Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Excision of breast tissue with preservation of overlying skin, nipple, and areola so that breast form may be reconstructed.
Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.
Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Devices used to generate extra soft tissue in vivo to be used in surgical reconstructions. They exert stretching forces on the tissue and thus stimulate new growth and result in TISSUE EXPANSION. They are commonly inflatable reservoirs, usually made of silicone, which are implanted under the tissue and gradually inflated. Other tissue expanders exert stretching forces by attaching to outside of the body, for example, vacuum tissue expanders. Once the tissue has grown, the expander is removed and the expanded tissue is used to cover the area being reconstructed.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Radical mastectomy with removal of the ipsilateral half of the sternum and a portion of ribs two through five with the underlying pleura and the internal mammary lymph nodes.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Tumor-like sterile accumulation of serum in a tissue, organ, or cavity. It results from a tissue insult and is the product of tissue inflammation. It most commonly occurs following MASTECTOMY.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A procedure whereby the body is stimulated to generate extra soft tissue by the application of stretching forces that stimulate new growth of tissue which, over a period of time, results in a 2-dimensional expansion of the tissue. The procedure is used in reconstructive surgery for injuries caused by trauma, burns, or ablative surgery. Various types of TISSUE EXPANSION DEVICES have been developed that exert stretching forces.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.
Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
An intraductal carcinoma of the breast extending to involve the nipple and areola, characterized clinically by eczema-like inflammatory skin changes and histologically by infiltration of the dermis by malignant cells (Paget's cells). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms caused by or resulting from trauma or other non-radiation injuries.
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Surgical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Nursing care of the surgical patient before, during, and after surgery.
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Used for excision of the urinary bladder.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
A mass of tissue for transplantation that includes the skin and/or the SUBCUTANEOUS FAT, and the perforating blood vessel that traverses the underlying tissue to supply blood to the skin. Perforator flaps are named after the anatomical region or muscle from where they are transplanted and/or the perforating blood vessel.
Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Use of a pulse of X-rays or fast electrons to generate free radicals for spectroscopic examination.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Surgery is modified radical mastectomy. Lumpectomy, segmentectomy, or skin sparing mastectomy is not recommended. Immediate ... After surgery, all cases are recommended for radiation therapy unless it is contraindicated.[17] ... and radiation are under-utilized in the USA.[19] Estrogen and Progesterone receptor positive cases have not shown to have a ...
... treatment is surgical and consists of a modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection or lumpectomy and radiation ... Also, mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy is a treatment option. In males with node-negative tumors, adjuvant therapy is ... Known risk factors include radiation exposure, exposure to female hormones (estrogen), and genetic factors. High estrogen ... Locally recurrent disease is treated with surgical excision or radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy. Distant metastases ...
Invasive cancer or extensive ductal carcinoma in situ is primarily treated with modified radical mastectomies. The procedure ... They usually undergo radiation therapy after the actual procedure to prevent recurrence. A breast-conserving surgery consists ... In cases of noninvasive cancers, simple mastectomies are performed in which only the breast with the lining over the chest ... Treatment usually involves a lumpectomy or mastectomy to surgically remove the tumour. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may be ...
... being replaced by the much more conservative modified radical mastectomy and, more recently, by segmental breast tissue ... excision and radiation therapy. Because of this change in clinical practice lymphedema is now a rarity following breast cancer ... The classical radical mastectomy was abandoned in most areas of the world in the late 1960s to early 1970s, ... lymph nodes and lymphatic channels as part of the classical Halstedian radical mastectomy, as a treatment for breast cancer. ...
Radical mastectomies have been reserved for only those cases because they can be disfiguring and modified radical mastectomies ... Outcome studies comparing mastectomy to lumpectomy with radiation have suggested that routine radical mastectomy surgeries will ... Extended Radical Mastectomy: Radical mastectomy with intrapleural en bloc resection of internal mammary lymph node by sternal ... Modified radical mastectomy: The entire breast tissue is removed along with the axillary contents (fatty tissue and lymph nodes ...
... radiation therapist - radiation therapy - radical cystectomy - radical lymph node dissection - radical mastectomy - radical ... modified radical mastectomy - Mohs surgery - molar pregnancy - molecular risk assessment - molecularly targeted therapy - ... radiation fibrosis - radiation oncologist - radiation physicist - radiation surgery - ... UV radiation - UVA radiation - UVB radiation - uvula vaccine adjuvant - vaccine therapy - vaccinia CEA vaccine - vaginal cancer ...
... a mastectomy, or a modified radical mastectomy. Lymph nodes are often included in the scope of breast tumor removal. Surgery ... Management of breast cancer is undertaken by a multidisciplinary team, including medical-, radiation-, and surgical- ... However, mastectomy may be the preferred treatment in certain instances: Two or more tumors exist in different areas of the ... Historically, breast cancer was treated with radical surgery alone. Advances in the understanding of the natural course of ...
... which she had written while recovering from a modified radical mastectomy. More recently, Angelina Jolie has also come forward ... as when Nancy Reagan chose mastectomy over lumpectomy followed by six weeks of radiation therapy. The abortion-breast cancer ... Advocacy efforts also led to the formal recommendation against the routine use of the Halsted radical mastectomy in favor of ... With the dramatic improvement in survival rates at the end of the 19th century-the radical mastectomy promoted by William ...
... free radicals) within the cells that can in turn damage the DNA. (2) Radiation therapy can lead to dry mouth from exposure of ... As new information about the biology of cancer emerges, treatments will be developed and modified to increase effectiveness, ... Examples of surgical procedures for cancer include mastectomy for breast cancer, prostatectomy for prostate cancer, and lung ... Radiation works by making small breaks in the DNA inside cell. Radiation might not be a choice of treatment if the tumour was ...
Bilateral mastectomy is the removal of both breasts by a breast surgeon.[8]:209-244 The modified radical mastectomy is only ... and how much the person has been exposed to UV radiation. BRCA2 mutation carriers have approximately double or triple the risk ... Mastectomy[edit]. Further information: Mastectomy § Types. In a woman who has not developed breast cancer, removing the breasts ... Techniques for prophylactic mastectomies include:[8]:209-244 *Simple mastectomy, which is recommended for women not having ...
... radical mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, and subcutaneous (nipple sparing) mastectomy. The ... radiation therapy, breast reduction, breast reconstruction, and liposuction of the breast. Nonetheless, detecting breast cancer ... fat grafts to the post-mastectomy recipient site. After that initial post-mastectomy fat-graft seeding in the operating room, ... The in-situ creation of a tissue matrix in the breast mound is begun with the external vacuum expansion of the mastectomy ...
A study of radiation from post-mastectomy radiotherapy shows that the simple models previously used to assess the combined and ... The ionizing radiation causes the formation of free radicals, which results in cell damage, causing increased rates of illness ... Another method of reducing radon levels is to modify the building's ventilation. Generally, the indoor radon concentrations ... "Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation". Radiation ...
... notably hydroxyl radicals, which then damage the DNA. In photon therapy, most of the radiation effect is through free radicals ... The specificity of this technique is to modify three parameters during the treatment. VMAT delivers radiation by rotating ... is most commonly seen in the treatment of breast cancer with wide local excision or mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation ... Stereotactic radiation is a specialized type of external beam radiation therapy. It uses focused radiation beams targeting a ...
