The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.

Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors. (1/3048)

We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging.  (+info)

MIRD pamphlet no. 16: Techniques for quantitative radiopharmaceutical biodistribution data acquisition and analysis for use in human radiation dose estimates. (2/3048)

This report describes recommended techniques for radiopharmaceutical biodistribution data acquisition and analysis in human subjects to estimate radiation absorbed dose using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. The document has been prepared in a format to address two audiences: individuals with a primary interest in designing clinical trials who are not experts in dosimetry and individuals with extensive experience with dosimetry-based protocols and calculational methodology. For the first group, the general concepts involved in biodistribution data acquisition are presented, with guidance provided for the number of measurements (data points) required. For those with expertise in dosimetry, highlighted sections, examples and appendices have been included to provide calculational details, as well as references, for the techniques involved. This document is intended also to serve as a guide for the investigator in choosing the appropriate methodologies when acquiring and preparing product data for review by national regulatory agencies. The emphasis is on planar imaging techniques commonly available in most nuclear medicine departments and laboratories. The measurement of the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals is an important aspect in calculating absorbed dose from internally deposited radionuclides. Three phases are presented: data collection, data analysis and data processing. In the first phase, data collection, the identification of source regions, the determination of their appropriate temporal sampling and the acquisition of data are discussed. In the second phase, quantitative measurement techniques involving imaging by planar scintillation camera, SPECT and PET for the calculation of activity in source regions as a function of time are discussed. In addition, nonimaging measurement techniques, including external radiation monitoring, tissue-sample counting (blood and biopsy) and excreta counting are also considered. The third phase, data processing, involves curve-fitting techniques to integrate the source time-activity curves (determining the area under these curves). For some applications, compartmental modeling procedures may be used. Last, appendices are included that provide a table of symbols and definitions, a checklist for study protocol design, example formats for quantitative imaging protocols, temporal sampling error analysis techniques and selected calculational examples. The utilization of the presented approach should aid in the standardization of protocol design for collecting kinetic data and in the calculation of absorbed dose estimates.  (+info)

The effect of the antiscatter grid on full-field digital mammography phantom images. (3/3048)

Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images (CAMPI) is a method for making quantitative measurements of image quality. This article reports on a recent application of this method to a prototype full-field digital mammography (FFDM) machine. Images of a modified ACR phantom were acquired on the General Electric Diagnostic Molybdenum Rhodium (GE-DMR) FFDM machine at a number of x-ray techniques, both with and without the scatter reduction grid. The techniques were chosen so that one had sets of grid and non-grid images with matched doses (200 mrads) and matched gray-scale values (1500). A third set was acquired at constant 26 kVp and varying mAs for both grid conditions. Analyses of the images yielded signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast and noise corresponding to each target object, and a non-uniformity measure. The results showed that under conditions of equal gray-scale value the grid images were markedly superior, albeit at higher doses than the non-grid images. Under constant dose conditions, the non-grid images were slightly superior in SNR (7%) but markedly less uniform (60%). Overall, the grid images had substantially greater contrast and superior image uniformity. These conclusions applied to the whole kVp range studied for the Mo-Mo target filter combination and 4 cm of breast equivalent material of average composition. These results suggest that use of the non-grid technique in digital mammography with the GE-DMR-FFDM unit, is presently not warranted. With improved uniformity correction procedure, this conclusion would change and one should be able to realize a 14% reduction in patient dose at the same SNR by using a non-grid technique.  (+info)

Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom. (4/3048)

A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them.  (+info)

3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology. (5/3048)

3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame between 3D X-ray angiography and volumetric MR acquisition, which should allow us to improve the treatment of intracerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).  (+info)

Biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and pharmacokinetics of 111In-antimyosin in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. (6/3048)

In view of the established role of 111In-antimyosin in the detection of heart muscle pathology, radiation dose estimates were made for this substance. Biodistribution and biokinetic data were obtained from our studies, which failed to show abnormal uptake of 111In-antimyosin in localized sites of skeletal muscle involvement in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: After intravenous administration of 74 MBq (2 mCi) 111In-antimyosin, gamma camera scintigraphy was performed in 12 adult patients with inflammatory muscle disease and in 2 control patients. Six whole-body scans were performed over 72 h, and uptake of 111In-antimyosin in organs was quantified using an attenuation-corrected conjugate counting method. Residence times in source organs were used with MIRDOSE software to obtain radiation dose estimates. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from serial whole-blood and plasma 111In concentrations. RESULTS: The tracer cleared slowly from the circulation, and highest organ uptakes were found in the marrow and liver; kidneys showed the highest concentrations. Uptake was also evident in spleen, the facial image and male genitalia. CONCLUSION: For a typical administered activity of 74 MBq 111In-antimyosin, the kidneys receive the highest dose (58 mSv), and the effective dose is 11 mSv. Radioactivity was cleared from plasma at an average rate of 136 mL/h, and the mean steady-state distribution was approximately 5 L plasma.  (+info)

MIRD Pamphlet No. 15: Radionuclide S values in a revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain. Medical Internal Radiation Dose. (7/3048)

