Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Radiation Injuries, Experimental
Combined Modality Therapy
Acute Radiation Syndrome
Radioactive Hazard Release
Radiation Hybrid Mapping
Linear Energy Transfer
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Organs at Risk
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Radiation Leukemia Virus
Patient education in nuclear medicine technology practice. (1/1228)This is the second article of a two-part series on patient education. This article builds on the first one by discussing some of the unique considerations in providing patient education in the nuclear medicine department. Concrete strategies for nuclear medicine technology practice are discussed here. After reading this article, the technologist should be able to: (a) describe the affective and technical aspects of the nuclear medicine technologist's role as a patient educator; (b) identify some strategies that nuclear medicine technologists can use to become better teachers; and (c) describe factors that affect patient learning in the nuclear medicine department and some approaches to overcome or minimize learning barriers. (+info)
Carotenoids, sexual signals and immune function in barn swallows from Chernobyl. (2/1228)Carotenoids have been hypothesized to facilitate immune function and act as free-radical scavengers, thereby minimizing the frequency of mutations. Populations of animals exposed to higher levels of free radicals are thus expected to demonstrate reduced sexual coloration if use of carotenoids for free-radical scavenging is traded against use for sexual signals. The intensity of carotenoid-based sexual coloration was compared among three populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica differing in exposure to radioactive contamination. Lymphocyte and immunoglobulin concentrations were depressed, whereas the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, an index of stress, was enhanced in Chernobyl swallows compared to controls. Spleen size was reduced in Chernobyl compared to that of two control populations. Sexual coloration varied significantly among populations, with the size of a secondary sexual character (the length of the outermost tail feathers) being positively related to coloration in the two control populations, but not in the Chernobyl population. Thus the positive covariation between coloration and sexual signalling disappeared in the population subject to intense radioactive contamination. These findings suggest that the reliable signalling function of secondary sexual characters breaks down under extreme environmental conditions, no longer providing reliable information about the health status of males. (+info)
Bremsstrahlung radiation exposure from pure beta-ray emitters. (3/1228)With increasing therapeutic use of radionuclides that emit relatively high-energy (>1 MeV) beta-rays and the production in vivo of bremsstrahlung sufficient for external imaging, the potential external radiation hazard warrants evaluation. METHODS: The exposure from a patient administered beta-ray-emitting radionuclides has been calculated by extending the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement model of a point source in air to account for biologic elimination of activity, the probability of bremsstrahlung production in vivo and its mean energy and the absorption by the patient's body of the bremsstrahlung thus produced. To facilitate such calculations, a quantity called the "specific bremsstrahlung constant" (in C/kg-cm2/MBq-h), betaBr, was devised and calculated for several radionuclides. The specific bremsstrahlung constant is the bremsstrahlung exposure rate (in C/kg/h) in air at 1 cm from a 1 MBq beta-ray emitter of a specified maximum beta-ray energy and frequency of emission in a medium of a specified effective atomic number. RESULTS: For pure beta-ray emitters, the retained activities at which patients can be released from medical confinement (i.e., below which the effective dose equivalent at 1 m will not exceed the maximum recommended value of 0.5 cSv for infrequently exposed members of the general public) are extremely large: on the order of hundreds of thousands to millions of megabecquerels. CONCLUSION: Radionuclide therapy with pure beta-ray emitters, even high-energy beta-ray emitters emitted in bone, does not require medical confinement of patients for radiation protection. (+info)
Syndrome of recurrent increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone following multiple doses of vincristine. (4/1228)The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has been recognized to occur following treatment with vincristine. None of the reports have provided information regarding its potential for recurrence on further challenge with vincristine (VCR), an agent generally required for repeated use in patients with malignancies. Symptomatic hyponatremia and SIADH that occurred 8 days following administration of VCR in a child with acute lymphatic leukemia was documented with specific radioimmunoassay of urinary ADH levels. The further occurrence of recurrent elevations in ADH excretion 8-10 days following repeated treatment with VCR was also observed. However, SIADH was prevented by prophylactic rigorous fluid restriction. The occurrence of SIADH following VCR therefore does not preclude the further safe usage of this drug. (+info)
Interacting populations affecting proliferation of leukemic cells in culture. (5/1228)Peripheral blood cells from three patients with acute leukemic have been studied using a suspension culture method previously described.1 Cytogenetic studies in two of the patients permitted the identification of the proliferating cells in the cultures as being derived from a leukemic population. Cell separation studies using velocity sedimentation supported the concept that growth of the leukemic cells in culture is dependent on an interaction between two populations of leukemic cells. (+info)
Xeroderma pigmentosum cells with normal levels of excision repair have a defect in DNA synthesis after UV-irradiation. (6/1228)Cells cultured from most patients suffering from the sunlight-sensitive hereditary disorder xeroderma pigmentosum are defective in the ability to excise ultraviolet light (UV)-induced pyrimidine dimers from their DNA. There is, however, one class of these patients whose cells are completely normal in this excision repair process. We have found that these cells have an abnormality in the manner in which DNA is synthesized after UV-irradiation. The time taken to convert initially low-molecular-weight DNA synthesized in UV-irradiated cells into high-molecular-weight DNA similar in size to that in untreated cells is much greater in these variants than in normal cells. Furthermore, this slow conversion of low to high-molecular-weight newly synthesized DNA is drastically inhibited by caffeine, which has no effect in normal cells. Two cell lines from classes of xeroderma pigmentosum that are defective in excision-repair show intermediate effects, with regard to both the time taken to convert newly synthesized DNA to high molecular weight and the inhibition of this process by caffeine. (+info)
Effect of ionizing radiation on transgenerational appearance of p(un) reversions in mice. (7/1228)Multiple genetic changes are required for the development of a malignant tumor cell and many environmentally induced cancers show a delayed onset of > 20 years following exposure. In fact, the frequency of genetic changes in cancer cells is higher than can be explained by random mutation. A high level of genetic instability in a subpopulation of cells may be caused by a mutator phenotype transmitted through many cell divisions. We have determined the effects of irradiation of parental male mice on the frequency and characteristics of mitotically occurring DNA deletion events at the p(un) locus in the offspring. Reversion of the p(un) marker in mouse embryos is due to deletion of 70 kb of DNA resulting in fur spots in the offspring. We found that irradiation of male mice caused a significantly higher frequency of large spots in the offspring, indicative of the induction of DNA deletions early in embryo development. These deletion events occurred, however, many cell divisions after irradiation. The present data indicate that exposure of the germline to ionizing radiation results in induction of delayed DNA deletions in offspring mice. (+info)
Nuclear coupling of 33S and the nature of free radicals in irradiated crystals of cysteine hydrochloride and N-acetyl methionine. (8/1228)The 33S hyperfine structure has been observed in the electron spin resonance of irradiated crystals of cysteine-HCl-H2O and of N-acetyl DL-methionine. An analysis of the results shows that in both substances the free radicals that are stable at room temperature are disulfide radicals, RCH2SS. A possible mechanism for formation of these radicals is proposed. (+info)
Radiation injuries refer to damage to living tissue caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is a type of energy that has enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, creating ions. This can cause damage to cells and tissues, leading to a range of symptoms and health problems. Radiation injuries can occur from a variety of sources, including medical procedures such as radiation therapy, nuclear accidents, and exposure to radioactive materials. The severity of radiation injuries depends on the dose of radiation received, the duration of exposure, and the type of tissue affected. Symptoms of radiation injuries can include skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and an increased risk of developing cancer. In severe cases, radiation injuries can be life-threatening and may require medical intervention, such as surgery or supportive care. Treatment for radiation injuries depends on the severity of the injury and the underlying cause. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms, wound care, and physical therapy. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair injuries.
