radiation. The risk of systemic infection is higher when the organism has a combined injury, such as a burn (including radiation burn). There is a direct quantitative relationship between the magnitude of the neutropenia that develops after exposure to radiation and the increased risk of developing infection. Because no controlled studies of therapeutic intervention in humans are available, almost all of the current information is based on animal research. Infections caused by ionizing radiation can be endogenous, originating from the oral and gastrointestinal bacterial flora, and ...
Like all photometric units, the lux has a corresponding "radiometric" unit. The difference between any photometric unit and its corresponding radiometric unit is that radiometric units are based on physical power, with all wavelengths being weighted equally, while photometric units take into account the fact that the human eye's image-forming visual system is more sensitive to some wavelengths than others, and accordingly every wavelength is given a different weight. The weighting factor is known as the luminosity function. The lux is one lumen per square metre (lm/m2), and the corresponding radiometric unit, which measures irradiance, is the watt per square metre (W/m2). There is no single conversion factor between lux and W/m2; there is a different conversion factor for every wavelength, and it is not possible to make a conversion unless one knows the spectral composition of the light. The peak of the luminosity function is at 555 nm (green); the eye's image-forming visual system is more ...
... in short known as "BRIT" is a unit of the Department of Atomic Energy with its headquarters in Navi Mumbai, India. It is involved in production, development, and supply of radioisotope based products and provision of isotope applications, radiation processing, radioanalytical services etc. It has regional centres at Rawatbhatta-Kota in Rajasthan,Bengaluru in Karnataka, Delhi, Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, Kolkata in West Bengal and Dirugarh in Assam. It has about 500 employees. BRIT previously operated under the aegis of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre before being made into a separate entity as of March 1989. However BRIT's name remains synonymous with BARC, as strong ties continue to exist between the two organisations, including collaborations on a variety of projects, sharing of office campuses, etc. It produces and supply a variety of radioisotope products including radioisotope generators, sealed radiation sources, ...
is the permeability of free space. Cyclotron radiation has a spectrum with its main spike at the same fundamental frequency as the particle's orbit, and harmonics at higher integral factors. Harmonics are the result of imperfections in the actual emission environment, which also create a broadening of the spectral lines.[5] The most obvious source of line broadening is non-uniformities in the magnetic field;[6] as an electron passes from one area of the field to another, its emission frequency will change with the strength of the field. Other sources of broadening include collisional broadening[7] as the electron will invariably fail to follow a perfect orbit, distortions of the emission caused by interactions with the surrounding plasma, and relativistic effects if the charged particles are sufficiently energetic. When the electrons are moving at relativistic speeds, cyclotron radiation is known as synchrotron ...
In fact visible light is a form of radiation, which can be defined as an energy that travels in the form of electromagnetic ... Sometimes we use the term radiation when we mean light, and vice versa. ... Energy=light=radiation=temperature?. Sometimes we use the term radiation when we mean light, and vice versa. In fact ... This is the link between radiation and temperature, and astronomers have learned to use it very effectively: by observing at ...
They use this data to assess when the site has a radiation surplus and when it has a deficit. They use this data to estimate ... the time of the temperature minimum. They then think about what theyve learned about seasonal cycles in insolation to predict ... students analyze actual net radiation data from their professors field site in Northern Manitoba, Canada. ... Net Radiation and Temperature. Website Address:https://www.curriki.org/oer/Net-Radiation-and-Temperature-244294 ...
Taking Earths temperature 13 January 2014. Like thermometers in the sky, satellite instruments can measure the temperatures of ... The modelling of radiation processes are essential to our understanding of the energy cycles between the land surface and the ... As global temperatures gradually increase, more water is expected to evaporate into the atmosphere. But using satellite data, ... Proba-1 charting Earths radiation belts for a decade 07 November 2011. ...
... which for some thermometers can enable calibration with reduced uncertainties at high temperatures. ... Radiation thermometers (using high temperature fixed points). Temperature and humidity measurements Radiation thermometers ( ... We maintain a set of standard HTFPs suitable for use in the calibration of radiation thermometers - listed below with their ... Calibration with reduced uncertainties at high temperatures. This calibration service uses novel fixed points, which for some ...
Temperature and Radiation Activity * Wiens Displacement lab.docx - 146 kB Download أو يمكنك تحميل جميع الملفات كأرشيف مضغوط. ...
The radiation detector is automatically zeroed at ambient upon use and provides a readout of temperature rise above ambient ... A window made of germanium covers the radiation sensor and filters out wavelengths not of interest. ... from the green segment to the red segment of measured temperature rise above ambient with a constant tone for temperature rises ... A radiation detector with temperature readout has a multicolored LED display divided into segments of zero degrees to 9 degrees ...