Current dosimetric models of the brain and head lack the anatomic detail needed to provide the physical data necessary for suborgan brain dosimetry. During the last decade, several new radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more anthropomorphic model of the human brain and head for use in estimating regional absorbed dose within the brain and its adjacent structures. METHODS: A new brain model has been developed that includes eight subregions: the caudate nuclei, the cerebellum, the cerebral cortex, the lateral ventricles, the lentiform nuclei, the thalami, the third ventricle and the white matter. This brain model is incorporated within a total revision of the head model presented in MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised. Modifications include the addition of the eyes, the teeth, the mandible, an upper facial region, a neck region and the cerebrospinal fluid within both the cranial and spinal regions. RESULTS: Absorbed fractions of energy for photon and electron sources located in 14 source regions within the new model were calculated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code for particles in the energy range 10 keV-4 MeV. These absorbed fractions were then used along with radionuclide decay data to generate S values for 24 radionuclides that are used in clinical or investigational studies of the brain, 12 radionuclides that localize within the cranium and spinal skeleton and 12 radionuclides that selectively localize in the thyroid gland. CONCLUSION: A substantial revision to the dosimetric model of the adult head and brain originally published in MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised is presented. This revision supports suborgan brain dosimetry for a variety of radiopharmaceuticals used in neuroimaging. Dose calculations for the neuroimaging agent 1231-tropane provide an example of the new model and yield mean brain doses that are consistent with published values. However, the absorbed dose to subregions within the brain such as the caudate and lentiform nuclei may exceed the average brain dose by a factor of up to 5.  (+info)

Dose-related effects of single focal irradiation in the medial temporal lobe structures in rats--magnetic resonance imaging and histological study. (8/3048)

The dose-related effects of single focal irradiation on the medial temporal lobe in rats were investigated by sequential magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination. Irradiation of 200 Gy as a maximum dose using 4 mm collimators with a gamma unit created an area of necrosis consistently at the target site within 2 weeks after irradiation. Irradiation of 100 Gy caused necrosis within 10 weeks, and 75 Gy caused necrosis within one year. Irradiation of less than 50 Gy did not induce necrosis consistently, although a restricted area of necrosis was created in the medial temporal structures including the intraparenchymal portion of the optic tract. 75 Gy may be the optimum dose for creating necrosis consistently in the medial temporal lobe structures. However, careful dose planning considering both dose-time and dose-volume relationships in necrosis development is necessary to avoid injury to vulnerable neural structures such as the optic tract when applying radiosurgical techniques to treat functional brain disorders in medial temporal lobe structures such as temporal lobe epilepsy.  (+info)

Samarium is a rare earth element that is used in the medical field as a radioactive tracer in nuclear medicine. It is typically used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as bone metastases, by delivering targeted radiation to cancer cells. Samarium is also used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions, such as bone disorders, by imaging the bones and identifying areas of abnormal activity. Samarium is administered to the patient in the form of a radioactive compound, which is then taken up by the cancer cells or bones and emits radiation that can be detected by medical imaging equipment.

Radiation injuries refer to damage to living tissue caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is a type of energy that has enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, creating ions. This can cause damage to cells and tissues, leading to a range of symptoms and health problems. Radiation injuries can occur from a variety of sources, including medical procedures such as radiation therapy, nuclear accidents, and exposure to radioactive materials. The severity of radiation injuries depends on the dose of radiation received, the duration of exposure, and the type of tissue affected. Symptoms of radiation injuries can include skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and an increased risk of developing cancer. In severe cases, radiation injuries can be life-threatening and may require medical intervention, such as surgery or supportive care. Treatment for radiation injuries depends on the severity of the injury and the underlying cause. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms, wound care, and physical therapy. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair injuries.

Radiation injuries, experimental refer to injuries or damage caused to living tissue as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation in a laboratory or research setting. These injuries can occur intentionally, as part of a scientific study or experiment, or unintentionally, as a result of equipment malfunction or other accidents. The effects of radiation on living tissue can vary depending on the type and amount of radiation exposure, as well as the duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of radiation exposure include burns, skin damage, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In severe cases, radiation exposure can lead to organ damage, tissue necrosis, and even death. Experimental radiation injuries are typically studied in order to better understand the effects of radiation on living tissue and to develop new treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses. These studies may involve exposing animals or cells to different types and doses of radiation, and then observing the effects of the radiation on the exposed organisms or cells. The results of these studies can be used to inform the development of new radiation protection measures and treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses in humans.

Radiation pneumonitis is a condition that occurs when the lungs are exposed to high levels of radiation, such as during radiation therapy for cancer. It is a type of inflammation that affects the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fever. In severe cases, radiation pneumonitis can lead to lung fibrosis, a condition in which the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe. Treatment for radiation pneumonitis may include medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as oxygen therapy to help the lungs function properly.

Neoplasms, radiation-induced are abnormal growths of cells that are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is a type of energy that has enough force to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, causing the atoms to become ionized. This type of radiation is capable of damaging DNA and other cellular structures, which can lead to mutations and the development of cancer. Radiation-induced neoplasms can occur in any part of the body that has been exposed to ionizing radiation, including the skin, lungs, thyroid gland, and bone marrow. The risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm increases with the dose of radiation received and the duration of exposure. In addition, certain factors such as age, gender, and genetic predisposition can also affect the risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm. Treatment for radiation-induced neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the location and extent of the radiation exposure. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. It is important for individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation to be monitored for the development of radiation-induced neoplasms, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) is a medical condition that occurs when a person is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation over a short period of time. It is characterized by a range of symptoms that can develop within hours to days after exposure, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In severe cases, ARS can lead to organ failure and death. The severity of ARS depends on the dose and duration of radiation exposure, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and genetic makeup. ARS is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt medical attention and treatment.

