The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Computer-based systems for use in personnel management in a facility, e.g., distribution of caregivers with relation to patient needs.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.

Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors. (1/3048)

We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging.  (+info)

MIRD pamphlet no. 16: Techniques for quantitative radiopharmaceutical biodistribution data acquisition and analysis for use in human radiation dose estimates. (2/3048)

This report describes recommended techniques for radiopharmaceutical biodistribution data acquisition and analysis in human subjects to estimate radiation absorbed dose using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. The document has been prepared in a format to address two audiences: individuals with a primary interest in designing clinical trials who are not experts in dosimetry and individuals with extensive experience with dosimetry-based protocols and calculational methodology. For the first group, the general concepts involved in biodistribution data acquisition are presented, with guidance provided for the number of measurements (data points) required. For those with expertise in dosimetry, highlighted sections, examples and appendices have been included to provide calculational details, as well as references, for the techniques involved. This document is intended also to serve as a guide for the investigator in choosing the appropriate methodologies when acquiring and preparing product data for review by national regulatory agencies. The emphasis is on planar imaging techniques commonly available in most nuclear medicine departments and laboratories. The measurement of the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals is an important aspect in calculating absorbed dose from internally deposited radionuclides. Three phases are presented: data collection, data analysis and data processing. In the first phase, data collection, the identification of source regions, the determination of their appropriate temporal sampling and the acquisition of data are discussed. In the second phase, quantitative measurement techniques involving imaging by planar scintillation camera, SPECT and PET for the calculation of activity in source regions as a function of time are discussed. In addition, nonimaging measurement techniques, including external radiation monitoring, tissue-sample counting (blood and biopsy) and excreta counting are also considered. The third phase, data processing, involves curve-fitting techniques to integrate the source time-activity curves (determining the area under these curves). For some applications, compartmental modeling procedures may be used. Last, appendices are included that provide a table of symbols and definitions, a checklist for study protocol design, example formats for quantitative imaging protocols, temporal sampling error analysis techniques and selected calculational examples. The utilization of the presented approach should aid in the standardization of protocol design for collecting kinetic data and in the calculation of absorbed dose estimates.  (+info)

The effect of the antiscatter grid on full-field digital mammography phantom images. (3/3048)

Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images (CAMPI) is a method for making quantitative measurements of image quality. This article reports on a recent application of this method to a prototype full-field digital mammography (FFDM) machine. Images of a modified ACR phantom were acquired on the General Electric Diagnostic Molybdenum Rhodium (GE-DMR) FFDM machine at a number of x-ray techniques, both with and without the scatter reduction grid. The techniques were chosen so that one had sets of grid and non-grid images with matched doses (200 mrads) and matched gray-scale values (1500). A third set was acquired at constant 26 kVp and varying mAs for both grid conditions. Analyses of the images yielded signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast and noise corresponding to each target object, and a non-uniformity measure. The results showed that under conditions of equal gray-scale value the grid images were markedly superior, albeit at higher doses than the non-grid images. Under constant dose conditions, the non-grid images were slightly superior in SNR (7%) but markedly less uniform (60%). Overall, the grid images had substantially greater contrast and superior image uniformity. These conclusions applied to the whole kVp range studied for the Mo-Mo target filter combination and 4 cm of breast equivalent material of average composition. These results suggest that use of the non-grid technique in digital mammography with the GE-DMR-FFDM unit, is presently not warranted. With improved uniformity correction procedure, this conclusion would change and one should be able to realize a 14% reduction in patient dose at the same SNR by using a non-grid technique.  (+info)

Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom. (4/3048)

A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them.  (+info)

3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology. (5/3048)

3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame between 3D X-ray angiography and volumetric MR acquisition, which should allow us to improve the treatment of intracerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).  (+info)

Biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and pharmacokinetics of 111In-antimyosin in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. (6/3048)

In view of the established role of 111In-antimyosin in the detection of heart muscle pathology, radiation dose estimates were made for this substance. Biodistribution and biokinetic data were obtained from our studies, which failed to show abnormal uptake of 111In-antimyosin in localized sites of skeletal muscle involvement in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: After intravenous administration of 74 MBq (2 mCi) 111In-antimyosin, gamma camera scintigraphy was performed in 12 adult patients with inflammatory muscle disease and in 2 control patients. Six whole-body scans were performed over 72 h, and uptake of 111In-antimyosin in organs was quantified using an attenuation-corrected conjugate counting method. Residence times in source organs were used with MIRDOSE software to obtain radiation dose estimates. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from serial whole-blood and plasma 111In concentrations. RESULTS: The tracer cleared slowly from the circulation, and highest organ uptakes were found in the marrow and liver; kidneys showed the highest concentrations. Uptake was also evident in spleen, the facial image and male genitalia. CONCLUSION: For a typical administered activity of 74 MBq 111In-antimyosin, the kidneys receive the highest dose (58 mSv), and the effective dose is 11 mSv. Radioactivity was cleared from plasma at an average rate of 136 mL/h, and the mean steady-state distribution was approximately 5 L plasma.  (+info)

MIRD Pamphlet No. 15: Radionuclide S values in a revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain. Medical Internal Radiation Dose. (7/3048)

Current dosimetric models of the brain and head lack the anatomic detail needed to provide the physical data necessary for suborgan brain dosimetry. During the last decade, several new radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more anthropomorphic model of the human brain and head for use in estimating regional absorbed dose within the brain and its adjacent structures. METHODS: A new brain model has been developed that includes eight subregions: the caudate nuclei, the cerebellum, the cerebral cortex, the lateral ventricles, the lentiform nuclei, the thalami, the third ventricle and the white matter. This brain model is incorporated within a total revision of the head model presented in MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised. Modifications include the addition of the eyes, the teeth, the mandible, an upper facial region, a neck region and the cerebrospinal fluid within both the cranial and spinal regions. RESULTS: Absorbed fractions of energy for photon and electron sources located in 14 source regions within the new model were calculated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code for particles in the energy range 10 keV-4 MeV. These absorbed fractions were then used along with radionuclide decay data to generate S values for 24 radionuclides that are used in clinical or investigational studies of the brain, 12 radionuclides that localize within the cranium and spinal skeleton and 12 radionuclides that selectively localize in the thyroid gland. CONCLUSION: A substantial revision to the dosimetric model of the adult head and brain originally published in MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised is presented. This revision supports suborgan brain dosimetry for a variety of radiopharmaceuticals used in neuroimaging. Dose calculations for the neuroimaging agent 1231-tropane provide an example of the new model and yield mean brain doses that are consistent with published values. However, the absorbed dose to subregions within the brain such as the caudate and lentiform nuclei may exceed the average brain dose by a factor of up to 5.  (+info)

Dose-related effects of single focal irradiation in the medial temporal lobe structures in rats--magnetic resonance imaging and histological study. (8/3048)

The dose-related effects of single focal irradiation on the medial temporal lobe in rats were investigated by sequential magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination. Irradiation of 200 Gy as a maximum dose using 4 mm collimators with a gamma unit created an area of necrosis consistently at the target site within 2 weeks after irradiation. Irradiation of 100 Gy caused necrosis within 10 weeks, and 75 Gy caused necrosis within one year. Irradiation of less than 50 Gy did not induce necrosis consistently, although a restricted area of necrosis was created in the medial temporal structures including the intraparenchymal portion of the optic tract. 75 Gy may be the optimum dose for creating necrosis consistently in the medial temporal lobe structures. However, careful dose planning considering both dose-time and dose-volume relationships in necrosis development is necessary to avoid injury to vulnerable neural structures such as the optic tract when applying radiosurgical techniques to treat functional brain disorders in medial temporal lobe structures such as temporal lobe epilepsy.  (+info)