Radical mastectomies remained the standard of care in the USA until the 1970s, but in Europe, breast-sparing procedures, often ... Radiation can also be given at the time of operation on the breast cancer. Radiation can reduce the risk of recurrence by 50-66 ... "The HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin perturbs endosomal structure and drives recycling ErbB2 and transferrin to modified MVBs/ ... The Halsted radical mastectomy often involved removing both breasts, associated lymph nodes, and the underlying chest muscles. ...
His radical, experimental treatments led to the formation of the Guinea Pig Club at Queen Victoria Hospital, Sussex. Among the ... Von Graefe modified the Italian method using a free skin graft from the arm instead of the original delayed pedicle flap. ... Some other common reconstructive surgical procedures include breast reconstruction after a mastectomy for the treatment of ... Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.[13] ...
Postoperative therapy may include adjuvant treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or administration of medication ... Mastectomy *Radical mastectomy. *Mammoplasty *Breast implant. *Breast reduction plasty *SPAIR. *Mastopexy. *Breast ... modifying the digestive tract in bariatric surgery for weight loss.. *repair of a fistula, hernia, or prolapse ...
... or local excision and axillary dissection with radiation... ... women with primary breast cancer whether they receive modified ... and edema after modified radical mastectomy vs. local excision with axillary dissection and radiation. ... Five-year results of a randomized clinical trial comparing total mastectomy and segmental mastectomy with or without radiation ... Urban JA, Baker HW: Radical mastectomy in continuity with an en bloc resection of the internal mammary lymph node chain. Cancer ...
Radiation: X Excisional biopsy plus radiation. Active Comparator: M Modified radical mastectomy ... To compare the results of excisional biopsy followed by radiation therapy versus modified radiacal mastectomy [ Time Frame: ... The Treatment of Stage I and II Carcinoma of the Breast With Mastectomy and Axillary Dissection vs. Excisional Biopsy, Axillary ... The Treatment of Stage I and II Breast Cancer With Mastectomy and Axillary Dissection vs. Excisional Biopsy, Axillary ...
Surgery is modified radical mastectomy. Lumpectomy, segmentectomy, or skin sparing mastectomy is not recommended. Immediate ... After surgery, all cases are recommended for radiation therapy unless it is contraindicated.[17] ... and radiation are under-utilized in the USA.[19] Estrogen and Progesterone receptor positive cases have not shown to have a ...
Modified radical mastectomy: A modified radical mastectomy removes the entire breast, many of the surrounding lymph nodes, and ... Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to stop cancer cells from growing. It can either be given ... Its also called a partial mastectomy or a lumpectomy.. *Total mastectomy: A total mastectomy removes the entire breast. It may ... Radiation therapy is often recommended after surgery. Thats because it can help get rid of any cancer cells that may have ...
No prior radiation to the left chest wall. Surgery:. *Modified radical mastectomy allowed ... A modified radical mastectomy is performed between days 70 and 80. All stratum 1 and stratum 2 patients then receive paclitaxel ... and those who have had more than 1 cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or modified radical mastectomy (stratum 2). ... Radiation therapy is started 4-7 weeks after the beginning of course 2. Tamoxifen is started within 2 weeks of discharge ...
This is called a modified radical mastectomy.. *Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses high-power energy beams to destroy ... Instead of the radiation thats used in X-rays, MRI uses strong magnets and radio waves to generate images. ...
Some cancer survivors may experience lymphedema as a side effect of surgical or radiation cancer treatment. Early ... Modified radical mastectomy with node dissection in the armpit.. * Surgical removal of lymph nodes. ... Radiation to the lymph nodes.. Other factors may also put a survivor at risk for lymphedema. These include being seriously ... Sometimes radiation damages lymph nodes. Sometimes survivors need surgeries to remove lymph nodes altogether. A biopsy to ...
Modified Radical Mastectomy *Complete removal of breast tissue, pectoralis major fascia, and Level I and II lymph nodes. ... More Extensive Mastectomy vs. Less Extensive Mastectomy + RT[edit]. *NSABP B-04 (1971-1974) -- radical mastectomy vs. total ... Conclusion: Mutilating extended radical mastectomy can be safely substituted by simple mastectomy with radiation; no difference ... Arm 2) total mastectomy + RT vs. Arm 3) total mastectomy alone. *586 women with clinically LN+: Arm 1) radical mastectomy vs. ...
Bilateral Mastectomy 7 yrs. ago..pulled pectoral muscle..indented badly and painful! Profiles In Courage ... Modified radical mastectomy, radiation, chemo, Herceptin, Tykerb 1 year. [*]In remission until 2/2010. Small tumor detected on ... 10/24/13 Radiation begins and fourth tattoo placed.. 11/27/13 Perfectly radiant! Radiation completed the day before ... 5/14/13 Mastectomy and SN biopsy. 5/20/13 IDC Stage IIb Grade 3 Nodes 1/4 also IDC and DCIS multi focal in remaining dissected ...
... including nipple-sparing mastectomy and IORT during lumpectomy. Our breast surgeons use oncoplastic techniques that provide ... Valley offers advanced mastectomy and lumpectomy options for breast cancer surgery, ... Modified radical mastectomy: Surgeons remove the whole breast (as in simple mastectomy), plus lymph nodes under the arm. ... Radiation During Breast Cancer Surgery. *Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT): This provides a full course of radiation in ...
More specifically, theyll undergo a modified radical mastectomy.. That is, the doctor will remove the entire affected breast. ... Radiation Therapy. Radiation therapy is recommended after surgery. Also known as radiotherapy, it uses high-energy beams such ...
... a modified radical mastectomy is as effective.. Modified radical mastectomy. This surgery removes the axillary lymph nodes in ... Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy destroys cancer cells with high-energy rays. There are two ways to administer radiation ... Mastectomy. During a mastectomy (sometimes also referred to as a simple mastectomy), all the breast tissue is removed. If ... Radical mastectomy. During this surgery, the surgeon removes the axillary lymph nodes as well as the chest wall muscle in ...
Includes surgery and radiation therapy. *Surgery. *Mastectomy. *Modified radical with sentinel lymph node evaluation ... Advances in conventional therapies include less radical surgical techniques and reduced radiation fields ... Modified Gail model used by the National Cancer Institute and National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project in the Breast ... Partial-breast irradiation has 5-year local control rates comparable to those for whole-breast radiation therapy while sparing ...
Modified radical mastectomy.. The surgeon removes the breast, some of the lymph nodes under the arm, the lining over the chest ... Radiation Therapy. Some surgical procedures are followed by radiation therapy. During radiation therapy, high-energy X-rays are ... In most cases, radiation therapy follows. Total (or simple) mastectomy.. The surgeon removes the entire breast. Some lymph ... Radical mastectomy.. The surgeon removes the breast, chest muscles, and all the lymph nodes under the arm. This was the ...
Higher Risk of Recurrence for Triple-negative Breast Cancer after Modified Radical Mastectomy without Radiation. "The paucity ... Intermittent or Continuous Androgen Suppression Produces Comparable Survival after Radical Therapy in Prostate Cancer. Men with ...