Cobalt radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element cobalt that are used in medical applications. These isotopes are typically produced by bombarding cobalt-59 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor or by using a cyclotron to accelerate protons onto a cobalt-59 target. There are several different cobalt radioisotopes that are used in medicine, including cobalt-57, cobalt-58, cobalt-60, and cobalt-67. Each of these isotopes has a different half-life (the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay) and emits different types of radiation. Cobalt radioisotopes are used in a variety of medical applications, including diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. For example, cobalt-60 is often used as a source of gamma radiation in radiation therapy to treat cancer. Cobalt-57 is used in a diagnostic test called a "bone scan" to detect bone abnormalities, such as fractures or tumors. Cobalt-58 is used in a similar test called a "lung scan" to detect lung abnormalities. Overall, cobalt radioisotopes play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of medical conditions.

"Radiation Risk for Xray and CT exams -". dosage chart. Associated Radiologists. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. ... "Everyday exposures to radiation". Front Line. Public Broadcasting System. "Radiation fears after Japan blast". BBC. 2011-07-21 ... Office of Research Services, Division of Radiation Safety. "F. Typical Sources of Radiation Exposure". United States National ... Smoking an average of 1.5 packs per day gives a radiation dose of 60-160 mSv/year, compared with living near a nuclear power ...
"Radiation dosage chart". Archived from the original on November 22, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2020. Monbiot, George ... reporting on radiation levels in the media, Munroe created a radiation chart of comparative radiation exposure levels. The ... Revkin, Andrew (March 23, 2011). "The 'Dread to Risk' Ratio on Radiation and other Discontents". Dot Earth blog. The New York ... Munroe, Randall (March 19, 2011). "Radiation Chart". Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. Retrieved March ...
Fractionated radiation dosage increases the risk of mucositis to > 70% of patients in most trials. Oral mucositis is ... undergoing radiation therapy, episil clinically demonstrated fast-acting relief that lasted up to 8 hours. Episil oral liquid ... Caphosol is a mouth rinse which has been shown to prevent and treat oral mucositis caused by radiation and high-dose ... "Validation of a new scoring system for the assessment of clinical trial research of oral mucositis induced by radiation or ...
"Solid Dosage-forms Analysis of Tablets with Terahertz Imaging". Shen, Yao-Chun; Taday, Philip F. (2008). "Development and ... "THz Radiation". SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Petkie, Douglas T.; Kemp, Izaak V.; Benton, Carla; Boyer, Christopher; ... Moreover, the non-ionizing properties of terahertz radiation and the relatively low power levels used indicate that it is safe ... TeraView has developed a number of instruments that harness the properties of terahertz radiation. Terahertz light has some ...
Coutard's dosage and fractionation were designed to create a severe but recoverable acute mucosal reaction. Unlike previous ... The use of radiation continues today as a treatment for cancer in radiation therapy. The imaging properties of x-rays were ... Intraoperative radiation therapy or IORT is a special type of radiation therapy that is delivered immediately after surgical ... "Radiation therapy" defined as the utilization of electromagnetic or particle radiation in medical therapy has 3 main branches, ...
The radiation dosage from bathing in the pools is inconsequential; approximately 0.13 millirems (1.3 μSv) from the water for a ...
Some areas have greater dosage than the country-wide averages. In the world in general, exceptionally high natural background ... However, background radiation for occupational doses includes radiation that is not measured by radiation dose instruments in ... Background radiation description from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Environmental and Background Radiation FAQ from ... Record radiation levels were found in a house where the effective dose due to ambient radiation fields was 131 mSv (13.1 rem) ...
There were also plans to increase the radiation dosage to 600 rad. In addition, bone marrow was occasionally extracted prior to ... "Chronology of radiation study". Retrieved 2017-06-07. United States. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation ... Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (1996). The Human Radiation Experiments. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. ... Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (1996). The Human Radiation Experiments. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. ...
In the study, rats were subjected to 10 Gy dosage of radiation. The 10 Gy radiation dosage is comparable to that used in ... Radiation therapy is used mainly in the treatment of cancer. Radiation therapy can be used to cure care or shrink tumors that ... In animal studies discussed by Monje and Palmer in "Radiation Injury and Neurogenesis", it has been proven that radiation does ... Radiation-induced cognitive decline describes the possible correlation between radiation therapy and cognitive impairment. ...
Finkel, M. P., Jinkins, P. B., & Biskis, B. O. (1964). Parameters of radiation dosage that influence production of osteogenic ... Radiation Research Supplement. 265-279. Finkel, M. P., & Biskis, B. O. (1959). The induction of malignant bone tumors in mice ... Radiation Biol. and Cancer." (1959): 322. Marshall, John H., & Finkel, M. P. (1959). Autoradiographic dosimetry of mouse bones ... Radiation-Induced Cancer. 369-391. Finkel, M. P., Biskis, B. O., & Farrell, Corinne. (1969). Nonmalignant and Malignant Changes ...
The dosage of radiation applied in radiography varies by procedure. For example, the effective dosage of a chest x-ray is 0.1 ... Röntgen referred to the radiation as "X", to indicate that it was an unknown type of radiation. He received the first Nobel ... "Radiation Safety in Adult Medical Imaging". Image Wisely. Retrieved 16 August 2013. "Optimal levels of radiation for patients ... Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view ...