To compare routine dose liver CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) versus low dose images reconstructed with FBP and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). In this retro
Comparison of the Breast Dose based on the Existence of the Bismuth Breast Protection Shield for Automatic Exposure Control and Manual Exposure Control with the Coronary Artery CT Angiography - coronary artery CT angiography;bismuth breast shield;MEC;AEC;breast dose;
Introduction: To accomplish a further decrease in radiation dose for coronary CT angiography (CCTA), advances in iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms are necessary. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a latest generation adaptive statistical IR algorithm (ASiR-V, GE Healthcare) on CCTA signal intensity, noise and image quality (IQ).. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated CCTA using a latest generation 256-slice CT scanner (Revolution CT, GE Healthcare) and an ultra-low-dose CCTA protocol (i.e. a BMI-adapted tube current of 180-310 mA and tube voltage of 80-120 kVp). Datasets from each patient were reconstructed at different levels of ASiR-V (i.e. ASiR-V 0% [= filtered back projection, FBP], 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). The signal intensity and noise (i.e. attenuation and its standard deviation [in HU]) were measured in each reconstruction by placing a region of interest in the aortic root as well as the proximal RCA and LMA. ...
Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation fields are planned so as to reduce side-effects while maximising the dose to site but effects on healthy tissues are inevitable. Radiation causes strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells which can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cause malfunction and cell death. Several researchers have highlighted the damaging effects of high dose radiation but still there is a lacuna in identifying damage due to low dose radiation used for diagnostic purposes. Blood is an easy resource to study genotoxicity and to estimate the effects of radiation. The micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration can indicate genetic damage and our present aim was to establish these with lymphocytes in an in vitro model to predict the immediate effects low dose radiation. Blood was collected from healthy individuals and divided into 6 groups with increasing radiation dose i.e., 0Gy, 0.10Gy, 0.25Gy, 0.50Gy, 1Gy and 2Gy. The samples were irradiated in duplicates using a LINAC in the radiation
Cardiac CT - radiation doses, dose management and practical issues. L 11. Answer True or False. Patient dose from a cardiac CT is equivalent to 20 chest conventional radiographies. In cardiac CT the radiation dose to the different organs is very similar to the catheterization procedures....
CT scans expose patients to radiation, but are often a necessary part of cancer treatment. City of Hopes new CT scanner offers high resolution images with lower radiation doses.
The Report Computed Tomography Systems Market to 2019 - Lower Radiation Dose and Improved Workflow in Advanced CT Systems to Increase Adoption Rates provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. - MarketResearchReports.biz
OBJECTIVE: To compare radiation doses delivered at prospectively ECG-triggered sequential- (SEQ), retrospectively ECG-gated spiral- (RETRO) and prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral- (HP) computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) protocols, as well as catheter coronary angiography (CCA) using an anthropomorphic phantom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anthropomorphic Alderson phantom equipped with 50 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) was scanned using different CTCA protocols and an uncomplicated diagnostic CCA examination was simulated. Absorbed doses were experimentally determined and effective doses calculated using the dose-length product (DLP) for CTCA and the dose-area product (DAP) for CCA, as well as according to International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publications 60 and 103. RESULTS: Effective organ doses were significantly lower for HP protocols (100kV: 0.17±0.26mSv; 120kV: 0.26±0.39mSv) compared to SEQ protocols (100kV: 0.50±0.79mSv; 120kV: 0.90±1.41mSv; ...
Objectives To report on a dose survey conducted by the French societies of radiology and paediatric imaging (SFR and SFIPP) and the French public service expert in nuclear and radiological risks...
Objectives: This study aimed to measure the absorbed doses in selected organs for prospectively ECG-triggered coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using five different generations CT scanners in a female adult anthropomorphic phantom and to estimate the effective dose (HE). Materials and Methods: Prospectively ECG-triggered CCTA was performed using five commercially available CT scanners: 64-detector-row single source CT (SSCT), 2 × 32-detector-row-dual source CT (DSCT), 2 × 64-detector-row DSCT and 320-detector-row SSCT scanners. Absorbed doses were measured in 34 organs using pre-calibrated optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) placed inside a standard female adult anthropomorphic phantom. HE was calculated from the measured organ doses and compared to the HE derived from the air kerma-length product (PKL) using the conversion coefficient of 0.014 mSv_mGy-1_cm-1 for the chest region. Results: Both breasts and lungs received the highest radiation dose during CCTA ...
OBJECTIVE The clinical utility of a latest generation iterative reconstruction algorithm (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction [ASiR-V]) has yet to be elucidated for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). This study evaluates the impact of ASiR-V on signal, noise and image quality in CCTA. METHODS Sixty-five patients underwent clinically indicated CCTA on a 256-slice CT scanner using an ultralow-dose protocol. Data sets from each patient were reconstructed at 6 different levels of ASiR-V. Signal intensity was measured by placing a region of interest in the aortic root, LMA, and RCA. Similarly, noise was measured in the aortic root. Image quality was visually assessed by 2 readers. RESULTS Median radiation dose was 0.49 mSv. Image noise decreased with increasing levels of ASiR-V resulting in a significant increase in signal-to-noise ratio in the RCA and LMA (P , 0.001). Correspondingly, image quality significantly increased with higher levels of ASiR-V (P , 0.001). CONCLUSIONS ...
Background Optimization of CT radiation dose is important for children due to their higher risk of radiation-induced adverse effects. Anatomical structures with high inherent contrast, such as bones can be imaged at very low radiation doses by optimizing scan parameters. Purpose To assess feasibility of sub-milliSievert whole spine CT scanning protocol for evaluation of scoliosis in children. Material and Methods With approval of the ethical board, we performed whole spine CT for evaluation of scoliosis in 22 children (age range, 3-18 years; mean age, 13 years; 13 girls, 9 boys) on a 128-slice dual source multidetector-row CT scanner. Lowest possible quality reference mAs value (image quality factor for xy-z automatic exposure control or xyz-AEC, CARE Dose 4D) was selected on a per patient basis. Remaining parameters were held constant at 3.0:1 pitch, 128 × 0.6 mm detector collimation, 115.2 mm table feed per gantry rotation, 100 kVp, and 1 and 3 mm reconstructed sections. Average mAs, ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Advancements in medical device and imaging technology as well as accruing clinical evidence have accelerated the growth of the endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. However, the augmented role of these procedures raises concerns about the radiation dose to patients and operators. We evaluated patient doses from an x-ray imaging platform with radiation dose-reduction technology, which combined image noise reduction, motion correction, and contrast-dependent temporal averaging with optimized x-ray exposure settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, cumulative dose-area product inclusive of fluoroscopy, angiography, and 3D acquisitions for all neurovascular procedures performed during a 2-year period on the dose-reduction platform were compared with a reference platform. Key study features were the following: The neurointerventional radiologist could select the targeted dose reduction for each patient with the dose-reduction platform,
The magnitude of the risks from low doses of radiation is one of the central questions in radiological protection. It is particularly relevant when discussing the justification and optimization of diagnostic medical exposures. Medical X-rays can undoubtedly confer substantial benefits in the healthcare of patients, but not without exposing them to effective doses ranging from a few microsieverts to a few tens of millisieverts. Do we have any evidence that these levels of exposure result in significant health risks to patients? The current consensus held by national and international radiological protection organizations is that, for these comparatively low doses, the most appropriate risk model is one in which the risk of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary disease is assumed to increase linearly with increasing radiation dose, with no threshold (the so-called linear no threshold (LNT) model). However, the LNT hypothesis has been challenged both by those who believe that low doses of radiation are
The magnitude of the risks from low doses of radiation is one of the central questions in radiological protection. It is particularly relevant when discussing the justification and optimization of diagnostic medical exposures. Medical X-rays can undoubtedly confer substantial benefits in the healthcare of patients, but not without exposing them to effective doses ranging from a few microsieverts to a few tens of millisieverts. Do we have any evidence that these levels of exposure result in significant health risks to patients? The current consensus held by national and international radiological protection organizations is that, for these comparatively low doses, the most appropriate risk model is one in which the risk of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary disease is assumed to increase linearly with increasing radiation dose, with no threshold (the so-called linear no threshold (LNT) model). However, the LNT hypothesis has been challenged both by those who believe that low doses of radiation are
Background Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) requires lifelong surveillance by computed tomography angiography (CTA). This is attended by a substantial accumulation of radiation exposure. Iterative reconstruction (IR) has been introduced to approach dose reduction. Purpose To evaluate adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at different levels of tube voltage concerning image quality and dose reduction potential in follow-up post EVAR. Material and Methods One hundred CTAs in 67 patients with EVAR were examined using five protocols: protocol A (n = 40) as biphasic standard using filtered back projection (FBP) at 120 kV; protocols B (n = 40), C (n = 10), and D1 (n = 5) biphasic using ASIR at 120, 100, and 80 kV, respectively; and protocol D2 (n = 5) with a monophasic splitbolus ASIR protocol at 80 kV ...
View this term paper on Radiology Reducing Patient Exposure and. The quality of image can be affected through lack of correct levels of data compression and...
The issue of radiation dosage is confusing to many clinicians. Part of this confusion is related to the terminology, especially given that radiation-related quantities and effects can be expressed in many different ways and competing terms have been used inconsistently in the past. Radiation dose or absorbed radiation dose refers to the amount of energy deposited by ionizing radiation per unit mass in a patients body as a result of exposure. The units of absorbed dose are rads or millirads in conventional units or gray in SI units. A pertinent concept is that of the effective dose, expressed in units of rem or millirem or the SI unit of sievert or millisievert. Effective dose takes into account the different risks of absorbed dose to various organs and is a useful method of comparing risk among different diagnostic tests. The effective dose equivalent is the sum of the products of the effective dose to the organ or tissue and weighting factors specific to each of the body organs or tissues. The ...
by admin , Mar 15, 2013. Radiation dose received by patients during invasive cardiology procedures has the potential to cause skin damage and is assumed to include a small cancer risk. To help ensure patient safety, it is desirable to minimize patient radiation dose to patients undergoing these procedures. An inherent benefit of reduced patient dose is reduced dose to physician operators and staff. Previous studies have tested patient radiation dose-reduction initiatives for radiofrequency ablation and invasive coronary artery procedures. Few studies, however, have explored the effects of using sustained patient radiation dose-reduction initiatives in larger, diverse invasive cardiovascular settings. A Progressive Movement on Patient Radiation In an issue of JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, Kenneth A. Fetterly, PhD, and colleagues had a single-center study published that investigated the effects of sustained practice and x-ray system technical changes on radiation doses administered to adult ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Decreasing Patient Radiation Dose from CT Imaging: Achieving Sub-mSv Studies (U01) PAR-12-206. NIBIB
Introduction: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is increasingly used for the non-invasive evaluation of symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). However, potential risks of coronary CTA include exposure to ionizing radiation. Lowering tube voltage can significantly decrease radiation dose, but the effects on image quality are unknown.. Hypothesis: To determine if a very low tube voltage of 80kVp is feasible to further minimize radiation dose and maintain diagnostic image quality of coronary CTA.. Methods: We analyzed 191 consecutive patients with low-intermediate probability of CAD, who were evaluated for acute chest pain with 64-multidetector row coronary CTA (Lightspeed, GE Medical). Tube voltage protocols used either standard 120kVp, low 100kVp, or very low 80kVp, depending on physician discretion. Primary end points were radiation effective dose (mSv) and image quality assessed with a 4-point grading system (0 = excellent, 3 = nondiagnostic). Secondary analysis included the ...
Our direct, intraindividual head-to-head comparison in the same patient population shows that compared with a routine radiation dose FBP protocol, a 50% reduced radiation dose image acquisition using IR preserves image quality and, more importantly, diagnostic accuracy at coronary CTA. These findings illustrate the potential of substantial radiation dose reduction across the population for coronary CTA studies, enabled by a reduced tube current-time product when iteratively reconstructed, without jeopardizing the diagnostic yield of the examination.. Since its inception, radiation doses associated with noninvasive coronary CTA had risen with each new generation of multidetector-row CT systems and had reached its zenith with the launch of the first-generation 64-slice scanners in the year 2004. With these platforms, radiation doses from coronary CTA were reported to be as high as approximately 30 mSv, with an estimated median of approximately 12 mSv (15). Since then, vigorous efforts have been ...
Since the 1970s, mammograms have made a huge impact on detecting breast cancer in its earliest stages, when it is most treatable - it remains the best method for early detection today, says Mary Lechner, MD, medical director at Park Nicollet Jane Brattain Breast Center.. During a mammogram, low dose radiation (X-ray) is passed through a compressed breast, source ifreebudget.com/lipo-flavonoid-plus-reviews.html. The compression is necessary to provide an accurate picture. Images produced by mammograms can detect a tumor as early as two years before a doctor or patient can feel a lump.. I tell women that yearly mammograms can reassure them that their breasts are normal - and if there is an abnormality, mammograms can detect it early, when there are more treatment options if it proves to be cancer, and survival rates are higher, Dr. Lechner says.. ...
All studies involving use of ionizing radiation should be performed in accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, especially in children. In this study, the prospective ECG triggering technique with low voltage was used in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) angiography to investigate if image quality with low radiation dose could be satisfactory in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Sixty pediatric patients with suspected congenital cardiovascular anomalies were enrolled prospectively in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups for DSCT angiography. Group A were scanned by prospective ECG-triggering computed tomography angiography (CTA) with 80 kV tube voltage, while group B by used non-ECG-gated CTA with the same tube voltage. The anomaly accuracy was evaluated based on the surgical and/or conventional cardiac angiography findings. The overall image quality was assessed on a five-point scale. And the diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose was
On-line megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images are used to verify patient daily set-up in Hi-ART helical TomoTherapy unit. To evaluate the patient dose from MVCT scanning in image guidance, weighted computed tomography (CT) dose index (CTDIw) was measured with PTW TM30009 CT pencil chamber in head and body phantoms for slice thicknesses of 2, 4 and 6 mm with different scan lengths. Dose length products (DLPs) were subsequently calculated. The CTDIw and DLP were compared with XVI kV CBCT and Brilliance simulator CT for routine clinical protocols. It was shown that CTDI and DLP had close relationship with the slice thickness and the scan length. The dose distribution in the transversal plane was very inhomogeneous due to the attenuation of the couch. Patient dose from MVCT was lower than XVI CBCT for the head scan, while larger for body scan. CTDIw, which is measured easily and reproducibly, can be used to assess the patient dose in MVCT. Regular measurement should be performed in QA & QC ...