Neoplasms, radiation-induced are abnormal growths of cells that are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is a type of energy that has enough force to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, causing the atoms to become ionized. This type of radiation is capable of damaging DNA and other cellular structures, which can lead to mutations and the development of cancer. Radiation-induced neoplasms can occur in any part of the body that has been exposed to ionizing radiation, including the skin, lungs, thyroid gland, and bone marrow. The risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm increases with the dose of radiation received and the duration of exposure. In addition, certain factors such as age, gender, and genetic predisposition can also affect the risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm. Treatment for radiation-induced neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the location and extent of the radiation exposure. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. It is important for individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation to be monitored for the development of radiation-induced neoplasms, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.
Radiation injuries, experimental refer to injuries or damage caused to living tissue as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation in a laboratory or research setting. These injuries can occur intentionally, as part of a scientific study or experiment, or unintentionally, as a result of equipment malfunction or other accidents. The effects of radiation on living tissue can vary depending on the type and amount of radiation exposure, as well as the duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of radiation exposure include burns, skin damage, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In severe cases, radiation exposure can lead to organ damage, tissue necrosis, and even death. Experimental radiation injuries are typically studied in order to better understand the effects of radiation on living tissue and to develop new treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses. These studies may involve exposing animals or cells to different types and doses of radiation, and then observing the effects of the radiation on the exposed organisms or cells. The results of these studies can be used to inform the development of new radiation protection measures and treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses in humans.
The bystander effect, also known as the diffusion of responsibility, is a phenomenon in which individuals are less likely to intervene or provide assistance in an emergency situation when there are other people present. In the medical field, the bystander effect can occur when multiple people witness an emergency situation, such as a patient experiencing a medical emergency, but no one takes action to provide assistance. For example, if a patient collapses in a public place and several people witness the event, they may assume that someone else will take action and provide assistance. As a result, no one may step forward to perform CPR or call for emergency medical services, even if they are trained to do so. The bystander effect can be particularly problematic in medical emergencies because prompt intervention is critical to saving a patient's life. To mitigate the bystander effect, healthcare providers and first responders often encourage the public to take an active role in emergency situations and to provide assistance when possible. Additionally, training programs can help individuals feel more confident and prepared to intervene in emergency situations.
Cosmic radiation refers to high-energy particles and radiation that originate from outside our solar system and travel through space at nearly the speed of light. In the medical field, cosmic radiation is a concern for astronauts and frequent flyers who are exposed to higher levels of radiation than those on the ground. Cosmic radiation includes a variety of particles, including protons, helium nuclei, and high-energy photons (gamma rays). These particles can penetrate the human body and cause damage to cells and DNA, which can lead to an increased risk of cancer and other health problems. In space, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of cosmic radiation due to the lack of Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetic field. This exposure can increase their risk of developing cancer, cataracts, and other health problems. As a result, NASA and other space agencies have implemented measures to protect astronauts from cosmic radiation, such as using shielding materials and limiting the duration of space missions. In addition to astronauts, frequent flyers on commercial airplanes are also exposed to higher levels of cosmic radiation due to the altitude at which they fly. However, the levels of cosmic radiation on commercial flights are generally considered to be low and not a significant health concern for most people.
Radiation pneumonitis is a condition that occurs when the lungs are exposed to high levels of radiation, such as during radiation therapy for cancer. It is a type of inflammation that affects the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fever. In severe cases, radiation pneumonitis can lead to lung fibrosis, a condition in which the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe. Treatment for radiation pneumonitis may include medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as oxygen therapy to help the lungs function properly.
Background radiation refers to the natural radiation that is present in the environment and is constantly bombarding the human body. This radiation comes from a variety of sources, including cosmic rays, naturally occurring radioactive elements in the earth, and radioactive decay products in the air and water. In the medical field, background radiation is an important consideration when performing diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays, CT scans, and PET scans. These procedures involve exposing the patient to ionizing radiation, which can potentially increase the patient's risk of developing cancer or other radiation-related health problems. To minimize the risk of radiation exposure, medical professionals use techniques such as dose optimization, image quality control, and patient shielding to reduce the amount of radiation used during imaging procedures. They also monitor the patient's radiation exposure and provide counseling to help patients understand the risks and benefits of radiation exposure.
Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a cancer treatment approach that involves using two or more different types of treatments simultaneously or in sequence to achieve a better therapeutic effect than any single treatment alone. The goal of CMT is to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment while minimizing side effects. The different types of treatments that may be used in CMT include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and hormonal therapy. The specific combination of treatments used in CMT depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and individual needs. CMT is often used for the treatment of advanced or aggressive cancers, where a single treatment may not be effective. By combining different treatments, CMT can help to destroy cancer cells more completely and prevent the cancer from returning. However, CMT can also have more significant side effects than a single treatment, so it is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) is a medical condition that occurs when a person is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation over a short period of time. It is characterized by a range of symptoms that can develop within hours to days after exposure, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In severe cases, ARS can lead to organ failure and death. The severity of ARS depends on the dose and duration of radiation exposure, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and genetic makeup. ARS is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt medical attention and treatment.
Cobalt radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element cobalt that are used in medical applications. These isotopes are typically produced by bombarding cobalt-59 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor or by using a cyclotron to accelerate protons onto a cobalt-59 target. There are several different cobalt radioisotopes that are used in medicine, including cobalt-57, cobalt-58, cobalt-60, and cobalt-67. Each of these isotopes has a different half-life (the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay) and emits different types of radiation. Cobalt radioisotopes are used in a variety of medical applications, including diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. For example, cobalt-60 is often used as a source of gamma radiation in radiation therapy to treat cancer. Cobalt-57 is used in a diagnostic test called a "bone scan" to detect bone abnormalities, such as fractures or tumors. Cobalt-58 is used in a similar test called a "lung scan" to detect lung abnormalities. Overall, cobalt radioisotopes play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of medical conditions.