Modified radical mastectomy: the entire breast is removed, along with some underarm lymph nodes. Unlike radical mastectomy, the ... Radiation exposure: Women who have received radiation treatments to the chest, particularly when during breast development, are ... Simple mastectomy: all of the breast tissue is removed, including the skin, fatty tissue, and milk ducts. This is used for ... Partial mastectomy: the doctor removes the tumor, surrounding breast tissue, and some of the underlying chest muscles. ...
... a radical form of mastectomy that removed not just a womans breast but also her lymph nodes and her chest wall ... Following a modified radical mastectomy, the option of adjuvant radiation therapy may be considered. Though the tumor has been ... What is modified radical mastectomy?. Since radical mastectomy was seen to be not only very disfiguring (because it left a ... What Is Modified Radical Mastectomy? was last modified: March 1st, 2014 by Swathi ...
Learn about treatments, including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation. ... Modified radical mastectomy is done after chemotherapy for stage 3B and stage 3C tumours. It may also be done for stage 3A ... If you have a mastectomy, radiation therapy may be given to the muscles of the chest, lymph nodes under the arm and lymph nodes ... Radiation therapy. External beam radiation therapy is given after breast-conserving surgery. All of the breast, the muscles of ...
Modified radical mastectomy. The dotted line shows where the entire breast and some lymph nodes are removed. Part of the chest ... Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill ... Surgery for men with breast cancer is usually a modified radical mastectomy (removal of the breast, many of the lymph nodes ... Treatment for men diagnosed with breast cancer is usually modified radical mastectomy. Breast-conserving surgery with ...
Surgery with or without radiation therapy Primary standard treatment is a modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection ... Radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy.. Responses are generally similar to those seen in women with breast cancer.[2 ,11 ... Breast conservation surgery with lumpectomy and radiation therapy has also been used, and results have been similar to those ...
Modified radical mastectomy: the removal of all breast tissue and the underarm lymph nodes, which have been affected by cancer. ... This operation requires post-operative radiation therapy.. *Mastectomy: the removal of all breast tissue *Skin-sparing ... Nipple-sparing mastectomy: the removal of all breast tissue preserving the skin of the breast, the nipple, and areola. This ... Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction: *Autologous tissue reconstruction: This technique uses muscle and fat derived from the ...
I had a bilateral modified radical mastectomy on September 25th. The pathology report confirmed what we already knew, but found ... I meet with the radiation oncologist this week to find out if I will need radiation. It is likely since the cancer had spread ... I met with a surgical oncologist, a radiation oncologist, a plastic surgeon, and an oncologist. The doctors all met and ...
She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, she did not ... Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - January 9, 2019. Category: Radiology Authors: Joanna ... receive postmastectomy radiation or proper hormone therapy because of their cost.. ...
Modified radical mastectomy-surgery to remove the whole breast and lymph nodes ... Radiation therapy-to kill cancer cells or prevent the cancer from coming back ...
She underwent a modified radical right mastectomy with axillary dissection in 2003. She was found to have 2 positive nodes out ... Bs brain lesions and history of whole-brain radiation made her more susceptible to becoming delirious. The treatment of her ... She instead received a course of whole-brain radiation. Her steroids were gradually tapered. In December 2006 she was admitted ... After surgical consultation, it was decided that preoperative chemotherapy and radiation would be administered. Ms. B was ...
On February 15, 2006, I underwent a modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction. I left the hospital on Tylenol alone. I ... A year ago, I submitted to chemotherapy, followed by radiation treatments to shrink the tumor. I began aromatase inhibitors ...
Breast cancer doctors at Max hospitals do the best treatment with the help of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy etc. ... Modified Radical Mastectomy with reconstruction. B) Radiation therapy: The radiation oncologist will plan your treatment and ... just before the treatment delivery and the Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM) is recommended when:. *Cancer is found in more ... They have the latest radiation techniques such as Accelerated Partial Breast Radiation (APBI), IGRT and Brachytherapy for ...
The rest have modified radical mastectomies, a somewhat less severe version of Halsteds operation. ... Without radiation the risk is about 20 percent. But radiation has no known effect on distant metastases from breast cancer ( ... Nor should we think that the modest benefit from radiation has no price. Radiation therapy is rough on the body. It kills cells ... developed radical mastectomy-the technique for removing a breast, the underlying chest muscles, and the lymph nodes in the ...
The procedure used most often in cases of inflammatory breast cancer is a modified radical mastectomy, which involves removing ... Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. During ... Radiation therapy can be used after chemotherapy and surgery to kill any cancer cells that might remain around your breast and ... Palliative care can be used while undergoing other aggressive treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy. ...
  • This is similar to the skin-sparing mastectomy. (
  • It is sometimes called a total skin-sparing mastectomy. (
  • The move to less radical mastectomy that spares the pectoralis fascia and acceptance of skin-sparing mastectomy has increased the number of women eligible for implant reconstruction. (
  • Skin-sparing mastectomy is a technique that preserves as much of the breast skin as possible for reconstruction. (
  • Winick L, Robbins GF: The post mastectomy rehabilitation group program. (
  • Hypofractionated post mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is commonly given using conventional radiotherapy technique. (
  • Conventional post-mastectomy radiation therapy is delivered with tangential fields for chest wall and separate fields for regional nodes. (
  • Conventional post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) is often delivered with traditional field borders for chest wall and regional nodes. (
  • Because of this change in clinical practice lymphedema is now a rarity following breast cancer treatment-and post-mastectomy lymphangiosarcoma is now vanishingly rare. (
  • Recent data suggest that prognosis is similar for women with primary breast cancer whether they receive modified radical mastectomy (MRM) or local excision and axillary dissection with radiation (XRT). (
  • Comparing radical mastectomy with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy in patients with small cancers of the breast. (
  • Modified radical mastectomy with node dissection in the armpit. (
  • Arm 1) extended radical mastectomy (radical mastectomy + dissection of axilla, infraclavicular, supraclavicular, and 2nd-4th intercostal spaces) vs. Arm 2) simple mastectomy + RT. (
  • She underwent a modified radical right mastectomy with axillary dissection in 2003. (
  • This consisted of a modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection, which rem. (
  • It is agreed that women who have a full axillary dissection (as opposed to only a sentinel node removal) followed by radiation therapy are at most risk. (
  • The initial treatment is surgical and consists of a modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection or lumpectomy and radiation therapy with similar treatment results as in females. (
  • Anyone who has had a simple mastectomy, lumpectomy or modified radical mastectomy combination with axillary node dissection and, often, radiation therapy is at risk. (
  • Bilateral Mastectomy 7 yrs. ago. (
  • I opted for a bilateral mastectomy 7 years ago. (
  • I opted for the bilateral mastectomy. (
  • Re: Bilateral Mastectomy 7 yrs. ago. (
  • I had a bilateral modified radical mastectomy on September 25th. (
  • In spring 2006, she underwent an elective left mastectomy and bilateral breast reconstruction. (
  • Most normal treatment in the case of breast cancer in hodgkins patients is bilateral mastectomy but in my case I also have coronary artery disease with 3 stents which also was a direct result of the mantle radiation. (