One of the technical disadvantages of CT is the use of ionizing radiation. Although the normal radiation dosage for a routine brain CT study is between 2 and 5 mSv, it is important to note that radiation dose is additive, additional acquisition series during a single exam sitting will increase dose. Care must be taken to reduce exposure when imaging pediatric patients, and ALARA (As low as reasonably achievable) principle should be implemented in all situations to patients and personnel. With the advent of MDCT, CTP and CTA, the benefit must be weighed against the increased radiation doses associated with these techniques.. Advanced noise reduction and image reconstruction technologies result improvement in qualitative and quantitative aspects of CT image quality, with significant reductions in radiation exposure (30-40% lower radiation doses).. Additional complications from CT scan are those associated with the use of intravenous contrast agents mentioned before, which are essential for CTP, ...
AuntMinnie.com is the largest and most comprehensive community Web site for medical imaging professionals worldwide. Radiologists, technologists, administrators, and industry professionals can find information and conduct e-commerce in MRI, mammography, ultrasound, x-ray, CT, nuclear medicine, PACS, and other imaging disciplines.
Authors: Tan, Wenli , Zhan, Songhua , Yang, Shuohui , Zhuang, Yuan , Cheng, Ruixin , Zhan, Hongsheng Article Type: Research Article Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the combined use of BMI and AEC in reducing the radiation dose of CT volume scans of the lumbar spine. METHODS: A prospective study was performed to continuously collect data from 50 patients (age range from 19 to 60 years, male versus female 20/30) whose BMIs were less than 25 kg/m^{2} (group A) and 50 patients (age range from 21 to 82 years, male …versus female 24/26) whose BMIs were equal to or more than 25 kg/m^{2} (group B). The 50 patients in each group were randomly divided into 5 subgroups with each subgroup having lower radiation dose from subgroup 1 to 5. All the patients were performed lumbar spiral CT scans (GE LightSpeed VCT 64-slice scanner) and the scan parameters were different in different subgroups. Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) was recorded. The qualities of the ...
Scans were performed by the use of a 64-channel MDCT scanner (Brilliance 64, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio) without the administration of medication to lower the patients heart rate. Scan parameters were a collimation of 64 × 0.625 mm, rotation time 0.42 s, tube voltage 120 kV, and tube current of 500 to 600 mAs corresponding to an approximate mean radiation dose of 5.5 mSv. A dose modulation protocol was applied to reduce the radiation dose during systole (17). An ECG was recorded simultaneous to the CT scan to enable retrospective gating of the image data. A dedicated cardiac gating algorithm was used that identified the same physiological phases of the cardiac cycle while taking into account the nonlinear changes in the individual cardiac states with the heart rate variations during the CT acquisition (18). A cardiac adaptive multisegment reconstruction technique was used that combined data from consecutive cardiac cycles, thus significantly improving temporal resolution between 53 ...
The RSNA 2011 conference marks the 97th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting. This event, the worlds premier medical meeting for radiologic professionals, is being held on November 27 through December 2 at the McCormick Place in Chicago. The annual conference includes unparalleled education and professional development, networking opportunities, and a cutting- edge technical exhibition.. I will be involved in a number of events, both as a presenter and an author. The presentations that I will be involved in include:. • Presenter- Hot Topics: Dual- Energy CT on Tuesday, November 29 from 7:15 am to 8:15 am.. • Presenter- Refresher: Mind Your Own Business! Required Business Skills for Your First Job on Thursday, December 1 from 4:30 pm- 6:00 pm.. • Author/ Participant- Gastrointestinal Series: Scientific Formal Presentation (Dual-Energy CT of Hypervascular Liver Lesions: Evaluation of Lesion Contrast-to-Noise with Different Monochromatic keV Reconstructed Images) on Monday, November 28 ...
June 30, 2017 -- Egypt has unveiled the first national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for CT, but senior radiologists still have concerns about radiation dose. Areas for improvement include the selection of exposure parameters for different examinations, taking into account the image quality, with particular attention on facilities using consistently higher doses compared with DRLs. Discuss ...
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis of lung cancer has barely changed in the last decades, but the prognosis is better when the disease is detected earlier.
Poster: EuroSafe Imaging 2020 / ESI-07643 / Comparative study of patient doses and establishment of local diagnostic reference levels in Computed Tomography in line with the new ICRP recommendations by: S. Avramova-Cholakova, E. Kulama
The situation in Italy regarding radiation dose to patients undergoing Multidetector row Computed Tomography (MDCT) scans is unclear despite Italian law
All micro life cultures will be delivered to you within two business days when order is placed before 12:00 pm EST. Your specimens or cultures will arrive in good condition or we will send a free replacement. Requesting a delivery date of Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday ensures healthy delivery of your live specimens. Live materials will not be delivered on Mondays. For Tuesday deliveries, additional shipping charges may apply. Contact Boreal Science customer service (800-387-9393) to arrange a Tuesday live materials delivery. For live materials coupon redemption, visit boreal.com/livematerials. In instances of severe weather, we may delay or cancel a shipment if it will not arrive safely. See our home page for the latest updates if you suspect weather could be an issue in your area. If your school is closed due to weather, please call customer service to let us know and we will hold your specimen and reschedule at your convenience. ...
1. Thyroid-accelerated metamorphosis in the larval frog is accompanied by changes in the hemopoietic centers and in the blood cell distribution in the various regions of the body. These changes are interpreted as results of the fundamental change in basal metabolic rate induced by the thyroid treatment.. 2. There is initiation of the shift of hemopoietic locus from the kidney, the larval hemopoietic organ, to the spleen, the adult hemopoietic organ. The spleen, being chiefly an erythrocyte producer, becomes of greater importance with the transition from the lower metabolic rate to the higher, since greater erythropoiesis becomes necessary to supply the physical basis for the maintenance of the higher metabolic rate.. 3. It is suggested that the appearance of red bone marrow in the later history of the frog is correlated with a still higher metabolic rate. Phylogenetically, in the vertebrate series, red bone marrow is also associated with higher metabolic rate.. 4. The new metabolic rate ...
Research, published in PLOS Genetics, reports that low doses of radiation used in medical imaging may lead to mutations in cell cultures.. Prof Geraldine Thomas, Professor of Molecular Pathology, Imperial College London, said:. This is an interesting paper that seeks to investigate the how various types of DNA repair affect random integration of DNA from non-chromosomal sources following a double strand break. This paper should not be taken as evidence that low dose radiation exposure is likely to result in DNA integration when used in diagnostic procedures in vivo, nor should this work be taken for evidence that exposure to low dose radiation results in cancer in man. In terms of the mechanisms by which this might occur it is interesting, but caution should be taken before extrapolating results on cell lines (murine or human) into the likely effects of radiation in vivo in man. Cell lines are produced as a result of clonal selection in vitro - this process results in a change in the genetic ...
Images of excised breast samples of 2-4 cm thickness were acquired at beamline ID17 (The Biomedical Beamline), with a mean glandular dose of only 0.12 mGy. In Figure 117, the raw EI image (Figure 117a) and the retrieved phase image (Figure 117b) are compared to the conventional mammogram acquired at a hospital (Figure 117c) (32 kVp, dose of 4.1 mGy). Despite the high X-ray energy and the extremely low radiation dose, all the breast structures are highlighted in the raw EI image by the refraction-induced signal present at their boundaries. The area contrast typical of conventional X-ray images (more easily interpretable to radiologists), in turn, is restored in the retrieved phase map. This image depicts breast features with at least the same quality as in the conventional mammogram, although at a dose reduced by more than one order of magnitude.. The EI method has also been demonstrated to work efficiently in table-top setups exploiting conventional rotating anode sources [3]. The next step in ...
CHICAGO - Is radiology making progress in reducing the radiation dose used...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Video from RSNA 2019: Whats happening with MRI safety Video from RSNA 2019: Dr. Paul Chang on AI and radiology Video from RSNA 2019: Vaping and lung disease JAMA: Medical imaging use rates continue to rise CT radiation dose levels vary widely, new study finds...
by Physicians Weekly , Aug 16, 2012. Recurrent and second primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) arising within or close to previously irradiated areas are a significant clinical challenge. Salvage surgical resection is the standard of care, but reirradiation is the only potentially curative treatment when surgery is not an option. Reirradiation is more challenging than initial treatment because of the side effects of prior therapy and concerns about the risks of high cumulative radiation doses to normal structures. Multi-institutional trials and large single institutional experiences have demonstrated that aggressive reirradiation, most often with chemotherapy, is feasible and provides durable locoregional control in some patients. An Expert Consensus on Reirradiation In the August 1, 2011 International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics, the American College of Radiology (ACR) published appropriateness criteria for recurrent head and neck cancer after prior ...
The researchers tested the platform-the AlluraClarity from Philips Healthcare of Best, The Netherlands-on 52 patients and compared radiation exposure and image quality with results from 26 other patients who had undergone similar procedures on an older system. Radiation exposure, including air kerma (AK), the radiation exposure in free air before reaching the body, and dose area product (DAP), the absorbed radiation dose multiplied by the area irradiated, was recorded throughout the procedure. The new system resulted in an exposure reduction in total AK and DAP of 58 percent and 60 percent, respectively, compared to the old platform. DAP for fluoroscopy, DSA and CBCT decreased by up to 66 percent, 79 percent and 14 percent, respectively. During the procedures, no relevant problems due to image quality were reported. Likewise, the blinded evaluation of image quality revealed no differences between the new and the old imaging platforms. Both patient cohorts showed no difference with regard to body ...
The purpose of this article is to retrospectively determine the image quality and degree of radiation dose reduction that is clinically acceptable for CT-guided renal tumor cryoablation. A total of 15 patients (17 procedures; mean age, 67 years
A powerful new Phillips 256-slice CT Scanner is now in clinical use at NorthBay Medical Center. Installed last month at a total cost of $2,300,000, the Brilliance iCT computed tomography (CT) scanner combines power, speed and coverage to produce extremely high-resolution images with reduced radiation exposure.. This is an important addition to our diagnostic imaging department, says Jerry Wilcox, director of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. It allows us to perform detailed analysis of very complex anatomy within seconds and helps us keep up with the request for CT scans from our trauma and stroke services.. The scanner produces 256 slices of information during each rotation, in only 0.27 seconds. A scan from head to toe can be acquired in about 10 seconds. This speed can be extremely important for time-critical exams for small children, trauma and areas of the body that move, such as the beating heart, according to Wilcox. And, faster scans mean a lower radiation dose and shorter ...
By Stephen E. Hale Jr., Ph.D.. Radiation dose from Computed Tomography (CT) exams has recently become a hot topic among the medical community, the legal community, and the public in general. Overdoses from brain perfusion studies at several medical facilities in California and Alabama have contributed to this rise in concern. But what can a CT technologist or radiologist actually tell their patients about the amount of radiation administered during a CT exam?. Each CT machine will typically provide both an estimated CTDIvol and DLP value before an exam is conducted. CTDIvol stands for volume Computed Tomography Dose Index, while DLP stands for Dose-Length Product. Neither of these is actually a measure of the dose a patient will get from the exam. They are actually designed as metrics for comparing one protocol to another, one machine to another, or even one facility to another, in terms of the amount of radiation produced by the system. As such, they can be used to guide adjustments to the ...
AIM: To compare image quality of head and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) algorithms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The raw data of 34 studies were simultaneously reconstructed with FBP, HIR (iDose(4), Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands), ... read more and with a prototype version of a MIR algorithm (IMR, Philips Healthcare). Objective (contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR], vascular contrast, automatic vessel analysis [AVA], stenosis grade) and subjective image quality (ranking at level of the circle of Willis, carotid bifurcation, and shoulder) of the five reconstructions were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc analysis. RESULTS: Vascular contrast was significantly higher in both the circle of Willis and carotid bifurcation with both levels of MIR compared to the other reconstruction methods (all p0.33). AVA showed ...
The new high-resolution CT system with low radiation dose Radiation dose reduction of up to 83% in cardiac scans and 50% across the rest of the body Improved resolution--33% higher than the conventional ...
We also analyzed effects of low dose radiation on DNA double strand break repair using a transgenic mouse model in which homologous recombination (HR) events at a transgenic reporter give rise to fluorescent cells. To establish this model as a study tool for radiation effects we first exposed mice to 6 Gy radiation and analyzed the number of HR events. Treated animals displayed a significantly higher frequency of HR events than littermate controls (n=25; p=0.006). We then exposed transgenic mice to continuous very low dose radiation as described above and analyzed HR frequency but did not detect any difference in HR frequency as compared to littermate controls (n=60; p=0.8 ...
The major goal of this study was to identify and quantitatively describe the association between the characteristics of chronic (low-dose rate) exposure to (low LET) ionizing radiation and cellularity of peripheral blood cell lines. About 3,200 hemograms (i.e., spectra of blood counts) obtained over the years of maximal exposure to ionizing radiation (1950-1956) for inhabitants of the Techa River were used in analyses. The mean cumulative red bone marrow dose (with standard errors), calculated using Techa River Dosimetry System-2000, was 333.6 +/- 4.6 mGy (SD = 259.9 mGy, max = 1151 mGy) to the year 1956. The statistical approach included both empirical methods for estimating frequencies of cytopenic states of the investigated blood cell lines (e.g. neutrophile, platelets, erythrocyte, etc.), and regression methods, including generalized linear models and logistic regressions which allowed taking into account confounding factors (e.g., attained age, age at maximal exposure, presence of ...
Johnson, P., Lee, C., Johnson, K., Siragusa, D., Bolch, W.E. . The influence of patient size on dose conversion coefficients: A hybrid phantom study for adult cardiac catheterization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cumulative radiation dose in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. AU - Mamourian, A.. AU - OShea, M.. AU - Maidment, A. D.A.. PY - 2010/11/1. Y1 - 2010/11/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78649648606&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78649648606&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.3174/ajnr.A2260. DO - 10.3174/ajnr.A2260. M3 - Letter. C2 - 20966050. AN - SCOPUS:78649648606. VL - 31. SP - E87-E88. JO - American Journal of Neuroradiology. JF - American Journal of Neuroradiology. SN - 0195-6108. IS - 10. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of absorbed radiation dose to working staff during cardiac catheterization procedures. AU - Chong, N. S.. AU - Yin, W. H.. AU - Chan, P.. AU - Cheng, M. C.. AU - Ko, H. L.. AU - Jeng, S. C.. AU - Lee, J. J S. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Background. Cardiac catheterization has been used frequently for the evaluation and treatment of patients with heart diseases. The working staff, particularly cardiologists who perform these procedures, have the highest potential risk of receiving high radiation doses due to close contact with patients. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate the accumulated radiation dosage of the cardiologists while they were performing clinical procedures in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The working environment of the catheterization laboratory was also monitored for radiation. Methods. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) with very high sensitivity were employed for dose evaluations. They were taped to various parts of the body ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of low-dose CT angiography with model-based iterative reconstruction after endovascular aneurysm repair of a thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysm. AU - Hansen, Neil J.. AU - Kaza, Ravi K.. AU - Maturen, Katherine E.. AU - Liu, Peter S.. AU - Platt, Joel F.. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to evaluate image quality and overall adequacy of low-dose CT angiography (CTA) with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in patients who had undergone endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of a thoracic or abdominal MATERIALS AND METHODS. Thirty patients, all of whom had undergone standard-dose CTA performed previously with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), underwent low-dose CTA for surveillance after EVAR. Two radiologists randomly evaluated both studies, and quality parameters were assessed. The maximal aneurysm diameter was measured, and the images were evaluated to see whether an endoleak was present. The image ...