Brachytherapy is a type of radiation therapy that involves placing radioactive sources directly into or near a tumor or cancerous tissue. The sources are usually small pellets or seeds that are inserted into the body using a catheter or other device. The radiation emitted by the sources kills cancer cells and slows the growth of tumors. Brachytherapy is often used in combination with other types of cancer treatment, such as surgery or chemotherapy. It can be used to treat a variety of cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and head and neck cancer. There are two main types of brachytherapy: low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. LDR brachytherapy involves the placement of a single radioactive source that emits a low dose of radiation over a longer period of time. HDR brachytherapy involves the use of a remote-controlled afterloader that can deliver a high dose of radiation in a shorter period of time. Brachytherapy is generally considered to be a safe and effective treatment for cancer, but it can have side effects, such as skin irritation, fatigue, and nausea. The specific risks and benefits of brachytherapy will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the individual patient's overall health.
Radiodermatitis is a type of skin inflammation that occurs as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. It is also known as radiation dermatitis or radiation-induced dermatitis. The condition can affect any part of the body that has been exposed to radiation, but it is most commonly seen on the skin of the face, neck, and hands. Radiodermatitis can be caused by a variety of sources, including medical treatments such as radiation therapy for cancer, as well as exposure to radiation from nuclear accidents or other sources. The condition can range from mild to severe, and symptoms may include redness, swelling, itching, and pain. In severe cases, radiodermatitis can lead to blistering, ulceration, and scarring. Treatment for radiodermatitis typically involves managing symptoms and preventing further skin damage. This may include using moisturizers, anti-inflammatory medications, and antibiotics to treat infections. In some cases, a skin graft may be necessary to repair severe damage. It is important to note that prevention is key, and minimizing exposure to ionizing radiation is the best way to prevent radiodermatitis.
Leukemia, radiation-induced is a type of cancer that develops in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is a type of energy that has enough force to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, causing them to become ionized. This type of radiation is commonly used in medical treatments such as radiation therapy for cancer, but it can also be caused by exposure to nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons, and certain types of medical imaging procedures. Radiation-induced leukemia typically develops several years after exposure to radiation, and the risk of developing the disease increases with the dose and duration of exposure. The most common type of radiation-induced leukemia is chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which is a type of cancer that affects the white blood cells called lymphocytes. Other types of radiation-induced leukemia include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Treatment for radiation-induced leukemia typically involves chemotherapy, which uses drugs to kill cancer cells, and sometimes radiation therapy to target the cancer cells. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged bone marrow with healthy cells. The prognosis for radiation-induced leukemia depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the response to treatment.
In the medical field, "body burden" refers to the amount of a particular substance or chemical that has accumulated in the body over time. This can include substances that have been ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Body burden can be measured in terms of the amount of a substance present in the body, as well as its distribution within the body. For example, some substances may accumulate in certain organs or tissues more than others, which can have implications for their potential health effects. Body burden can be influenced by a variety of factors, including the amount and frequency of exposure to a substance, the duration of exposure, and individual differences in metabolism and elimination. It is important to monitor body burden for certain substances, particularly those that are known to be toxic or carcinogenic, in order to assess potential health risks and develop appropriate prevention and treatment strategies.
Cesium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element cesium that are used in medical imaging and treatment. These isotopes emit gamma rays, which can be detected by medical imaging equipment such as gamma cameras or PET scanners. One commonly used cesium radioisotope in medical imaging is cesium-137 (Cs-137), which is used in bone scans to detect bone abnormalities such as fractures, tumors, and infections. Cs-137 is also used in nuclear medicine to treat certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, by delivering targeted radiation to cancer cells. Another cesium radioisotope used in medical imaging is cesium-131 (Cs-131), which is used in thyroid scans to detect thyroid abnormalities such as nodules or cancer. Cs-131 is also used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. Cesium radioisotopes are typically produced in nuclear reactors or cyclotrons and are then purified and formulated into radiopharmaceuticals for medical use. However, due to the potential risks associated with radiation exposure, the use of cesium radioisotopes in medical imaging and treatment is tightly regulated and requires careful consideration of the benefits and risks involved.
Abnormalities, radiation-induced refer to changes in the structure or function of cells, tissues, or organs that are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. These changes can occur in any part of the body and can be acute or chronic. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a type of radiation-induced abnormality that occurs within hours to days after exposure to a high dose of radiation. Symptoms of ARS can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and skin burns. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) is a type of radiation-induced abnormality that occurs weeks, months, or years after exposure to a lower dose of radiation. Symptoms of CRS can include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, and an increased risk of cancer. Radiation-induced cancer is a type of abnormality that occurs when cells in the body are damaged by radiation and begin to grow uncontrollably, forming a tumor. Radiation-induced cancer can occur in any part of the body and can take many years to develop after exposure to radiation. Radiation-induced genetic abnormalities can also occur when radiation damages the DNA in cells, leading to changes in the genetic material that can be passed on to future generations. These changes can increase the risk of certain genetic disorders and cancers.
Beta particles are high-energy electrons or positrons that are emitted from the nucleus of an atom during a nuclear decay process. In the medical field, beta particles are commonly used in radiation therapy to treat cancerous tumors. They can be targeted directly at the tumor, delivering a high dose of radiation to kill cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Beta particles can also be used in diagnostic imaging, such as in positron emission tomography (PET) scans, to visualize and measure the activity of certain organs or tissues in the body.
Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells in the brain. They can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Brain tumors can occur in any part of the brain and can be primary (originating from brain cells) or secondary (spreading from other parts of the body to the brain). Symptoms of brain neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or hearing, difficulty with balance or coordination, and changes in personality or behavior. Diagnosis of brain neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for brain neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Radioactive fallout refers to the residual radioactive material that is released into the environment as a result of a nuclear explosion or accident. This material can include a variety of radioactive isotopes, such as cesium-137, strontium-90, and iodine-131, which can be inhaled or ingested by people and animals, leading to internal exposure to radiation. In the medical field, radioactive fallout can be a concern for both acute and chronic health effects, including radiation sickness, cancer, and genetic mutations. Medical professionals may be involved in monitoring and treating individuals who have been exposed to radioactive fallout, as well as in developing strategies to mitigate the risks associated with this type of exposure.
The Chernobyl Nuclear Accident refers to a catastrophic event that occurred on April 26, 1986, at the No. 4 reactor of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. The accident was caused by a combination of human error, design flaws, and a lack of safety measures, which led to a nuclear explosion and a release of radioactive material into the environment. In the medical field, the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident is significant because it had a significant impact on human health. The release of radioactive material, primarily iodine-131 and cesium-137, contaminated the air, water, and food in the surrounding area, leading to widespread exposure to radiation. The immediate effects of the accident included acute radiation sickness, which affected the emergency workers who were sent to the site to contain the damage. The long-term effects of the accident are still being studied, but it is believed that exposure to radiation may have increased the risk of cancer and other health problems in the affected population. In addition to the health effects on humans, the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident also had a significant impact on the environment and wildlife in the surrounding area. The accident is considered one of the worst nuclear disasters in history and serves as a reminder of the importance of safety measures in the operation of nuclear power plants.
In the medical field, "cell survival" refers to the ability of cells to survive and continue to function despite exposure to harmful stimuli or conditions. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, or other forms of stress that can damage or kill cells. Cell survival is an important concept in many areas of medicine, including cancer research, where understanding how cells survive and resist treatment is crucial for developing effective therapies. In addition, understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell survival can also have implications for other areas of medicine, such as tissue repair and regeneration.