Like angiography, CTA exposes patients to high dosages of radiation. Magnetic resonance angiography is used to diagnose ... However, angiography is a relatively invasive investigation, exposing patients to large doses of radiation, so is not ... and does not expose patients to radiation. It is also used for long-term monitoring of disease progression in Takayasu ... making MRA a useful tool for monitoring disease progression without exposing patients to the radiation of direct angiography or ...
"Radiation levels spike at Japanese nuclear plant". CNN. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011. "Radiation leak feared at spent ... The dosage ranged between 137 millisieverts and 2,170 millisieverts per hour. List of civilian nuclear accidents Lists of ... Because the radiation levels were too high all work to remove rubble was done by remote control. Operations stopped after the ... "TEPCO puts radiation release early in Fukushima crisis at 900 PBq". Kyodo News. 24 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 ...
See radiation poisoning for a more complete analysis of effects of various dosage levels. 1962-05-01: Béryl casualties 100 pers ...
Her research has assessed the biological effects of ionizing radiation at low dosage levels. From 1973 and until her retirement ... Much of her research concerned the areas of radiation contamination and the effect of low level radiation exposure, as well as ... She is also chairman of the European Committee on Radiation Risk, a group of scientists opposing nuclear power; she was elected ... German Society for Radiation Protection). Richardson DB, Wing S, Schroeder J, Schmitz-Feuerhake I, Hoffmann W (January 2005). " ...
The effective dose refers to the radiation risk averaged over the entire body. It is the sum of the equivalent dosage of all ... Ionizing radiation is further categorized into electromagnetic radiation (without matter) and particulate radiation (with ... The dose equivalent measures the effective radiation dosage in a specific organ or tissue. The dose equivalent is calculated by ... Radiation exposure is a measure of the ionization of air due to ionizing radiation from photons. It is defined as the electric ...
... unit of dosage of X-rays or gamma radiation. Andrés Quintana Roo, Mexican politician - Quintana Roo. Alice Roosevelt, American ... Samuel Pierpont Langley, American astronomer and physicist - langley a measurement of solar radiation. Lev Davidovich Landau, ... Max Planck, German physicist - Planck constant, Planck's law of black body radiation Joseph Plateau, Belgian physicist - ... Rolf Sievert, Swedish physicist - sievert (unit of radiation dose equivalent). Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodian king - Sihanoukism. ...
In comparison, the dosage of background radiation received over a lifetime is 170 mSv. Very few cancers are expected as a ... result of accumulated radiation exposures and residents who were evacuated were exposed to so little radiation that radiation- ... Radiation exposure of those living in proximity to the accident site is expected to be below 10 mSv, over the course of a ... "Radiation-exposed workers to be treated at Chiba hospital". Kyodo News. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 17 ...
... it emits no particle radiation, thus keeping radiation dosage low. Its decay product, 99Tc, has a relatively long half-life ( ... These are the radiations that are picked up by a gamma camera when 99mTc is used as a radioactive tracer for medical imaging. ... This level of radiation exposure is estimated by the linear no-threshold model to carry a 1 in 1000 lifetime risk of developing ... Unlike a chest x-ray, the radiation source is inside the patient and will be carried around for a few days, exposing others to ...
Eventually, twenty people showed signs of radiation sickness and required treatment. Ages in years are given, with dosages ... at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a radiation source for radiation therapy at the Goiânia hospital. The IAEA states that the ... Extreme radiation levels of up to 1.5 Sv·h−1 were found by investigators in the middle of the scrapyard. Ivo Ferreira's house ( ... News of the radiation incident was broadcast on local, national, and international media. Within days, nearly 130,000 people in ...
Numerous accidents also occur during radiotherapy due to equipment failures, operator errors, or wrong dosage. Electron beam ... A radiation burn is a damage to the skin or other biological tissue and organs as an effect of radiation. The radiation types ... Radiation burns are often discussed in the same context as radiation-induced cancer due to the ability of ionizing radiation to ... ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation. The most common type of radiation burn is a sunburn caused by UV radiation. High ...
The purpose of the spoiler is to reduce the depth of the maximum radiation dosage. The beam spoiler is composed of a sheet of ... Bentel, G.C. (1996) Radiation therapy planning p.103. McGraw-Hill Professional ISBN 0-07-005115-1 Retrieved September 2011. ... the thickness of which is varied according to the beam energy and the distance by which the radiation dose must be shifted. As ...
The dangers of radiation poisoning had become well known due to the experience of the radium dial painters. When it became ... Personal quartz fiber dosimeters were procured, as were film badge dosimeters, which recorded cumulative dosage. Stone's Health ... It was surrounded by concrete walls 5 feet (1.5 m) thick that acted as a radiation shield, and with overhead protection from 6 ... Herbert M. Parker created a metric for radiation exposure he called the roentgen equivalent man or rem. After the war, this ...
DXA is not regulated like other radiation-based imaging techniques because of its low dosage. Each US state has a different ... The radiation dose of current DEXA systems is small, as low as 0.001 mSv, much less than a standard chest or dental x-ray. ... "Patient Safety - Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams". Retrieved 2019-03-12. Lewis MK, Blake GM, ... "Patient Safety - Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams". Radiological Society of North America. 2012-04-25. ...
However, dosages can vary, such as during periods of high solar activity. The United States FAA requires airlines to provide ... radiation) Radiation hormesis Radiation physics Radiation protection Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 Radiation protection ... " : Radiation Risk Calculator. Calculate Radiation Dose and Cancer Risk". (from CT scans and xrays). Free Radiation ... These internal radiation sources contribute to an individual's total radiation dose from natural background radiation. An ...