One way to avoid the waste of a large fraction of the radiation emitted from hot objects is to tailor the thermal emission ... The ability to tailor the emission spectrum of high-temperature sources may find applications in thermophotovoltaic energy ... A nanophotonic radiation interference system transforms a tungsten filament into a highly efficient thermal emitter for ... Tailoring high-temperature radiation and the resurrection of the incandescent source. *Ognjen Ilic. 1. , ...
... Sudhanshu Saxena,1 Lata Panicker,2 and Satyendra Gautam1 ...
My understanding is that the Fermi temperature is a measure of the energy of a system at its lowest energy state. This suggests ... "Fermi Temperature and Black-body radiation" You must log in or register to reply here. ... Related Threads for: Fermi Temperature and Black-body radiation SED deviation from Black Body - real objects ... If this were a physical temperature it seems the system should radiate black body radiation. But then where would this energy ...
Australia shows how tadpoles living at low temperatures are more at risk of DNA damage than previously thought. ... radiation exposure can cause DNA damage and may be one of the contributing factors in the global amphibian extinction crisis. ... Low temperature increases risk of DNA damage from UV radiation. Society for Experimental Biology ... including increasing exposure to harmful UV-B radiation. When DNA is damaged by UV-B radiation, dedicated enzymes will attempt ...
Effects of irradiation and annealing temperature on radiation-induced charge trapping are explored for MOS transistors. ...
... radiation detector; current flowing; hazardous materials; radiation detectors; highly selective; method disclosed; radiation ... Room temperature aluminum antimonide radiation detector and methods thereof Patent Lordi, Vincenzo ; Wu, Kuang Jen J. ; Aberg, ... electrodrift; purification; materials; temperature; radiation; detectors; method; purifying; nonmetallic; crystalline; ... Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors Patent James, R.B. ; Van Scyoc, J.M. III ; ...
... Mehrdad Massoudi,1 Phuoc X. Tran, ... A. Raptis, "Radiation and viscoelastic flow," International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 889- ... R. C. Bataller, "Radiation effects in the Blasius flow," Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 198, no. 1, pp. 333-338, ... P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena, Dover, Mineola, NY, USA, 1967. ...
... radiation or aging may compromise the reliability of electronic circuits. Circuits designers must consider ...
title = {Radiation resistant electrical bushing for high pressures and temperatures}. author = {Zajic, V, and Banyr, J}. ... ETDEWEB / Search Results / Radiation resistant electrical bushing for high pressures and temperatures ... Zajic, V, and Banyr, J. Radiation resistant electrical bushing for high pressures and temperatures. Serbia and Montenegro: N. p ... Zajic, V, & Banyr, J. Radiation resistant electrical bushing for high pressures and temperatures. Serbia and Montenegro. ...
Reduction of the absorptivity in the near infrared (IR) spectrum would decrease vehicle soak temperatures, reduce air ... Vehicle Paint Radiation Properties and Affect on Vehicle Soak Temperature, Climate Control System Load, and Fuel Economy 2005- ... Citation: Hoke, P. and Greiner, C., "Vehicle Paint Radiation Properties and Affect on Vehicle Soak Temperature, Climate Control ... Energy consumption Air conditioning Weather and climate Radiation Simulators Coatings, colorants, and finishes ...
Here, we determined the survival responses of several bacterial strains to ionizing radiation exposure while frozen at a low ... Low-temperature ionizing radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans and Antarctic Dry Valley bacteria Astrobiology. 2010 ... C than was observed in similar studies performed at higher temperatures. This greater radiation resistance has important ... Furthermore, the most radiation resistant of these Dry Valley isolates, Brevundimonas sp. MV.7, was found to show 99% 16S rRNA ...
Direct transfer of solar radiation to high temperature applications Author(s): Maryam Rahou; John Andrews; Gary Rosengarten ... at temperatures ranging from 100 to 400°. These methods are divided into four main categories associated with the radiation ... These fibres are able to transmit about 94% of the solar radiation over a distance of 10 m. The main parameters that determine ... the different methods of directly transferring solar radiation from concentrated solar collectors to medium to high temperature ...