Head and neck neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the head and neck region of the body. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can affect any part of the head and neck, including the mouth, nose, throat, sinuses, salivary glands, thyroid gland, and neck lymph nodes. Head and neck neoplasms can be further classified based on the type of tissue they arise from, such as squamous cell carcinoma (which develops from the squamous cells that line the inside of the mouth and throat), adenoid cystic carcinoma (which develops from the glands that produce mucus), and salivary gland tumors (which develop from the salivary glands). The treatment for head and neck neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving the prognosis and reducing the risk of complications.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Cranial irradiation is a medical treatment that involves the use of high-energy radiation to target and destroy cancer cells in the head and neck region. It is typically used to treat various types of brain tumors, as well as other cancers that have spread to the brain or spinal cord. During cranial irradiation, a machine called a linear accelerator is used to deliver the radiation to the affected area. The patient is typically positioned on a table, and the linear accelerator is positioned around the head and neck. The radiation is then directed at the tumor, destroying the cancer cells and preventing them from growing and spreading. Cranial irradiation can be delivered in a number of different ways, including fractionated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The specific type of radiation therapy used will depend on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. While cranial irradiation can be an effective treatment for certain types of cancer, it can also have side effects. These can include fatigue, hair loss, skin irritation, and changes in cognitive function. However, the severity of these side effects can vary depending on the individual patient and the specific treatment plan.
Radioisotopes are isotopes of an element that emit radiation, such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In diagnostic imaging, radioisotopes are used to create images of the body's internal structures. For example, a radioisotope such as technetium-99m can be injected into the bloodstream and then detected by a gamma camera to create an image of the heart, lungs, or other organs. This type of imaging is commonly used to diagnose conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and bone disorders. Radioisotopes are also used in therapeutic applications, such as radiation therapy for cancer. In this treatment, a radioisotope is introduced into the body, usually by injection or inhalation, and then targeted to a specific area of the body where it emits radiation that destroys cancer cells. Radioisotopes are also used in targeted radionuclide therapy, where a radioisotope is attached to a molecule that specifically targets cancer cells, allowing for more precise delivery of radiation. Overall, radioisotopes play a critical role in medical imaging and therapy, allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of conditions.
Chemoradiotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that combines the use of chemotherapy (the use of drugs to kill cancer cells) and radiation therapy (the use of high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells or damage their DNA). This combination approach is often used to treat certain types of cancer, such as head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, and some types of lung cancer. The goal of chemoradiotherapy is to increase the effectiveness of the treatment by using the two therapies together, as the chemotherapy can make the cancer cells more sensitive to the radiation therapy, and vice versa.
Cobalt isotopes are radioactive forms of the element cobalt that are used in medical applications. There are several isotopes of cobalt that are used in medicine, including cobalt-57, cobalt-58, cobalt-60, and cobalt-67. Cobalt-57 is commonly used in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukemia. Cobalt-58 is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. It is also used in the diagnosis of bone disorders and in the treatment of certain types of infections. Cobalt-60 is used in radiation therapy to treat cancer. It is also used in the sterilization of medical equipment and in the treatment of certain types of eye disorders. Cobalt-67 is used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is also used in the diagnosis of certain types of bone disorders and in the treatment of certain types of infections. Overall, cobalt isotopes play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, and are widely used in the medical field.
Neoplasm recurrence, local refers to the return of cancer cells to the original site of the tumor after treatment. This can occur even if the cancer has been completely removed through surgery or other treatments. Local recurrence is typically treated with additional surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the type and stage of the cancer. It is important to note that local recurrence does not necessarily mean that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell is a type of cancer that originates in the squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that line the surface of the body. Squamous cells are found in the skin, mouth, throat, lungs, and other organs. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell can develop in any part of the body where squamous cells are present, but it is most commonly found in the head and neck, lungs, and skin. The exact cause of Squamous Cell Carcinoma is not always clear, but it is often associated with exposure to certain substances, such as tobacco smoke, alcohol, and certain chemicals. It can also develop as a result of chronic inflammation or infection, such as HPV (human papillomavirus) infection in the cervix. Symptoms of Squamous Cell Carcinoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but may include a persistent sore or lesion that does not heal, a change in the appearance of the skin or mucous membranes, difficulty swallowing or breathing, and unexplained weight loss. Treatment for Squamous Cell Carcinoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy may also be used. The prognosis for Squamous Cell Carcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis and the overall health of the patient.
In the medical field, radioactive pollutants refer to any substances that contain radioactive isotopes and are present in the environment at levels that may pose a risk to human health. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including nuclear power plants, medical facilities, and the natural decay of radioactive elements in the earth. Radioactive pollutants can be inhaled or ingested, and can cause a range of health problems, including cancer, genetic mutations, and damage to the immune system. Exposure to high levels of radioactive pollutants can be particularly dangerous, as it can lead to acute radiation sickness and death. In medical settings, radioactive pollutants may be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as in nuclear medicine and radiation therapy. However, proper handling and disposal of these substances are essential to prevent accidental exposure and minimize the risk of harm to patients and medical staff.
A cell line, tumor is a type of cell culture that is derived from a cancerous tumor. These cell lines are grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the biology of cancer and testing potential new treatments. They are typically immortalized, meaning that they can continue to divide and grow indefinitely, and they often exhibit the characteristics of the original tumor from which they were derived, such as specific genetic mutations or protein expression patterns. Cell lines, tumor are an important tool in cancer research and have been used to develop many of the treatments that are currently available for cancer patients.
Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign breast neoplasms are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Malignant breast neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and are considered a serious health threat. Some common types of breast neoplasms include fibroadenomas, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma.
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process that occurs naturally in the body. It is a vital mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and eliminating damaged or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, cells undergo a series of changes that ultimately lead to their death and removal from the body. These changes include chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which are engulfed by neighboring cells or removed by immune cells. Apoptosis plays a critical role in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune function. However, when apoptosis is disrupted or dysregulated, it can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Alpha particles are high-energy, positively charged particles that are emitted by certain radioactive substances. In the medical field, alpha particles are often used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. They are particularly effective at damaging cancer cells because they have a high rate of ionization, which means they can cause significant damage to the DNA of cells they pass through. This can lead to the death of cancer cells or prevent them from dividing and growing. Alpha particles are also used in some diagnostic imaging procedures, such as bone scans, to detect and locate areas of the body that may be affected by cancer or other diseases.
Antineoplastic agents, also known as cytotoxic agents or chemotherapeutic agents, are drugs that are used to treat cancer by killing or slowing the growth of cancer cells. These agents work by interfering with the normal processes of cell division and growth, which are necessary for the survival and spread of cancer cells. There are many different types of antineoplastic agents, including alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies, among others. These agents are often used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery and radiation therapy, to provide the most effective treatment for cancer.