  • Radiation therapy is started 4-7 weeks after the beginning of course 2. (
  • Radiation therapy is recommended after surgery. (
  • External beam radiation therapy is given after breast-conserving surgery. (
  • If you have a mastectomy, radiation therapy may be given to the muscles of the chest, lymph nodes under the arm and lymph nodes around the collarbone. (
  • After recovery from surgery, she underwent external-beam radiation therapy. (
  • Following a modified radical mastectomy , the option of adjuvant radiation therapy may be considered. (
  • Farr previously underwent a modified radical mastectomy, a bone marrow transplant, breast reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy. (
  • This operation requires post-operative radiation therapy. (
  • This treatment allows for higher effective doses of radiation therapy compared to traditional therapies. (
  • IORT minimizes the need for patients to come in for radiation therapy by completing all treatment in one day. (
  • Breakthrough radiation oncology cuts the patient's therapy time in half. (
  • The patient successfully finished her chemotherapy and radiation treatments with continuous aromatase inhibitor therapy. (
  • It may be considered, however, depending on the age of the developing fetus, if the treatment options for the mother, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, are severely limited by continuing the pregnancy. (
  • Since radiation therapy may be harmful to the fetus, modified radical mastectomy is the treatment of choice. (
  • Conservative surgery with radiation therapy after the baby is delivered has been used in order to keep the breast intact. (
  • Radiation therapy should not be used during pregnancy, due to the risk to the fetus. (
  • Radiation therapy during the first three months of pregnancy should be avoided. (
  • Primary therapy for breast cancer generally involves lumpectomy and radiation therapy or modified radical mastectomy. (
  • (Although this fact sheet focuses on systemic adjuvant therapy, radiation therapy is sometimes used as a local adjuvant treatment. (
  • Radiation therapy is considered adjuvant treatment when it is given before or after a mastectomy. (
  • Radiation therapy is part of primary therapy, not adjuvant therapy, when it follows breast-sparing surgery. (
  • RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. (
  • Giving radiation therapy in different ways may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery. (
  • It is not yet known whether whole breast radiation therapy is more effective than partial breast radiation therapy in treating breast cancer. (
  • PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying whole breast radiation therapy to see how well it works compared to partial breast radiation therapy in treating women who have undergone surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ or stage I or stage II breast cancer. (
  • Treatment for inflammatory breast cancer often begins with chemotherapy, followed by surgery and radiation therapy. (
  • Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. (
  • During radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a large machine moves around you, directing the energy beams to your cancer. (
  • Radiation therapy can be used after chemotherapy and surgery to kill any cancer cells that might remain around your breast and under your arm. (
  • This risk is independent of breast-conserving therapy or mastectomy [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • Surgery is often one part of a treatment plan that includes chemo- or radiation therapy. (
  • Breast-conserving surgeries, often combined with radiation therapy, are the preferred type of surgeries for eligible women in the early stages of cancer. (
  • Radiation therapy may or may not be required after a modified radical mastectomy, depending on the size of the tumor and whether any cancer was found in the lymph nodes. (
  • Sir Geoffrey Keynes describes the treatment of breast cancer with breast-sparing surgery followed by radiation therapy. (
  • Treatment with radiation therapy to the breast/chest. (
  • Previous studies have shown that breast cancer patients' beliefs regarding radiation therapy (RT) are influenced by a multitude of factors encompassing demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and healthcare-related domains. (
  • We conclude that women's beliefs in the ability of radiation therapy to reduce breast cancer recurrence are associated with an increased number of oncologic physicians consulted. (
  • Gillan C, Abrams D, Harnett N, Wiljer D, Catton P (2014) Fears and misperceptions of radiation therapy: sources and impact on decision-making and anxiety. (
  • Long LE (2001) Being informed: undergoing radiation therapy. (
  • I am defineatly not a candidate for whole breast radiation but did qualify for an accelerated 1 week therapy that is very pin pointed and will totally spare my heart and lungs. (
  • No radiation, chemo or hormone therapy (gyno and TIA issues) for the Breast Cancer. (
  • Radiation therapy was used in 2 patients. (
  • The most influential factor in decision making was fear of breast cancer followed by the advice of the surgeon and concern about radiation therapy. (
  • Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are better sparing heart and lungs. (
  • Fifty of those patients participated in this study, 26 of whom underwent breast conservation therapy (BCT) using radiation and 24 of whom underwent MRM. (
  • Patient characteristics, exam findings and lab results were statistically similar for patients treated with MRM alone and those treated with BCT using radiation therapy, although BCT patients had somewhat lower rates of diabetes at 3.8 percent versus 12.5 percent for MRM patients. (
  • Over the past two decades, radiation therapy has become more precise and safer with modern techniques," said Charles B. Simone II, MD, lead author of the study and a radiation oncologist at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. (
  • We are pleased to find that early stage breast cancer patients treated with modern radiation therapy treatment planning techniques do not have an increased risk of long-term cardiac toxicity and that breast conservation therapy with radiation should remain a standard treatment option. (
  • The abstract, "Cardiac Toxicity is Not Increased 25 Years After Treatment of Early-stage Breast Carcinoma with Mastectomy or Breast Conservation Therapy from the National Cancer Institute Randomized Trial," will be presented in detail during a scientific session at ASTRO's 54th Annual Meeting at 11:00 a.m. (
  • According to the scientifically gathered data by researchers at the Mayo Clinic, it appears that more women with breast cancer seeking treatment at the clinic-specifically those who undergo diagnostic MRI prior to surgery for early-stage breast cancer-are choosing mastectomies rather breast conservation therapy. (
  • The National Institutes of Health issued a report in 1990 stating that breast conserving therapy is as effective as mastectomy for overall survival for most women with stage 1 or 2 breast cancer and is preferable because it provides survival equivalent to total mastectomy while preserving the breast. (
  • Following the release of that report, lumpectomy with radiation therapy became the standard of care for most women with early-stage breast cancer, and mastectomy rates declined. (
  • Modified radical mastectomy continued to be appropriate for some patients, but breast conservation therapy was regarded as the optimal treatment for most women. (
  • ABSTRACT: Over the past 30 years, lumpectomy and radiation therapy (breast-conservation therapy, or BCT) has been the preferred treatment for early-stage breast cancer. (
  • A limited number of publications have reported on patient outcomes after a second lumpectomy and radiation therapy for this clinical scenario. (
  • 1-4] Few data in the literature have described the clinical outcome from a second conservative surgery with or without additional radiation therapy among women who do not consent to mastectomy. (
  • Navratilova had a lumpectomy and will begin six weeks of radiation therapy in May. (
  • However, doctors stressed that for carefully selected patients with early-stage breast cancer the survival rates after the simpler procedure, when combined with radiation therapy, are identical to those of mastectomy. (
  • There is no way to predict how any individual patient will respond to adjuvant therapy-radiation and chemotherapy-or how successful it will be. (
  • Within the next week to 10 days, Severns will begin radiation therapy at St. John's Hospital in Springfield. (
  • Radiation therapy is an integral part of the multimodality treatment of breast cancer and in the recent years, there has been increasing evidence from prospective randomized trials and large meta-analyses supporting greater utilization of radiation therapy for patients at high risk for local-regional relapse after mastectomy [ 1 ]. (