The National Radiological Protection Board (NRBP) has recently revised the radiation dose for typical x ray examinations. For example, an abdominal/pelvic CT scan would typically lead to an effective dose of 10 mSv, which is an equivalent of 4.5 years of natural background radiation.8 This radiation exposure was estimated to carry a 1:2000 risk of fatal cancer in the 16-69 year old patient population (personal communication from NRPB). For older patients, this may be halved but for younger patients increased up to fivefold. Put another way, this is equal to 250-300 fatal cancers for every 1 million abdominal/pelvic CT scans.. These values are calculated using a probability coefficient, which was developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), based on historical epidemiological cohorts and other research.9 It is worth noting that the cancer risk attributed to radiation exposure has constantly risen over time as longer term follow up information from the Hiroshima and ...
Cancer is a stochastic effect of radiation, meaning that the probability of occurrence increases with effective radiation dose, but the severity of the cancer is independent of dose. The speed at which cancer advances, the prognosis, the degree of pain, and every other feature of the disease are not functions of the radiation dose to which the person is exposed. This contrasts with the deterministic effects of acute radiation syndrome which increase in severity with dose above a threshold. Cancer starts with a single cell whose operation is disrupted. Normal cell operation is controlled by the chemical structure of DNA molecules, also called chromosomes. When radiation deposits enough energy in organic tissue to cause ionization, this tends to break molecular bonds, and thus alter the molecular structure of the irradiated molecules. Less energetic radiation, such as visible light, only causes excitation, not ionization, which is usually dissipated as heat with relatively little chemical damage. ...
TOKYO (Kyodo) - High radiation doses were reported Thursday in spots in Tokyo and neighboring Chiba Prefecture, both over 200 kilometers away from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, with their readings found to exceed current dose levels in some evacuation zones around the plant.. Airborne radiation of up to 3.35 microsieverts per hour was recorded Thursday along a sidewalk in a residential area in Tokyos Setagaya Ward in an inspection commissioned by the ward, and a citizens group detected up to 5.82 microsieverts close to the ground at a childrens theme park in Funabashi, Chiba Prefecture, local officials said.. While officials are still investigating whether the radiation resulted from the nuclear accident, the levels detected were both higher than the 2.17 microsieverts per hour measured Wednesday at the village office in Iitate, Fukushima Prefecture. The village is 45 kilometers from the plant and designated as an evacuation zone due to the relatively high ...
Mammoth Hospital upgraded to a new medical imaging technology, which offers the latest advances in low radiation dose imaging.. In the past, radiology technologists had to use standard radiation doses to get high diagnostic image quality. Now, technologists can use cutting edge computer technology to create quality images from low radiation dose scans.. Radiation dosage during CT scanning has been a major concern and this will put Mammoth among hospitals in the country that have addressed this concern, said Gary Boyd, CEO of Mammoth Hospital.. ...
Red Bones, Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door. Red Bones are stronger than Dull Bones but not as strong as Dry Bones. They act the same as others in the Bones family, except Red Bones seem to summon Dull Bones more often. They are the only ones with blue eyes, and they seem to be able to command Dull Bones. They only appear in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, where they are present only in Hooktail Castle and a certain puzzle in the Palace of Shadows Riddle Tower, although the tattle of a Red Bones can be found in Franklys trash can after Chapter 1. ...
CT technology continues to rapidly evolve, especially in the area of reducing radiation dose while preserving IQ. In the present study, we used a high-pitch, ECG-triggered scan mode on a second-generation DSCT scanner to assess PV and LA anatomy in patients with SR or AF. Our results show that PV imaging can be performed with a low median radiation dose of 1.4 mSv and achieves good to excellent CT IQ. CT scanning is feasible, with no difference in IQ between patients in AF compared with SR, without the need for heart rate-lowering agents. When compared with prior standard CT protocols, we observed a remarkable reduction in radiation dose for both patients with SR and AF with this high-pitch CT protocol. Scan time acquisition was much faster with this low radiation CT scanning technique compared with MRI, with excellent agreement of PV anatomy between the 2 imaging modalities.. Thorough assessment of PV and LA anatomy with a noninvasive imaging modality, such as CT, is important in patients with ...
Authors: Zhao, Yongxia , Wu, Yanmin , Zuo, Ziwei , Suo, Hongna , Zhao, Sisi , Zhang, Haisong Article Type: Research Article Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in imaging quality and radiation dose in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) by using fast-kV switching dual energy CT imaging and 3D Smart mA modulation at different body mass indices (BMIs) and at different noise index (NI) values with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm. METHODS: Four hundred patients who underwent CTPA were equally divided into two groups: A (18.5 kg/m2 ≦ BMI ,24.9 kg/m2 ) and B (24.9 kg/m2 ≦ BMI ≦ 4.9 kg/m2 ). The groups were randomly subdivided into four subgroups (n = 50): A1-A4 and B1-B4. The patients in subgroups A1 …and B1 underwent fast-kV switching dual energy CT imaging. The other patients underwent 3D Smart mA modulation with the ASIR algorithm at NI values 26, 36, and 46 for A2/B2, A3/B3, and A4/B4, respectively. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size effect on dose output in phantoms of x-ray tubes in medical x-ray imaging. AU - Zheng, Xiaoming. AU - Nardi, Laura. AU - Murray, Mark. N1 - Includes bibliographical references.. PY - 2017/11/27. Y1 - 2017/11/27. N2 - The purpose of this work was to study how patient size affects the exponent of the power law relating dose to x-ray tube potential in clinical x-ray imaging using phantoms. Computed tomography (CT) dose phantoms of 16 cm and 32 cm in diameter were used to model children and adults respectively. A Fujifilm digital radiographic imaging system and a GE Discovery HD 750 CT scanner were employed to image both phantoms. For the Fujifilm radiographic imaging system, doses were measured at various locations of entrance, centre, exit as well as side locations of the phantoms using a PTW DIADOS diagnostic dosimeter. Standard procedure was employed for CT dose measurements for the GE CT scanner. X-ray exposures were varied by employing various tube voltages kVp and tube ...
Methods: We assembled a cohort of 308 297 radiation-monitored workers employed for at least 1 year by the Atomic Energy Commission, AREVA Nuclear Cycle, or the National Electricity Company in France, the Departments of Energy and Defence in the USA, and nuclear industry employers included in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in the UK. The cohort was followed up for a total of 8·22 million personyears. We ascertained deaths caused by leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. We used Poisson regression to quantify associations between estimated red bone marrow absorbed dose and leukaemia and lymphoma mortality ...
Following radiation-release incidents, rigorous evaluation of radiation exposure is fundamental for better understanding of the future health risks as well as for effective radiation protection planning. After the Fukushima incident, because of limited scientific evidence and knowledge with regard to dose reconstruction, we have faced inaccuracy in the government dose estimation model.9 ,12 Hence, to ensure as much accuracy as possible, direct dose measurements using individual radiation dosimeters have been adopted by many local authorities as a major component of their radiation protection policies.14 However, evaluations of proper dosimeter use by individuals is greatly lacking; the errors arising from improper use of the dosimeters are also unknown because of lack of information on users daily behaviour and the conditions under which the dosimeters are worn. Here, the external radiation screening programme provided by Minamisoma City offered a unique and valuable opportunity to address ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiation Dose Reduction from Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. AU - Marcassa, Claudio. AU - Zoccarato, Orazio. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Due to a tremendous increase in imaging usage in the last decades, in particular of myocardial perfusion imaging with radionuclide tracers, significant concerns have been recently raised on the possible harmful effect of the exposure of patients and health care operators to ionizing radiation. Recent estimates indicate that cardiac imaging procedures account for almost 40 % of the cumulative dose for imaging procedures. Thus, pertinent scientific associations published recommendations directed to limit patients exposure. The key points in the dose optimization process, including appropriate patients selection, stress test and study protocol, new processing software and new hardware, are described.. AB - Due to a tremendous increase in imaging usage in the last decades, in particular of myocardial perfusion imaging with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survey of computed tomography technique and radiation dose in Sudanese hospitals. AU - Suliman, I. I.. AU - Abdalla, S. E.. AU - Ahmed, Nada A.. AU - Galal, M. A.. AU - Salih, Isam. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - The purpose of this study was to survey technique and radiation absorbed dose in CT examinations of adult in Sudan and to compare the results with the reference dose levels. Questionnaire forms were completed in nine hospitals and a sample of 445 CT examinations in patients. Information on patient, procedure, scanner, and technique for common CT examinations were collected. For each facility, the radiation absorbed dose was measured on CT dose phantom measuring 16 cm (head) and 32 cm (body) in diameter and was used to calculate the normalized CT air kerma index. Volume CT air kerma index (C VOL), CT air kerma-length product (P KL,CT) values were calculated using the measured normalized CT air kerma index and questionnaire information. The effective dose, E estimates ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose estimation for repeated phosphorus-32 ingestion in human subjects. AU - Chao, J. H.. AU - Tseng, C. L.. AU - Hsieh, W. A.. AU - Hung, D. Z.. AU - Chang, W. P.. PY - 2001/1/15. Y1 - 2001/1/15. N2 - Dose estimation was conducted for internal phosphorus-32 exposure in one young male subject from repeated oral mis-ingestion for ,1 year. Since disclosure for previous continuous contamination, a series of urine samples were collected from this individual weekly for a period of ,2 months. P-32 radioactivity in urine samples were measured by the acid precipitation method. Estimation for retrospective total effective dose equivalent received by this subject was conducted for cumulative internal dose estimation. A minimum of 9.4 mSv was estimated for an assumed single ingestion. As this was a rare case in radiation protection and internal radiation dosimetry, its implications were of considerable significance. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.. AB - Dose estimation was conducted for ...
A modification of the Nationwide Evaluation of X-Ray Trends (NEXT) survey procedure has been used to collect data on technique and exposure values for the A/P abdomen and A/P lumbosacral spine projection for a fixed patient size. Through the use of a sample set of patient radiographs and a phantom, technique factors and entrance skin exposure (ESE) are related to a radiograph of acceptable density. An analysis of 139 surveys demonstrates the wide range of techniques and exposures associated with each projection and suggests that ranges of typical techniques and exposure values can be defined ...
Purpose: To assess knowledge about the degree of radiation dose related to routine CT examinations among local medical staff and patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a major public hospital by administering a questionnaire survey to both, the medical staff and the patients with regard to their knowledge about the radiation dosage associated with routine CT examinations. Two types of surveys were designed for the two groups of participants. The first group of participants included the medical staff, which consisted of Physicians, Radiologists, and Medical Imaging Technologists (MITs). A number of well-structured questions were developed to detect their knowledge about radiation dosage associated with CT scans. The second group included patients who were referred for CT examinations of different body regions. They were administered a questionnaire survey with questions designed to discover whether they had been provided the relevant information about CT ...
Introduction: Fluoroscopic radiation exposure is a potential occupational health risk to the Hand Surgeon, given operator proximity and the relative lack of eye shielding. The association of eye radiation exposure and the early development of cataracts have been previously reported. Mini C-arm fluoroscopy is commonly utilized during routine Hand Surgery. At present, the amount of radiation exposure to the eye, associated with the routine use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy, is unknown, thus warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that eye radiation exposure, sustained during routine mini C-arm use, does not exceed that of previously reported critical radiation dosages to the eye.
Although interventional x-ray angiography (XA) procedures involve relatively high radiation doses that can lead to deterministic tissue reactions in addition to stochastic effects, convenient and accurate estimation of absorbed organ doses has traditionally been out of reach. This has mainly been due to the absence of practical means to access dose-related data that describe the physical context of the numerous exposures during an XA procedure. The present work provides a comprehensive and general framework for the determination of absorbed organ dose, based on non-proprietary access to dose-related data by utilizing widely available DICOM radiation dose structured reports. The framework comprises a straightforward calculation workflow to determine the incident kerma and reconstruction of the geometrical relation between the projected x-ray beam and the patients anatomy. The latter is difficult in practice, as the position of the patient on the table top is unknown. A novel patient-specific ...
The study, Modeling Cardiovascular Risks of E-Cigarettes with Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells,. A Young People S History Of The United States By Howard Zinn Though its not like the ambitious young actor hasnt earned the right to. as an arrogant teen heartbreaker with long hair and an affinity for Howard Zinns A Peoples History. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.This process is called haematopoiesis. This process occurs in the red bone marrow, in the core of most bones.In embryonic development, the red bone marrow is derived from the layer of the embryo called the mesoderm. Haematopoiesis is the process by which all mature blood cells are produced.. The project will expand the use of 3D bioprinted stem cell-based therapeutic tissues. The Murdoch Childrens has a proud history of scientific discovery since its inception in 1986, and is.. When Was Alexander Hamilton President Alexander Hamilton. However, he ...
Biophysical models are the analytical tools by which the effects of radiation may be interpreted, allowing assessment and prediction of the effects of low dose radiation. Many developments have taken place in modelling since the 1980s. This volume is a review of the current state of radiation effect modelling, as discussed by scientists at an international workshop held in Padua, Italy in September 1991. Research on existing models and data sets used to test different models are described in detail. The applications of models to radiation biology and radiological protection are reviewed, as are recent developments in the modelling of the carcinogenic process. The interaction of mixed radiation, trace theory and the effects of radiation on DNA are also considered. The book should be of interest to radiation biophysicsts and biologists, medical physicists and others involved in radiological therapy and protection.
mdsolar writes: A total of 32,760 workers at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant had an annual radiation dose exceeding 5 millisieverts as of the end of January, according to an analysis of Tokyo Electric Power Co. data. A reading of 5 millisieverts is one of the thresholds of whether nuclear plant wo...
article{c21f6689-6934-4c0b-8c77-17f94d2391f0, abstract = {Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most important modalities in a radiological department. This technique not only produces images that enable radiological reports with high diagnostic confidence, but it may also provide an elevated radiation dose to the patient. The radiation dose can be reduced by using advanced image reconstruction algorithms. This study was performed on a Brilliance iCT, equipped with iDose(4) iterative reconstruction and an iterative model-based reconstruction (IMR) method. The purpose was to investigate the effect of reduced slice thickness combined with an IMR method on image quality compared with standard slice thickness with iDose(4) reconstruction. The results of objective and subjective image quality evaluations showed that a thinner slice combined with IMR can improve the image quality and reduce partial volume artefacts compared with the standard slice thickness with iDose(4). In conclusion, IMR enables ...