Proctitis is an inflammation of the rectum, which is the final part of the large intestine. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, injuries, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, bleeding, itching, discharge, and difficulty passing stool. Treatment for proctitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols (ACCP) are a type of chemotherapy treatment used to treat cancer. They involve the use of multiple drugs in combination to target and destroy cancer cells. The drugs used in an ACCP are chosen based on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health. The goal of an ACCP is to shrink the tumor, slow the growth of cancer cells, and improve the patient's quality of life.
Yttrium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element yttrium that are used in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Yttrium-90 (90Y) is a commonly used radioisotope in these applications. It is produced by bombarding a target with neutrons, and it emits beta particles that can be detected by imaging equipment. In medical imaging, 90Y is often used in conjunction with a radiopharmaceutical, which is a compound that contains 90Y and is designed to target specific cells or tissues in the body. For example, 90Y-labeled antibodies can be used to image and diagnose certain types of cancer, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. The beta particles emitted by 90Y can also be used to destroy cancer cells through a process called radioimmunotherapy. In cancer treatment, 90Y is often used in conjunction with a radiopharmaceutical to deliver targeted radiation therapy to cancer cells. This can be particularly useful in cases where the cancer has spread to multiple sites in the body and is difficult to treat with traditional chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The radiopharmaceutical is designed to target the cancer cells specifically, minimizing damage to healthy cells and tissues.
Amifostine is a medication that is used to protect against the harmful effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. It works by neutralizing the toxic effects of these treatments on healthy cells in the body. Amifostine is typically given before radiation therapy or chemotherapy to help reduce the risk of side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and hair loss. It is also sometimes used to protect the eyes and salivary glands from the effects of radiation therapy. Amifostine is available as a tablet that is taken by mouth. It is usually given in a dose of 1500 mg, which is divided into two doses of 750 mg, taken 30 minutes before radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Iridium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iridium that are used in various medical applications. These isotopes are typically produced by bombarding iridium targets with high-energy particles, such as protons or neutrons, in a nuclear reactor or particle accelerator. One commonly used iridium radioisotope in medicine is iridium-192 (Ir-192), which has a half-life of approximately 74 days and emits low-energy gamma rays. Ir-192 is often used in radiation therapy to treat cancer, as it can be placed directly into or near a tumor to deliver a high dose of radiation to the cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Another iridium radioisotope used in medicine is iridium-191 (Ir-191), which has a half-life of approximately 27 hours and emits beta particles. Ir-191 has been used in research to study the metabolism of certain drugs and to develop new imaging agents for use in diagnostic procedures. Overall, iridium radioisotopes have a number of potential applications in medicine, including cancer treatment, drug research, and diagnostic imaging. However, they must be handled with care due to their radioactivity, and appropriate safety measures must be taken to minimize the risk of exposure to radiation.
Glioblastoma is a type of brain tumor that is classified as a grade IV astrocytoma, which means it is a highly aggressive and rapidly growing cancer. It is the most common and deadly type of primary brain tumor in adults, accounting for about 15% of all brain tumors. Glioblastoma typically arises from the supportive cells of the brain called astrocytes, but it can also develop from other types of brain cells. The tumor is characterized by its ability to infiltrate and spread into the surrounding brain tissue, making it difficult to remove completely through surgery. Symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor in the brain, but common symptoms include headaches, seizures, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. Treatment for glioblastoma typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Despite these treatments, glioblastoma is generally considered to be incurable, with a median survival rate of about 15 months from diagnosis.
Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of an organ or tissue. It is one of the most common types of cancer and can occur in many different parts of the body, including the lungs, breast, colon, rectum, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid gland. Adenocarcinomas typically grow slowly and may not cause symptoms in the early stages. However, as the cancer grows, it can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. This can lead to more serious symptoms and a higher risk of complications. Treatment for adenocarcinoma depends on the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the cancer cells and prevent them from spreading further.
Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) proteins are a group of enzymes that play a critical role in the maintenance of genomic stability and the response to DNA damage. They are involved in the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, and the activation of DNA damage response pathways. Mutations in the ATM gene can lead to a genetic disorder called Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT), which is characterized by progressive loss of coordination, telangiectases (abnormal blood vessels), and an increased risk of cancer. ATM proteins are also involved in the regulation of other cellular processes, such as inflammation and cell death.
Glioma is a type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells, which are the supportive cells of the brain and spinal cord. Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for about 80% of all brain tumors. They can occur in any part of the brain, but are most commonly found in the frontal and temporal lobes. Gliomas are classified based on their degree of malignancy, with grades I to IV indicating increasing levels of aggressiveness. Grade I gliomas are slow-growing and have a better prognosis, while grade IV gliomas are highly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Symptoms of gliomas can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or speech, difficulty with coordination or balance, and personality changes. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.
Tumor suppressor protein p53 is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth and preventing the development of cancer. It is encoded by the TP53 gene and is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancer. The p53 protein acts as a "guardian of the genome" by detecting DNA damage and initiating a series of cellular responses to repair the damage or trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe. This helps to prevent the accumulation of mutations in the DNA that can lead to the development of cancer. In addition to its role in preventing cancer, p53 also plays a role in regulating cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and the response to cellular stress. Mutations in the TP53 gene can lead to the production of a non-functional or mutated p53 protein, which can result in the loss of these important functions and contribute to the development of cancer. Overall, the p53 protein is a critical regulator of cell growth and survival, and its dysfunction is a common feature of many types of cancer.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy drug that is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, testicular, bladder, and lung cancer. It works by binding to the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Cisplatin is usually administered intravenously and can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the kidneys and hearing. It is important to note that cisplatin is not effective for all types of cancer and may not be suitable for everyone. The use of cisplatin should be determined by a healthcare professional based on the individual's specific medical needs and circumstances.
Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element iodine that are used in medical imaging and treatment procedures. These isotopes have a nucleus that contains an odd number of neutrons, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation as they decay back to a more stable form of iodine. There are several different iodine radioisotopes that are commonly used in medical applications, including iodine-123, iodine-125, and iodine-131. Each of these isotopes has a different half-life, which is the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive material to decay. The half-life of an iodine radioisotope determines how long it will remain in the body and how much radiation will be emitted during that time. Iodine radioisotopes are often used in diagnostic imaging procedures, such as thyroid scans, to help doctors visualize the structure and function of the thyroid gland. They may also be used in therapeutic procedures, such as radiation therapy, to treat thyroid cancer or other thyroid disorders. In these cases, the radioactive iodine is administered to the patient and selectively absorbed by the thyroid gland, where it emits radiation that damages or destroys cancerous cells.
Adjuvant chemotherapy is a type of chemotherapy that is given after surgery to help destroy any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of the cancer returning. It is often used in combination with other treatments, such as radiation therapy or hormone therapy, to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Adjuvant chemotherapy is typically given for several months following surgery, and the specific drugs and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.
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Nonlinearity of radiation health effects.