"Radiation Sources and Doses". Radiation Protection. EPA. N. Fujinami; T. Koga; H. Morishima. "External Exposure Rates from ... Some other spots can reach dosages of up to 55 μSv/h. To place that in context, the average exposure level across the United ... The background radiation level on some spots on the Guarapari beach read 175 mSv per year (20μSv/h); ... In the Guarapari city, radiation levels are far lower: a study among 320 inhabitants showed an average received dose of 0.6 μSv ...
... the higher RILP rates occurring with higher dosages. As of 1977 lumbosacral neuropathy arising from radiation therapy had been ... Radiation poisoning Radiation therapy ICD-10-CM World Health Organization's Code G62.82: Radiation-induced polyneuropathy ICD- ... Radiation-induced lumbar plexopathy (RILP) or radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy (RILSP) is nerve damage in the pelvis ... Merrell, R. (2015). "Radiation-Induced Lumbosacral Plexopathy". In Ehrenpreis, E; Marsh, R; Small Jr, W (eds.). Radiation ...
The effects of radiation on cells has been found to be dependent on the dosage of the radiation, the location of the cell in ... The extent of how radiation effects cells depends on the type of cell and the dosage of the radiation. Some irradiated cancer ... This model illustrates the efficiency of the repair system decreasing as the dosage of radiation increases. This is due to the ... Radiation exposure could also occur via many other channels than just ionizing radiation. In this model a single hit on a ...
RADIATION RESEARCH, Vol 61, No 3, Mar., 1975, Pp 538-539. "Obituary: Leonidas D. Marinelli 1906 - 1974 by Ugo Fano www.jstor. ... Marinelli (April 25, 1975) John Rundo, HEALTH PHYSICS, Volume 35, July, 1978, Pp 5-6 L.D. Marinelli, Dosage determination with ... He authored review articles on dosimetry in the Annual Review of Nuclear Science, in Radiation Biology, and in the Dosimetry, ... Hill, R.F., Hine, G.J. and Marinelli, L.D. (February 1950). "The Quantitative Determination of Gamma Radiation in Biological ...
By measuring the concentration of this isotope, the neutron radiation dosage to the victim can be computed. 22 Na is a positron ... Measurements of its quantity can be done to determine the absorbed radiation dose of a patient. This can be used to determine ... Exposure of the human body to intense neutron radiation creates 24 Na in the blood plasma. ... Acute neutron radiation exposure (e.g., from a nuclear criticality accident) converts some of the stable 23 Na (in the form of ...
Other use of electronically produced radiation to deliver therapeutic radiation dosage.. A person shall not utilize any device ... Therapeutic Radiation Machines » Article 7. Notification » 12VAC5-481-3453. Other use of electronically produced radiation to ... that is designed to electronically generate a source of ionizing radiation to deliver therapeutic radiation dosage and that is ... f. Radiation safety precautions and instructions; and. g. Other information requested by the agency in its review of the ...
... a pill or liquid that can be used in radiation emergencies to help prevent radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the ... For more information about KI dosage and side effects visit. ... KI is a pill or liquid that can be used in radiation emergencies that involve radioactive iodine. KI contains non-radioactive ...
Reduces Patient Radiation Dosage Ian Murphy, Marketing , Sep 04, 2019 • 5 min read ... Via the dissemination of the technique, thousands of cancer patients worldwide reduced their heart radiation dosage ... researchers published a technique in JoVE that has resulted in thousands of cancer patients reducing their radiation dosages ... hearts from radiation during radiotherapy. The doctors received dozens of requests for training in this technique - far more ...
Recommended Single Dosage by Age*:. Potassium Iodine (KI): Recommended Single Dosage by Age. Predicted Thyroid Exposure. KI ... Radiation Dictionary. *Radiation Emergencies & Your Healthplus icon *Possible Health Effectsplus icon *Contamination and ... Most radiation emergencies will involve other types of radiation and not radioactive iodine alone. Radioactive iodine is most ... In a radiation emergency, some people may be told to take potassium iodide (KI) to protect their thyroid. ...
Variation in radiation techniques and dosage administered; the variable use of androgen ablation, which improves survival in ... Radiation therapy adverse events can be modulated by the type of radiation utilized. In general, both surgery and radiation ... Radiation as adjuvant or salvage therapy after surgery. Several randomized trials have evaluated the use of adjuvant radiation ... Androgen suppression and radiation vs radiation alone for prostate cancer: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 Jan 23. 299(3):289-95 ...
Radiation oncologists from 26 of 27 (96%) of all Canadian centers participated. RESULTS: High-energy X-rays (,/= 10 MV) were ... CONCLUSION: There was a variety of radiation treatment techniques in this trans-Canada survey. The majority of the patients had ... The majority (83%) of the radiation oncologists used at least two phases of treatment. Very few, 10 of 59 (17%), responses ... To assess the patterns of practice among Canadian radiation oncologists who treat esophageal cancers, using a trans-Canada ...
stabilizes actives against light, UV radiation, temperature, oxidation and hydrolysis. *prevents drug-ingredient and drug-drug ... increases bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs in oral and liquid dosage forms ...
Dosage; Threshold-limit-values; Author Keywords: ultraviolet radiation; corneal damage; lenticular damage; cataract; action ... NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Contract; Contract-099-74-0012; Nonionizing-radiation; Eye-disorders; Thresholds; Ultraviolet-light; ... radiation. Pigmented rabbit eyes were exposed to the 6.6 nanometer band pass UV radiant energy in 5 nanometer steps from 295 to ...
Radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Exposure may occur from:. *Radiation therapy to the neck (especially ... The dosage is usually slightly higher than what your body needs. This helps keep the cancer from coming back. The pills also ... Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Other risk factors are a family history of thyroid cancer and chronic goiter ( ... If the cancer does not respond to surgery or radiation, and has spread to other parts of the body, chemotherapy or targeted ...