Influence of radiation energy transfer on boundary layer temperature drops Author(s): T. Kranjc; J. Peternelj ... The influence of thermal radiation on wall surface temperatures in a typical stationary conjugate heat transfer problem is ... The calculations clearly indicate that surface radiation can change significantly the surface temperatures which are, in ... the temperature difference across the temperature boundary layers adjacent to the walls could even be reversed. ...
radiation effects, metals, steels, nuclear reactors, transition temperature, fracture mechanics, defects Keywords: ... The neutron doses were 2.7 × 1010 to 1.25 × 1020 n/cm2 , 1 Mev at 550 F. Because of transition temperature shifts, stresses ... The shift in the nil-ductility transition temperature (NDTT) based on Charpy impact tests and the change in fracture toughness ... in depth under stresses of 10,000 psi would not limit operating procedures at temperatures above 300 F. ...
̇ Thermal radiation is the form of radiation emitted by bodies because of their temperature. It differs from other forms of ... Scientists have found that all bodies at a temperature above absolute zero emit thermal radiation. People are constantly ... The "radiation effect" results from radiation heat exchange between human bodies and surrounding surfaces, such as walls and ... resulting in a difference in the perceived temperature. We can observe and compare the rate of radiation heat transfer between ...
Similar Discussions: Sky temperature profiles and black body radiation * Black hole black body (Replies: 2) ... of a half convex with an active polariser across-the outer surface which allows through most radiation below the temperature ...
Although this experiment was carried out at room temperature, the refined structure showed only very minor signs of radiation ... Injector-based room-temperature serial crystallography of a membrane protein using synchrotron radiation. ... Injector-based room-temperature serial crystallography of a membrane protein using synchrotron radiation ... Injector-based room-temperature serial crystallography of a membrane protein using synchrotron radiation ...
A new radiation-hardened temperature sensor offers both local and remote digital temperature monitoring. ... Temperature Sensing. Local Sensing. Local temperature sensing is made possible by the ICs built-in temperature sensor. This ... Spacecraft Applications: A New Radiation Hardened Digital Temperature Sensor from Texas Instruments. 4 days ago by Nick Davis ... The TMP461-SP is a radiation-hardened temperature sensor. It looks pretty tough to me. Image courtesy of TI.com.. ...
Carolina State University modified the environment of berries to learn about the separate effects of light and temperature on ... Carolina State University modified the environment of berries to learn about the separate effects of light and temperature on ...
  • These fibres are able to transmit about 94% of the solar radiation over a distance of 10 m. (spie.org)
  • The shield protects the sensors from solar radiation and other sources of radiated and reflected heat. (wmjmarine.com)
  • Mesocosm-experiments under natural solar radiation as well as laboratory set-ups under defined, artificial radiation conditions, at three different water temperatures and at different salinities were conducted at Spitsbergen in order to reveal physiological responses of D. ramentacea under multiple abiotic stresses. (awi.de)
  • Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from daily temperatures: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. (springer.com)
  • SENSORS CLIMATRONICS CORPORATION (631) 567-7300 1.0 INTRODUCTION The TS-10 Motor Aspirated Shield series is designed to reduce errors caused by solar radiation when measuring temperature and relative humidity. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The TS-10 provides an effective shield for the sensors from both short (solar) wave and long (terrestrial) wave radiation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • F, 12/10/10)DS6450 (ReVantage Pro2TM AccessoriesThe Solar Radiation Sensor, or solar pyranometer, measures global radiation, the sum at the point of measurement of both the direct and diffuse components of solar irradiance. (environmental-expert.com)
  • NASA satellite instruments have observed a marked increase in solar radiation absorbed in the Arctic since the year 2000 - a trend that aligns with the drastic decrease in Arctic sea ice during the same period. (nasa.gov)
  • This visual shows the Arctic Sea Ice Change and the corresponding Absorbed Solar Radiation Change during June, July, and August from 2000 through 2014. (nasa.gov)
  • Since the year 2000, the rate of absorbed solar radiation in the Arctic in June, July and August has increased by five percent, said Norman Loeb, of NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. (nasa.gov)
  • When averaged over the entire Arctic Ocean, the increase in the rate of absorbed solar radiation is about 10 Watts per square meter. (nasa.gov)
  • The instruments include three radiometers - one measuring solar radiation reflected by Earth (shortwave), one measuring thermal infrared radiation emitted by Earth (longwave), and one measuring all outgoing radiation, whether emitted or reflected. (nasa.gov)
  • Same TOA Absorbed Solar Radiation Change image from above with colorbar and text overlay. (nasa.gov)
  • Meteorological variables required for simulating real-time crop growth and development includes solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. (unl.edu)