The genetic effects of Chernobyl radiation exposure | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
CBRNE - Radiation Emergencies: Overview, Terminology, Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation
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International research teams explore genetic effects of Chernobyl radiation | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
effects of radiation? - Cancer Survivors Network
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Molecular effects of 1-naphthyl-methylcarbamate and solar radiation exposures on human melanocytes - PubMed
Search for radiation side effects | Learn flashcards online | CoboCards
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Radiation Exposure: MedlinePlus
Department of Radiation Oncology1
- In addition there has been a clinical department of radiation oncology within the Cross Cancer Institute since the Institute was created. (ualberta.ca)
- The Division of Radiation Oncology has existed since the inception of the Department of Oncology within the University of Alberta. (ualberta.ca)
- There are 23 Radiation Oncologists comprising approximately 21 FTEs working closely with specialists in the Experimental Oncology, Medical Oncology, Pathology, Surgical Oncology, Oncologic Imaging and Gynecological Oncology disciplines. (ualberta.ca)
- There are radiation oncology therapist especially trained in CyberKnife treatment delivery that are a part of the team as well. (unc.edu)
- ATLANTA - A modified version of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) might preserve memory function in cancer patients with brain metastases, according to a single-group study presented here at the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 55th Annual Meeting. (medscape.com)
- Dr. Gondi and a group of colleagues from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) developed an approach to address the problem: hippocampal avoidance (HA)-WBRT. (medscape.com)
- American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 55th Annual Meeting: Abstract LBA1. (medscape.com)
- It does not tell you about non-ionizing radiation, such as microwaves, ultrasound, or ultraviolet radiation. (cdc.gov)
Type of radiation4
- They also try get more information about the exposure, such as what type of radiation it was, how far away you were from the source of the radiation, and how long you were exposed. (medlineplus.gov)
- These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and the type of radiation. (cdc.gov)
- It's important to remember that the type of radiation side effects that you experience will depend on the type of cancer you have, the prescribed radiation dose and your general health. (wustl.edu)
- Gamma radiation using a linear accelerator is the most common type of radiation therapy. (msdmanuals.com)
- Marked increase in the teratogenicity of the combined administration of the industrial solvent 2-methoxyethanol and radiofrequency radiation in rats. (cdc.gov)
- This would, thus, allow the radiation oncologists to increase the doses to thetarget (the prostate, in this case), while minimizing dose to the normal tissues in proximity (bladder, intestine and rectum). (oncolink.org)
- The Edmonton Cancer Clinic, Radiotherapy, was staffed by two British Radiation Oncologists treating patients with a Eldorado Cobalt 60 unit, a Cesium teletherapy unit, a Picker 270 KV, Picker 120 KV units plus radium applicators for brachytherapy. (ualberta.ca)
- But radiation oncologists have been increasingly sensitive to the adverse effects of that approach, he explained. (medscape.com)
- Or a surgeon can place radioactive materials into the tumor (internal radiation or brachytherapy ). (webmd.com)
- Internal radiation therapy is also called brachytherapy, interstitial therapy, or implant therapy. (kidshealth.org)
- There is pulsed dose rate and high dose rate brachytherapy, permanent interstitial implantation, and stereotactic body radiation treatment. (ualberta.ca)
- Ionizing radiation can also be in the form of particulate radiation, which includes subatomic l charged or neutral particles traveling near the speed of light and therefore with high very high kinetic energy. (medscape.com)
- Power electronic components operating in radiation environments are exposed to different types of radiation effects such as single event, ionizing dose and displacement damage effects, which affect the device functionality through device failure or degradation. (hal.science)
- Moreover, radiation sensitivity of SiC and GaN power technologies are assessed for single event effects and total ionizing dose supplemented by TCAD simulations.Coupled radiation and aging effects are studied through comparing radiation sensitivity of pristine and aged devices and through post-irradiation stressing in order to address the radiation induced reliability degradation. (hal.science)
- Radiation and health : the biological effects of low-level exposure to ionizing radiation / edited by Robin Russell Jones and Richard Southwood. (who.int)
- International Conference on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (1986 : London, U.K. (who.int)
- Whether this is in the air or settled on the ground, it may expose people to ionizing radiation, and the effect of this is measured in Sieverts, or more typically milliSieverts (mSv). (world-nuclear.org)
- Exposure to ionizing radiation can also be by direct radiation from the plants and fuels themselves, though not released to the environment. (world-nuclear.org)
- Some of these tests involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which can present risks to patients. (cdc.gov)
- The health effects of ionizing radiation: a survey of local health officials in New England and New York. (cdc.gov)
- This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for ionizing radiation . (cdc.gov)
- This public health statement tells you about ionizing radiation and the effects of exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Exposure to ionizing radiation can come from many sources. (cdc.gov)
- You can learn when and where you may be exposed to sources of ionizing radiation in the exposure section below. (cdc.gov)
- However, it's unknown how many of the 1,467 current or former NPL sites have been evaluated for the presence of ionizing radiation sources. (cdc.gov)
- As more sites are evaluated, the sites with ionizing radiation may increase. (cdc.gov)
- This information is important because exposure to ionizing radiation may harm you and because these sites may be sources of exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Even in the event that you are exposed, it does not necessarily mean you will be harmed or suffer longterm health effects from exposure to ionizing radiation. (cdc.gov)
- If you are exposed to ionizing radiation, many factors determine whether you'll be harmed. (cdc.gov)
- What is ionizing radiation? (cdc.gov)
- To explain what ionizing radiation is, we will start with a discussion of atoms, how they come to be radioactive, and how they give off ionizing radiation. (cdc.gov)
- Of the different types and sources of ionizing radiation, this profile will discuss the three main types: alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. (cdc.gov)
- Before defining ionizing radiation, it is useful to first describe an atom. (cdc.gov)
- Ionizing radiation is energy that is carried by several types of particles and rays given off by radioactive material, x ray machines, and fuel elements in nuclear reactors. (cdc.gov)
- This paradigm has emerged as the key approach to detect cancerous tissue, target delivery of precision-guided ionizing radiation, and monitor treatment response. (ualberta.ca)
- Examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) involved in DNA damage response and tissue remodeling/repair, as a genetic approach to predict normal tissues response to ionizing radiation. (ualberta.ca)
- It has been known that radiation could eradicate tumors -- the radiation treatments just needed to utilize a "high enough" dose. (oncolink.org)
- External radiation therapy uses a large machine and special equipment to carefully aim the right amount of radiation at cancerous tumors. (kidshealth.org)
- Besides killing cancer cells and shrinking tumors, radiation therapy also can harm normal cells. (kidshealth.org)
- Radiation, along with hormone therapy, might also be part of your first cancer treatment if the disease has spread beyond your prostate into nearby tissues. (webmd.com)
- Theproblem with tumoricidal doses of external beam radiation is that normal tissues can also be affected. (oncolink.org)