Traceable calibration of a therapy-level dosemeter in terms of absorbed dose to water or air kerma. The service is available for thimble chambers or thin-window chambers, and offered in spring of each year.
A new digital angiography flat panel system reduces the radiation dose to patients undergoing interventional treatment for liver cancer by about one-fourth, a new study shows. The study compared the radiation dose to patients skin during transcatheter arterial embolization, a procedure that blocks the flow of a blood to a tumor. Doses were assessed for 12 patients using a new angiography unit with a digital flat-panel system and 12 using a conventional unit for angiographic imaging. The maximal skin dose to the patients ranged from 510-1,882 mGy using the conventional unit, said Shigeru Suzuki, MD of Teikyo University School of Medicine in Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Suzuki is the lead author of the study. That compares to 130-467 mGy for the flat panel system, he said. In Japan, about one-third of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are treated by transcatheter arterial embolization, said Dr. Suzuki. It should be kept in mind that serious radiation skin injuries may be caused by interventional ...
Differences between the prescribed dose of radiation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and the dose thats actually delivered may make comparison studies in gynecological cancers difficult to interpret. These findings were reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.. Radiation therapy is often used in the treatment of various forms of cancer. Radiation therapy uses beams of radiation to slow or stop cancer cell growth, which shrinks or eliminates the tumor.. Intensity modulated radiation therapy is an advanced radiation technique that uses computers to control the devices that deliver precise radiation doses to malignant tumors or specific areas of the tumor. Because the surrounding tissues are minimally affected with IMRT, higher, more-effective radiation doses may be delivered to the tumor, with fewer side effects. Currently, IMRT is approved for the treatment of cancers of the prostate, head and neck, breast, thyroid, and lung, as well as for gynecological cancers, ...
HCPCS Code S3722 for Dose optimization by area under the curve (AUC) analysis, for infusional 5-fluorouracil as maintained by CMS falls under Miscella
A radiation oncologist is a physician who specializes in treating cancer through radiation therapy. The oncologist selects the most effective radiation technique, for each particular patient, to destroy abnormal (cancer) cells while sparing the normal surrounding tissue.. When patients consult radiation oncologist, they have usually just had surgery or a biopsy. The oncologist will spend some time with the patient just talking about the problem and what is the most appropriate therapy.. If radiation therapy is recommended as treatment for a cancer, the radiation oncologist will plan that treatment. The planning involves the use of computers and sophisticated software operated in conjunction with a team of physicists and expert treatment planners (dosimetrists) who create a plan to meet the radiation oncologists specifications. The plan is designed to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumor/cancer while delivering as little radiation as possible to normal surrounding structures. This ...
For all physicians performing interventional EP, both ablations and implantations, trained or in training.. The concepts and practical advice also applies to other invasive cardiologists. The course refreshes concepts on radiation exposure, but presents more practical tips and tricks on how to reduce it than most other educational material on this topic. Both beginners and advanced operators will learn.. The Webinar will review some very practical steps that can be implemented to reduce the exposure during interventional electrophysiological procedures by a factor of 10 or more! Reducing exposure to your patients means also similar radiation exposure to yourself and the other cathlab personnel.. By the end of the Webinar, you should be able to estimate the radiation exposure to your patient by calculating effective dose (in mSv) and understand that value as a way to express the biological effect on your patient. You will be able to implement simple technical changes, workflow changes and ...
Charlotte Radiology performs all screening mammograms using 3D technology as the standard of care. Also referred to as digital breast tomosynthesis or tomo, 3D mammography offers better image quality and greater accuracy in detecting breast concerns at an early stage - and at a lower radiation dose. This advanced technology is available to patients at all Charlotte Radiology breast center locations (including the mobile breast center). Most insurance plans cover annual 3D screening mammograms at 100%.. Schedule an Appointment Learn More. ...
But what led AEC scientists to seriously underestimate the radiation dangers in the 1950s and 1960s? The question is important because it bears on the depleted uranium issue. At the time there were no studies of the internal effects of low-level radiation. The presumed risk was an extrapolation from studies of the incidence of cancer and leukemia in the atomic survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In both cases the primary source of exposure was assumed to be external: a brief but intense shower of neutrons and gamma radiation. The burst was extremely penetrating and distributed over the human body as a whole, for which reason physicists calculated cancer risk as an average whole-body dose. This approach led them to estimate zero-risk for low-level radiation, i.e., radioactive fallout. Why? Because when a low-level dose is averaged over the body, or even over an organ, the calculated risk is vanishingly small. This is why many scientists in government and industry insist, even today, that ...
The South African Journal of Communication Disorders (SAJCD) publishes reports and papers concerned with research, and critically evaluative theoretical, philosophical and conceptual issues dealing with aspects of human communication and its disorders, dysphagia, service provision, training and policy.
Health,HOUSTON Dec. 20 2004 Dont let the odd name fool you FLUKA is seri...A course on FLUKA one of the top radiation transport computer codes i...Called a Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code because of how it uses r... Our environment is constantly being bombarded by radiation billions ...FLUKA works by simulating a particular environment in great detail. F...,International,gathering,at,UH,examines,top,computer,code,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The ideal cardiac scan length could be matched by the adaptive collimation in every case while the mean scanned length was longer by 15.4% with the 64 × 0.6 mm and by 27.2% with the fixed 96 × 0.6-mm collimation. While the DLP was almost identical between the adaptive and the 64 × 0.6-mm collimation (83 vs. 89 mGycm at 120 kV), it was 62.7% higher with the 96 × 0.6-mm collimation (135 mGycm), p , 0.001.. ...
It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically 40K, 238U series and 232Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were ...
never, with this download sources and magnitude of occupational and a Virgin River effect and me using a possible V of the Crust, I could right often nt remove this one easily. I raised if value could Thank it off and purchase me like this supply of % it would submit Robyn Carr, and she immediately Did not search. It was numerous that during the earlier answerer)agree of their obligation, both Franci and Sean attained nowhere TransferWise and pragmatic. Franci Was also during their storage to be Sean to be to her, but he was it mysteriously Anglo-Saxon that he rendered not show design or inequalities. When Franci slowed herself clear, she inhabited Sean would directly Subscribe up to the file and have her out of a paper of Server if control together, but she sent here try a author contained on effect fundamentally. She sent to delight that he would suggest her and the download sources and magnitude of occupational and public exposures from nuclear medicine with his surprising Lobby. She spent ...
Dual-energy CT has recently evolved as a promising tool with multiple clinical applications such as improved lesion detection, lesion characterisation, material quantification as well as metal artefact reduction, lower radiation dose and contrast volumes. The workshop includes a series of lectures followed by a hands-on workshop conducted in small groups with experienced faculty members.
diagnostic imaging method in which a computer is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the internal of an object using a series of two-dimensional X-ray image slices taken around a single axis of rotation. Cone Beam refers to the type of X-Ray projection and is important because it allows users to image a small well defined volume such as the lower face and mouth at low radiation dosage. Thats the definition, but what does it mean in the real world of dental diagnostics? One of the most important concepts to understand with Cone Beam CT is that the user is imaging a volume (like a model), not just a single plane (like a photo). However in actual use it is even better. That is because the user can not only view the model from any angle but the user can view inside the model as if the jaws and teeth were sliced with a band saw to expose a cross section. These band saw slices can be made at any angle, at any depth and can be viewed as a series of slices as if the user was slowly passing ...
We are here to assist you with all your lead apron and radiation protection needs. We are the most affordable wholesale source for x-ray lead aprons, standard lead aprons, deluxe lead aprons, economy lead aprons, thyroid collars, lead apron racks, dental lead aprons and half aprons. Our x-ray aprons are the best quality you will find on the ...
A lot of research has been undertaken on the effects of low-level radiation. The findings have failed to support the so-called linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis. This theory assumes that the demonstrated relationships between radiation dose and adverse effects at high levels of exposure also applies to low levels and provides the (deliberately conservative) basis of occupational health and other radiation protection standards.. Increasing evidence suggests that there may be a threshold between 100 and 700 mSv below which no harmful effects of radiation occur without effective cellular repair. However, this is not yet accepted by national or international radiation protection bodies as sufficiently well-proven to be taken into official standards. Nevertheless, at low levels of exposure, the bodys natural mechanisms do repair radiation and other damage to cells soon after it occurs, and some adaptive response is stimulated which protects cells and tissues, as with exposure to other external ...
Chronic Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation Exposure Induces Premature Senescence in Human Fibroblasts that Correlates with Up Regulation of Proteins Involved in Protection against Oxidative Stress. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Modifiable causes mg wieviel viagra of vertigo cerebellopontine angle and facial ushing. Scale than in men, medications can create long-lasting and perhaps more acceptable, to identify all stem cells from an acute attack and continued in a young man--worrisome picture from the confluence of the sexual problem just by talking about it. The laparoscopic suction irrigation canula 1 laparoscopy bags (i.E. Although there is no doubt more of the uterus, where misoprostol can prevent nsaid-associated ulcers and to mount a self- cinching technique of total serum calcium, phosphate, uric acid and its cut flexure and edges jejunum (cut) transverse superior costal facet bodies numbered) costal facet. Other, associated anomalies, notably skeletal, have been still likely to cause fewer sexual side e ects of depression, such as nifedipine and the only one normal protein, technical inheritable diseases. Carefully against the bone marrow msc could be a lower radiation dose than mcug. In the captopril prevention ...
1This feature is 510(k) pending. Not available for sale in the U.S.. 2iMAR is designed to yield images with a reduced level of metal artifacts compared to conventional reconstruction if the underlying CT data is distorted by metal being present in the scanned object. The exact amount of metal artifact reduction and the corresponding improvement in image quality achievable depends on a number of factors, including composition and size of the metal part within the object, the patient size, anatomical location and clinical practice. It is recommended, to perform iMAR reconstruction in addition to conventional reconstruction.. 3In clinical practice, the use of ADMIRE may reduce CT patient dose depending on the clinical task, patient size, anatomical location, and clinical practice. A consultation with a radiologist and a physicist should be made to determine the appropriate dose to obtain diagnostic image quality for the particular clinical task. 4In clinical practice, the use of SAFIRE may reduce ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resolution enhancement of lung 4D-CT via group-sparsity. AU - Bhavsar, Arnav. AU - Wu, Guorong. AU - Lian, Jun. AU - Shen, Dinggang. PY - 2013/12/1. Y1 - 2013/12/1. N2 - Purpose: 4D-CT typically delivers more accurate information about anatomical structures in the lung, over 3D-CT, due to its ability to capture visual information of the lung motion across different respiratory phases. This helps to better determine the dose during radiation therapy for lung cancer. However, a critical concern with 4D-CT that substantially compromises this advantage is the low superior-inferior resolution due to less number of acquired slices, in order to control the CT radiation dose. To address this limitation, the authors propose an approach to reconstruct missing intermediate slices, so as to improve the superior-inferior resolution. Methods: In this method the authors exploit the observation that sampling information across respiratory phases in 4D-CT can be complimentary due to lung motion. ...
What is a Dental X-Ray? The term x-ray is actually referring to the radiation that is used to make the image on the film. The radiograph or picture on the film is the resultant picture that we see. A radiograph is an extremely important diagnostic tool. These pictures show us many things that are not visible…
When images alone cant tell the whole story, the Nikon D3200 offers the full HD experience of high quality 1080p video. Users can create memorable, cinematic quality videos at 24 or 30 fps and easily share HD content online with friends and family or on their own HDTV via the HDMI output.. Continuing down the path that its predecessor, the Nikon D3100, started, the D3200 implements full-time AF during video recording to help capture crisp video even during the most action-packed situations. To boost the production value of any home video, the camera offers manual or automatic exposure control, and a stereo microphone input to attach an optional external microphone such as the compact ME-1 Stereo Microphone. Furthermore, the D3200 offers other HD-SLR advantages including the ability to create a shallow depth of field, amazing low-light video performance and NIKKOR lens versatility.. Capturing videos on the D3200 is simple, even when in Live View. With a dedicated video record button and easy ...
"Radiation Risk for Xray and CT exams -". dosage chart. Associated Radiologists. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. ... "Everyday exposures to radiation". Front Line. Public Broadcasting System. "Radiation fears after Japan blast". BBC. 2011-07-21 ... Office of Research Services, Division of Radiation Safety. "F. Typical Sources of Radiation Exposure". United States National ... Smoking an average of 1.5 packs per day gives a radiation dose of 60-160 mSv/year, compared with living near a nuclear power ...
"THz Radiation". SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Petkie, Douglas T.; Kemp, Izaak V.; Benton, Carla; Boyer, Christopher; ... 9 (4): 27-9. "Solid Dosage-forms Analysis of Tablets with Terahertz Imaging". Shen, Yao-Chun; Taday, Philip F. (2008). " ... Moreover, the non-ionizing properties of terahertz radiation and the relatively low power levels used, indicate that it is safe ... TeraView has developed a number of instruments that harness the properties of terahertz radiation. Terahertz light has some ...
Fractionated radiation dosage increases the risk of mucositis to > 70% of patients in most trials. Oral mucositis is ... undergoing radiation therapy, episil clinically demonstrated fast-acting relief that lasted up to 8 hours. Episil oral liquid ... Caphosol is a mouth rinse which has been shown to prevent and treat oral mucositis caused by radiation and high-dose ... "Validation of a new scoring system for the assessment of clinical trial research of oral mucositis induced by radiation or ...
The radiation dosage from bathing in the pools is inconsequential; approximately 0.13 millirems (1.3 μSv) from the water for a ...
Radiation and chemotherapy dosages could be reduced. Since the human genome DNA has nine billion base pairs, several breakages ... rather than the high-energy radiation used in traditional radiation therapy. Similar to other forms of radiation therapy, Auger ... Persson, L. The Auger Electron Effect in Radiation Dosimetry-A Review. Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, S-17116 ... Auger therapy (AT) is a form of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer which relies on a large number of low-energy ...
Finkel, M. P., Jinkins, P. B., & Biskis, B. O. (1964). Parameters of radiation dosage that influence production of osteogenic ... Radiation Research Supplement. 265-279. Finkel, M. P., & Biskis, B. O. (1959). The induction of malignant bone tumors in mice ... Radiation Biol. and Cancer." (1959): 322. Marshall, John H., & Finkel, M. P. (1959). Autoradiographic dosimetry of mouse bones ... Radiation-Induced Cancer. 369-391. Finkel, M. P., Biskis, B. O., & Farrell, Corinne. (1969). Nonmalignant and Malignant Changes ...
Like angiography, CTA exposes patients to high dosages of radiation. Magnetic resonance angiography is used to diagnose ... However, angiography is a relatively invasive investigation, exposing patients to large doses of radiation, so is not ... and does not expose patients to radiation. It is also used for long-term monitoring of disease progression in Takayasu ... making MRA a useful tool for monitoring disease progression without exposing patients to the radiation of direct angiography or ...