  • This may be a combination of radiation therapy, hormone therapy and/or chemotherapy. (
  • Radiation therapy is a localized cancer treatment that uses high-dose X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells. (
  • The LifeBridge Health Radiation Therapy Centers provide the most advanced radiotherapy for many cancers. (
  • At Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), Brigham and Women's Faulkner Hospital (BWFH) and Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center in clinical affiliation with South Shore Hospital, we provide the full spectrum of breast cancer surgical procedures, including radioactive seed localization for breast-conserving surgery, nipple-sparing mastectomy and perforator flap reconstructive therapy. (
  • Our safety record for the administration of radiation is unsurpassed and our faculty include nationally recognized experts in the safe delivery of radiation therapy. (
  • We have developed our own computer software for intensity modulated radiation therapy, have been treating patients with stereotactic radiosurgery for over 15 years and have an established stereotactic body radiation program. (
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery: Delivers precise, conventional external beam radiation therapy, which is especially useful to treat brain cancer. (
  • The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends that patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and stage I/II invasive breast cancer receive radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery (BCS). (
  • The purpose for our study was to determine 1) the percentage of patients with DCIS and stage I/II breast cancer who received radiation therapy following BCS and 2) the clinical factors associated with the use of radiation. (
  • Overall 93 percent of patients in our study received radiation therapy. (
  • We found that almost 85 percent and 95 percent of patients with DCIS and stage I/II breast cancer respectively received radiation therapy. (
  • Patients with invasive breast cancer who were less than 70 years of age and who received adjuvant systemic therapy were significantly more likely to receive radiation. (
  • 2. Determine factors associated with use of radiation therapy. (
  • Multiple randomized trials have reported long-term results that demonstrate equivalent tumor control outcomes with breast conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiation therapy as with modified radical mastectomy. (
  • The purpose of our study was to determine 1) the percentage of patients with DCIS and stage I/II breast cancer who received radiation therapy after BCS in concordance with the NCCN guidelines and 2) patient and clinical factors that might influence the recommendations of radiation therapy in those who are eligible. (
  • Depending on the situation, chemotherapy , radiation therapy , and hormonal therapy are also considered as part of the care plan. (
  • We herein discuss the dosimetric characteristics of an inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for total local-regional irradiation after MRM, and observe the acute toxicities following irradiation. (
  • Surgical treatment for breast cancer is generally divided into two categories: breast-conserving therapy (BCT) or mastectomy. (
  • BCT involves removing the least possible amount of breast tissue when removing breast cancer, and usually includes adjuvant (additional) therapy after surgery, most often radiation therapy. (
  • The classical radical mastectomy was abandoned in most areas of the world in the late 1960s to early 1970s, being replaced by the much more conservative modified radical mastectomy and, more recently, by segmental breast tissue excision and radiation therapy. (
  • Two types of chemo failed to knock it out and as I was preparing for radiation, I started taking Femara. (
  • also, that with IBC it is especially important to use the trimodal treatment of chemo, surgery and radiation with chemo first. (
  • the statistics are all over the place, ranging from 3% after wide excision/lumpectomy alone to 70% after a modified radical mastectomy and radiation. (
  • Lumpectomy, also known as wide excision or partial mastectomy, involves surgical removal of the cancer with a rim of normal tissue. (
  • For breast cancer , we offer breast-conserving surgery - also known as a lumpectomy - a modified radical mastectomy (breast removal) and under arm lymph node excision. (
  • I was able to proceed with a double mastectomy. (
  • When Angelina Jolie bravely wrote about her double mastectomy last year, it sparked both applause and criticism. (
  • This of course refers to Angelina Jolie's ability to significantly guide the decision making of millions of Americans, simply through the expression of her own personal opinion-including her decision to undergo a preventative double mastectomy, a surgery designed to remove all traces of breast tissue. (
  • The study aimed to help elucidate the common motivations for pursuing a double mastectomy. (
  • The authors found that 18 percent of patients considered the possibility of a double mastectomy, while 8 percent went on to have the surgery. (
  • The study notes that nearly 3 out of every 4 women in the study population reported significant concern about cancer recurrence and that women who underwent the double mastectomy were even more likely to express worry over recurrence. (
  • Interestingly, the author's reported that roughly 70 percent of women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a double mastectomy did not have the genetic factors that would predispose them to cancer in the healthy breast. (
  • Sometime later this year I will have double mastectomy. (
  • PMID 18465331 -- "Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. (
  • Constraints for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis of helical tomotherapy hypofractionated simultaneous multitarget radiotherapy for pulmonary metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Analysis of radiotherapy optimization regimens after modified radical mastectomy. (
  • Purpose: To quantify the impact of immediate reconstruction on radiotherapy planning after modified radical mastectomy & to study radiotherapy complications. (
  • Patients and methods: After surgery, patients submitted to adjuvant radiotherapy with irradiation technique assessment using a semi-quantitative score evaluating the design of radiation fields including five objectives: breadth of chest wall coverage, homogeneity, minimization of lung irradiation, avoidance of heart and Dmax. (
  • My research centers on investigating 1) The comparative effectiveness of new radiation technologies using large observational and claims-based datasets, 2) Disparities in access to effective cancer care, and 3) Improving the quality of life of patients undergoing radiotherapy. (
  • Today however this highly disfiguring procedure is considered unnecessary and is rarely performed having been replaced with modified radical mastectomy or partial mastectomy. (
  • The 28-year-old Phoenix resident was being treated at the University of Arizona center with precisely focused X-ray radiation in a procedure called spinal sterotactic radiosurgery. (
  • The procedure used most often in cases of inflammatory breast cancer is a modified radical mastectomy, which involves removing the entire breast and several nearby lymph nodes. (
  • I chose lumpectomy -- my tumor was small enough to make it possible and, if lumpectomy is followed up by radiation, it has the same survival rate as the more radical procedure. (
  • This surgical procedure is less disfiguring than the radical mastectomy and eventually replaces it as the standard surgical treatment for breast cancer. (
  • And while mastectomy is no longer a first-line choice for all breast cancers, it is still an important and, really, an essential procedure to discuss and research about. (
  • That choice was counter to recent trends in breast cancer surgery, which has seen growing use of the less extensive procedure, a lumpectomy, with or without radiation. (
  • Delaying reconstruction until after completion of all adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation may translate into a patient waiting 6-9 months for the procedure [ 3 ]. (
  • Total (or simple) mastectomy is a surgical procedure that removes all of the breast tissue. (
  • Modified radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the entire breast and the lymph nodes under the arm. (
  • A mastectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or a portion of a breast is removed as a part of treatment for breast cancer. (