- In today's world of advancing technology, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT)planning systems are able to generate treatment schemes that are supposedly conformal to the tumor/target volume thereby limitingthe dose that reaches the surrounding normal tissues. (oncolink.org)
- But too much radiation can damage tissues by changing cell structure and damaging DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
Levels of radiation3
- Radiation therapy , also called X-ray therapy, uses high levels of radiation to kill prostate cancer cells or keep them from growing and dividing while minimizing damage to healthy cells. (webmd.com)
- Exposure to low levels of radiation in the environment does not cause immediate health effects. (medlineplus.gov)
- Video display terminals : do they emit dangerous levels of radiation? (who.int)
- We receive low doses of radiation from our natural environment every day. (cdc.gov)
- We know that radiation at high doses can cause cancer, could harm fetuses, and can even lead to death. (cdc.gov)
- High doses of radiation can cause Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) or Cutaneous Radiation Injuries (CRI). (cdc.gov)
- High doses of radiation could also lead to cancer later in life. (cdc.gov)
- The health care team will carefully check a child's radiation doses to protect healthy tissue. (kidshealth.org)
- They'll get small daily doses of radiation, which helps protect the normal cells from damage. (kidshealth.org)
- With external beam radiation therapy, a machine sends beams of radiation to a specific area of your body. (healthline.com)
- The CyberKnife system uses the combination of a robotics and image guidance to deliver concentrated and accurate beams of radiation to intracranial and extracranial targets, many of which are inoperable with sub- millimeter accuracy. (unc.edu)
- The system compensates for the patient's respirations and movement during treatment, constantly ensuring accurate targeting for the delivery of radiation beams. (unc.edu)
- For each treatment, the radiation therapist will help you onto the treatment table and into the correct position. (webmd.com)
- Once the therapist is sure you're positioned well, they'll leave the room and start the radiation treatment. (webmd.com)
- The radiation therapist will take a port film, also known as an X-ray, on the first day of treatment and about every week thereafter. (webmd.com)
- Your radiation therapist will make small marks resembling freckles on your skin along the treatment area. (webmd.com)
- Before the treatment, the radiation therapist will mark an area on the skin with ink. (kidshealth.org)
- The radiation therapist leaves the room. (kidshealth.org)
- Again he had six weeks of radiation, but this time, pin-pointed to the tumor. (cancer.org)
- With internal radiation therapy, doctors inject or implant a radioactive substance into the area with the tumor or cancer cells. (kidshealth.org)
- Radiation therapy can also cause long-term side effects if it affects the normal cells surrounding the tumor. (kidshealth.org)
- After treatments patients typically are asked to get periodic images ( CT Scan or MRI) of their tumor(s) so that their physician can monitor the effectiveness of the radiation. (unc.edu)
- The radiation dose to adjacent normal tissue can be limited by conformal technology, which reduces scatter at the field margins. (msdmanuals.com)
- potassium iodide will decrease the level or effect of sodium iodide I-131 by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
- Radiation therapy plus surgery (for head and neck, laryngeal, or uterine cancer) or combined with chemotherapy and surgery (for sarcomas or breast, esophageal, lung, or rectal cancers) improves cure rates and allows for more limited surgery. (msdmanuals.com)
- Electron beam radiation therapy has little tissue penetration and is best for skin or superficial cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
- Radiation sensitivity of toxins and animal poisons : proceedings of a Panel on the Radiation Sensitivity of Toxins and Animal Poisons, held in Bangkok, 19-22 May 1969 / organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. (who.int)
- Radiation therapy is also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or X-ray therapy. (kidshealth.org)
- Shortly after radiation treatments, Kevin began having struggles with cognitive thinking. (cancer.org)
- This one was a small meningoma, growing near the site of the original Astrocytoma found in 1982 and we were told it was likely caused from the radiation treatments he received. (cancer.org)
- What are the treatments for acute radiation sickness? (medlineplus.gov)
- Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy are just some of the treatments doctors use for uterine cancer, depending on the type and stage of the cancer. (healthline.com)
- Radiation can damage the DNA in our cells. (cdc.gov)
- All in all, I am more convinced than ever that although some doctors may not want to admit to the degree of radiation damage from 1982, I believe it's a real thing. (cancer.org)
- Radiation can damage healthy cells. (kidshealth.org)
- This damage can cause side effects such as skin problems, tiredness, and anemia . (kidshealth.org)
- There is a critical need to identify readily translatable adjuncts to potentiate the dismal median survivals of only 15-20 months in glioblastoma (GBM) patients after standard of care, i.e., concurrent Temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (XRT) therapy. (mdpi.com)
- Many patients have no side effects. (kidshealth.org)
- It's very common for patients receiving radiation therapy to feel physically, mentally and emotionally exhausted. (wustl.edu)
- Patients receiving radiation therapy may experience hair loss to the area being treated. (wustl.edu)
- the effect may be the result of aldosterone suppression in patients receiving ARBs. (medscape.com)
- In addition, the Canadian Radiation Hypersensitivity Tissue Bank has been established for patients who have had an unexpectedly severe reaction to radiation. (ualberta.ca)
- Loss of short-term memory function is a known casualty in some patients treated with WBRT, explained lead author Vinai Gondi, MD, a radiation oncologist from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health in Madison. (medscape.com)
- Currently, a phase 3 trial, RTOG 1317, is comparing partial cranial radiation with and without sparing of the hippocampus in patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer and brain metastases. (medscape.com)
- Who Might Benefit From Radiation Therapy? (webmd.com)
- Your doctor might recommend radiation therapy in several situations. (webmd.com)
- If you get surgery for prostate cancer, your doctor might recommend you get radiation therapy afterward, too. (webmd.com)
- If you get external radiation therapy, you'll need to get regular sessions (generally 5 days per week) during a period of about 5 to 8 weeks. (webmd.com)
- Good nutrition is an important part of recovering from the side effects of radiation therapy. (webmd.com)
- They can help make sure that you're getting enough nutrition during your radiation therapy. (webmd.com)
- Other sources are man-made, such as x-rays, radiation therapy to treat cancer, and electrical power lines. (medlineplus.gov)
- What Is Radiation Therapy? (kidshealth.org)
- Radiation therapy is a treatment for cancer . (kidshealth.org)
- How Does Radiation Therapy Work? (kidshealth.org)
- What Happens During External Radiation Therapy? (kidshealth.org)
- For external radiation therapy, kids usually go to the hospital or treatment center 4 to 5 days a week for several weeks. (kidshealth.org)
- What Happens During Internal Radiation Therapy? (kidshealth.org)
- Kids and teens who get external radiation therapy have no restrictions on contact with family members. (kidshealth.org)
- Kids and teens who get internal radiation therapy may have some restrictions. (kidshealth.org)
- Does Radiation Therapy Cause Side Effects? (kidshealth.org)
- Most will go away after radiation therapy ends. (kidshealth.org)
- You may need radiation therapy when cancer has spread beyond the uterus. (healthline.com)
- Internal radiation therapy involves putting radioactive materials inside the body. (healthline.com)
- Most of the side effects of radiation therapy are limited to the area being treated. (rtanswers.org)
- While you undergo radiation therapy, a team of highly trained medical professionals will be working together to make sure you receive the best possible care. (rtanswers.org)