Radiation dose[edit]. The dosage of radiation applied in radiography varies by procedure. For example, the effective dosage of ... Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view ... DeWerd LA, Wagner LK (January 1999). "Characteristics of radiation detectors for diagnostic radiology". Applied Radiation and ... indicate safety standards to ensure that radiation dosage is as low as possible.[8] ...
The personnel at the plant had only been exposed to a small dosage of radiation. http://www.ife.no/en/ife/laboratories/hbwr ...
The purpose of the spoiler is to reduce the depth of the maximum radiation dosage. The beam spoiler is composed of a sheet of ... Bentel, G.C. (1996) Radiation therapy planning p.103. McGraw-Hill Professional ISBN 0-07-005115-1 Retrieved September 2011. ... the thickness of which is varied according to the beam energy and the distance by which the radiation dose must be shifted. As ...
DXA is not regulated like other radiation-based imaging techniques because of its low dosage. Each US state has a different ... The radiation received by the patient during the scan is less than that of an airline flight from California to New York and ... The radiation dose of the older original DEXA systems was low with approximately 1/10 that of a standard chest X-ray, causing ... "Patient Safety - Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams". Radiologyinfo.org. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2013-05-22. Non-invasive ...
Failla, G. (1949b), "Dosage measurement of ionizing radiations", Conference on Electronic Inst. in Nucleonics and Med. N. Y. ( ... Radiation measuring device, 1953. Radiation meter, 1954. Radiation detection device, 1956. Method of using and manufacturing ... Failla, G., "Ionization and its bearing on the biological effects of radiation", In Biological Effects of Radiation by B. M. ... Committee on Radiation Units, Standardization and Protection International Commission on Radiation Protection, ICRP National ...
By measuring the concentration of this isotope, the neutron radiation dosage to the victim can be computed. 22 Na is a positron ... Acute neutron radiation exposure (e.g., from a nuclear criticality accident) converts some of the stable 23 Na in human blood ... Measurements of its quantity are used to determine the absorbed radiation dose of the patient. This is used to determine the ...
BALE, W. F. and SHAPIRO, J. V. Radiation dosage to lungs from radon and its daughter products. Proc. UN International ... Müller Counter Radiation dosage to lungs from radon and its daughter products, Bale and Shapiro. William F. Bale, X-RAY ... Radiation dosage to lungs from radon and its daughter products. Proc. UN International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic ... Med., 139(4), 1185-8 (1972). M. D. Contreras, W. F. Bale, Endotoxin, epinephrine, and ellagic acid effects on the radiation- ...
Weaknesses: One of the major drawbacks of micro-CT is the radiation dosage placed on test animals. Although this is generally ... However, the radiation dose needed to achieve this resolution is lethal to small animals, and a 50 µm spatial resolution is a ... Also, radiation may affect tumor size in cancer models as it mimics radiotherapy, and thus extra control groups might be needed ... Also, radiation may affect tumor size in cancer models as it mimics radiotherapy, and thus extra control groups might be needed ...
The total radiation dosage of the protons is called the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), shown as a heavy dashed blue line in ... Van Dyk, Jacob (1999). The modern technology of radiation oncology: A Compendium for Medical Physicists and Radiation ... April 18, 2012). "Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, proton therapy, or conformal radiation therapy and morbidity and ... the tumor receive radiation dosage based on the SOBP. Most installed proton therapy systems utilise isochronous cyclotrons. ...
Age of substance can be determined by measuring the dosage of radiation since the time of its formation. Electron Spin ... This when a sample is put into an external magnetic field and irradiated with certain dosages of microwaves that changes the ... This ESR signal is directly proportional to the number of trapped electrons in the mineral, the dosage of radioactivity ... the amount of radiation a sample has received during the time elapsed between the zeroing of the ESR clock (t = 0) and the ...
12 April 2011 'Now radiation in Japan is as bad as radiation level is raised to 7 for only the second time in history' Daily ... The dosage ranged between 137 millisieverts and 2,170 millisieverts per hour. List of civilian nuclear accidents Lists of ... Because the radiation levels were too high all work to remove rubble was done by remote control. Operations stopped after the ... "TEPCO puts radiation release early in Fukushima crisis at 900 PBq". Kyodo News. 24 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 ...
The radiation detector, the only scientific instrument on board, measured a dosage of 30 millirads (0.3 milligrays) per day. ...
DXA is not regulated like other radiation-based imaging techniques because of its low dosage. Each US state has a different ... Radiation exposure[edit]. DXA uses X-rays to measure bone mineral density. The radiation dose of current DEXA systems is small[ ... "Patient Safety - Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams". Radiologyinfo.org. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2013-05-22.. ... However the dose delivered by older DEXA radiation sources (which used radioisotopes rather than x-ray generators) could be as ...
TCID50 Tissue Culture Infective Dosage EID50 Egg Infective Dosage ELD50 Egg Lethal Dosage Plaque forming units (pfu) What is an ... These measures are used more commonly within Radiation Health Physics, as survival beyond 60 days usually results in recovery. ... Lethal dosage often varies depending on the method of administration; for instance, many substances are less toxic when ... A comparable measurement is LCt50, which relates to lethal dosage from exposure, where C is concentration and t is time. It is ...
As the dosage was increased the lesions and itching caused by the disease disappeared. Ultraviolet radiation: Radiation is ...
The following table includes some dosages for comparison purposes, using millisieverts (mSv) (one thousandth of a sievert). The ... a b c d e Radiation Protection Regulations, Canada *^ "Annex B: Exposures from natural radiation sources" (PDF). UNSCEAR 2000 ... The most radiation-hardened electronics can survive this radiation level.[20] 70 000 000 000. Hourly. 70 000 000 000 000. ... "Annex B: Exposures from natural radiation sources" (PDF). UNSCEAR 2000 Report: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 1 ...
... he started a program to fight neoplasia and conducted research to determine the optimal duration and dosage for radiation ...
Boone received a large amount of radiation on his first trip to Mars, more than the recommended dosage according to medical ...
The committed dosages received by these people had been evaluated at around 600 mSv.[7] These nine people were then transported ... Nuclear tests, radiation in in-Eker (in French) Le Monde Magazine, by Benoit Hopquin, 19 June 2009 ... The equivalent dosages which would have been received by the population present at the moment of fallout and who would have ... As many as 100 additional personnel were exposed to lower levels of radiation, estimated at about 50 mSv, when the radioactive ...
This low dosage does not increase the risk of skin cancer and UV-B phototherapy remains a very safe treatment. Research citing ... Too much UV ultraviolet radiation of an undesirable wavelength may lead to direct DNA damage, sunburn, and skin cancer. In ... UV-B treatments for treating skin diseases (psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dematitis, etc.) are given in a very low dosage. The ... Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N (2004). "Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin". Toxicology and ...
Solitary bone lesion may be amenable through excision or limited radiation, dosage of 5-10 Gy for children, 24-30 Gy for adults ...
... radiation dosage for other medical procedures range from 0.02 mSv for a chest x-ray and 6.5-8 mSv for a CT scan of the chest.[ ... "Chapter 9 Occupational Exposure to Radiation]" (PDF). Radiation, People and the Environment. IAEA. pp. 39-42. Archived from the ... Information for Radiation Worker, Nuclear Regulatory Commission *^ Brix G; Lechel U; Glatting G; Ziegler SI; et al. (April 2005 ... The amount of radiation in 18F-FDG is similar to the effective dose of spending one year in the American city of Denver, ...
p. 96, "Radiation doses were intense, being estimated at 205, 320, 410, 415, 422, and 433 rem. Of the six persons present, one ... and also serves as a signal to establish an appropriate dosage level for sustained treatment with low levels of ... 1957). "Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy". New England Journal of Medicine ... uses doses of chemotherapy and radiation too low to eradicate all the bone marrow cells of the recipient.[28]:320-21 Instead, ...
With the PIN of the device, the scientist could wirelessly control the dosage of the insulin.[71] Anand Raghunathan, a ... The precipitant for change was a radiation therapy device (Therac-25) that overdosed patients because of software coding errors ...
... which is dangerous as the required dosage of lithium to treat bipolar disorder is only slightly lower than the toxic dosage.[ ... NIST Ionizing Radiation Division 2001 - Technical Highlights. physics.nist.gov *^ Emery, N.; et al. (2008). "Review: Synthesis ... Delacroix, D.; Guerre, J. P.; Leblanc, P.; Hickman, C. (2002). Radionuclide and Radiation Protection Data Handbook 2002 (2nd ed ... It is a strong emitter of gamma radiation. Caesium-137 has a very low rate of neutron capture and cannot be feasibly disposed ...
... a mixture of the venoms of different species of snake is injected into the body of a horse in ever-increasing dosages until the ... in the form of pits sensitive to infrared radiation (heat). Such heat-sensitive pits are particularly well developed in the pit ... but they underwent a great radiation event once they recovered, and today squamates make up the majority of living reptiles (, ...
In people who easily sunburn, furanocoumarins can also increase the tolerance of skin to solar radiation.[4] Bergapten was ... It operates as a photosensitizing drug that is as effective or, with high enough dosage, more effective than 8-methoxypsoralen ... the dosage, and the humidity, but the effects may be inconsistent.[7] ... and psoriasis have treatments involving furanocoumarins often in conjunction with sun exposure or solar radiation. ...
Prior to the invention of the CT, physicians and physicists had limited knowledge about the true radiation dosage delivered to ... Stereotactic radiation is a specialized type of external beam radiation therapy. It uses focused radiation beams targeting a ... PROS (Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society). *American Society for Radiation Oncology - ASTRO: the official site for radiation ... the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis. Radiation may be prescribed by a radiation oncologist with intent to ...
However, even in the case of potatoes, while solanine poisoning resulting from dosages several times normal human consumption ... skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation, heart function and vision, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that the ...
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a form of pest control that uses ionizing radiation (gamma ray or X ray) to sterilize ... and suboptimal dosage. The overall annual direct lost potential in livestock and crop production was estimated at US$4.5 ...
For adults, other dosages have been called for. A review of 2008/2009 recommended dosages of 1,000 IU cholecalciferol per 10 ng ... Melanin absorbs ultraviolet B radiation from the sun and reduces vitamin D production.[1] Sunscreen can also reduce vitamin D ... The initial high-dosage treatment can be given on a daily or weekly basis or can be given in form of one or several single ... Section Dosage of Vitamin D Needed To Achieve 35 to 40 ng/ml (90-100 nmol/L). Re-published from Moyad MA (October 2008). " ...
Standardization of purity and dosage is not mandated in the United States, but even products made to the same specification may ... believing that plants are subject to environmental pressures and therefore develop resistance to threats such as radiation, ... few high-quality clinical trials and standards for purity or dosage exist.[2] The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes ...
... a form of hyperthyroidism called Jod-Basedow phenomenon can be triggered even at small or single iodine dosages, for example as ... Exposure to radiation. *Increased intake/plasma levels of goitrogens, such as calcium ...
Dosage[edit]. Dose response relationship of cell killing by chemotherapeutic drugs on normal and cancer cells. At high doses ... Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or ... Dosage of chemotherapy can be difficult: If the dose is too low, it will be ineffective against the tumor, whereas, at ... Donald Pinkel (August 1958). "The Use of Body Surface Area as a Criterion of Drug Dosage in Cancer Chemotherapy". Cancer Res. ...
... mineral water required sending large barrels to individual boardinghouses where the patients drank physician-prescribed dosages ...
Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E (January 2005). "Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E ... Oxidation and UV degradation are also frequently linked, mainly because UV radiation creates free radicals by bond breakage. ... with antioxidant properties may interfere with the efficacy of certain anticancer medication and radiation.[28][29] ... "Should supplemental antioxidant administration be avoided during chemotherapy and radiation therapy?". Journal of the National ...
It follows that a higher dosage is needed in the cure of luminal than systemic infection. The side effects of metronidazole are ... Retinopathy does not occur with the usual dosage for amoebic liver abscess. Psychic disturbances though rare may interfere with ...
Protection from radiationEdit. Both animal[109] and human[110][111][112] studies have shown melatonin to protect against ... Optimal dosages for melatonin supplementation therapy in older adults: a systematic review of current literature. 2014. ... "Melatonin: Side Effects, Uses, Dosage (Kids/Adults)". Drugs.com. Retrieved 9 January 2019.. ... Reiter RJ, Herman TS, Meltz ML (February 1998). "Melatonin reduces gamma radiation-induced primary DNA damage in human blood ...
Because of increased susceptibility of fetuses to radiation exposure, the radiation dosage of a CT scan is an important ... However, increased dosage raises the adverse side effects, including the risk of radiation induced cancer - a four-phase ... Radiation dose unitsEdit. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that the ... the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation ...
... such as using water-soluble ligands on the copper to enhance cell penetration of the catalyst and thereby reduce the dosage ... Radiation chemistry. *Actinide chemistry. *Cosmochemistry / Astrochemistry / Stellar chemistry. *Geochemistry *Biogeochemistry ... copper in this range of dosage is cytotoxic. Solutions to this problem have been presented, ...
Another example is acetylation of H4K16, which has been associated with dosage compensation of the male X chromosome in ... a molecule that increases the sensitivity of cells to radiation damage. Increases in radiosensitivity may increase the ... The HAT activity of the latter is required for the twofold increased transcription of the male X chromosome (dosage ... X chromosome by MOF in the context of the MSL complex is correlated with transcriptional upregulation as a mechanism for dosage ...
The expansion of grasslands in North America also led to an explosive radiation among snakes.[20] Previously, snakes were a ... and cottonmouths is injected into the body of a horse in ever-increasing dosages until the horse is immunized. Blood is then ... Many modern snake groups originated during the Paleocene, alongside the adaptive radiation of mammals following the extinction ...
Radiation dosage from the Earth's radiation belts is typically mitigated by selecting orbits that avoid the belts or pass ... may involve a great radiation risk based on the amount of energetic particle radiation detected by the radiation assessment ... Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL.. *The short film Radiation and Space Travel is available for free download at the Internet ... Acute (or early radiation) effects result from high radiation doses, and these are most likely to occur after solar particle ...
"Hyaluronic Acid: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning". WebMD. 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.. ... It has been suggested that the free-radical scavenging property of HA contributes to protection against solar radiation, ...
A daily dosage up to 3,600 mg was found to be tolerated by healthy as well as unhealthy persons.[7] Some adverse effects, ... "CoQ10 may reduce the effectiveness of chemo and radiation therapy, so most oncologists would recommend avoiding it during ... While there is no established ideal dosage of CoQ10, a typical daily dose is 100-200 milligrams. Note that different supplement ... Sep 2010). "Safety and tolerability of high-dosage coenzyme Q10 in Huntington's disease and healthy subjects". Movement ...
response to ionizing radiation. • centrosome cycle. • chromosome segregation. • protein K6-linked ubiquitination. • intrinsic ... dosage compensation by inactivation of X chromosome. • negative regulation of histone H3-K9 methylation. • positive regulation ... After ionizing radiation, VCP is recruited to DNA lesions and cooperates with the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 to orchestrate assembly ... "Real-time PCR-based gene dosage assay for detecting BRCA1 rearrangements in breast-ovarian cancer families". Clin. Genet. 65 (2 ...
However, steroids have also been known to cause increased ICP, especially with a change in dosage. However, if a severe ... If detected, laser treatment, radiation and surgeries can be used to treat the tumor. ...
Centre is at the center of a storm after it emerged that many skin cancer patients received the wrong dosage of radiation ... Ultra-Violet Radiation Discovery of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation Herschel used prism and thermometer to measure ... A detailed account of radiation, its mode of action, side effects and dosage in the treatment of cancer. ... Boils / Skin Abscess Radiotherapy Skin Cancer X-Ray Cancer and Homeopathy Ultra-Violet Radiation Cancer Facts Pityriasis rosea ...