  • In this procedure, more breast tissue is left behind than in other forms of mastectomy, so there are greater chances for developing cancer in the remaining tissue. (
  • You'll have access to state-of-the-art cancer care with the most comprehensive services available - tumor imaging, medical oncology, radiation therapies and perhaps surgery. (
  • No single specialty of oncology, including radiation oncology, showed increased associations with women's beliefs regarding RT's efficacy. (
  • We've seen a pendulum swing in mastectomy rates in the last three years," says Matthew P. Goetz, MD, an assistant professor of oncology at the Mayo Clinic. (
  • On February 15, 2006, I underwent a modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction. (
  • 25-years, 2000 PMID 12192016 -- "Twenty-five-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing radical mastectomy, total mastectomy, and total mastectomy followed by irradiation. (
  • As a standard treatment for early breast cancer, modified radical mastectomy has been replaced by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (partial mastectomy) followed by breast irradiation. (
  • The hazard ratio for death among the women who underwent BCS followed by breast irradiation, as compared to those who underwent total mastectomy, was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.83 to 1.14, p = 0.74). (
  • We herein discuss the dosimetric characteristics of a linac IMRT technique for treating chest wall and regional nodes as a whole PTV after modified radical mastectomy, and observe acute toxicities following irradiation. (
  • If you need breast cancer surgery, you want to know all your options - and to work with surgeons who can offer you the latest techniques for mastectomy and lumpectomy. (
  • This provides a full course of radiation in one dose at the time of your cancer surgery. (
  • It can eliminate the need for radiation following surgery. (
  • Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (0-IV) and may involve surgery , radiation , or chemotherapy . (
  • It is used if surgery or radiation can't be done and they have already had chemotherapy. (
  • Since radical mastectomy was seen to be not only very disfiguring (because it left a gaping void in the chest area) but also unnecessary since it offered no additional benefit to a woman with breast cancer, a modified version of the surgery is usually performed now. (
  • The modified version of the radical mastectomy is one of the most commonly used surgical procedures used to treat operable breast cancer (that which will benefit from surgery). (
  • It also makes it possible for a woman to opt for breast reconstructive surgery later or at the time of her mastectomy since the surrounding tissue has been spared. (
  • And the treatment-surgery, usually followed by radiation and chemotherapy-is disfiguring, painful, and all too often unsuccessful. (
  • Intraoperative Radiation (IORT) is a single radiation treatment delivered in the OR during outpatient lumpectomy surgery. (
  • The independent variables in the MANOVA to predict arm morbidity included: Lymph node management type, number of axillary nodes dissected, type of surgery, disease stage, presence of post-operative infection, radiation to the axilla, body mass index (BMI), assessment time post-surgery, education, and partner status. (
  • Today, most women who have mastectomies have reconstructive surgery done at the same time. (
  • A simple mastectomy is the most common breast cancer surgery. (
  • As an added measure, radiation may be given to the nipple area during or after surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. (
  • Surgery, usually lumpectomy or modified radical mastectomy, is the most common first treatment. (
  • Nold RJ, Beamer RL, Helmer SD, McBoyle M (2000) Factors influencing a woman's choice to undergo breast-conserving surgery versus modified radical mastectomy. (
  • I will be on plavix for the rest of my life, I was told mastectomy would be a big surgery for me with the heart issues and that lumpectomy with radiation would be very effective for my early stage breast cancer. (
  • It has been clearly shown that tumor-related factors such as grade, size, and mitotic rate, and treatment variables such as extent of surgery, width of margins, radiation, and tamoxifen can affect ipsilateral event rates after treatment for DCIS ( 12 - 15 ). (
  • Breast-conserving surgery provides results equivalent to those of traditional modified radical mastectomy in approximately 75 percent of women with early-stage breast cancers. (
  • Use of breast-conserving surgery is linked to size of home community, affiliation of hospital with a medical school and availability of radiation facilities. (
  • Women are reported to follow surgical advice about 90 percent of the time when choosing between breastconserving surgery and modified radical mastectomy. (
  • Factors influencing a woman's choice to undergo breast-conserving surgery versus modified radical mastectomy. (
  • Forty-five percent of the respondents had undergone breast-conserving surgery, and patients in this group were significantly younger than patients treated with modified radical mastectomy. (
  • Surgery: a modified radical mastectomy. (
  • We are moving away from frighteningly radical, and towards increasingly more conservational breast cancer surgery. (
  • For example, robotic surgery is increasingly more common in many surgical specialties and procedures, and mastectomy is no exception. (
  • Various types of mastectomy exist and these different types and techniques tie in nicely with the history of breast cancer and breast cancer surgery. (
  • From very radical to conserving-that could be the general description of trends in breast cancer surgery over the last hundred years or so. (
  • Mrs. Reagan and her doctors chose a modified radical mastectomy, in which the breast and a portion of one underlying muscle may be removed, instead of less extensive surgery in which only the lesion and nearby tissue is removed. (
  • Additionally, women who underwent MRI prior to surgery were about 10% to 15% more likely to have a mastectomy compared with women who did not undergo MRI. (
  • A mastectomy is surgery to remove a breast. (
  • Some newer mastectomy methods may offer more surgery options. (
  • This type of surgery seems to work as well as radical mastectomy. (
  • However, critics underlined concerns about the effects of such knowledge and whether it would result in the overutilization of genetic testing and radical surgery. (
  • The whole thing about not having surgery now is to see that the herceptin stops tumors growth as well as shrink tumors, which will pave the way for a cleaner surgery later on and the possibility of not having exterior beam radiation! (
  • There was a long family history and I was tired of going for ultra-sounds every 3 months so I had the bi-lateral mastectomy and Saline Implant surgery. (
  • Within 3 1/2 weeks after heart surgery, my right breast was removed (modified radical mastectomy). (
  • Studies show that this surgery is as effective in treating cancer as a mastectomy in appropriate candidates. (
  • Nipple-sparing mastectomy can be performed in women having prophylactic (preventative) surgery and in selected women with known breast cancer. (
  • There are four main categories of cancer treatment: chemotherapy, radiation, bone marrow or stem cell transplant, and surgery. (
  • Use of radiation after Breast Conserving Surgery (BCS) for DCIS and early invasive breast cancer at Charleston Area Medical Center (CAMC): a study of compliance with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines. (
  • Some newer mastectomy procedures may offer additional options for surgery. (
  • This type of surgery appears to be similar to modified radical mastectomy in effectiveness for many women. (
  • Surgeons remove the whole breast (as in simple mastectomy), plus lymph nodes under the arm. (
  • A modified radical mastectomy is the removal of the whole breast, most of the lymph nodes under the arm, and often the lining over the chest muscles. (
  • A radical mastectomy involves removal of the breast, chest wall muscles, lymph nodes under the arm, and some additional fat and skin. (
  • A year ago, I submitted to chemotherapy, followed by radiation treatments to shrink the tumor. (
  • The first thing I had to decide: should I have a mastectomy, in which the entire breast is removed, or a lumpectomy, where the tumor is removed and the breast is preserved. (
  • Radiation on my spine to reduce the size of the tumor (15 days duration). (
  • BCT patients underwent radiation doses of 45 to 48.6 Gy to the whole breast, with a 15 to 20 Gy boost to the tumor bed. (
  • It ranges from a lumpectomy-removing only the tumor and little else-to modified radical mastectomy-in which the whole breast, many lymph nodes, and even some of the underlying chest wall muscle, is removed. (