  • Ruano, Antonio E. Implementation of an intelligent sensor for measurement and prediction of solar radiation and atmospheric temperature, Trabalho apresentado em 2011 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing - (WISP 2011), In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing, Floriana, Malta, 2011. (ualg.pt)
  • The aim of this study was to develop an intelligent sensor for acquiring temperature, solar radiation data and estimate cloudiness indexes, and use these measured values to predict temperature and solar radiation in a close future. (ualg.pt)
  • neural networks of the type NARX, which use the acquired data to forecast the cloudiness index, solar radiation and temperature, in the next four hours period. (ualg.pt)
  • In contrast to a previous analysis, a new study has shown that the distributions of (a) the global temperature anomaly by month since 1880 and (b) the solar flare index by day over a few solar cycles are fundamentally different. (phys.org)
  • As an example, a new study has discredited a previous hypothesis suggesting the existence of a link between solar flares and changes in the earth's global temperature. (phys.org)
  • In a handful of studies published in Physical Review Letters between 2003 and 2008, a team from Duke University and the Army Research Office including Nicola Scafetta and Bruce West analyzed data that appeared to show that solar flares have a significant influence on global temperature . (phys.org)
  • In their studies, the researchers' results seemed to show that data from solar flare activity correlates with changes in the global temperature on a short time scale. (phys.org)
  • One of the biggest causes of concern is that the previous analysis did not account for larger trends in factors that affect solar flares and global temperature. (phys.org)
  • By estimating the untrended data, Rypdal and Rypdal hypothesized that the solar flare records might be described by a Lévy flight, while the global temperature anomaly might obey a distribution called persistent fractional Brownian motion. (phys.org)
  • Here, we've shown] that the solar flare signal and the global temperature signal are both self-similar, but their distributions are very different, and so are the exponents used for rescaling. (phys.org)
  • As the researchers explain in their paper, the finding that the scaling behavior of both the solar flare activity and the global temperature remain self-similar for large changes in scale provides evidence that the data sets cannot be described as Lévy walks. (phys.org)
  • Results from this experimental irradiation, combined with previous radiation modeling, indicate that Brevundimonas sp. (nih.gov)
  • As part of the Westinghouse APD irradiation effects program on structural materials, fracture toughness specimens including both Charpy V impact tests (transition temperature approach) and wedge opening loading (WOL) specimens (fracture mechanics approach) were irradiated. (astm.org)
  • The results obtained showed that increases in temperature will affect life traits and specific strategies for isopods to manage their energy budget, in order to handle oxidative stress. (bentham.co.uk)
  • The advantage of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) measured with synchrotron beamlines compared to the CD from benchtop instruments is the extended spectral far-UV region that increases the accuracy of secondary structure estimations, in particular under high ionic strength conditions. (springer.com)
  • This invention describes a flexible radiation probe which has a pair of insulated gate field effect transistors integrated into the same substrate each having a gate, source and drain. (google.co.uk)
  • 18. A probe as defined in claim 1, in which the width of said flexible member is smaller than a diameter of a catheter so that said flexible radiation probe may be inserted into said catheter. (google.co.uk)
  • MV.7 emplaced only 30 cm deep in martian dust could survive the cosmic radiation for up to 100,000 years before suffering 10⁶ population reduction. (nih.gov)
  • This study is relevant for extending structural health monitoring (SHM) methods to space vehicle applications that are likely to be subjected to harsh environmental conditions such as extreme temperatures (hot and cold), cosmic radiation, and interplanetary vacuums. (sc.edu)
  • Our calculations illustrate how changes in ambient conditions dependent on S and N atm , such as temperature excursions and surface dose of secondary particles of cosmic rays, may influence the type of life potentially present at different epochs of planetary evolution inside the AMHZ. (cambridge.org)
  • To demonstrate how serial crystallography, developed in femtosecond timescales at X-ray free electron laser sources, can be implemented on a millisecond timescale at a synchrotron radiation source, membrane protein microcrystals in lipidic cubic phase have been injected into a X-ray microbeam. (esrf.eu)
  • The aim of this study was to adapt the SFX method for use with microfocused synchrotron radiation at the microbranch of beamline ID13 (see Figure 131 ). (esrf.eu)
  • M. Massoudi and T. X. Phuoc, "Heat transfer in flowing granular materials: the effects of radiation boundary condition," International Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering , vol. 10, pp. 489-503, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, in the case of small convection heat transfer coefficients, small thermal transmittances of the walls and high values of emissivities, the temperature difference across the temperature boundary layers adjacent to the walls could even be reversed. (spie.org)