- The fatigue felt during radiation therapy is different from everyday fatigue and may not go away with rest. (wustl.edu)
- Managing fatigue during radiation therapy is an important part of your care and your quality of life. (wustl.edu)
- Radiation therapy may cause your skin to look red, swollen, blistered or tanned. (wustl.edu)
- Radiation therapy can cause problems like a dry or sore mouth, difficulty swallowing, nausea and vomiting, all of which can cause a loss of appetite. (wustl.edu)
- The major modalities of therapy are Surgery (for local and local-regional disease) Radiation. (msdmanuals.com)
- Radiation therapy sessions begin with the precise positioning of the patient. (msdmanuals.com)
- If you have advanced prostate cancer, radiation could help keep the disease under control for as long as possible. (webmd.com)
Dose of radiation1
- The type of side effects someone might get depends on the dose of radiation, whether it was internal or external, and the area treated. (kidshealth.org)
- Radiation is energy transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves or energetic particles. (medscape.com)
- Energy can travel through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation. (medscape.com)
- Electromagnetic radiation is composed of massless waves of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. (medscape.com)
- The present study examined the effects of exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation emitted by a standard GSM phone at 890 MHz on human cognitive functions. (nih.gov)
- In its newsletter of August 8, IEEE reports: "There is no evidence that radiation from mobile phones, masts, and appliances like microwave ovens cause[s] fatigue, anxiety or headaches, according to one of the largest studies of so-called electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). (canadianconsultingengineer.com)
- Reduce electromagnetic radiation exposure from your cell phone. (medlineplus.gov)
- Students in the MAP ERC Health Physics Program are studying the effects of radiation on nature, wildlife, and displaced families in Fukushima, Japan, eagerly working towards a safe and healthy environment for all. (cdc.gov)
Amount of radiation2
Sources of radiation1
- What are the sources of radiation exposure? (medlineplus.gov)
- Because we can measure radiation and because we understand its health effects, we can work safely around it. (cdc.gov)
- UV radiation has important impacts on different ecosystems, life and also on public health. (admin.ch)
- RERF is a US-Japan cooperative research institute that investigates the health effects of atomic bomb radiation for peaceful purposes. (or.jp)
- KI can have harmful health effects , especially if not needed or not taken correctly. (cdc.gov)
- KI can cause harmful health effects. (cdc.gov)
- What are the health effects of radiation exposure? (medlineplus.gov)
- Infants, children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with compromised immune systems are more vulnerable to health effects than healthy adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- Before they start treatment, health care professionals need to figure out how much radiation your body absorbed. (medlineplus.gov)
- If your health care provider recommends a test that uses radiation, ask about its risks and benefits. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. (cdc.gov)
- Smoking and alcohol habits as risk factors for benign digestive diseases in a Japanese population: the radiation effects research foundation adult health study. (bvsalud.org)
- What are the side effects of Xofigo? (hdkino.org)
- A care team can help manage side effects, and they generally start improving after you finish treatment. (healthline.com)
- Short-term side effects are related to injury to normal rapidly dividing cells. (rtanswers.org)
- Because every patient reacts differently to treatment, some may experience a number of side effects while others experience few or none. (wustl.edu)
- A short-term dose of 1000 mSv (1 Sv) is about the threshold of acute radiation syndrome (sickness). (world-nuclear.org)
- a measure directly related to the harmfulness of solar radiation to our skin. (admin.ch)
- A paper published today in Global and Planetary Change finds solar radiation at the Earth surface in Spain " shows a significant increase over the 1985-2010 period" of " +3.9 Wm -2 per decade. (blogspot.com)
- The authors attribute the large increase in solar radiation to a "decrease in clouds and/or aerosols. (blogspot.com)
- There is a growing interest in the study of decadal variations in surface solar radiation during the last decades, although the analyses of long-term time series in some areas with major gaps in observations, such as in Spain, is still pending. (blogspot.com)
- This work describes for the first time the development of a new dataset of surface solar radiation in Spain based on the longest series with records of global solar radiation (G), most of them starting in the early 1980s. (blogspot.com)
- Additional records of diffuse solar radiation (D), which is a component of G much less studied due to the general scarcity of long-term series, are available for some of these series. (blogspot.com)
- We develop a new dataset of surface solar radiation records in Spain. (blogspot.com)
- The global and diffuse solar radiation series have been homogenized. (blogspot.com)
- The global solar radiation shows a significant increase over the 1985-2010 period. (blogspot.com)
- I'm mentioning this in case that could determine whether it was whole brain radiation, versus a more precisely aimed radiation. (cancer.org)
- A nonlinearity observed in the radiation-induced conductivity versus dose rate plot for a Czochralski sapphire sample is interpreted in terms of a trapping level which is filled early in the pulse at high dose rates but is never completely filled at the low dose rates, thus causing an apparent superlinear dependence of the radiation-induced conductivity. (dtic.mil)
Destroy cancer cells2
- The relative risks (RRs) for ever smoked to never smoked and that for ever drank to never drank were estimated after adjustment for city, sex , age, birth cohort , calendar time and radiation dose . (bvsalud.org)
- CD-Sprague-Dawley-rats were exposed at 13 days gestation to RF radiation at a frequency of 10 megahertz, and their exposure to RF was adjusted to cause temperature elevations to 43.0, 42.5, 42.0 and 41.5 degrees-C. 2ME was administered at 250, 175, 150, and 125mg/kg by gastric lavage 5 minutes prior to RF exposure. (cdc.gov)
- I'm assuming back then it was whole brain radiation, but I can't say for certain. (cancer.org)
- They will ask about your symptoms, do blood tests, and may use a device that measures radiation. (medlineplus.gov)
- Radiation in the implant can send high-energy rays outside the patient's body. (kidshealth.org)
- But these films do help the therapists make sure they're delivering radiation to the precise area that needs treatment. (webmd.com)
- Radiation was the only suggested treatment. (cancer.org)
- If you were exposed to certain types of radiation, your provider may give you a treatment that limits or removes the contamination that is inside your body. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most of the time that a child spends on the radiation treatment table involves positioning. (kidshealth.org)
- Your skin may become dry, flaky or itchy after a few weeks of treatment, which is known as radiation dermatitis. (wustl.edu)
- so we know quite a bit about how radiation interacts with living tissue, and its effect on the body. (cdc.gov)
- Radiation can be given from a machine outside the body and directed at the prostate (external radiation). (webmd.com)
- It only protects the thyroid from radioactive iodine (I-131) and does not protect other parts of the body from other types of radiation. (cdc.gov)
- How sensitive your body is to radiation. (medlineplus.gov)
- This study examines the effects of different irradiance types on aerobic methane (CH 4 ) efflux rates from terrestrial plant material. (open.ac.uk)
- KI protects only against radioactive iodine and does not protect against other types of radiation . (cdc.gov)
- Finally, we will describe the more important types of radiation to which you may be exposed. (cdc.gov)
- [ 4 ] Likely the distinct scientific language and differing cognitive processes between front-line clinicians and radiation safety experts contribute, at least in part, to the discrepancy between what experts think should be done and what front-line providers think can be done. (medscape.com)