  • Women with a high risk for developing breast cancer, such as those with the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene (tumor suppressor genes associated with breast cancer) along with other increased risks, may choose to undergo prophylactic mastectomy. (
  • If discovered early, the patient can proceed with the proper treatment, which can include a full mastectomy, a removal of the breast tissue, along with radiation. (
  • Mastectomy (skin-sparing, nipple-sparing and modified radical): The removal of all breast tissue. (
  • A mastectomy is the removal of the breast, with or without lymph nodes. (
  • Mastectomy, or removal of the entire breast, may be medically necessary if the cancer cannot be removed with clear margins. (
  • While mastectomy traditionally involves removing the breast tissue as well as the nipple-areolar complex, in this procedurethe nipple and areola are left intact, with removal of the breast tissue just under the nipple.This may improve the cosmetic appearance of breast reconstruction and may improve patient satisfaction and is felt to be safe for preventing and treating early stage breast cancer. (
  • A mastectomy is the removal of the breast, nipple and areola to treat breast cancer. (
  • It was previously a relatively common complication of the massive lymphedema of the arm which followed removal of axillary (arm pit) lymph nodes and lymphatic channels as part of the classical Halstedian radical mastectomy, as a treatment for breast cancer. (
  • In comparison to modified radical mastectomy, the 20-year survival of partial mastectomy with radiation is not statistically different [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Pioneers such as George Crile Jr. in Cleveland (who lost his wife to breast cancer) and Oliver Cope in Boston had been pushing for partial mastectomies and radiation for years, enduring ridicule, wrath and accusations of criminal negligence from colleagues. (
  • When followed by radiation, lumpectomy is as effective as mastectomy. (
  • The size of your breast may also help determine the type of mastectomy that is done. (
  • Many women choose this type of mastectomy to achieve the best results from immediate breast reconstruction. (
  • This video examines the different types of mastectomy surgeries available. (
  • OUTLINE: Patients are stratified according to those who have had no more than 1 cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (stratum 1) and those who have had more than 1 cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or modified radical mastectomy (stratum 2). (
  • For example, some patients who seek a second opinion from Valley learn that a mastectomy may not be necessary. (
  • At Valley, the majority of our patients (70 percent) who had a mastectomy had a nipple-sparing mastectomy. (
  • That's why our patients benefit from radiation oncologists dedicated to breast disease. (
  • Both patients had undergone mastectomy years earlier. (
  • 67 biopsy-proven patients with carcinoma of the breast who had undergone modified radical mastectomy (MRM) were included in the study. (
  • BOSTON, Oct. 29, 2012 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Breast cancer patients who receive radiation treatment do not have a higher risk of long-term cardiac morbidity when compared to patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM), according to research presented today at the American Society for Radiation Oncology's (ASTRO's) 54th Annual Meeting. (
  • Radiation treatment on patients' right versus left breast showed no difference in the relevance, severity or distribution of atherosclerosis for BCT patients, including the left anterior descending coronary artery, which is in close proximity to the chest wall and received the highest radiation dose. (
  • With several high-profile celebrities recently discussing their experiences of breast cancer and mastectomies, this article covers a multitude of essential aspects relevant to this topic, in turn, hopefully, helping patients and doctors deal with the diagnosis and plan the treatment accordingly. (
  • Nowadays, many patients who undergo mastectomy will expect breast reconstruction and a satisfactory cosmetic result. (
  • Patients have a better understanding today that lumpectomy and chemotherapy may not get all the cancer, so they may decide to go with a mastectomy. (
  • By the 1930s, a few critics already were complaining that the radical mastectomy didn't help patients whose cancers already had spread and was too drastic for early tumors. (
  • Today, there is broad consensus on indications for postmastectomy radiation that make approximately one-third of patients eligible for treatment after mastectomy [ 2 ]. (
  • The NCCN breast cancer guidelines recommend that radiation be used as a component of BCS for all patients with invasive breast cancer. (
  • 6) The guidelines also recommend radiation after BCS for all patients with DCIS except those with low-grade lesions and tumors less than 0.5 cm. (
  • In such patients, radiation is considered optional. (
  • Patients with serious comorbid diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, connective tissue disease, postoperative wound infections, and delayed wound healing, etc., that would have negatively affected their tolerance to radiation-induced skin or lung toxicity were not eligible. (
  • 1-4) Fisher et al (1) reported a 20-year update of the NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project) study B-06, a randomized trial comparing mastectomy, BCS without radiation, and BCS with radiation. (
  • Leaving skin for reconstruction is not associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence when compared to a simple mastectomy, but the risks and benefits should be discussed with your doctor when designing a treatment plan. (
  • When reconstruction is performed immediately with mastectomy, the nipple and areola are typically removed along with the breast tissue, but most of the breast skin is kept to hold an implant or a flap of tissue from elsewhere on the body. (
  • Women who have immediate reconstruction need a longer hospital stay (usually a few days) than with mastectomy alone, and a longer recovery (between 3-6 weeks), depending on the type of reconstruction. (
  • It is used only when breast reconstruction is done right after the mastectomy. (
  • Reconstruction is done right after the mastectomy. (
  • Many women have breast reconstruction done at the same time as a mastectomy. (
  • With an increase in indications for postmastectomy radiation, there will be an increased need to consider the special implications of combining radiation with breast reconstruction. (
  • It is used only when breast reconstruction is performed immediately after the mastectomy and may not be suitable for tumors that are large or near the skin surface. (
  • Reconstruction may be performed at the time of the mastectomy or at a later time. (
  • Most women diagnosed with a second cancer in a previously irradiated breast are advised to undergo mastectomy. (
  • Total mastectomy is appropriate for women with DCIS and those who choose prophylactic mastectomy. (
  • This may be an option for women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. (
  • Also, mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy is a treatment option. (
  • After surgical consultation, it was decided that preoperative chemotherapy and radiation would be administered. (
  • Advances in chemotherapy and radiation have raised survival rates to a minimum of 65 percent, with some new studies placing them at better than 80 percent. (
  • Our surgeons remove breast tissue as in a simple mastectomy, but keep the breast's outer skin. (
  • The same amount of tissue is removed as with a simple mastectomy, but the skin over the breast is spared. (
  • I was told there are two risks ,,,,infection of the device and possible fibrosis of a small part of the breast tissue that will receive additional radiation due to the overlap of the previous mantle field. (
  • A total mastectomy removes the entire breast, including the nipple, areola, skin and the fatty tissue underneath the skin. (
  • A modified radical mastectomy removes the entire breast, including the nipple, areola, skin and the fatty tissue underneath the skin, and some underarm lymph nodes. (
  • Curiously, though, survival rates eventually proved no better than those for women who underwent simpler versions of the mastectomy in which only the breast was removed. (
  • Five-year results of a randomized clinical trial comparing total mastectomy and segmental mastectomy with or without radiation in the treatment of breast cancer. (
  • Some cancer survivors may experience lymphedema as a side effect of surgical or radiation cancer treatment. (