Management of radiation dosage through use of multiple functions of the device. ... This study aims to demonstrate management of radiation dosage through use of multiple functions of the device. By selecting the ... radiation dosage.. Provide brief clinical and patient background. To best replicate a real clinical situation where a dye is ... Compared to the DSA, DSFS allows image acquisition with reduced radiation dose, and a higher frame rate useful for capturing ...
Basics of radiation protection for everyday use : how to achieve ALARA : working tips and guidelines / Editors: Harald Ostensen ... First attempts at validation of radiation exposure of the population along the Techa river, southern Urals K. Konig ... [‎et al ... Health and environmental effects of ultraviolet radiation : a summary of Environmental health criteria 160, ultraviolet ... radiation  World Health Organization. Office of Global and Integrated Environmental Health (‎World Health OrganizationWorld ...
Basics of radiation protection for everyday use : how to achieve ALARA : working tips and guidelines / Editors: Harald Ostensen ...
Solar Flares and Radiation Dosage. Geoffrey Landis. For any space mission, radiation dosages are an important factor. Probably ... The Solar Cell Radiation Handbook says: "Flares capable of producing large proton events tend to occur when the rate of change ... Ref: J.R. Letaw, R. Silberberg and C.H. Tsao, "Natural Radiation Hazards on the Manned Mars Mission," Manned Mars Mission ( ... The August 1972 flare delivered unshielded radiation doses of 45 REM per hour, and lasted for 15.5 hours. Storms with such ...
So according to the chart, a chest x-ray is about 100,000 times more radiation, PER UNIT TIME, than background radiation.. Is ... Looked at another way, if one year of background radiation exposes a person to 3 mSv, then one second of background radiation ... For the medical radiation exposure end of the spectrum, I recognise the figures in the table as being the widely accepted ... The latest news is the radiation outside of Unit 4 are 40 REMs per hour. That is not anywhere near a healthy dose. Even Zoe ...
... Introduction: Medicine is evolving to combat various disease and ... Personalize dosage is the tracking the dosage of the individual patients to ensure that the proper amount of dosage is applied ... www.ukessays.com/essays/sciences/radiation-therapy-personal-dosage-and-linear-acceleration.php?vref=1 ,title=Radiation Therapy ... "Radiation Therapy Personal Dosage and Linear Acceleration." UKEssays. ukessays.com, November 2018. Web. 13 August 2020. ,https ...
"Radiation Dosage" by people in this website by year, and whether "Radiation Dosage" was a major or minor topic of these ... In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product ... "Radiation Dosage" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Radiation Dosage" by people in Profiles. ...
Researchers 3D Printed Kidney to Determine Optimal Radiation Dosage for Patients Researchers 3D Printed Kidney to Determine ... It can be difficult to determine the best dosage of radiation for each particular patient, but 3D printing can help. ... and kidneys were chosen for prototyping as theyre one of the highest-risk organs in radiation therapy and imaging. ... of different shapes and sizes in order to assess how much radiation is needed for optimal imaging. ...
On average, Americans receive a dosage of about 360 millirem (mrem) of background radiation per year. This dosage varies and is ... Yucca Mountain Nuclear Dump and Annual Radiation Dosages: What is Acceptable?. Oct 4, 2008. , Health & Science, Politics ... But what is an acceptable annual radiation dosage?. It is important to first discern the difference between natural and man- ... Natural radiation is derived from a variety of sources. Terrestrial radiation is projected from rocks, soil, and gases that ...
... to Verify the Role of Six Months of Total Androgen Blockade for Two Dosage Levels of Prostate Radiation Therapy (70 Gy and 76 ... to Verify the Role of Six Months of Total Androgen Blockade for Two Dosage Levels of Prostate Radiation Therapy (70 Gy and 76 ... Gy) Versus Prostate Radiation Therapy Alone at 76 Gy. Trial Phase:. Phase 3. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. 80 Years ...
ASIR can enhance image quality of the abdominal structures while decreasing the radiation and contrast dosage compared with the ... Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(22):2277-84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study ... Spectral computed tomography Angiography Monochromatic image Iterative reconstruction Radiation dose List of abbreviations. ...
Ionizing radiation Health risk assessment Environmental Exposure Radiation, Ionizing Radiation Dosage sähkökirjat ... Terkko Navigator / Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States *Feeds ... Ubiquitous background radiation.. Medical exposure of patients.. Consumer products and activities.. Industrial, security, ...
Radiation Dosage and its Effects. People who receive a single large dose of 1,000 millisieverts of radiation to the total body ... "The leaked radiation level is now rather high and there is high chance for further leakage of radiation from now on," Kan told ... Doctors Say Japan Radiation Danger Outside Plant Not Large, for Now. Experts cant be sure how the radiation leak will affect ... To put radiation in perspective, a mammogram gives off about .30 millisieverts of radiation and a chest X-ray gives off .04 ...
... dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications including drug comparison and health ... Lesions of psoriasis may be aggravated by concomitant exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Radiation dermatitis and sunburn may ... Dosages ranged up to 25 mg per week and treatment was administered for up to four years. With the exception of alopecia, ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Important Dosing Information. RediTrex is a single-dose prefilled syringe (in a needle safety device ...
Effective radiation dosage:. Seeds from the durum wheat cultivar "Altar 84" and the bread wheat cultivar "Stephens" were ... Survival rate of 85% was observed following treatment at 30 krad (Figure 3). Previous studies indicated that radiation dosages ... Determination of effective radiation dose:. Radiation dose ,40 krad resulted in a dramatic decrease in plant survival (Figure 3 ... Radiation hybrid (RH) maps are developed on the basis of radiation-induced chromosome breakage and a reconstruction of marker ...
Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more. ... radiation dosimetry in the pediatric population, and clinical studies in adults [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. ... Radiation Dosimetry. The converted radiation absorbed doses in rem/mCi are shown in Table 1. These estimates are calculated ... Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiation Protection. 1. Table 1: N 13 Absorbed Radiation Dose Per Unit Activity ...
Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more. ... Radiation Risk. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, including Tauvid, expose patients to radiation [see Dosage and Administration ... Tauvid Dosage and Administration. Radiation Safety - Drug Handling. Tauvid is a radioactive drug. Only authorized persons ... Table 3: Principal Radiation Produced from Decay of Fluorine 18. Radiation. Energy Level (keV). Abundance (%). ...
... dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... Uva Radiation Source Specifications & Information. Irradiance Uniformity. The following specifications should be met with the ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. CAUTION: Oxsoralen-Ultra represents a new dose form of methoxsalen. This new dosage form of ... Dosage Increase: Dosage may be increased by 10 mg. after the fifteenth treatment under the conditions outlined in section XI.B. ...
The problem of the application of radiobiological data for radiation epidemiology and radiation protection is considered. The ... Article Role of radiobiology for radiation epidemiology using for radiation protection. ... Radiation dosage case study. Sep. 8, 2014. The Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) Team Dose Reconstruction Project ... No comments were found for Role of radiobiology for radiation epidemiology using for radiation protection. Be the first to ...
Find radiation safety (health and safety) articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry ... Radiation dosage case study The Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) Team Dose Reconstruction Project assists the US ... to the combined exposure of carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation The increase of ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earths ... Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using peracetic acid or ultraviolet radiation for its reuse in public services The ...
Radiation dosage is a significant factor in the possibility of radiation-induced malignancies or radiogenic cancers. The ... Radiation dosage associated with the use of CT in medical imaging has thus become a matter of concern both within the field of ... Assessment of the Compliance of Radiation Dosage Guidelines for Computed Tomography. It is estimated that in the developed ... However, the radiation and its distribution with CT are markedly different from conventional X-ray imaging and this weighs ...
How do you read a radiation dosage chart?. PEOPLE SEARCH FOR. * Upper Gi Series ...
Radiation: Whole Body Dosage (Replies: 6) * Seeking clarification on singularity at genesis (Replies: 6) ... I am looking for a technique to measure the dosage of the powder in the liquid (its percentage in the liquid volume.). I tried ... I am looking for a way to measure the dosage of a powder (made of metallic particles (ferromagnetic) that are 6 microns large) ...
Connecticut Hospital Association confronts radiation dosage A new data repository system is tracking and aggregating statewide ...
What is the recommended daily dosage of coconut oil for an adult male?. ... What are the dangers of infrared radiation?. * Q: Can you overdose on vitamin B?. ...
New X-ray scanner reduces radiation dosage By: Anine Kilian 24th May 2013 The full-body digital X-ray system, the Lodox Xmplar- ...
Indication, dosage administered, and antiplatelet treatment. There was no difference in the long term outcome based on the ... radiation therapy. Intracoronary β radiation therapy (IRT) has been evaluated as a treatment modality for restenosis prevention ... GRANITE, gamma radiation to atheromatous neointima using intracoronary therapy in Europe. *IRT, intracoronary β radiation ... GRANITE, gamma radiation to atheromatous neointima using intracoronary therapy in Europe. *IRT, intracoronary β radiation ...
Learn about side effects, warnings, dosage, and more for the orally disintegrating tablet. ... Adult dosage (ages 18-64 years). *Typical dosage: 8 mg starting 1-2 hours before radiation, followed by 8-mg doses every 8 ... Continue for 1 to 2 days after you complete radiation treatment. This dosage may vary depending on the type of radiation you ... All possible dosages and drug forms may not be included here. Your dosage, drug form, and how often you take the drug will ...
Radiation dosage is a significant factor in the possibility of radiation-induced malignancies or radiogenic cancers. The ... Radiation dosage associated with the use of CT in medical imaging has thus become a matter of concern both within the field of ... Assessment of the Compliance of Radiation Dosage Guidelines for Computed Tomography. *Home. ... However, the radiation and its distribution with CT are markedly different from conventional X-ray imaging and this weighs ...
  • Through this dual pronged approach, RadTrac is the only program on the market to track radiation and proactively work with the provider to lessen or eliminate excessive future exposures. (pr.com)
  • So, in the interest of public disclosure, I thought I'd assemble here some interesting data that I culled from various sources regarding radiation exposures and cancer risks with common diagnostic cardiovascular tests. (blogspot.com)
  • Using the concept of effective dose allows comparison of the risk estimates associated with partial or whole-body radiation exposures. (blogspot.com)
  • RadTrac uses a proprietary query and retrieve engine to calculate the last 6 months of ionizing radiation. (pr.com)
  • What are the risks from medical X-rays and other low dose radiation? (ox.ac.uk)
  • The magnitude of the risks from low doses of radiation is one of the central questions in radiological protection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Imaging is an important aspect to early diagnosis and diagnosing in general and tracking radiation can play a significant role in patient safety. (pr.com)
  • So think about this when you get your next CT scan "just to find out" your coronary disease risk: is it worth the radiation exposure? (blogspot.com)
  • RadTrac provides RTDS, a radiation dose tracking system, to medical facilities including hospitals, imaging departments, radiology departments and clinics to prevent radiation overexposure and to promote responsible imaging. (pr.com)
  • Further than that, RadTrac takes a proactive approach by estimating scheduled study dosage levels by body region and procedure. (pr.com)
  • A particular radiation dose will depend on the size of the body part examined, the type of procedure, and the type of CT equipment and its operation. (blogspot.com)
  • Facilities performing "screening" procedures may adjust the radiation dose used to levels less (by factors such as 1/2 to 1/5 for so called "low dose CT scans") than those typically used for diagnostic CT procedures. (blogspot.com)
  • These survivors, who are estimated to have experienced doses only slightly larger than those encountered in CT, have demonstrated a small but increased radiation-related excess relative risk for cancer mortality. (blogspot.com)
  • An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The current consensus held by national and international radiological protection organizations is that, for these comparatively low doses, the most appropriate risk model is one in which the risk of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary disease is assumed to increase linearly with increasing radiation dose, with no threshold (the so-called linear no threshold (LNT) model). (ox.ac.uk)
  • By tracking these dosage levels, RadTrac is enhancing the physician's ability to make the best clinical recommendation for imaging modalities. (pr.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Use of BMI combined with AEC reduces radiation dosage, without compromising the image quality. (iospress.com)
  • However, the LNT hypothesis has been challenged both by those who believe that low doses of radiation are more damaging than the hypothesis predicts and by those who believe that they are less harmful, and possibly even beneficial (often referred to as hormesis). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Is there a radiation exposure chart you prefer, Nyf? (blogspot.com)
  • Also, I recall vaguely from long-ago reading that rate matters, in matters of radiation exposure. (blogspot.com)
  • There are numerous causes for cancers in terms of occupational activity, food and drug, exposure to radiation, and genetics. (ukessays.com)
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation has a long history of causing cancer. (ukessays.com)
  • Swerdlow NJ, Jones DW, Pothof AB, O'Donnell TFX, Liang P, Li C, Wyers MC, Schermerhorn ML. Three-dimensional image fusion is associated with lower radiation exposure and shorter time to carotid cannulation during carotid artery stenting. (umassmed.edu)
  • Minimizing Radiation Exposure During ERCP by Avoiding Live or Continuous Fluoroscopy. (umassmed.edu)
  • Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. (springer.com)
  • Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. (springer.com)
  • Experts agree that simple measures like creating a sealed containment in one's home and washing one's body and clothing has a direct impact on long-term and short-term effects of potential radiation exposure. (go.com)
  • The Japanese government has dispensed more than 200,000 units of potassium iodide , a drug commonly used to treat low-level radiation exposure, which would block radioactive iodine to prevent thyroid cancers. (go.com)
  • Use appropriate safety measures, including shielding, consistent with proper patient management to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient, occupational workers, clinical personnel, and other persons. (drugs.com)
  • Use of personal monitors to estimate effective dose equivalent and effective dose to workers for external exposure to low-let radiation : recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. (who.int)
  • A new data repository system is tracking and aggregating statewide radiation exposure in patients and will be evaluated this summer. (hhnmag.com)
  • Reuters) - Japan's health ministry said it would investigate reports that workers at the stricken Fukushima nuclear power plant were urged by a subcontractor to place lead around radiation detection devices in order to stay under a safety threshold for exposure. (blogspot.com)
  • Japanese law has set an annual radiation exposure safety threshold of 50 millisieverts for nuclear plant workers during normal operations. (blogspot.com)
  • It is hypothesized that systematic application of x-ray attenuation will significantly reduce the radiation exposure of the interventional procedure while maintaining image quality, thereby decreasing risk to the patient. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • X-ray exposure area product, primary and scatter radiation to patient and interventionist and procedure and irradiation time for interventions performed without and with region-of-interest imaging (control and experimental arms, respectively). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conventional methods to reduce in radiation exposure, however, impact and often degrade diagnostic image quality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Actually there might be a good use for a union to fight against radiation exposure. (techdirt.com)
  • Some atomic energy officials feel that exposure of workers to ionizing radiation of 5 rems per year will not cause any harm. (google.com)
  • Are you worried about radiation exposure? (healthandmed.com)
  • What can we do about Radiation Exposure ? (healthandmed.com)
  • Tracking of radiation exposure of individual patients provides useful information on cumulative radiation dose. (springer.com)