What is the dosage for Xofigo?. Radium Ra 223 dosing is based on body weight. The recommended dosage. of radium Ra 223 is 50 ... Previous articletolmetin, Tolectin (Discontinued Brand): NSAID Side Effects & Dosage. Next articleDiabetes: OTC Guide for Safe ... Homebreast cancerradium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo): Radiation Drug Use & Side Effects ... radium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo): Radiation Drug Use & Side Effects. September 3, 2019. ...
... Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 ... 1 Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, P.O. Box 647, Rochester, NY 14642 ... Purpose: Prospective pilot study to assess patient outcome after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for limited ...
A Study of Astronaut Radiation Dosages For Students 8th - 10th In this astronauts and radiation worksheet, students use a graph ... Students interpret the graph to express the amount of radiation at varying... ... that shows the altitude of an astronaut versus the exposure to radiation to solve 5 problems. ...
Radiation therapy reports (inc. site, dosage) * Chemotherapy flow sheets (inc. dates, dosage, blood counts. ... Radiation Oncology Radiology Rehabilitation Services Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology Sleep Disorders Center Social Work ...
Corneal injury from chemical, radiation, thermal burns, or foreign body penetration. Dosage Forms & Strengths. ophthalmic ...
HYLATOPICPLUS prescription and dosage sizes information for physicians and healthcare professionals. Pharmacology, adverse ... Radiation therapy: may dissolve fuchsin dye; do not use 4 hours prior to session. ... Hylatopicplus Dosage and Administration. Adults and Children Apply and massage into affected area 3 times daily or as needed. ...
2 ml intradermal dosage for travelers over age 5 may be substituted. Booster dosages are the same as the age specific dosages ... or those patients using corticosteroids, alkylating drugs, antimetabolites, or radiation should not receive the vaccine. ... Dosages are age specific. For infants 0-6 months of age; the vaccine is not recommended, and a medical waiver must be provided ... One dosage by its self affords little protection, while two doses provide some protection. Parents must note that less than the ...
anybody knew the formula for calculating AN volume? I understand this is important in calculating radiation dosage.. I read it ... anybody knew the formula for calculating AN volume? I understand this is important in calculating radiation dosage.. I read it ...
Patients who are ineligible for surgery need radiation. The procedure uses a high dosage of radiation to kill cancer cells. It ... Isolate is the best choice if you want to avoid THC entirely or if you prefer to take a greater dosage of CBD each day. ... If youre getting high doses of chemo or radiation, you may need a strictly supervised diet. You may even learn light exercises ... These programs can help you pay for cancer treatments such as chemo and radiation. As a veteran, you get compensated through ...
... dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications including drug comparison and health ... radiation. These men have low testosterone serum concentrations but have gonadotropins in the normal or low range. ... Dosage for Androderm. The recommended starting dose is one Androderm 4 mg/day system (not two 2 mg/day systems) applied nightly ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Dosing Information. The recommended starting dose is one ANDRODERM 4 mg/day system (not two 2 mg/day ...
Posted in Featured, Interest, Science, SliderTagged dosage, measurement, radiation. Post navigation. ← Rope Core Drum Machine ... alpha and beta radiation) or electromagnetic waves (gamma radiation and X-rays). Different types of radiation have different ... Because the radiation from that ashtray was far above the background radiation level. The glass was manufactured with 2 to 25% ... Another interesting radiation sensor, although one used more for in vivo dosimetry during radiation therapy than for personal ...
Hopefully, and yes the radiation will zap the 20% left.. I have no idea the dosage of anti-biotics I was given at the hospital ... Radiation Hi I was treated w radiation August 2016 for Stage 1 Gastric Malt H Pylori Negative. Just Had a post radiation Biopsy ... Hopefully, and yes the radiation will zap the 20% left.. I have no idea the dosage of anti-biotics I was given at the hospital ... Hi I was treated w radiation August 2016 for Stage 1 Gastric Malt H Pylori Negative. Just Had a post radiation Biopsy and Im ...
While a mild shock is fine, heavier dosages can cause severe burning. The second is radiation, which can be caused by any ...
If even lower radiation exposure is desired, Moritas combination systems offer a dosage reduction program or the panorama ... And this, in turn, reduces motion artifacts and radiation dosage.. In addition to the diagnostic equipment, Moritas ... Minimal dosage and maximum precision. The combination system Veraviewepocs 3D R100 for panoramic, cephalometric and 3D scans is ... with the highest possible resolution and the minimum possible radiation. With the two new fields of view, Veraviewepocs 3D R100 ...
They have been able to produce their own highly accurate tool for measurement and assuring radiation dosage amounts called the ... "Different types of radiation and beam and a radiation treatment will have different radio biological effectiveness. ... However, in order to make the most of the treatment, the accuracy of the radiation dose from proton beam treatment must be ... Accurate dosimetry - the calculation of absorbed dose and optimisation of dose delivery in radiation therapy - is essential to ...
Radiation Dosage, Radium/analysis, Saudi Arabia, Social Environment, Tobacco, Uranium/analysis ...
Most head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after prior full-dose conventional radiation therapy respond to Boron Neutron ... The technique allows targeting of a high dosage of radiation to the tumour while allowing sparing of the adjacent normal ... Boron-mediated targeting of radiation allows treatment of patients who can no longer be treated with conventional radiation ... The neutron radiation used in the treatment is provided by VTT.. Boneca Corporations clinical research program includes also a ...
Dental radiology equipment uses radiation dosages to give high-goals pictures. These pictures are utilized for the conclusion ... and catering to patient safety by limiting radiation exposure. ...
The ionizing radiation is cumulative, just like that of X-rays. And since it mainly affects the skin, dosage estimates based on ... Some scientists are already warning that back-scatter radiation will raise the statistical incidence of skin cancer. ...