  • For example, in a room in which air temperature is maintained at 22° Celsius at all times, but in which the inner surfaces of the house is estimated to be an average temperature of 10° Celsius in the winter or 25° Celsius in the summer, heat transfer from the surfaces to the individual will occur, resulting in a difference in the perceived temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • We can observe and compare the rate of radiation heat transfer between a person and the surrounding surfaces if we first make a few simplifying assumptions: The heat exchange in the environment is in a "steady state", meaning that there is a constant flow of heat either into or out of the house. (wikipedia.org)
  • Goldmann 5 hypothesized that IRR cataract is due to temperature rise induced by IRR in the iris and heat transfer into the lens from the iris. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The present paper is intended to make a full theoretical exploration for the convergence and the relative effective length of radiation in the Zone method of solving three dimensional radiant heat transfer temperature distribution. (begellhouse.com)
  • In this research, experiments are performed to study the laminar flow mixed-convection heat transfer with radiation effects for a hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing airflow in a horizontal duct. (edu.au)
  • The total heat transfer from the hot wall to the cold wall of the duct depends on the mixed convection and also on the surface radiation heat transfer that takes place within the duct. (edu.au)
  • The analysis of experimental data for the Nusselt number from the hot wall of the duct shows that it is important to consider the effects of surface radiation, and to accounted for them, in the design and analysis of flow and heat transfer through ducts. (edu.au)
  • This research focuses on the interaction of surface radiation with laminar mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing airflow in horizontal ducts. (edu.au)
  • A numerical analysis of heat transfer in a heated horizontal duct is carried out to study the effect of surface radiation from duct inner walls on mixed convection heat transfer. (edu.au)
  • The calculations clearly indicate that surface radiation can change significantly the surface temperatures which are, in general, reduced with increasing emissivities of the walls. (spie.org)
  • In contrast to the theoretical calculations and model simulations of previous studies, parallel observations derived from in situ experiments spanning two contrasting land surfaces in Gonghe, consisting of a natural barren surface and one covered with PV panel, provide new insight into the potential impact of large-scale PV plants on the surface radiation and temperature. (deepdyve.com)
  • The results show that flow condition and surface radiation interaction significantly affect the total Nusselt number and the surface temperature variation along the walls. (edu.au)
  • Module II: Factors That Influence Temperature allows students to better understand that our actions as consumers, as well as how we develop our communities impact Earth's energy budget. (nwf.org)
  • Palladium, Pd-C (1492 °C), Ruthenium, Ru-C (1954 °C), and Tungsten carbide, WC-C (2748 °C) can be also be supplied with calibration uncertainties (k = 2) are 0.05 % of the temperature (or 1.25 °C at 2500 °C). The calibration is traceable to national standards. (npl.co.uk)
  • The calibration uncertainties † range from 0.05 °C to 0.3 °C over the temperature range from -40 °C to 1000 °C, and from 0.5 °C to 1.5 °C at high temperatures (1000 °C to 3000 °C) ( † subject to the satisfactory perfomance of the instrument under test). (npl.co.uk)
  • This differential threshold voltage being indicative of radiation received by the transistors when exposed in the bias mode. (google.co.uk)
  • Tubular light guides of smaller diameters have lower heat transmission losses compared to the wider ones of the same lengths with the same outdoor temperature being taken into account. (mdpi.com)
  • The spectrum of this radiation is not dependent on the chemical composition of the matter but it's only determined by its absolute temperature T. The term blackbody comes from a theoretical model of an object absorbing all incident radiation that is used to develop the quantum mechanic equations. (giangrandi.org)
  • These isolates, in addition to the known radioresistant extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans, were exposed to gamma rays while frozen on dry ice (-79°C). We found D. radiodurans to exhibit far greater radiation resistance when irradiated at -79°C than was observed in similar studies performed at higher temperatures. (nih.gov)
  • At higher temperatures the color of the radiation will tend to yellow, white and white-blue, roughly according to the table below. (giangrandi.org)
  • Higher temperatures have been plotted on a separate figure than the previous one because of the T 4 dependency: they are so much stronger that it would be difficult to appreciate everything together. (giangrandi.org)
  • An audible signal is sounded at an increasing pulse frequency as the display is illuminated from the green segment to the red segment of measured temperature rise above ambient with a constant tone for temperature rises above about 20 degrees centigrade. (google.com.au)
  • We already know climate change is impacting things such as fish physiology, reproduction and migration, but this research is part of a growing body of evidence that is suggesting rises in sea water temperature may increase the risk posed by certain chemical and physical pollutants. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • A bubble rises from the bottom of a tank of water that is at a uniform temperature. (brainmass.com)