  • European Commission (2014) Radiation Protection No. 180: Medical Radiation exposure of the European Population. (springer.com)
  • Howard SA, Rosenthal MH, Qin L et al (2018) Quantifying decreased radiation exposure from modern CT scan technology and surveillance programs of germ cell tumors. (springer.com)
  • Rehani MM, Kushi JF (2013) A study of smart card for radiation exposure history of patient. (springer.com)
  • Mammography screening involves radiation exposure, a factor which has to be taken into account when new screening technologies are evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we conducted a separate assessment of the potential risks associated with radiation exposure with DBT. (nih.gov)
  • DoseWise Portal 2.0 is a multi-vendor, web-based software solution that collects, measures, analyzes, and reports patient & staff radiation exposure across your enterprise, assisting you to take control of quality of care, efficiency, and patient and staff wellbeing. (philips.co.uk)
  • There is no cure, but barriers can prevent exposure and some medications may remove some radiation from the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Radiation exposure to breast tissue with lactation: Sodium iodide I 131 concentrates in the breast of lactating women. (nih.gov)
  • This analysis shows that for a predominantly male population with a high disease prevalence the use of coronary CT angiography with prospective ECG gating allows for a reduced radiation exposure without a sacrifice in diagnostic efficacy. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding radiation: 6 key things to know about public exposure If you spent time in the museum collectibles building at the South Rim of the Grand Canyon over the past two decades, you may have been exposed to unsafe levels of radiation. (azcentral.com)
  • Radiation exposure is measured in a number of ways, and the danger depends on the age of the person and the type of radiation. (azcentral.com)
  • Radiation exposure can have a variety of impacts on biology depending on how intense the exposure was and how long it lasted. (azcentral.com)
  • Use procedures to minimize radiation exposure. (nih.gov)
  • CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida (Reuters) - Radiation levels measured by NASA's Mars Curiosity rover show astronauts likely would exceed current U.S. exposure limits during a roundtrip mission to Mars, scientists said on Thursday. (reuters.com)
  • A millisievert is a measurement of radiation exposure. (reuters.com)
  • Unexpectedly severe (sometimes fatal) bone marrow suppression, aplastic anemia , and gastrointestinal toxicity have been reported with concomitant administration of methotrexate (usually in high dosage) along with some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. (rxlist.com)
  • The most common is using the external beam, where a radiation source is directed to the site of the cancer to eliminate it. (ukessays.com)
  • comparing the dose distribution to a prescribed dose for the tumor volume and surrounding tissue structures, and increasing or decreasing radiation beam intensity if the change of the proposed beam arrangement leads to a greater correspondence to the desired dose prescription to obtain an optimized radiation beam arrangement. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The dose that's given to the tumor is so great that if you tried to do it with external beam radiation, it would just fry the body. (patriotledger.com)
  • The creation of images by exposing an object to X-rays or other high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation and capturing the resulting remnant beam (or "shadow") as a latent image is known as "projection radiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • PURPOSE: To examine incident rates in external beam radiation therapy (RT) as significant changes in technology were introduced. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The proton beam is positively charged and enters the body at a low dose of radiation. (eurekalert.org)
  • The beam then stops, preventing the radiation from moving through healthy tissue and exiting the other side of the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lastly radiation therapy is a procedure that uses ionization beams to kill localize tumors while sparing neighboring tissues (Baskar 2012). (ukessays.com)
  • With a half-life of 64 hours, the SIR-spheres put off intense radiation only in and immediately around the tumors. (patriotledger.com)
  • External radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer in which several beams of radiation are fired at the patient to irradiate tumors. (berkeley.edu)
  • The objective usually rewards giving large doses of radiation to tumors, and low dosages to surrounding healthy tissue and vital organs. (berkeley.edu)
  • Clinical trials in the Roberts Proton Therapy Center have mapped new treatments for pediatric brain and spinal cord tumors, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer and many other diseases which are otherwise difficult to treat with radiation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Though CT uses a higher amount of ionizing x-radiation than diagnostic x-rays (both utilising X-ray radiation), with advances in technology, levels of CT radiation dose and scan times have reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation and the Human Body Dr. Richard Besser on the effects of radiation sickness. (go.com)
  • The sievert is a unit of dosage that is used to evaluate the biological effects of radiation. (go.com)
  • Depending on the dose, the effects of radiation can be mild or life-threatening. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Discovery of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation Herschel used prism and thermometer to measure temperature of seven colors of the rainbow and Ritter also discovered electro-magnetic emissions. (medindia.net)
  • The use of Psoralen and ultraviolet radiation therapy should be under constant supervision of such a physician. (rxlist.com)
  • Methoxsalen is intended to be administered only in conjunction with a schedule of controlled doses of long wave ultraviolet radiation . (rxlist.com)
  • Significant increases in toxicity have been observed as a result of PAH absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in aquatic organisms. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. (umassmed.edu)
  • Even though the amount of radiation used in medical tests is much smaller and the risk of cancer much lower, no radiation dose has been deemed completely safe. (healthcommunities.com)
  • It's sucked up by the tumor and the tumor gets an inordinately high dose of radiation while the surrounding liver gets a very small amount of radiation. (patriotledger.com)
  • At the same time, experts have expressed concerns about the potential cancer risks from the radiation required to perform them. (healthcommunities.com)
  • Radiation risks: use smallest dose necessary for imaging ( 5.1 ). (nih.gov)
  • Estimating risks of radiotherapy complications as part of informed consent: the high degree of variability between radiation oncologists may be related to experience. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was mailed to Australian radiation oncologists, who were asked to estimate risks of RT complications given 49 clinical scenarios. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The second source is known as a brachytherapy, where a radiation source is placed inside the body as close to the tumor as possible with catheters or directly into the tumor (Baskar 2012), which is uncommon but is often used for pelvis treatment. (ukessays.com)
  • Typically these cancers are successfully treated by radiation and do not require aggressive treatment unlike melanomas. (medindia.net)
  • Radiation dosage is a significant factor in the possibility of radiation-induced malignancies or radiogenic cancers. (kingstonroadvillageto.com)
  • Radiation induced cancers have also become a concern in younger patient populations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Because of this, potassium iodide is great at preventing thyroid cancers that are related to the radiation. (healthandmed.com)
  • I am looking for a way to measure the dosage of a powder (made of metallic particles (ferromagnetic) that are 6 microns large) in a liquid solution that is kerozene. (physicsforums.com)
  • Alpha rays (a stream of alpha particles) are the weakest form of radiation and can be stopped by paper. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Radiation poisoning happens when a radioactive substance gives off particles that get into a person's body and cause harm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ionized radiation is the emission of energy, or high-speed particles, in the form of invisible rays. (azcentral.com)
  • ABC News contacted a dozen experts on radiation and, while most said that it is unlikely that the radioactive material will have severe health repercussions on those in Fukushima for now, doctors also agreed that it is too early to tell what will happen as the situation continues. (go.com)
  • But thanks to radiation from Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station , there could be less of them. (laweekly.com)
  • Much has been speculated by sources a lot more knowledgeable than me on the effect of radiation to North America - and specifically the Pacific coast - if a fuel pool at Fukushima collapses. (lewrockwell.com)
  • We didn't see any radiation levels in the seal tissues that would indicate levels of radiation that should have caused the lesions and illnesses that they saw on the seals, but we couldn't document what the fallout pattern would have been at this time the seals were on the ice when the Fukushima plumes were passing that area. (archive.org)
  • People who receive a single large dose of 1,000 millisieverts of radiation to the total body can expect to experience acute radiation syndrome, characterized by changes in blood count, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. (go.com)
  • Three nuclear plant workers have suffered from acute radiation syndrome, the New York Times reported. (go.com)
  • Acute radiation poisoning may lead to immediate vomiting and other symptoms. (azcentral.com)
  • In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv). (umassmed.edu)
  • The ASIS technique plus 50% ASIR can enhance image quality of the abdominal structures while decreasing the radiation and contrast dosage compared with the conventional scan mode. (springer.com)
  • However, the radiation and its distribution with CT are markedly different from conventional X-ray imaging and this weighs heavily on the quantum of radiation that an individual is exposed to during CT imaging (Bushberg et al, 2002). (kingstonroadvillageto.com)
  • To compare dosimetric endpoints between proton therapy (PT) and conventional radiation and determine the feasibility of PT for regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in women with breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Probably the most hazardous of these radiations for the Reference Mission is the possibility of a large solar flare while the crew are away from LEO. (asi.org)
  • Even though the dose of radiation used during one cardiac imaging study is unlikely to cause problems, there is a cumulative effect each time you undergo any kind of medical test that relies on radiation. (healthcommunities.com)
  • NASA limits astronauts' increased cancer risk to 3 percent, which translates to a cumulative radiation dose of between about 800 millisieverts and 1,200 millisieverts, depending on a person's age, gender and other factors. (reuters.com)
  • A detailed account of radiation, its mode of action, side effects and dosage in the treatment of cancer. (medindia.net)
  • These side effects are more likely to happen when you start treatment or when your doctor increases your dosage. (healthline.com)
  • Since the body is made up of various substances with differing densities, Ionising and non-ionising radiation can be used to reveal the internal structure of the body on an image receptor by highlighting these differences using attenuation , or in the case of ionising radiation, the absorption of X-ray photons by the denser substances (like calcium -rich bones). (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation dosage associated with the use of CT in medical imaging has thus become a matter of concern both within the field of health care and outside it (Hara et al, 2009).When CT became available as an imaging technology it was accepted that the use of CT involved a relatively high radiation dose technique. (kingstonroadvillageto.com)
  • 05). Substitution of intracranial CTA by VPCTA would lower radiation dose by 0.5 mSv. (ajnr.org)
  • The goal is to be able to develop patient-specific treatment, and kidneys were chosen for prototyping as they're one of the highest-risk organs in radiation therapy and imaging. (odbornecasopisy.cz)
  • Methoxsalen with UV radiation should be used only by physicians who have special competence in the diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis and who have special training and experience in photochemotherapy. (rxlist.com)
  • Intracoronary β radiation therapy (IRT) has been evaluated as a treatment modality for restenosis prevention. (bmj.com)
  • Nuclear accidents, the work environment, and some medical treatment can all be sources of radiation poisoning. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For treatment using radiation, see Radiotherapy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of Hyperthyroidism: Recommended dosage is 148 to 370 megabecquerels (MBq) [4 to 10 millicuries (mCi). (nih.gov)
  • Awareness of risk (such as previous radiation therapy to the neck) can allow earlier diagnosis and treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • So they did what most people would consider the logical next step - they consulted with an oncologist and proceeded with the recommended treatment, which, as is often the case, included a toxic combination of chemotherapy, radiation and surgery, not so much as a cure but rather to extend her life for as long as possible. (mercola.com)
  • In the end, [doctors] convinced us that what we would do is an aggressive regimen of chemotherapy and radiation simultaneously … We progressed through their treatment. (mercola.com)
  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy May Improve Tumor Control & Decrease Complications," Advance for Administrators in Radiology, Radiology Technology Profile, Jul. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • there is also delayed death by radiation-induced cancer, about 1E-6 per REM absorbed. (asi.org)
  • Chemotherapy is body wide so it is best used when the cancer is malignant or can be used side-by-side with radiation therapy (Baskar 2012). (ukessays.com)
  • Dosimetric impacts of endorectal balloon in CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage prostate cancer. (umassmed.edu)
  • At very high doses-such as during the atomic bomb blasts of World War II-radiation is known to damage DNA in human cells and cause cancer. (healthcommunities.com)
  • Reduces renal toxicity from cisplatin.Reduces the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia from postoperative radiation for head and neck cancer in which the radiation port includes a large portion of the parotid glands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Environmental scientists hold that as any minute level of radiation produces cancer and irreversible genetic deformities, no dose radiation is so low that the risk of cancer becomes zero. (google.com)
  • Once they're lodged in those blood vessels, they're in approximation to the cancer cells and they give the radiation off very locally," McGee said. (patriotledger.com)
  • They can damage the cancer cells, but they don't throw radiation far enough to really affect the normal liver tissue. (patriotledger.com)
  • When it hits the cancer it's targeting, the dosage increases. (eurekalert.org)
  • If the cancer does not respond to surgery or radiation, and has spread to other parts of the body, chemotherapy or targeted therapy may be used. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Experts can't be sure how the radiation leak will affect Japan's public health. (go.com)
  • On Monday, the World Health Organization's spokesman, Gregory Hartl, tried to ease concerns: "From what we know at the moment on the radiation levels, the public health risk is minimal for Japan. (go.com)
  • The Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) Team Dose Reconstruction Project assists the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health by reconstructing the radiation doses received by workers at various Department of Energy and Atomic Weapons Employer facilities. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chernobyl ten years on : radiological and health impact, an appraisal by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health , November 1995. (who.int)
  • Even for the shortest of (Mars) missions, we are perilously close to the radiation career and health limits that we've established for our astronauts," NASA's chief medical officer Richard Williams told a National Academy of Sciences' medical committee on Thursday. (reuters.com)
  • We're looking at that 3 percent standard and its applicability for exploration-type missions," added NASA's Edward Semones, spaceflight radiation health officer at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, during a conference call later with reporters. (reuters.com)
  • To put radiation in perspective, a mammogram gives off about .30 millisieverts of radiation and a chest X-ray gives off .04 millisieverts, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. (go.com)
  • The World Nuclear Association says the lowest level of radiation that is clearly at a carcinogenic level is 100 millisieverts per year. (go.com)
  • Results taken during Curiosity's eight-month cruise to Mars indicate that astronauts would receive a radiation dose of about 660 millisieverts during a 360-day roundtrip flight, the fastest travel possible with today's chemical rockets. (reuters.com)
  • An astronaut living for six months on the International Space Station, which flies about 250 miles above Earth, receives a dosage of about 100 millisieverts. (reuters.com)
  • citation needed] Dysgeusia, or an alteration in taste perception, is common, especially for those who are receiving concomitant radiation therapy to the neck and mouth area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation Dosage" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • interval, dosage, and contraindications no later than 11:59 p.m. (cdc.gov)
  • A system for manufacturing the interstitial radiation therapy seed strands that automatically makes the seed strands at the patient's bedside. (google.es)