  • To determine the image quality and diagnostic performance of an optimized pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol in terms of radiation and contrast volume saving. (
  • Important fields of application are radiotherapy to treat cancer, radiation diagnostics using X-rays, computed tomography, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (
  • Drs. Anna Kirby and Frederick Bartlett created an easy and inexpensive technique for shielding breast cancer patients' hearts from radiation during radiotherapy. (
  • Unlike traditional radiotherapy, the radiation from proton beam radiotherapy can be confined largely to the tumour, minimising the damage to surrounding healthy tissue. (
  • However, in order to make the most of the treatment, the accuracy of the radiation dose from proton beam treatment must be similar to that achieved using existing radiotherapy treatments. (
  • Currently, any form of radiotherapy results in unwanted but unavoidable deposition of radiation to healthy tissue around the targeted tumour. (
  • Use of personal monitors to estimate effective dose equivalent and effective dose to workers for external exposure to low-let radiation : recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. (
  • What the early pioneers of radiochemistry learned about the dangers of exposure was hard-won indeed, but gave us the insights needed to develop dosimetric methods and tools that make working with radiation far safer than it ever was. (
  • If even lower radiation exposure is desired, Morita's combination systems offer a dosage reduction program or the panorama scout can be used. (
  • Detriment was estimated by multiplying E by the probability coefficient for stochastic effects after exposure to low doses of radiation: 5.7 x 10-2 Sv-1. (
  • Recommendations for CBCT and the choice of protocol must be carefully justified so that the benefits of patient exposure outweigh the potential radiation detriment. (
  • KI is a pill or liquid that can be used in radiation emergencies that involve radioactive iodine. (
  • It only protects the thyroid from radioactive iodine (I-131) and does not protect other parts of the body from other types of radiation. (
  • In some radiation emergencies, usually nuclear power plant accidents, radioactive iodine may be released into the environment and enter the body through breathing or eating it. (
  • KI protects only against radioactive iodine and does not protect against other types of radiation . (
  • Most radiation emergencies will involve other types of radiation and not radioactive iodine alone. (
  • The second is radiation, which can be caused by any radioactive material. (
  • Our discipline includes research on radiation protection and environmental radiology, in which the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation and radioactive substances is central. (
  • We also study measurement strategies for effects from radiation accidents or radioactive malevolent acts. (
  • It is important that absorbed and effective doses of radiation to patients from diagnostic plain film radiography be optimised, however whether 3-region sectional or full-spine radiography delivers the lowest patient radiation dose remains controversial. (
  • Concerns over high radiation doses resulting from diagnostic spinal radiography, especially those relating to use of full-spine imaging protocols, were not supported by our data. (
  • We mainly work on developing new methods for diagnostic and new ways of radiation treatment. (
  • They have been able to produce their own highly accurate tool for measurement and assuring radiation dosage amounts called the Primary Standard Proton Calorimeter (PSPC). (
  • The second principle behind dosimetry is biological in nature, and reflects the fact that in almost all cases, whatever deleterious effects of radiation experienced by an organism are caused by interactions with its DNA. (
  • The recommended dosage of radium Ra 223 is 50 kBq or 1.35 microcurie per kg body weight, administered intravenously every 4 weeks for a total of 6 injections. (
  • Therefore, they must have been continually exposed to alpha and beta particles as well as to the intense penetrating gamma radiation emitted by radium and its daughter products, including radon. (
  • Different types of radiation and beam and a radiation treatment will have different radio biological effectiveness. (
  • Psoralen and ultraviolet radiation therapy should be under constant supervision of such a physician. (
  • Ocular effects of ultraviolet radiation from 295 to 365 nm. (
  • A 5,000 watt xenon mercury source and a double monochromator were used to produce 6.6 nanometer full band-pass ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (
  • While there are a lot of tools for measuring the dose of radiation a person receives, there needs to be some way to put that data into a meaningful biological context. (
  • Accurate dosimetry - the calculation of absorbed dose and optimisation of dose delivery in radiation therapy - is essential to avoid errors that might result in a patient receiving an incorrect dose of radiation and less chance of successful treatment. (
  • Different types of radiation have different impacts on tissue, and those differences need to be taken into account when calculating dose, through weighting factors that reflect the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the radiation. (
  • The important controversy which exists in the‐ combined method of therapy concerns the question of using low dosage pre‐operative radiation in the order of 1,000 to 3,000 rads or high dosages of radiation. (
  • The in vitro tritiated thymidine studies demonstrated that active DNA synthesis was observed in cancer cells in an appreciable number following dosages of 3,500 and also 5,500 rads. (
  • The first principle is that sources of radiation are all capable of imparting kinetic energy into tissues, either in the form of ionized particles (alpha and beta radiation) or electromagnetic waves (gamma radiation and X-rays). (
  • It will probably involve chemo and radiation therapies. (
  • During the early phases (phases 1 and 2), researchers assess safety, side effects, optimal dosages and risks/benefits. (
  • They do not help with radiation poisoning and eating large amounts could be harmful. (
  • In this document, comparisons are usually made between total administered amounts of radioactivity, in µCi/kg and kBq/kg, instead of using a daily dosage level. (
  • Radiation Treatment for Cervical Esophagus: Patterns of Practice Study in Canada, 1996" International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics Vol. 47 Iss. (