  • Towards the end of the 19th century, a radical form of mastectomy that removed not just a woman's breast but also her lymph nodes and her chest wall muscles was developed by William Halstead as an effective treatment for breast cancer. (
  • A lumpectomy is followed by radiation treatment to the breast. (
  • For many years, the primary treatment available to women with breast cancer was a complete mastectomy. (
  • Mastectomy is not always the treatment of choice and will usually be used in tumours that are large, compared to the breast size, or tumours that have recurred. (
  • More recently, with an improved understanding of the patterns of in-breast failure, and with advances in the delivery of conformal radiation dose there is an opportunity to reevaluate treatment alternatives for managing a small in-breast recurrence. (
  • A mastectomy may be done as part of treatment for breast cancer. (
  • In some cases, choosing mastectomy over lumpectomy may make further radiation treatment unnecessary. (
  • In most cases, radiation treatment is recommended following lumpectomy. (
  • Radiation exposure to breast/chest. (
  • Women who have received radiation treatments to the chest, particularly when during breast development, are more likely to get breast cancer later on. (
  • Modified radical mastectomy removes the entire breast and the nearby lymph nodes but spares one or both of the chest muscles offering a more natural looking contour to the chest. (
  • With mastectomy, the breast, lymph nodes (glands), and sometimes chest wall muscles are removed. (
  • Then radiation on my chest and shoulder blade (daily for 27 days). (
  • A radical mastectomy removes the entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes and the chest muscle. (
  • However, today a radical mastectomy is rarely performed and is generally only recommended when the breast cancer has spread to the chest muscles. (
  • Using multivariable models, we found that compared to women who discussed RT with only one oncologist (medical, radiation, or surgical), women who discussed RT with all three oncologists were more likely to report increased agreement with RT's ability to reduce cancer recurrence. (
  • Salvage mastectomy is widely accepted as the standard of care for local recurrence after BCT. (
  • Kurtz et al[14] reported that when mastectomy was used to treat the recurrence, the 5-year local control rate was 92% for recurrences occurring after 5 years and only 49% for time intervals of less than 5 years. (
  • Hammer et al (5) from the Cleveland Clinic reported similar recurrence rates (i.e. 10-15%) following both BCS/ radiation and mastectomy. (
  • Urban JA, Baker HW: Radical mastectomy in continuity with an en bloc resection of the internal mammary lymph node chain. (
  • I met with a surgical oncologist, a radiation oncologist, a plastic surgeon, and an oncologist. (
  • I meet with the radiation oncologist this week to find out if I will need radiation. (
  • The breast surgeon and radiation oncologist are both out of that center. (
  • Like, with me, and I had IBC, I had a modified radical mastectomy, and all my lymph-nodes removed because all three sentinel nodes were positive plus about ten more. (
  • This is also referred to as subcutaneous mastectomy. (
  • Subcutaneous mastectomy. (
  • Among the most experienced radiation oncologists in the country, our specialists manage care for hundreds of women with complex breast disease. (
  • A simple mastectomy may also be an option for women who are at a very high risk for developing breast cancer. (
  • Mastectomy is recommended for women whose cancers cannot be completely removed by lumpectomy, who cannot tolerate radiation, or who have two or more areas of cancer in different areas of the same breast. (
  • After mastectomy, women may choose to wear prostheses or not, or have their breasts surgically reconstructed. (
  • Mayo Clinic clinicians noted an increase in mastectomy among women with breast cancer after they introduced MRI into the screening and diagnosis process. (
  • These women present a higher rate of mastectomy compared with women who do not undergo preoperative MRI. (
  • Some women are comfortable with mastectomy. (
  • Researchers found, however, that while women who had MRIs had more mastectomies, mastectomy rates also increased in women who did not undergo MRI, Goetz says. (
  • Although mastectomy is the standard of care for cancer in a previously irradiated breast, many women desire repeat breast conservation. (
  • In some cases, a mastectomy is done to prevent cancer from occurring in women who have a high risk for breast cancer. (
  • In some cases, women with a high risk for breast cancer may want to have a mastectomy before cancer develops. (
  • The multidisciplinary team at the Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cancer Care (MECCC) is comprised of: medical oncologists, surgical oncologists , radiation oncologists , plastic and reconstructive surgeons , social workers, geneticists, pathologists , radiologists , patient navigators, psychologists and a specialist in lymphedema. (
  • Home Tests And Treatments Hysterectomy What Is Modified Radical Mastectomy? (
  • Stay strong and good luck throughout the radiation treatments ahead. (
  • 10-years, 1985 PMID 3883168 -- "Ten-year results of a randomized clinical trial comparing radical mastectomy and total mastectomy with or without radiation. (
  • Radiation exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man's risk of breast cancer. (
  • Radiation is given to try and kill any such lingering or remaining cancer cells to minimize chances of the cancer returning. (
  • Fortunately for Norlach, the cancer was in Stage 1, and he did not have to endure chemotherapy or radiation. (
  • Male breast cancer can be caused due to exposure to radiation, high levels of estrogen and a family history of the disease. (
  • Therefore, the triple negative breast cancer subtype is not an indication for mastectomy. (
  • Five years ago, my mother, diagnosed for the second time with breast cancer, made her decision this way: "My surgeon wanted me to have a lumpectomy and radiation and I said, why am I going to do that? (
  • A modified radical mastectomy may be done if cancer is more invasive or has spread beyond the breast. (
  • David H. Patey develops the modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. (
  • Greater risk of having breast cancer is related to radiation exposure, high estrogen levels, and family history of breast cancer. (
  • This is my first time posting, I have recently been diagnosed with breast cancer as a direct result of mantle radiation I had in 1980 at the age of 19 for stage I Hodgkins lymphoma. (
  • They both do have some fibrosis of the skin but nothing that makes them regret their decision, I was wondering if there is anyone else out there that has had radiation over the top of previous radiation for HD and how that went, There aren't many of us as most chose mastectomy for breast cancer. (
  • Mastectomy removes the entire breast, either to treat breast cancer or to prevent it in high-risk individuals. (
  • Currently the most commonly performed mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy is recommended when invasive cancer is present. (
  • 2018 the worst year of my life Got suddenly diagnosed with met left breast cancer so shocked underwent mastectomy, radiation. (
  • Current breast cancer care and mastectomy trends are also discussed here, giving the readers an up-to-date overview of how breast cancer can and should be managed. (
  • Celebrities have publically spoken out about having breast cancer genes (BRCA 1 or 2) and subsequently electing to have mastectomies. (
  • Sharon Osbourne, Christina Applegate and Shannen Doherty also became the centre of attention after admitting to having breast cancer and proceeding with mastectomies. (
  • In these cases, a mastectomy is done to try to keep breast cancer from occurring. (
  • As she enters her new life as a breast cancer survivor, Democratic lieutenant governor hopeful Penny Severns is expected to undergo a standard regimen of radiation and chemotherapy that should not drastically affect her ability to campaign or hold office, cancer experts predicted Tuesday. (
  • Many males with breast cancer have inherited a BRCA mutation, but there are other causes, including alcohol use disorder and exposure to certain hormones and ionizing radiation. (
  • Radiation is the use of high-energy radiation, primarily X-rays, to kill cancer cells. (
  • Breast cancer risk in men is increased by elevated blood levels of estrogen, previous radiation exposure, and a family history of breast cancer . (
  • The first advance was the modified radical mastectomy, a basic breast amputation in which some underarm lymph nodes might be taken for diagnosis, but often the incision need not extend beyond the breast. (
  • outweigh any risk from radiation exposure. (