  • nuclear physics , radiology ) the quantity of an agent (not always active) substance or radiation administered at any one time. (
  • Medical Radiation Physics is an interdisciplinary subject, which is directed towards development and discovery of new knowledge for applications of radiation and radioactivity. (
  • Thanks to stints as an X-ray technician in my early 20s followed by work in various biology labs into my early 40s, I've been classified as an "occupationally exposed worker" with regard to ionizing radiation for a lot of my life. (
  • PURPOSE: To assess the patterns of practice among Canadian radiation oncologists who treat esophageal cancers, using a trans-Canada survey, completed at the end of 1996. (
  • Photochemotherapy (methoxsalen with long wave UVA radiation) is indicated for the symptomatic control of severe, recalcitrant, disabling psoriasis not adequately responsive to other forms of therapy and when the diagnosis has been supported by biopsy. (
  • The complications seen in patients treated with combined therapy have been essentially the same as those patients who undergo radical surgery without pre‐operative radiation. (
  • Multiple forms of radiation therapy are currently available. (
  • Standard treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting, active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. (
  • Radiation therapy may be done with or without surgery. (
  • If the cancer does not respond to surgery or radiation, and has spread to other parts of the body, chemotherapy or targeted therapy may be used. (
  • Awareness of risk (such as previous radiation therapy to the neck) can allow earlier diagnosis and treatment. (
  • Prior history of radiation therapy to the affected site. (
  • Contraindication to radiation therapy as determined by the treating team. (
  • Niveles de intervenci'on derivados para su aplicaci'on al control de las dosis de radiaci'on al p'ublico en caso de accidente nuclear o de emergencia radiol'ogica : principios, procedimientos y datos. (
  • The estimated effective radiation dose was significantly lower in group A (1.1 ± 0.7 mSv) than in group B (2.7 ± 1.2 mSv). (
  • Lateral exposures gave varying results, with the full-spine exposures giving larger radiation doses to breasts and testes and the sectional exposures resulting in larger doses to the thyroid gland and ovaries. (
  • Radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer. (
  • High dosage pre‐operative radiation and surgery for carcinoma of the larynx and laryngopharynx - a 14‐year program. (
  • A carefully planned clinical program of combined pre‐operative radiation and surgery has been conducted by the Department of Otolaryngology at The Mount Sinai Hospital for the past 14 years in an effort to improve the survival rates for advanced cancer of the larynx and laryngopharynx. (
  • It is our contention that serial section studies of biopsied laryngeal specimens labelled with tritiated thymidine tend to disprove the claims made favoring the value of low dosage radiation. (
  • This guarantees even more accurate images of the patient - with the highest possible resolution and the minimum possible radiation. (
  • Radiological values used as guides to indicate whether the radiation dosage or amount of radiopharmaceutical being given to a patient is unusually high or unusually low for the specific medical imaging procedure. (
  • Methoxsalen with UV radiation should be used only by physicians who have special competence in the diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo and who have special training and experience in photo chemotherapy . (
  • The majority (83%) of the radiation oncologists used at least two phases of treatment. (
  • CONCLUSION: There was a variety of radiation treatment techniques in this trans-Canada survey. (
  • Dosimetry has come a long way since I was actively considered occupationally exposed, and even further from the times when very little was known about the effects of radiation on living tissue. (
  • Effective dose takes the type of radiation and the biological sensitivity of various organs into account. (
  • The presence of PE, image quality parameters [contrast attenuation, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)] and effective radiation dose (mSv) were assessed. (
  • Similarly, the effective dose is also expressed in sieverts, and is the effective dose multiplied by another dimensionless factor based on the target tissue's sensitivity to radiation. (
  • Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust researchers published a technique in JoVE that has resulted in thousands of cancer patients reducing their radiation dosages during treatments. (
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: One of 3 case presentations of different stages of cervical esophageal cancer was randomly assigned and sent to participating radiation oncologists by mail. (
  • One is the required annual radiation safety training classes. (
  • 3 A further significant factor to be considered, we believe, is the effect of high dose pre‐operative radiation on the incidence of cervical recurrence. (
  • Sounds like Rad is on a shorter term, high dosage schedule. (
  • Thus, any resulting health effects cannot be attributed to a specific cause but were probably the consequence of a combination of all the radiation insults to that individual. (
  • Dosages are age specific. (
  • Booster dosages are the same as the age specific dosages and are spaced every 6 months. (
  • There are certainly other effects, like ionization in the cytoplasm of cells and production of free radicals, but by and large, the big problems with radiation happen as a result of it crashing into DNA, particularly while it's in the act of replicating itself. (
  • The second stage involved a rest period of three to six weeks to allow for proper healing of radiation reactions. (
  • From nursing and psychology to dental services and medical radiation. (
  • Principles and application of collective dose in radiation protection : recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. (
  • by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (U.S. (
  • Compendium of neutron spectra and detector responses for radiation protection purposes / R. V. Griffith, J. Palfalvi, U. Madhvanath. (
  • The best protection in a radiation emergency is always to get inside, stay inside, and stay tuned for more information from officials. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Radiation dosage. (
  • The doctor (Radiation Oncologist) came by to visit me today. (